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PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF
A PISTON ENGINED AIRPLANE 
PIPER CHEROKEE PA28180
E.G.TULAPURKARA
S.ANANTH
TEJAS M. KULKARNI
REPORT NO: AE TR 20071
FEBRUARY 2007
Performance Analysis of a piston engined
airplane  Piper Cherokee PA28180
E.G.Tulapurkara, S Ananth and Tejas M Kulkarni
Department of Aerospace Engineering, IIT Madras
February 2007
The report is intended to serve as an example of performance calculation
of a typical piston engined airplane.
Problem statement: Obtain the following for the prescribed airplane:
• Information about the airplane.
• Drag Polar at cruising speed and during takeoﬀ condition.
• Engine Characteristics.
• Variation of stalling speed with altitude for ﬂaps up and ﬂaps down
conditions.
• Variation of V
max
and V
min
with altitude.
• Variation of R/C and γ with speed and altitude. Variation of V
R/Cmax
and V
γmax
with altitude. Values of absolute ceiling and service ceiling.
• Variation of range and endurance with ﬂight speed in constant velocity
ﬂights at cruising altitude. Speeds corresponding to R
max
and E
max
in these constant velocity ﬂights. The range in constant C
L
ﬂight at
cruising altitude.
• Variation of minimum turn radius (r
min
) and maximum rate of turn
˙
ψ
max
at selected altitudes and variation of (V
r
min
) and (V
˙
ψmax
) with
altitude.
• Takeoﬀ and landing distances.
1
2
Contents
0.1 Information about the airplane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
0.1.1 Overall Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
0.1.2 Powerplant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
0.1.3 Weights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
0.1.4 Wing Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
0.1.5 Fuselage Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
0.1.6 Horizontal Tail Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
0.1.7 Vertical Tail Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
0.1.8 Landing gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
0.1.9 Flight Condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
0.1.10 Other data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
0.1.11 Performance of PA28181* as given in Ref[3] . . . . . 8
0.2 Estimation of Drag Polar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
0.2.1 Estimation of C
D
O
WB
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
0.2.2 Estimation of C
D
O
B
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
0.2.3 Expressions for Drag Polar during cruise . . . . . . . . 10
0.2.4 Estimation of C
D
O
HT
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
0.2.5 Estimation of C
D
O
V T
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
0.2.6 Estimation of C
D
LG
and C
D
Misc
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
0.2.7 Estimation of parasite drag coeﬃcientC
D
O
. . . . . . . 12
0.2.8 Estimation of induced drag coeﬃcient K . . . . . . . . 12
0.2.9 Expressions for Drag Polar during cruise . . . . . . . . 13
0.2.10 Expression for Drag Polar duringtakeoﬀ condition . . 13
0.3 Engine Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
0.3.1 Variation of Engine BHP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
0.3.2 Thrust horsepower available . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
0.4 Steady Level Flight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
0.4.1 Variation of stalling speed with altitude . . . . . . . . 20
0.4.2 Variations of V
max
and V
min
with altitude . . . . . . . . 23
0.5 Steady climb performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
0.6 Range and Endurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
3
0.6.1 Estimation of Range in constant velocity ﬂight . . . . . 32
0.6.2 Endurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
0.7 Turning Flight Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
0.8 Takeoﬀ and Landing distance estimates . . . . . . . . . 44
0.8.1 Takeoﬀ run: distance estimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
0.8.2 Distance covered in transition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
0.8.3 Distance covered during climb phase . . . . . . . . . . 46
0.8.4 Landing distance estimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
0.9 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
4
0.1 Information about the airplane
Airframe : Piper Cherokee PA28180
Type : Pistonengined propeller driven low speed recreational aircraft.
Manufacturer and country of origin : The Piper Aircraft Corporation, USA.
0.1.1 Overall Dimensions
Length : 23.29 feet (7.098 m)
Wing Span : 30 feet (9.0 m)
Height above ground : 7.291 feet (2.22 m)
Wheel base : 6.208 feet (1.892 m)
Wheel track : 10 feet (3.048 m)
0.1.2 Powerplant
Name : Lycoming O360A3A
Rating : 180BHP (135 kW) at 2700 rpm
Weight: 284 pounds (129kg)
Number: 1
Propeller: 74 inches (1.88 m) diameter, ﬁxed pitch.
0.1.3 Weights
Maximum takeoﬀ weight : 2400 lbf (1090.9 kgf)
Empty weight : 1230 lbf (558 kgf)
Fuel capacity: 189 liters ( 181 liters usable)
Payload : 530.7 lbf (468.1 kgf)
Maximum wing loading : 15 lbf/ft
2
(73.2 kgf/m
2
)
Maximum power loading : 13.3 lbf/Hp (8.0965 kgf/kW)
5
0.1.4 Wing Geometry
Planform Shape : Trapezoidal near root, rectangular afterwards and ellipti
cal ﬁllets at the tip.
Span : 30 feet (9 m)
Area : 160 ft
2
(14.86m
2
)
Flap area : 14.9 ft
2
(1.384 m
2
)
Aileron area: 10.8 ft
2
(1.003 m
2
)
Airfoil : NACA  65
2
415 series, t/c = 15%, C
lopt
= 0.4
Root Chord : 5.6766 feet (1.703 m)  Equivalent Trapezoidal wing
Tip Chord : 5.25 feet (1.575 m)
Mean Aerodynamic Chord : 5.498 feet (1.675 m)
Quarter chord Sweep : 1.48
o
Dihedral : 6
o
Twist : −2
o
Incidence : 4.62
o
at root, 2.62
o
at tip
Taper Ratio : 0.9248 (equivalent wing)
Aspect Ratio : 5.738
High lift devices : simple ﬂaps having 3 diﬀerent settings : 10
o
, 25
o
and 40
o
0.1.5 Fuselage Geometry
Length : 22.5 feet (6.874 m)
Maximum fuselage cross section dimension (vertical) : 3.89 feet (1.185m)
Accomodation: 4 persons in two pairs, baggage compartment with 200 lbf
(90.91kgf) capacity. Starboard side door, removable rear seats that give
44 ft
3
(1.25 m
3
) space. Can carry stretcher.
0.1.6 Horizontal Tail Geometry
Planform shape : Rectangular with elliptical ﬁllets at tips.
Span : 10 feet (3.048 m)
Area : 24.4 ft
2
(2.267 m
2
)
Root Chord = Tip chord = 2.5 feet (0.762 m)
Aspect Ratio : 4.0983
Airfoil : NACA 0012.
Wetted area : 45.198 ft
2
(4.199 m
2
)
6
0.1.7 Vertical Tail Geometry
Span : 3.68 feet (1.121 m)
Area : 11.6 ft
2
(1.078 m
2
)
Root Chord : 3.28 feet (1 m)
Tip chord : 1.492 feet (0.4547 m)
Mean Aerodynamic Chord : 2.386 feet (0.727) m
Quarter Chord Sweep : 21.8
o
Taper Ratio : 0.4548
Aspect Ratio : 1.188
Airfoil : NACA 0010.
0.1.8 Landing gear
Nose Wheel type with fairing, nonretractable.
Number of wheels : Nose 1, main 2, all same size.
Thickness 0.444 feet (0.135 m)
Diameter : 1.492 feet (0.4547 m)
Wheel base : 6.208 feet (1.892 m)
Wheel track : 10 feet (3.048 m)
0.1.9 Flight Condition
Altitude : 8000 ft (2438 m)
Mach number : 0.1972
Kinematic Viscosity : 0.17721 ×10
−4
m
2
/s
Density : 0.9669 kg/m
3
Speed of Sound : 330.9 m/s
Flight Speed : 235 km/hr (65.27 m/s)
Weight of the Airplane : 2400 lbf (1090.91 kgf)
0.1.10 Other data
CG location : 6.81 feet (2.075 m) behind nose.
I
x
= 170 slug ft
2
(230.4946 kgm
2
)
I
y
= 1249 slug ft
2
(1693.457 kgm
2
)
I
z
= 1312 slug ft
2
(1778.876 kgm
2
)
7
0.1.11 Performance of PA28181* as given in Ref[3]
Maximum takeoﬀ weight: 2550lbf (1356 kgf)
Powerplant rating: 180 BHP (135 kW)
Wing loading: 15lbf/ft
2
(73.2kgf/m
2
)
Maximum level speed: 246 kmph
Cruising speed: 237 kmph
Stalling speed: 86 kmph, at ﬂaps down condition
Maximum rate of climb: 203 m/min at sea level
Service ceiling: 4035 m
Takeoﬀ run: 350m
Takeoﬀ to 15m: 488m
Landing run: 280m
Landing distance from 15m: 427m
Range with allowance for taxi, takeoﬀ, climb, descent and 45 min reserves
at 6000 feet (1830 m) at 55 power: 924 km
*Remark:
The performance calculations are being done for PA28180 as a large
amount of data on airplane, engine and propeller are available in Ref [2].
However, information on actual performance of this airplane is not given
there. Ref [3] (which is easily accesible) contains information about PA28
181 which is only slightly diﬀerent from PA28180
8
0.2 Estimation of Drag Polar
Following Ref[1] the drag polar is assumed to be of the form
C
D
= C
Do
+
C
2
L
πAe
(1)
The quantity C
D
O
is assumed to be given by
C
D
O
= C
D
O
WB
+C
D
O
V
+C
D
O
H
+C
D
O
Misc
(2)
where suﬃxes WB, V, H, Misc denote wingbody combination, vertical tail,
horizontal tail and miscellaneous items respectively.
0.2.1 Estimation of C
D
O
WB
C
D
O
WB
is obtained from
C
D
O
WB
= C
D
O
W
+C
D
O
B
S
B
S
ref
(3)
where the suﬃx B denotes fuselage and S
B
is the maximum frontal area
of fuselage.
C
D
O
W
= C
D
f
W
+C
D
W
W
(4)
C
D
f
w
is the skin friction drag coeﬃcient, obtained by ﬁrst determining the
skin friction coeﬃcient of a ﬂate plate and then correcThree view drawing of
Piper Cherokee PA−28 −180 from Ref[2], 1995 edition. Note: Dimensions
are in inches, areas are in square feet and moments of inertia are in lb square
feetting it for the shape of the airfoil.
C
D
W w
is the wave drag coeﬃcient for the wing. In the present case, the Mach
number is low and hence the wave drag is neglected.
The pressure drag coeﬃcient for the wing C
D
0
W
is obtained from :
C
D
O
W
= C
fw
¸
1 +L
t
c
S
wet
S
ref
(5)
The Re based on mean chord is 6.07586 ×10
6
.
Now, we ﬁnd Re
cutoff
corrseponding to the roughness parameter
l
k
.
Here, l = 5.498 feet and k = 0.0012 inches for mass production spray paint.
For this
l
k
of 54980, Re
cutoff
= 4 ×10
6
.
9
We observe that Re
cutoff
is lower than that based on mean aerodynamic
chord.
Hence C
f
is found based on Re
cutoff
, which, from Ref. [1] is found to be
0.0036.
From the airplane data, we have
S
wet
= 313.77ft
2
(29.14m
2
) and S
ref
= 160ft
2
(14.86m
2
)
Substituting the above values in eqn (5) yields
C
D
fw
= 0.0036 [1 + 1.2 ×(0.15)] ×
313.77
160
Thus C
D
f
w
is found to be 0.00833 and so C
D
O
W
= 0.00833
0.2.2 Estimation of C
D
O
B
C
D
O
B
is the fuselage proﬁle drag coeﬃcient, and is given by
C
D
O
B
= C
D
f
B
+C
Dp
B
(6)
0.2.3 Expressions for Drag Polar during cruise
where C
D
f
B
is the skin friction drag coeﬃcient, given by
C
D
f
B
= C
f
B
S
W
F
S
B
(7)
where S
W
F
is the fuselage wetted surface area = 236.15ft
2
(21.93m
2
) and
S
B
is the frontal area of the fuselage = 8.263ft
2
(0.7675m
2
)
Proceeding in the same manner as for the wing, C
D
f
B
is found using
Re
cutoff
Re
length
= 2.49 ×10
7
l
k
= 2.25 ×10
5
⇒Re
cutoff
= 1.8 ×10
7
⇒C
f
B
= 0.0028 from Ref [1].
⇒C
D
f
B
= 0.0028 ×
236.15
8.263
= 0.08001
10
Now, C
Dp
B
is given by
C
Dp
B
= C
f
B
60
(
l
f
d
f
)
3
+ 0.0025
l
f
d
f
¸
¸
×
S
W
S
(8)
where
l
f
d
f
is the fuselage ﬁneness ratio.
Substituting the values from aircraft dimensions, we obtain C
Dp
B
= 0.005379
and hence C
D
O
B
= 0.085379
⇒C
D
O
WB
= 0.00833 + 0.085379
8.263
160
= 0.01277
Thus C
D
O
WB
= 0.01277
0.2.4 Estimation of C
D
O
HT
The drag coeﬃcient of the horizontal tail is given by
C
D
O
HT
= C
fp
¸
1 +L
t
c
+ 100
t
c
4
¸
R
LS
S
wet
S
ref
(9)
The tail has NACA 0012 airfoil ⇒
t
c
= 0.12
The wetted surface area of the horizontal tail is computed from the aircraft
geometry. It is found that S
wet
= 45.199ft
2
(4.198m
2
) and S
ref
= 160ft
2
(14.86m
2
)
Re based on mean aerodynamic chord is 2.76 ×10
6
l
k
= 2.5 ×10
4
Re
cutoff
based on
l
k
of 2.5 ×10
4
is 1.5 ×10
6
⇒C
fp
= 0.004 and R
LS
= 1.07
Substituting the values in equation (9), we have C
D
O
HT
= 0.001408
0.2.5 Estimation of C
D
O
V T
The drag coeﬃcient of the vertical tail is given by
C
D
O
V T
= C
fp
¸
1 +L
t
c
+ 100
t
c
4
¸
R
LS
S
wet
S
ref
(10)
The tail has NACA 0010 airfoil ⇒
t
c
= 0.10
The wetted surface area of the vertical tail is computed from the aircraft ge
ometry. It is found that S
wet
= 23.2ft
2
(2.155m
2
) and S
ref
= 160ft
2
(14.86m
2
)
Re based on mean aerodynamic chord is 2.63 ×10
6 l
k
= 2.38 ×10
4
Re
cutoff
= 1.5 ×10
6
⇒C
fp
= 0.004 and R
LS
= 1.07
Substituting the values in equation (10), we have C
D
O
V T
= 0.0007
11
0.2.6 Estimation of C
D
LG
and C
D
Misc
The landing gear drag coeﬃcient can be obtained from Ref [1]. However,
Ref [2] gives C
D
LG
= 0.0044 and C
D
misc
= 0.003875
0.2.7 Estimation of parasite drag coeﬃcientC
D
O
C
D
O
= C
D
O
WB
+C
D
O
HT
+C
D
O
V T
+C
D
O
LG
+C
D
O
misc
⇒C
D
O
= 0.01277 + 0.001408 + 0.0007 + 0.003875 + 0.0044
Thus C
D
O
= 0.02315 which is close to the value of 0.0244 given in Ref [2]
0.2.8 Estimation of induced drag coeﬃcient K
The induced drag coeﬃcient K is evaluated from the expression
K =
1
πAe
where the Aspect ratio A is 5.738 for the wing and e is the ostwald eﬃciency
factor, evaluated from the expression
1
e
=
1
e
wing
+
1
e
fuselage
+
1
e
other
(11)
From Ref [1], for an unswept wing, e = 0.91 and
1
e
fus
×
S
f
S
ref
= 2
⇒
1
e
fus
= 2 ×
8.2638
160
= 0.1033
From Ref [1],
1
e
other
= 0.05
Substituting the values in eqn 11, we obtain e = 0.7973 and K = 0.0696
which is very close to the value of 0.0697 given in Ref [2]
12
0.2.9 Expressions for Drag Polar during cruise
At cruise condition, the expression for the drag polar becomes
C
D
= 0.02315 + 0.0696C
L
2
(12)
0.2.10 Expression for Drag Polar during
takeoﬀ condition
To obtain drag polar under takeoﬀ condition, we take the ﬂight velocity as
1.2V
S
, where V
S
is the stalling speed with ﬂaps in takeoﬀ condition (δ
f
=
10
o
). In the present case,
• C
Lmax
with 10
o
ﬂap deﬂection is 1.42 from Ref [2].Hence
V
S
=
2 ×10673.28
1.42 ×1.225 ×14.86
= 28.73m/s
and so
V
TO
= 1.2 ×28.73 = 34.47m/s
• Reynold’s number based on mean aerodynamic chord of the wing in
takeoﬀ condition =
1.675×34.47
14.6×10
−6
= 3.954 ×10
6
• We notice that this Reynold’s number is very close to the cutoﬀ Reynold’s
number for the wing (4×10
6
) obtained in Section 0.2.1. Thus the value
of C
f
and other calculations will remain the same. Hence C
D
O
for the
airplane in takeoﬀ codition, without the ﬂap, can be taken as 0.02315.
• Similarly K, without the ﬂap, can be taken as 0.0696.
To apply correction to the drag polar for ﬂap deﬂection, we proceed as follows
• The ﬂap type is plain ﬂap.
• From Fig. 1, the ratio of ﬂap chord to wing chord is 0.16 and ﬂap deﬂection is 10
o
• The ratio of the area of the ﬂapped portion of the wing to the wing
planform area is 0.4827
• The ratio of the span of the ﬂapped portion of the wing (including the fuselage width)
to the total span is 0.597
• The ratio of the fuselage width to the wing span is 0.127, the wing
aspect ratio is 5.738
13
• Folowing Ref [1],
∆C
D
flap
= ∆C
Dp
+ ∆C
D
i
+ ∆C
D
int
,
where ∆C
Dp
= increase in proﬁle drag coeﬃcient due to ﬂaps,
∆C
D
i
= increase in induced drag coeﬃcient due to ﬂaps and
∆C
D
int
= increase in interference drag due to ﬂaps.
• Increment in C
Lmax
due to 10
o
ﬂap deﬂection (∆C
Lmax
), as noted earlier,
is 0.09
Using these data and interpolating the curves given in Ref [1], we get:
∆C
D
O
due to ﬂap deﬂection = 0.0038
As per Ref [1], the increase in induced drag coeﬃcient (∆C
D
i
) due to ﬂap
deﬂection is ∆K
f
2
×∆C
Lmax
2
. Using Ref [1], ∆K
f
is estimated as 0.184
Consequently, ∆C
D
i
= 0.184
2
×0.09
2
= 0.00027
The interference drag due to deﬂection of plain ﬂaps is negligible.
Thus the parasite drag coeﬃcient in takeoﬀ condition is
C
D
O
= 0.02315 + 0.0038 + 0.00027 = 0.02722
Hence the drag polar in takeoﬀ condition is given by
C
D
= 0.02722 + 0.0696C
L
2
(13)
Remarks:
• In the approach just presented, to estimate the drag polar in take
oﬀ condition, the change in the induced drag coeﬃcient is included in
the parasite drag coeﬃcient. When the ﬂap deﬂections are large, the
change in the induced drag can be accounted for by reducing the value
of the Ostwald eﬃciency factor (e) by 0.05 for takeoﬀ condition and
0.1 for landing condition (from Ref [4]). Equations 12 and 13 are the
drag polars for cruise condition and takeoﬀ condition respectively.
• It may be pointed out that parabolic drag polar is not valid beyond
C
Lmax
. It is only approximate near C
L
= 0 and C
L
= C
Lmax
.
14
15
0.3 Engine Characteristics
Model: Lycoming O360A3A.
Type: aircooled,carbureted, fourcylinder, horizontally opposed piston en
gine.
Sea level power = 180 BHP (135 kW)
Propeller: 74 inches (1.88 m) diameter
The variations of power output and fuel consumption with altitude and rpm
are shown in Fig.3.
For the present calculations, the values will be converted into SI units.
16
0.3.1 Variation of Engine BHP
The variation of engine BHP with altitude is assumed to be of the form
BHP
a
= BHP
sealevel
(1.13σ −0.13)
where σ is the density ratio = ρ/ρ
SL
The power outputs of the engine at select altitudes are given in Table 1.
h(m) σ BHP
a
(kW)
sea level 1.2256 135.000
500 0.9529 127.814
1000 0.9075 120.889
1500 0.8638 114.2269
2000 0.8217 107.800
2500 0.7812 101.622
3000 0.7423 95.688
3500 0.7048 89.967
4000 0.6689 84.490
4500 0.6343 79.212
5000 0.6012 74.163
Table 1: Variation of BHP with altitude
Note: The variation of engine BHP with ﬂight speed is very slight and is
generally neglected.
0.3.2 Thrust horsepower available
The available Thrust horsepower is obtained from BHP
a
× η
p
, where η
p
is
the propeller eﬃciency. η
p
depends on the ﬂight speed, rpm of the engine
and the diameter of the propeller. This can be worked out at diﬀerent speeds
and altitudes using propeller charts. However, chapter six of Ref [2] gives an
estimated curve of eﬃciency as a function of the advance ratio (J =
V
nD
) for
the ﬁxed pitch propeller used in the present airplane. This curve is shown in
Figure 5, and according to Ref [2], is roughly valid for all altitudes and speeds.
For the purpose of calculating the airplane performance, an equation can
be ﬁtted to the η
p
vs J curve shown in Fig.4. A fourth degree polynomial for
η
p
in terms of J is as follows
17
η
p
(J) = −2.071895J
4
+3.841567J
3
−3.6786J
2
+2.5586J −0.0051668 (14)
It is seen that the ﬁt is very close. The dotted portions are extrapolations.
For the calculation of maximum speed, maximum rate of climb and max
imum rate of turn, it is convenient to have maximum power available (THP
a
= η
p
× BHP) as a function of velocity. The maximum power occurs at 2700
rpm (45 rps). Noting the propeller diameter as 1.88 m, the η
p
vs J curve can
be converted to η
p
vs V curve (Fig5)
The expression for η
p
in terms of velocity is as follows:
η
p
= −4.0447×10
−8
V
4
+6.3445×10
−6
V
3
−5.1398×10
−4
V
2
+3.0244×10
−2
V −0.0051668
(15)
Making use of the power available at diﬀerent altitudes as given in Table.1
and the values of the propeller eﬃciency at diﬀerent speeds given by equation
15, the maximum available thrust horsepower (THP
a
= η
p
× BHP) can be
obtained at diﬀerents speeds and altitudes. These are plotted in Fig.6.
18
19
0.4 Steady Level Flight
0.4.1 Variation of stalling speed with altitude
In steady level ﬂight, the equations of motion are
T −D = 0 (16)
L −W = 0 (17)
Further,
L =
1
2
ρV
2
SC
L
=⇒W =
1
2
ρV
2
SC
L
(18)
D =
1
2
ρV
2
SC
D
= T (19)
⇒V =
2W
ρSC
L
Since C
L
cannot exceed C
Lmax
, there is a ﬂight speed below which level
ﬂight is not possible. The ﬂight speed at which C
L
= C
Lmax
is called stalling
speed and denoted by V
S
.
V
S
=
2W
ρSC
Lmax
Since density decrases with altitude, the stalling speed increases with
height.
20
In the present case, W = 1088 ×9.81 = 10673.28N
S = 14.86m
2
As regards C
Lmax
, Ref [2] gives the values of C
Lmax
as 1.33, 1.42, 1.70 and 1.86
for ﬂap deﬂections of 0
o
, 10
o
, 25
o
and 40
o
respectively.
Using these data, the variation of stalling speeds with altitude are presented
in Table.2 and plotted in Fig.8.
h σ V
S
(δ
f
= 0
o
) V
S
(δ
f
= 10
o
) Vs(δ
f
= 25
o
) Vs(δ
f
= 40
o
)
(m) (m/s) (m/s) (m/s) (m/s)
0.000 1.000 29.688 28.731 26.259 25.104
500.000 0.953 30.412 29.433 26.900 25.717
1000.000 0.908 31.164 30.160 27.565 26.352
1500.000 0.864 31.942 30.914 28.253 27.011
2000.000 0.822 32.750 31.696 28.968 27.694
2500.000 0.781 33.589 32.507 29.709 28.403
3000.000 0.742 34.458 33.348 30.478 29.138
3500.000 0.705 35.362 34.223 31.278 29.903
4000.000 0.669 36.299 35.130 32.107 30.695
4500.000 0.634 37.276 36.075 32.971 31.521
5000.000 0.601 38.288 37.055 33.866 32.377
5500.000 0.569 39.361 38.092 34.814 33.283
6000.000 0.538 40.463 39.160 35.790 34.216
6335.000 0.518 41.224 39.896 36.463 34.859
Table 2: Stalling speeds for various ﬂap settings
21
22
0.4.2 Variations of V
max
and V
min
with altitude
With a parabolic drag polar and engine output given by an analytical ex
pression, the following procedure gives V
max
and V
min
. Available power is
denoted by P
a
and power required to overcome drag is denoted by P
r
. At
maximum speed in steady level ﬂight, available power equals required power.
P
a
= BHP ×η
p
(20)
P
r
= D ×V =
1
2
ρV
2
SC
D
(21)
The drag polar expresses C
D
in terms of C
L
. Writing C
L
as
2W
ρSV
2
and
substituting in the above equation we get
BHP ×η
p
=
1
2
ρV
2
SC
D
+
2KW
2
ρSV
2
The propeller eﬃciency has already been expressed as a fourth order poly
nomial function of velocity and at a chosen altitude, BHP is constant with
velocity. Their product η
p
× BHP gives an analytical expession for power
available. Substituting this exprsesion on the left hand side of equation (21)
and solving gives V
max
and V
minpower
at a chosen altitude. Repeating the
procedure at diﬀerent altitudes, we get V
max
and V
min
at various heights. It
may be noted that
• The minimum speed so obtained corresponds that limited by power
(V
minpower
).
• If this minimum speed is less than the stalling speed, ﬂight is not pos
sible at V
minpower
. The minimum velocity is thus higher of the stalling
speed and (V
minpower
).
The results are tabulated in Table 3 and plotted in Fig.9. It may be noted
that at h = 6338 m, V
max
an V
minpower
are same. This altitude is the maxi
mum height attainable by the airplane and will be referred later as absolute
ceiling.
23
altitude σ V
S
(δ
f
= 0
o
) V
minpower
V
min
V
max
(m) (m/s) (m/s) (m/s) (m/s)
Sea level 1.0000 29.688 16.969 29.688 75.711
500.000 0.9531 30.412 18.024 30.412 75.312
1000.000 0.9081 31.164 19.175 31.164 74.861
1500.000 0.8642 31.942 20.438 31.942 74.348
2000.000 0.8223 32.750 21.831 32.750 73.760
2500.000 0.7813 33.589 23.375 33.589 73.082
3000.000 0.7424 34.458 25.094 34.458 72.291
3500.000 0.7055 35.362 27.034 35.362 71.354
4000.000 0.6696 36.299 29.234 36.299 70.232
4500.000 0.6342 37.276 31.788 37.276 68.844
5000.000 0.6011 38.288 34.811 38.288 67.079
5500.000 0.5692 39.360 38.645 39.360 64.630
6000.000 0.5383 40.463 43.972 43.972 60.790
6200.000 0.5272 40.912 47.264 47.264 58.122
6300.000 0.5211 41.143 50.080 41.143 55.630
6335.000 0.5186 41.222 52.071 52.071 53.7527
6342.000 0.5188 41.240 53.600 53.600 53.600
Table 3: V
max
and V
min
for various altitudes
24
25
0.5 Steady climb performance
In this ﬂight, the C.G of the airplane moves along a straight line inclined to
the horizontal at an angle γ. The velocity of ﬂight is assumed to be constant
during the climb.
Since the ﬂight is steady, aceleration is zero and the equations of motion can
be written as:
T −D −W sin γ = 0 (22)
L −W cos γ = 0 (23)
Noting that C
L
=
2L
ρSV
2
=
2W cos γ
ρSV
2
, we get
C
D
= C
Do
+K
2W cos γ
ρSV
2
2
26
Also
V
c
= V sin γ
cos γ =
1 −
V
2
c
V
2
Using the above equations,
A
V
c
V
2
+B
V
c
V
+C = 0 (24)
Where A =
kW
2
1
2
ρV
2
S
, B = W and C = T
avail

1
2
ρV
2
SC
Do
 A
The available thrust horsepower is given by the expression:
TV = power available = P
a
= BHP
sealevel
(1.13σ  0.13) η
p
Equation 24 gives 2 values of V
c
/V . We choose the value which is less than
1.0. Consequently
γ = sin
−1
V
c
V
(25)
V
c
= V sin γ (26)
Thrust can be obtained for a given velocity and height. Thus the quadratic
in
Vc
V
can be solved and the angle of climb (γ) and rate of climb (V
c
) can be
found for various altitudes and ﬂight speeds. These are plotted in Figures
11 and 12 respectively. The velocities at which maximum values of V
c
and
γ occur are taken for each altitude and presented in Figure 13. The plot of
R/C
max
vs altitude is shown in Figure 14.
Remark:
It is observed that the maximum rate of climb and maximum angle of
climb decrease with altitude, but the velocity at which the rate of climb and
angle of climb are maximum increase very slightly with height.
Service Ceiling and Absolute Ceiling
The altitude at which the maximum rate of climb becomes 50 metres/minute
is called the service ceiling and the altitude at which the maximum rate of
climb becomes zero is called the absolute ceiling of the airplane.
These are obtained from Figure 14. It is observed that the absolute ceiling
is 6342m and the service ceiling is 5322m. It may be pointed out that the
absolute ceiling obtained from R/C
max
consideration and that from V
max
consideration are same (as they should be).
27
28
29
30
31
0.6 Range and Endurance
0.6.1 Estimation of Range in constant velocity ﬂight
It is convenient for the pilot to cruise at constant velocity. Hence we consider
the range performance in constant velocity ﬂights. In such a ﬂight at a given
altitude, the range of a pistonengine powered airplane is given by
R =
3600η
p
BSFC
√
k
1
k
2
tan
−1
W
1
k
1
/k
2
−tan
−1
W
1
k
1
/k
2
¸
¸
(27)
where k
1
=
1
2
ρV
2
SC
D
O
, k
2
=
2K
ρSV
2
and W
1
and W
2
are the weights of the
aircraft at the start and end of cruise. From this expression, we can obtain
range as a function of velocity and hence ﬁnd maximum range for constant
velocity ﬂight at cruising altitude. Taking W
1
as maximum takeoﬀ weight
and the amount of usable fuel as 50 U.S. gallons (1331.78 N), we get
W
1
= 10673.28N and W
2
= 9341.5N.
Procedure for ﬁnding range in constant velocity ﬂight
It must be noted that the eﬃciency of the propeller is a function of both
the engine rpm as well as the ﬂight velocity. Also, the engine power output
is decided by the rpm, which can be adjusted by the pilot by means of the
throttle control. However, the rpm setting again inﬂuences the fuel consump
tion and BSFC is thus indirectly aﬀected. Thus it becomes necessary to use
an iterative procedure to determine the range.
The variation of engine BHP and fuel consumption as functions of rpm are
extrapolated down to 1200 rpm from the engine characteristics (Figure 3).
These are shown in Figures 15 and 16. To work with convenient numbers,
the rpm scale was factored down by 100. Quadratic curves were ﬁtted for
the plots in Figures 15 and 16
Remark: During the calculations, it was noticed that the engine curves
given in Figure 3 are limited to 2000 rpm. However, the power required
at velocities close to minimum power condition is much lower than that at
2000 rpm. Hence the BHP
a
and fuel consumption curves were extrapolated
down to 1200 rpm. It may be added that Ref[5] has plotted power output
and BSFC curves rom 2700 to 1200 rpm for Pratt and Whitney Wasp Major
engine. Hence the extrapolation to 1200 rpm performed in the present case
seems justiﬁable.
32
33
The equations for variations of engine BHP and fuel consumption as func
tions of rpm are given below:
BHP = −0.2123r
2
+ 13.906r −82.916 (28)
where BHP is in horsepower and r is
N
100
.
Fuelconsumption = 0.0059r
2
+ 0.1124r + 3.3255 (29)
where the fuel consumption is in gallons per hour and r is
N
100
.
The following iterative procedure was used to ﬁnd the range:
1. Choose a velocity starting with V
minpower
2. Find C
L
at steady level ﬂight condition for the weights corresponding
to the start and end of cruise.
3. Obtain C
D
for these two values of C
L
using drag polar.
4. Find the THP required for steady level ﬂight condition at the start and
end of cruise.
5. Assume a value of propeller eﬃciency η
p
and ﬁnd the average BHP
required.
6. From the variation of BHP with engine rpm, ﬁnd the rpm of the engine
for this BHP output at cruising altitude. Since the quadratic equation
gives two solutions, select the valid solution (i.e. rpm ¡ 2700)
7. For this rpm setting and ﬂight speed, calculate J and the propeller
eﬃciency from η
p
vs J curve.
8. If the eﬃciency assumed in step 5 and eﬃciency obtained from step
7 are signiﬁcantly diﬀerent, repeat steps 5 to 8 till the two values of
η
p
are almost same. This determines the rpm needed for ﬂight at the
chosen ﬂight velocity.
9. Now ﬁnd the BSFC of the engine from variation of fuel consumption
vs engine rpm and convert all quantites to SI Units.
10. One U.S.Gallon is taken as 3.78 litres an density of fuel is taken as 0.76
kg/m
3
.
34
11. Substitute for all terms in equation 27 and ﬁnd the range.
12. Now repeat the procedure for diﬀerent velocities till V
max
for the cruis
ing altitude.
0.6.2 Endurance
Since the ﬂight velocity is constant, the endurance of the aircraft for each
ﬂight velocity can be obtained from the expression E =
Range
V
.
The variations of endurance and range with velocity are given in table 4 and
plotted in Figures 17 and 18 respectively.
Velocity THP
r
η
p
rpm BHP
r
˙ m
f
BSFC R E
(m/s) (kW) (hp) (gal/hr) (N/kWhr) (km) (hrs)
33 47.60 0.586 1543.4 81.2 6.466 3.008 873.4 7.35
34 47.19 0.583 1540.6 81 6.457 3.012 900.8 7.36
35 46.89 0.580 1538.6 80.85 6.452 3.014 928.2 7.37
37 46.60 0.578 1536.6 80.70 6.446 3.017 981.4 7.37
38 46.62 0.578 1536.7 80.71 6.446 3.017 1007.6 7.37
40 46.93 0.581 1539.3 80.91 6.454 3.013 1060.3 7.36
45 49.35 0.601 1555.4 82.09 6.501 2.991 1181.2 7.29
50 54.00 0.639 1589.9 84.57 6.604 2.950 1291.3 7.17
52 56.47 0.657 1609.1 85.93 6.662 2.929 1330.3 7.11
54 59.30 0.677 1632.3 87.56 6.732 2.905 1366.6 7.03
56 62.48 0.698 1660.0 89.47 6.817 2.878 1399.1 6.94
58 66.03 0.720 1693.0 91.70 6.920 2.850 1427.3 6.84
60 69.93 0.741 1732.6 94.32 7.044 2.821 1450.2 6.71
62 74.21 0.762 1780.4 97.40 7.197 2.791 1466.5 6.57
64 78.86 0.781 1839.0 101.03 7.388 2.762 1474.5 6.40
66 83.90 0.796 1912.5 105.39 7.633 2.736 1471.6 6.19
68 89.32 0.807 2008.3 110.73 7.963 2.716 1453.4 5.94
70 95.14 0.810 2141.9 117.52 8.440 2.713 1411.4 5.60
72 101.36 0.797 2364.4 127.15 9.281 2.758 1320.3 5.09
73 104.63 0.771 2622.5 135.69 10.331 2.876 1203.1 4.58
Table 4: Range and Endurance in constant velocity ﬂights
Note: ˙ m
f
is the fuel ﬂow rate, R is the range and E is the endurance.
35
36
Remarks:
• It is seen that the maximum endurance is almost constant in the speed
range of 33 to 40 m/s.
• The range calculated in the present computation is the Gross Still Air
Range. This is found to be maximum (1474 km) at a speed of 64
m/s (230 kmph). It may be recalled that range depends on propeller
eﬃciency, engine rpm, fuel consumption which in turn are all dependent
on ﬂight velocity. At a particuar setting, these quantities are at their
optimum values and hence give maximum range.
• The range quoted in Section 1.11 is 924 km. This range accounts for
taxi, takeoﬀ, climb, descent and reserves for 45 min and can be called
as safe range. This value is generally twothirds of the GSAR. Noting
that twothirds of GSAR is 982 km, it is seen that the calculated value
is in fair agreement with the value given in Ref[3].
37
0.7 Turning Flight Performance
In this section, the performance of the aircraft in a steady coordinated level
turn is studied.
The forces acting on the airplane are shown in Figure 19.
The equations of motion in a steady, level, coordinated turn are:
T −D = 0 (30)
W −Lcos φ = 0 (31)
Lsin φ =
W
g
V
2
R
(32)
These equations give
r =
V
2
g tan φ
(33)
˙
ψ =
V
r
=
g tan φ
V
(34)
Load Factor n =
L
W
=
1
cos φ
(35)
38
In the following calculations, C
Lmax
= 1.33 and n
max
= 3.5 are assumed
where the load factor (n) is given by n = L/W. The following procedure is
then used to obtain r
min
and
˙
ψ
max
1. A ﬂight speed and altitude are chosen and the lift coeﬃcient in level
ﬂight lift C
LL
is obtained as :
C
LL
=
2(W/S)
ρV
2
2. If C
Lmax
/C
LL
< n
max
, where n
max
is the maximum load factor for
which the aircraft is designed, then the turn is limited by C
Lmax
and
C
LT
1
= C
Lmax
. However if C
Lmax
/C
LL
> n
max
, then the turn is limited
by n
max
, and C
LT
1
= n
max
C
LL
.
3. From the drag polar, C
DT
1
is obtained corresponding to C
LT
1
. Then
D
T1
=
1
2
ρV
2
SC
DT
1
If D
T1
> T
a
, where T
a
is the available thrust at that speed and alti
tude, then the turn is limited by the engine output. The maximum
permissible value of C
D
in this case is found from
C
DT
=
2T
a
ρV
2
S
From the drag polar, the value of C
LT
is calculated as
C
LT
=
C
DT
−C
D
O
K
However if D
T1
< T
a
, then the turn is not limited by the engine output
and the value of C
LT
1
calculated in step (2) is taken as C
L
T
.
4. Once C
LT
is known, the load factor n which satisﬁes the three con
straints of C
Lmax
, n
max
and T
a
is given by:
n =
C
L
T
C
LL
5. Knowing n, the values of turn radius (r) and rate of turn (
˙
ψ) can be
calculated from equations 33, 34 and 35.
39
6. The above steps are then repeated for various speeds at the same alti
tude and then the procedure is repeated at various altitudes.
The variations of turn rate and turn radius are shown in Figures 20 and 21
respectively. V
˙
ψmax
and V
r
min
are plotted against altitude in Figures 22 and
23.
40
41
42
43
0.8 Takeoﬀ and Landing distance estimates
Takeoﬀ ﬂight can be divided into three phases: takeoﬀ run, transition and
climb.
0.8.1 Takeoﬀ run: distance estimate
Writing equations of motion for run phase of take oﬀ
T −D −µR =
W
g
dV
dt
(36)
where the normal reaction R = W  L. Thus acceleration can be written as
dV
dt
=
g
W
×[T −D −µ(W −L)]
writing
dV
dt
as
dV
ds
×
ds
dt
, we obtain
ds =
W
g
V dV
T −D −µ(W −L)
Now, at sea level, BHP = constant = 135kW at 2700 rpm. Thrust is given
by BHP ∗ η
p
/V .
44
The distance covered during the run phase of takeoﬀ can be expressed
as
s
1
=
V
TO
0
WV
gF
dV (37)
where F is the accelerating force given by
F =
BHP ∗ η
p
V
−D −µ(W −L)
η
p
is a function of velocity and so the best way to estimate s
1
is by doing
numerical integration, keeping the intervals (dV) as small as possible. A dV
of 2m/s was chosen for this particular exercise.
V
TO
= 1.2V
S
, where V
S
is stall speed, and is calculated from
V
S
=
2W
ρSC
Lmax
During takeoﬀ, ﬂap deﬂection (δ
f
) is 10
o
⇒C
Lmax
= 1.42
We assume that the coeﬃcient of friction is 0.02
Here, the takeoﬀ weight W = 10673.28 N
S = wing planform area = 14.86m
2
Density ρ
sl
= 1.225 kg/m
3
Thus we obtain Vs = 28.73 m/s and V
TO
= 34.4775 m/s
Substituting the above values in equation 37 and performing numerical
integration, we obtain s
1
= 286 m
0.8.2 Distance covered in transition
The entire power of the engine is assumed to be used to overcome drag and
to accelerate to a velocity V
2
given by V
2
= 1.1V
TO
. The height attained
during transition is ignored. Writing the equations of motion, we obtain
T −D =
W
g
×
dV
dt
=
W
g
×
V
2
2
−V
TO
2
2s
2
;
From V
2
2
−V
1
2
= 2as
Thus
s
2
=
W
g
×
V
2
2
−V
TO
2
T −D
Where T and D are evaluated at a mean speed between V
2
and V
TO
V2 = 1.1 ×34.4775 = 37.9253 m/s
Substituting the values in the above expression, we obtain
s
2
= 95.28 m
45
0.8.3 Distance covered during climb phase
The plane is assumed to climb to screen height (15m) at an angle of climb γ,
where the climb angle γ is given by
γ =
T −D
W
For the climb phase, T and D are evaluated at V
2
The climb angle γ was found to be 7.5 degrees.
Ignoring vertical height covered in transition, we get
s
3
=
screen.ht
γ
Substituting the values in the expression given above, we obtain s
3
= 113.4 m
Total takeoﬀ distance is given by
s = s
1
+s
2
+s
3
=286 + 95.28 + 113.4 = 494.7 m
which is close to the value of 488 m given in Section 1.11.
0.8.4 Landing distance estimate
The landing distance can be calculated in a manner similar to that for take
oﬀ. However, due to uncertainty at associated with piloting techniques during
landing, the following formula is used:
s
land
= −
V
a
2
2a
where V
a
= 1.3 ×V
S
in landing conﬁguration
Taking the airplane weight as that during takeoﬀ but C
Lmax
for landing ﬂap
setting (1.86), the stalling speed is 25.1 m/s. Hence approach speed is 32.6
m/s. Taking a = 1.22m/s
2
for a simple braking system yields
s
land
= 436 m
which is close to the value of 426 m given in Section 1.11.
46
Concluding remarks
1. Performance of a pistonengined airplane has been estimated for stalling
speed, maximum speed, minimum speed, steady climb, range, endurance,
turning,takeoﬀ and landing.
2. A reasonable agreement has been observed between the calculated per
formance and the actual performance of the airplane.
3. Figure 25 presents the variations, with altitude, of the characteristic
velocities corresponding to
• stalling speed V
S
• maximum speed V
max
• minimum speed as dictated by power V
minpower
• maximum rate of climb V
R/Cmax
• maximum angle of climb V
γmax
• maximum rate of turn V
˙
ψmax
• minimum radius of turn V
r
min
0.9 Acknowledgements
The ﬁrst author (EGT) thanks AICTE for the fellowship which enabled him
to carry out the work at IIT Madras.
47
48
Bibliography
[1] Roskam, J ‘METHODS FOR ESTIMATING DRAG POLARS OF
SUBSONIC AIRPLANES’, Roskam aviation engineering corporation,
Kansas, U.S.A, 1983.
[2] Mc.Cormick B.W., ‘AERODYNAMICS, AERONAUTICS AND
FLIGHT MECHANICS’, John Wiley, New York, (1979 First edition,
1995 Second edition).
[3] Jackson, P (editorinchief) ‘JANE’S ALL THE WORLD’S AIRCRAFT
(1999 −2000)’. Jane’s information group ltd, Surrey, U.K.
[4] Roskam, J ‘AIRPLANE DESIGN VOL. I’, Roskam aviation engineering
corporation, Kansas, U.S.A, 1989.
[5] Perkins C.D. and Hage R.E., ‘AIRPLANE PERFORMANCE STABIL
ITY AND CONTROL’, John Wiley, 1960.
49
Performance Analysis of a piston engined airplane  Piper Cherokee PA28180
E.G.Tulapurkara, S Ananth and Tejas M Kulkarni Department of Aerospace Engineering, IIT Madras February 2007
The report is intended to serve as an example of performance calculation of a typical piston engined airplane. Problem statement: Obtain the following for the prescribed airplane: • Information about the airplane. • Drag Polar at cruising speed and during takeoﬀ condition. • Engine Characteristics. • Variation of stalling speed with altitude for ﬂaps up and ﬂaps down conditions. • Variation of Vmax and Vmin with altitude. • Variation of R/C and γ with speed and altitude. Variation of VR/Cmax and Vγmax with altitude. Values of absolute ceiling and service ceiling. • Variation of range and endurance with ﬂight speed in constant velocity ﬂights at cruising altitude. Speeds corresponding to Rmax and Emax in these constant velocity ﬂights. The range in constant CL ﬂight at cruising altitude. • Variation of minimum turn radius (rmin ) and maximum rate of turn ˙ ψmax at selected altitudes and variation of (Vrmin ) and (Vψmax ) with ˙ altitude. • Takeoﬀ and landing distances.
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Contents
0.1 Information about the airplane . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.1.1 Overall Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.1.2 Powerplant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.1.3 Weights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.1.4 Wing Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.1.5 Fuselage Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.1.6 Horizontal Tail Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.1.7 Vertical Tail Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.1.8 Landing gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.1.9 Flight Condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.1.10 Other data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.1.11 Performance of PA28181* as given in Ref[3] . . . 0.2 Estimation of Drag Polar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.2.1 Estimation of CDOW B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.2.2 Estimation of CDOB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.2.3 Expressions for Drag Polar during cruise . . . . . . 0.2.4 Estimation of CDOHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.2.5 Estimation of CDOV T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.2.6 Estimation of CDLG and CDM isc . . . . . . . . . . . 0.2.7 Estimation of parasite drag coeﬃcientCDO . . . . . 0.2.8 Estimation of induced drag coeﬃcient K . . . . . . 0.2.9 Expressions for Drag Polar during cruise . . . . . . 0.2.10 Expression for Drag Polar duringtakeoﬀ condition 0.3 Engine Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.3.1 Variation of Engine BHP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.3.2 Thrust horsepower available . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.4 Steady Level Flight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.4.1 Variation of stalling speed with altitude . . . . . . 0.4.2 Variations of Vmax and Vmin with altitude . . . . . . 0.5 Steady climb performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.6 Range and Endurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 9 9 10 10 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 16 17 17 20 20 23 26 32
0.6.1 Estimation of Range in constant velocity ﬂight 0.6.2 Endurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.7 Turning Flight Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.8 Takeoﬀ and Landing distance estimates . . . . 0.8.1 Takeoﬀ run: distance estimate . . . . . . . . 0.8.2 Distance covered in transition . . . . . . . . . 0.8.3 Distance covered during climb phase . . . . . 0.8.4 Landing distance estimate . . . . . . . . . . . 0.9 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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4
22 m) Wheel base : 6.892 m) Wheel track : 10 feet (3.88 m) diameter.0965 kgf/kW) 5 .3 Weights Maximum takeoﬀ weight : 2400 lbf (1090.208 feet (1. Manufacturer and country of origin : The Piper Aircraft Corporation. 0. ﬁxed pitch.1.3 lbf/Hp (8.29 feet (7. USA.9 kgf) Empty weight : 1230 lbf (558 kgf) Fuel capacity: 189 liters ( 181 liters usable) Payload : 530.1 Overall Dimensions Length : 23.1.098 m) Wing Span : 30 feet (9. 0.291 feet (2.1 Information about the airplane Airframe : Piper Cherokee PA28180 Type : Pistonengined propeller driven low speed recreational aircraft.7 lbf (468.2 Powerplant Name : Lycoming O360A3A Rating : 180BHP (135 kW) at 2700 rpm Weight: 284 pounds (129kg) Number: 1 Propeller: 74 inches (1.2 kgf/m2 ) Maximum power loading : 13.1.0.048 m) 0.0 m) Height above ground : 7.1 kgf) Maximum wing loading : 15 lbf/f t2 (73.
0983 Airfoil : NACA 0012.199 m2 ) 6 .762 m) Aspect Ratio : 4. removable rear seats that give 44 f t3 (1.4 Root Chord : 5.86m2 ) Flap area : 14.185m) Accomodation: 4 persons in two pairs. Starboard side door.5 Fuselage Geometry Length : 22. rectangular afterwards and elliptical ﬁllets at the tip.1.Equivalent Trapezoidal wing Tip Chord : 5.4 Wing Geometry Planform Shape : Trapezoidal near root.703 m) .48o Dihedral : 6o Twist : −2o Incidence : 4. Can carry stretcher.62o at root.8 f t2 (1.1. baggage compartment with 200 lbf (90.62o at tip Taper Ratio : 0.0. Clopt = 0.5 feet (6. 25o and 40o 0.89 feet (1.9248 (equivalent wing) Aspect Ratio : 5.25 m3 ) space. Span : 10 feet (3.267 m2 ) Root Chord = Tip chord = 2. t/c = 15%.1.4 f t2 (2.652 415 series.5 feet (0. Wetted area : 45. 2.575 m) Mean Aerodynamic Chord : 5.003 m2 ) Airfoil : NACA .91kgf) capacity.9 f t2 (1.384 m2 ) Aileron area: 10. 0.738 High lift devices : simple ﬂaps having 3 diﬀerent settings : 10o .874 m) Maximum fuselage cross section dimension (vertical) : 3.6 Horizontal Tail Geometry Planform shape : Rectangular with elliptical ﬁllets at tips.198 f t2 (4.498 feet (1.6766 feet (1.675 m) Quarter chord Sweep : 1.25 feet (1.048 m) Area : 24. Span : 30 feet (9 m) Area : 160 f t2 (14.
121 m) Area : 11.1.727) m Quarter Chord Sweep : 21.10 Other data CG location : 6.386 feet (0.075 m) behind nose. nonretractable.9669 kg/m3 Speed of Sound : 330. all same size. Thickness 0.6 f t2 (1.444 feet (0. Number of wheels : Nose 1.1.4547 m) Mean Aerodynamic Chord : 2.8o Taper Ratio : 0.27 m/s) Weight of the Airplane : 2400 lbf (1090.1.28 feet (1 m) Tip chord : 1.4547 m) Wheel base : 6.492 feet (0.188 Airfoil : NACA 0010.492 feet (0.876 kgm2 ) 7 . 0.8 Landing gear Nose Wheel type with fairing.4548 Aspect Ratio : 1.457 kgm2 ) Iz = 1312 slug f t2 (1778. Ix = 170 slug f t2 (230.81 feet (2.9 Flight Condition Altitude : 8000 ft (2438 m) Mach number : 0.17721 ×10−4 m2 /s Density : 0.91 kgf) 0.0.7 Vertical Tail Geometry Span : 3.4946 kgm2 ) Iy = 1249 slug f t2 (1693. main 2.135 m) Diameter : 1.208 feet (1.078 m2 ) Root Chord : 3.892 m) Wheel track : 10 feet (3.9 m/s Flight Speed : 235 km/hr (65.68 feet (1.1.1972 Kinematic Viscosity : 0.048 m) 0.
2kgf /m2 ) Maximum level speed: 246 kmph Cruising speed: 237 kmph Stalling speed: 86 kmph.0.11 Performance of PA28181* as given in Ref[3] Maximum takeoﬀ weight: 2550lbf (1356 kgf) Powerplant rating: 180 BHP (135 kW) Wing loading: 15lbf /f t2 (73. engine and propeller are available in Ref [2]. climb.1. takeoﬀ. However. Ref [3] (which is easily accesible) contains information about PA28181 which is only slightly diﬀerent from PA28180 8 . information on actual performance of this airplane is not given there. at ﬂaps down condition Maximum rate of climb: 203 m/min at sea level Service ceiling: 4035 m Takeoﬀ run: 350m Takeoﬀ to 15m: 488m Landing run: 280m Landing distance from 15m: 427m Range with allowance for taxi. descent and 45 min reserves at 6000 feet (1830 m) at 55 power: 924 km *Remark: The performance calculations are being done for PA28180 as a large amount of data on airplane.
2. The pressure drag coeﬃcient for the wing CD0W is obtained from : C DO W = C f w 1 + L t c Swet Sref (5) The Re based on mean chord is 6. C D O W = C D fW + C D WW (4) CDf w is the skin friction drag coeﬃcient. In the present case. l For this k of 54980. areas are in square feet and moments of inertia are in lb square feetting it for the shape of the airfoil. 1995 edition. 0. we ﬁnd Recutof f corrseponding to the roughness parameter k . H. vertical tail. Here.07586 × 106 . horizontal tail and miscellaneous items respectively. obtained by ﬁrst determining the skin friction coeﬃcient of a ﬂate plate and then correcThree view drawing of Piper Cherokee P A − 28 − 180 from Ref[2]. l Now. CDW w is the wave drag coeﬃcient for the wing. l = 5. 9 . Recutof f = 4 × 106 .0012 inches for mass production spray paint.0.1 Estimation of CDOW B SB Sref CDOW B is obtained from C DO W B = C DO W + C DO B (3) where the suﬃx B denotes fuselage and SB is the maximum frontal area of fuselage. the Mach number is low and hence the wave drag is neglected. M isc denote wingbody combination. Note: Dimensions are in inches.2 Estimation of Drag Polar 2 CL πAe Following Ref[1] the drag polar is assumed to be of the form CD = CDo + (1) The quantity CDO is assumed to be given by CDO = CDOW B + CDOV + CDOH + CDOM isc (2) where suﬃxes W B.498 feet and k = 0. V.
0036. CDfB is found using Relength = 2.00833 0. Hence Cf is found based on Recutof f .25 × 105 ⇒ Recutof f = 1.15f t2 (21.7675m2 ) Proceeding in the same manner as for the wing. and is given by C D O B = C D fB + C D p B (6) 0.263f t2 (0.2.77f t2 (29.We observe that Recutof f is lower than that based on mean aerodynamic chord.49 × 107 Recutof f l = 2.14m2 ) and Sref = 160f t2 (14.2.0028 from Ref [1].15)] × 313.08001 8. from Ref.263 10 .2 × (0. given by C D fB = C f B (7) where SWF is the fuselage wetted surface area = 236.77 160 Thus CDf w is found to be 0. we have Swet = 313.93m2 ) and SB is the frontal area of the fuselage = 8.2 Estimation of CDOB CDOB is the fuselage proﬁle drag coeﬃcient.86m2 ) Substituting the above values in eqn (5) yields CDfw = 0.00833 and so CDOW = 0.3 Expressions for Drag Polar during cruise SW F SB where CDfB is the skin friction drag coeﬃcient. [1] is found to be 0. which. From the airplane data.8 × 107 k ⇒ CfB = 0.15 = 0. ⇒ CDfB = 0.0036 [1 + 1.0028 × 236.
085379 Thus CDOW B = 0.76 × 106 l = 2.2.5 × 104 is 1.0007 11 .4 Estimation of CDOHT CDOHT = Cfp 1 + L t t + 100 c c 4 The drag coeﬃcient of the horizontal tail is given by RLS Swet Sref (9) t The tail has NACA 0012 airfoil ⇒ c = 0.0025 df S ( df ) 3 (8) 0.005379 and hence CDOB = 0. It is found that Swet = 45.86m2 ) l Re based on mean aerodynamic chord is 2. It is found that Swet = 23.5 × 106 ⇒ Cfp = 0. f Substituting the values from aircraft dimensions.5 × 104 k l Recutof f based on k of 2.07 Substituting the values in equation (10).12 The wetted surface area of the horizontal tail is computed from the aircraft geometry.2.01277 160 60 lf S W × = CfB lf + 0.2f t2 (2.004 and RLS = 1.00833 + 0.155m2 ) and Sref = 160f t2 (14.10 The wetted surface area of the vertical tail is computed from the aircraft geometry.5 × 106 ⇒ Cfp = 0. CDpB is given by C DpB l where df is the fuselage ﬁneness ratio.199f t2 (4.5 Estimation of CDOV T C DO V T = C f p 1 + L t t + 100 c c 4 The drag coeﬃcient of the vertical tail is given by RLS Swet Sref (10) t The tail has NACA 0010 airfoil ⇒ c = 0.263 = 0.07 Substituting the values in equation (9).085379 ⇒ CDOW B = 0.38 × 104 Recutof f = 1.001408 0.198m2 ) and Sref = 160f t2 (14.Now.63 × 106 k = 2. we obtain CDpB = 0.004 and RLS = 1.01277 8. we have CDOV T = 0. we have CDOHT = 0.86m2 ) Re based on mean aerodynamic chord is 2.
003875 0. 1 ef us × Sf Sref =2 (11) =2× 1 eother 8.01277 + 0. Ref [2] gives CDLG = 0.003875 + 0.2638 = 0.2.2.05 Substituting the values in eqn 11.0. for an unswept wing. we obtain e = 0.001408 + 0. e = 0.8 Estimation of induced drag coeﬃcient K 1 πAe The induced drag coeﬃcient K is evaluated from the expression K= where the Aspect ratio A is 5. evaluated from the expression 1 1 1 1 = + + e ewing ef uselage eother From Ref [1].0244 given in Ref [2] 0.0044 and CDmisc = 0.7 Estimation of parasite drag coeﬃcientCDO CDO = CDOW B + CDOHT + CDOV T + CDOLG + CDOmisc ⇒ CDO = 0.0697 given in Ref [2] 12 .738 for the wing and e is the ostwald eﬃciency factor.2.02315 which is close to the value of 0.0007 + 0.7973 and K = 0.0696 which is very close to the value of 0.91 and 1 ef us ⇒ From Ref [1].6 Estimation of CDLG and CDM isc The landing gear drag coeﬃcient can be obtained from Ref [1]. However.0044 Thus CDO = 0.1033 160 = 0.
To apply correction to the drag polar for ﬂap deﬂection.10 Expression for Drag Polar during takeoﬀ condition To obtain drag polar under takeoﬀ condition. Thus the value of Cf and other calculations will remain the same.2. without the ﬂap. In the present case. Hence CDO for the airplane in takeoﬀ codition. the expression for the drag polar becomes CD = 0. the ratio of ﬂap chord to wing chord is 0.0.954 × 106 14. can be taken as 0.42 × 1. 1.0696CL2 (12) 0. • Similarly K. the wing aspect ratio is 5.47m/s • Reynold’s number based on mean aerodynamic chord of the wing in takeoﬀ condition = 1.Hence VS = and so 2 × 10673. • From Fig.225 × 14.2.2 × 28.9 Expressions for Drag Polar during cruise At cruise condition.02315 + 0.47 = 3.28 = 28.6×10−6 • We notice that this Reynold’s number is very close to the cutoﬀ Reynold’s number for the wing (4 × 106 ) obtained in Section 0.2.4827 • The ratio of the span of the ﬂapped portion of the wing (including the fuselage width) to the total span is 0. we take the ﬂight velocity as 1. • CLmax with 10o ﬂap deﬂection is 1.73 = 34.738 13 .73m/s 1. we proceed as follows • The ﬂap type is plain ﬂap.16 and ﬂap deﬂection is 10o • The ratio of the area of the ﬂapped portion of the wing to the wing planform area is 0.127.86 VT O = 1.597 • The ratio of the fuselage width to the wing span is 0.02315. can be taken as 0.42 from Ref [2].2VS . without the ﬂap.675×34. where VS is the stalling speed with ﬂaps in takeoﬀ condition (δf = 10o ).1.0696.
the change in the induced drag can be accounted for by reducing the value of the Ostwald eﬃciency factor (e) by 0.02722 Hence the drag polar in takeoﬀ condition is given by CD = 0. ∆Kf is estimated as 0. the increase in induced drag coeﬃcient (∆CDi ) due to ﬂap deﬂection is ∆Kf 2 × ∆CLmax 2 .05 for takeoﬀ condition and 0.02722 + 0.0696CL2 Remarks: • In the approach just presented. as noted earlier.1 for landing condition (from Ref [4]).0038 As per Ref [1]. When the ﬂap deﬂections are large. (13) 14 . • Increment in CLmax due to 10o ﬂap deﬂection (∆CLmax ).1842 × 0. ∆CDi = 0.00027 The interference drag due to deﬂection of plain ﬂaps is negligible.02315 + 0. ∆CDf lap = ∆CDp + ∆CDi + ∆CDint .0038 + 0. Using Ref [1]. • It may be pointed out that parabolic drag polar is not valid beyond CLmax .092 = 0. the change in the induced drag coeﬃcient is included in the parasite drag coeﬃcient.09 Using these data and interpolating the curves given in Ref [1]. we get: ∆CDO due to ﬂap deﬂection = 0. is 0.00027 = 0.• Folowing Ref [1].184 Consequently. It is only approximate near CL = 0 and CL = CLmax . ∆CDi = increase in induced drag coeﬃcient due to ﬂaps and ∆CDint = increase in interference drag due to ﬂaps. Thus the parasite drag coeﬃcient in takeoﬀ condition is CDO = 0. to estimate the drag polar in takeoﬀ condition. Equations 12 and 13 are the drag polars for cruise condition and takeoﬀ condition respectively. where ∆CDp = increase in proﬁle drag coeﬃcient due to ﬂaps.
15 .
3.carbureted. horizontally opposed piston engine. 16 . fourcylinder. For the present calculations.0. Sea level power = 180 BHP (135 kW) Propeller: 74 inches (1. Type: aircooled.3 Engine Characteristics Model: Lycoming O360A3A.88 m) diameter The variations of power output and fuel consumption with altitude and rpm are shown in Fig. the values will be converted into SI units.
This curve is shown in Figure 5. For the purpose of calculating the airplane performance.2269 0.889 0. 0.7048 89.3.6343 79.163 Table 1: Variation of BHP with altitude Note: The variation of engine BHP with ﬂight speed is very slight and is generally neglected.8638 114.2256 135. rpm of the engine and the diameter of the propeller.814 0.622 0.13σ − 0.9529 127. A fourth degree polynomial for ηp in terms of J is as follows 17 .000 0.13) where σ is the density ratio = ρ/ρSL The power outputs of the engine at select altitudes are given in Table 1.688 0. an equation can be ﬁtted to the ηp vs J curve shown in Fig. This can be worked out at diﬀerent speeds and altitudes using propeller charts.6012 74. However. where ηp is the propeller eﬃciency.967 0.8217 107.1 Variation of Engine BHP The variation of engine BHP with altitude is assumed to be of the form BHPa = BHPsealevel (1. ηp depends on the ﬂight speed.9075 120.3. chapter six of Ref [2] gives an V estimated curve of eﬃciency as a function of the advance ratio (J = nD ) for the ﬁxed pitch propeller used in the present airplane.212 0.2 Thrust horsepower available The available Thrust horsepower is obtained from BHPa × ηp . h(m) sea level 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 σ BHPa (kW ) 1.6689 84.4. is roughly valid for all altitudes and speeds.7812 101.490 0.800 0.0.7423 95. and according to Ref [2].
1398×10−4 V 2 +3. The maximum power occurs at 2700 rpm (45 rps).0447×10−8 V 4 +6.5586J − 0.0051668 (15) Making use of the power available at diﬀerent altitudes as given in Table. For the calculation of maximum speed. the ηp vs J curve can be converted to ηp vs V curve (Fig5) The expression for ηp in terms of velocity is as follows: ηp = −4. the maximum available thrust horsepower (T HPa = ηp × BHP) can be obtained at diﬀerents speeds and altitudes. Noting the propeller diameter as 1. These are plotted in Fig. it is convenient to have maximum power available (T HPa = ηp × BHP) as a function of velocity. The dotted portions are extrapolations. 18 .071895J 4 + 3.0244×10−2 V −0.6.3445×10−6 V 3 −5.ηp (J) = −2.88 m.0051668 (14) It is seen that the ﬁt is very close.841567J 3 − 3.1 and the values of the propeller eﬃciency at diﬀerent speeds given by equation 15. maximum rate of climb and maximum rate of turn.6786J 2 + 2.
19 .
2W ρSCLmax VS = Since density decrases with altitude.0. 1 1 2 ρV SCL =⇒ W = ρV 2 SCL 2 2 1 2 D = ρV SCD = T 2 L = ⇒V = 2W ρSCL (18) (19) (16) (17) Since CL cannot exceed CLmax .4 0.4. 20 . the stalling speed increases with height. the equations of motion are T −D = 0 L−W = 0 Further.1 Steady Level Flight Variation of stalling speed with altitude In steady level ﬂight. there is a ﬂight speed below which level ﬂight is not possible. The ﬂight speed at which CL = CLmax is called stalling speed and denoted by VS .
433 26.731 26.412 31.216 39.781 0.348 30.42.403 33.000 1500.352 30.130 32. 1.538 0.694 32.864 0.055 33.953 0.283 39. 25o and 40o respectively.695 36.565 26.750 33.000 6000.696 28.160 27.86 for ﬂap deﬂections of 0o .900 25.000 500. the variation of stalling speeds with altitude are presented in Table.361 40.601 0.000 5000.8.688 30.903 35.000 σ 1.278 29.288 39.000 2000.669 0.859 Table 2: Stalling speeds for various ﬂap settings 21 .814 33.896 36.463 41.589 34.742 0.377 38. Ref [2] gives the values of CLmax as 1.000 3500.971 31.790 34.299 37.942 32. h (m) 0. W = 1088 × 9.634 0.000 2500. 1.518 VS (δf = 0o ) (m/s) 29.138 34.164 31. 10o . Using these data.160 35.458 35.705 0.968 27.478 29.253 27.866 32.709 28.092 34.224 VS (δf = 10o ) Vs(δf = 25o ) Vs(δf = 40o ) (m/s) (m/s) (m/s) 28.000 1000.107 30.28N S = 14.914 28.2 and plotted in Fig.000 4000.011 31.223 31.521 37.104 29.33.717 30.276 38.81 = 10673.70 and 1.908 0.569 0.507 29.000 3000.259 25.In the present case.463 34.86m2 As regards CLmax .362 36.822 0.075 32.000 6335.000 5500.000 0.000 4500.
22 .
Pa = BHP × ηp 1 Pr = D × V = ρV 2 SCD 2 The drag polar expresses CD in terms of CL . available power equals required power.9. Repeating the procedure at diﬀerent altitudes. This altitude is the maximum height attainable by the airplane and will be referred later as absolute ceiling. It may be noted that at h = 6338 m. we get Vmax and Vmin at various heights. It may be noted that • The minimum speed so obtained corresponds that limited by power (Vminpower ). Available power is denoted by Pa and power required to overcome drag is denoted by Pr . Their product ηp × BHP gives an analytical expession for power available. the following procedure gives Vmax and Vmin . • If this minimum speed is less than the stalling speed.2 Variations of Vmax and Vmin with altitude With a parabolic drag polar and engine output given by an analytical expression. BHP is constant with velocity. Writing CL as substituting in the above equation we get 2KW 2 1 BHP × ηp = ρV 2 SCD + 2 ρSV 2 The propeller eﬃciency has already been expressed as a fourth order polynomial function of velocity and at a chosen altitude. The minimum velocity is thus higher of the stalling speed and (Vminpower ).4. Substituting this exprsesion on the left hand side of equation (21) and solving gives Vmax and Vminpower at a chosen altitude. At maximum speed in steady level ﬂight. ﬂight is not possible at Vminpower . Vmax an Vminpower are same.0. 2W ρSV 2 (20) (21) and 23 . The results are tabulated in Table 3 and plotted in Fig.
000 4000.362 27.7055 0.000 2000.831 33.5188 VS (δf = 0o ) Vminpower (m/s) (m/s) 29.438 32.942 74.412 75.790 47.143 50.164 74.360 64.291 35.688 16.912 47.312 31.589 23.9081 0.000 5500.034 36.412 18.600 Table 3: Vmax and Vmin for various altitudes 24 .972 40.5211 0.354 36.6696 0.000 6000.811 39.6342 0.000 σ 1.264 58.000 2500.299 29.288 34.164 19.942 20.8642 0.844 38.7527 53.458 25.000 6335.645 40.288 67.000 3000.969 30.000 6300.079 39.861 31.122 41.299 70.071 41.000 6342.0000 0.630 52.000 4500.5272 0.688 75.264 41.711 30.589 73.082 34.750 21.143 55.630 43.600 53.348 32.080 41.024 31.7813 0.6011 0.7424 0.750 73.600 Vmin Vmax (m/s) (m/s) 29.071 53.362 71.000 1000.000 6200.5186 0.000 3500.276 31.463 43.788 38.5383 0.276 68.5692 0.760 33.175 31.458 72.222 52.232 37.000 5000.234 37.240 53.altitude (m) Sea level 500.972 60.375 34.9531 0.000 1500.360 38.8223 0.094 35.
25 .
The velocity of ﬂight is assumed to be constant during the climb. aceleration is zero and the equations of motion can be written as: T − D − W sin γ = 0 L − W cos γ = 0 Noting that CL = 2L ρSV 2 (22) (23) = 2W cos γ . Since the ﬂight is steady.5 Steady climb performance In this ﬂight. the C.0. ρSV 2 we get 2W cos γ ρSV 2 2 C D = C Do + K 26 .G of the airplane moves along a straight line inclined to the horizontal at an angle γ.
Thus the quadratic in Vc can be solved and the angle of climb (γ) and rate of climb (Vc ) can be V found for various altitudes and ﬂight speeds.Also Vc = V sin γ cos γ = Using the above equations. The plot of R/Cmax vs altitude is shown in Figure 14.0. 27 . A 2 1− Vc2 V2 Vc V 2 +B Vc +C =0 V (24) 1 Where A = 1kW2 S . These are plotted in Figures 11 and 12 respectively. but the velocity at which the rate of climb and angle of climb are maximum increase very slightly with height. Remark: It is observed that the maximum rate of climb and maximum angle of climb decrease with altitude.13) ηp Equation 24 gives 2 values of Vc /V . These are obtained from Figure 14.2 ρV 2 SCDo . It may be pointed out that the absolute ceiling obtained from R/Cmax consideration and that from Vmax consideration are same (as they should be).0.A ρV 2 The available thrust horsepower is given by the expression: TV = power available = Pa = BHPsealevel (1.13σ . It is observed that the absolute ceiling is 6342m and the service ceiling is 5322m. We choose the value which is less than 1. Service Ceiling and Absolute Ceiling The altitude at which the maximum rate of climb becomes 50 metres/minute is called the service ceiling and the altitude at which the maximum rate of climb becomes zero is called the absolute ceiling of the airplane. B = W and C = Tavail . The velocities at which maximum values of Vc and γ occur are taken for each altitude and presented in Figure 13. Consequently γ = sin−1 Vc Vc V = V sin γ (25) (26) Thrust can be obtained for a given velocity and height.
28 .
29 .
30 .
31 .
the engine power output is decided by the rpm. Hence the extrapolation to 1200 rpm performed in the present case seems justiﬁable. However. gallons (1331.28N and W2 = 9341. the power required at velocities close to minimum power condition is much lower than that at 2000 rpm. the range of a pistonengine powered airplane is given by 3600ηp tan−1 √ R= BSF C k1 k2 W1 k1 /k2 − tan−1 W1 k1 /k2 (27) 2K 1 where k1 = 2 ρV 2 SCDO .6 0.78 N). k2 = ρSV 2 and W1 and W2 are the weights of the aircraft at the start and end of cruise. it was noticed that the engine curves given in Figure 3 are limited to 2000 rpm. we get W1 = 10673. Also.5N.0. Quadratic curves were ﬁtted for the plots in Figures 15 and 16 Remark: During the calculations. which can be adjusted by the pilot by means of the throttle control.6. However.S. The variation of engine BHP and fuel consumption as functions of rpm are extrapolated down to 1200 rpm from the engine characteristics (Figure 3). the rpm setting again inﬂuences the fuel consumption and BSFC is thus indirectly aﬀected. the rpm scale was factored down by 100. Hence the BHPa and fuel consumption curves were extrapolated down to 1200 rpm. To work with convenient numbers. From this expression.1 Range and Endurance Estimation of Range in constant velocity ﬂight It is convenient for the pilot to cruise at constant velocity. In such a ﬂight at a given altitude. Procedure for ﬁnding range in constant velocity ﬂight It must be noted that the eﬃciency of the propeller is a function of both the engine rpm as well as the ﬂight velocity. Taking W1 as maximum takeoﬀ weight and the amount of usable fuel as 50 U. It may be added that Ref[5] has plotted power output and BSFC curves rom 2700 to 1200 rpm for Pratt and Whitney Wasp Major engine. 32 . Thus it becomes necessary to use an iterative procedure to determine the range. Hence we consider the range performance in constant velocity ﬂights. we can obtain range as a function of velocity and hence ﬁnd maximum range for constant velocity ﬂight at cruising altitude. These are shown in Figures 15 and 16.
33 .
3. If the eﬃciency assumed in step 5 and eﬃciency obtained from step 7 are signiﬁcantly diﬀerent. For this rpm setting and ﬂight speed. Choose a velocity starting with Vminpower 2. rpm ¡ 2700) 7. 34 .S.2123r 2 + 13. calculate J and the propeller eﬃciency from ηp vs J curve. repeat steps 5 to 8 till the two values of ηp are almost same.e. Since the quadratic equation gives two solutions. Find CL at steady level ﬂight condition for the weights corresponding to the start and end of cruise.Gallon is taken as 3. 9.916 where BHP is in horsepower and r is N . 5. ﬁnd the rpm of the engine for this BHP output at cruising altitude. 4.78 litres an density of fuel is taken as 0. 8. 6. 100 (29) The following iterative procedure was used to ﬁnd the range: 1. 100 (28) F uelconsumption = 0.The equations for variations of engine BHP and fuel consumption as functions of rpm are given below: BHP = −0. Find the THP required for steady level ﬂight condition at the start and end of cruise. Assume a value of propeller eﬃciency ηp and ﬁnd the average BHP required.906r − 82. select the valid solution (i. Now ﬁnd the BSFC of the engine from variation of fuel consumption vs engine rpm and convert all quantites to SI Units. One U. From the variation of BHP with engine rpm.0059r 2 + 0.76 kg/m3 . Obtain CD for these two values of CL using drag polar.3255 where the fuel consumption is in gallons per hour and r is N . This determines the rpm needed for ﬂight at the chosen ﬂight velocity.1124r + 3. 10.
84 6.6 6.70 94.3 6.920 2.60 5.17 7.3 1555.762 1474.4 8.457 3.71 6.586 0.91 82.58 Table 4: Range and Endurance in constant velocity ﬂights Note: mf is the fuel ﬂow rate.713 1411.03 105.9 1609.71 80.7 1539.36 7.698 0.281 2.5 7.94 5.73 117.19 46.48 66.583 0.810 0.00 56.1 1632.4 1540.56 89.452 3. 12.716 1453.331 2.9 2364.0 1912. V The variations of endurance and range with velocity are given in table 4 and plotted in Figures 17 and 18 respectively.013 1060.466 3.85 80.3 1660.70 80.677 0.2 6. 0.639 0.36 104.929 1330.6 7.47 91.11.36 7.5 7.40 101.15 135.39 110.93 87.791 1466.604 2.60 46.52 127.5 2008.4 6.017 1007.0 1693.2 Endurance Since the ﬂight velocity is constant.09 4.0 1732.03 6.8 6.950 1291.6 1538.3 6.03 69.796 0.90 89.62 46.3 2141.388 2.1 E (hrs) 7.578 0.732 2.32 95.807 0.4 2622.93 74.3 7.86 83.3 10.4 1839.37 7.40 6.657 0.014 928.60 47.741 0.69 mf ˙ BSFC R (gal/hr) (N/kWhr) (km) 6.6.4 1589.89 46.850 1427.797 0.440 2.2 7.35 7.2 81 80.601 0.6 6.963 2.876 1203.578 0.781 0.19 5.94 6.37 7.012 900.008 873.736 1471.501 2.2 6.6 1536.720 0.57 85.633 2.09 84.35 54.1 6.771 rpm 1543.446 3.017 981.581 0. the endurance of the aircraft for each ﬂight velocity can be obtained from the expression E = Range .30 62.817 2.197 2.57 6.446 3.5 BHPr (hp) 81.762 0.4 6.6 1780. Substitute for all terms in equation 27 and ﬁnd the range.991 1181.6 1536.47 59.37 7.044 2.905 1366.662 2. R is the range and E is the endurance.32 97.63 ηp 0.29 7.93 49.21 78.14 101. Now repeat the procedure for diﬀerent velocities till Vmax for the cruising altitude.580 0.758 1320.11 7.821 1450.454 3.4 9.878 1399. ˙ 35 .3 6. Velocity (m/s) 33 34 35 37 38 40 45 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 73 T HPr (kW) 47.
36 .
This is found to be maximum (1474 km) at a speed of 64 m/s (230 kmph). descent and reserves for 45 min and can be called as safe range. climb. fuel consumption which in turn are all dependent on ﬂight velocity. engine rpm.11 is 924 km. takeoﬀ.Remarks: • It is seen that the maximum endurance is almost constant in the speed range of 33 to 40 m/s. 37 . it is seen that the calculated value is in fair agreement with the value given in Ref[3]. these quantities are at their optimum values and hence give maximum range. It may be recalled that range depends on propeller eﬃciency. This range accounts for taxi. • The range quoted in Section 1. This value is generally twothirds of the GSAR. At a particuar setting. • The range calculated in the present computation is the Gross Still Air Range. Noting that twothirds of GSAR is 982 km.
The equations of motion in a steady. level. The forces acting on the airplane are shown in Figure 19.0. the performance of the aircraft in a steady coordinated level turn is studied.7 Turning Flight Performance In this section. coordinated turn are: T −D = 0 W − L cos φ = 0 W V2 L sin φ = g R These equations give V2 g tan φ V g tan φ ˙ ψ = = r V 1 L = Load Factor n = W cos φ r = 38 (33) (34) (35) (30) (31) (32) .
CLmax = 1. If CLmax /CLL < nmax .5 are assumed where the load factor (n) is given by n = L/W. 4. the value of CLT is calculated as CLT = CDT − CDO K However if DT 1 < Ta . 39 . nmax and Ta is given by: C LT CLL n= ˙ 5. then the turn is limited by nmax . the load factor n which satisﬁes the three constraints of CLmax . However if CLmax /CLL > nmax . 3. then the turn is limited by the engine output. The following procedure is ˙ then used to obtain rmin and ψmax 1. From the drag polar. Knowing n. and CLT1 = nmax CLL .In the following calculations. then the turn is limited by CLmax and CLT1 = CLmax . 34 and 35.33 and nmax = 3. where nmax is the maximum load factor for which the aircraft is designed. Once CLT is known. where Ta is the available thrust at that speed and altitude. The maximum permissible value of CD in this case is found from CDT = 2Ta ρV 2 S From the drag polar. A ﬂight speed and altitude are chosen and the lift coeﬃcient in level ﬂight lift CLL is obtained as : CLL = 2(W/S) ρV 2 2. Then 1 DT 1 = ρV 2 SCDT1 2 If DT 1 > Ta . then the turn is not limited by the engine output and the value of CLT1 calculated in step (2) is taken as CLT . the values of turn radius (r) and rate of turn (ψ) can be calculated from equations 33. CDT1 is obtained corresponding to CLT1 .
40 .6. Vψmax and Vrmin are plotted against altitude in Figures 22 and ˙ 23. The above steps are then repeated for various speeds at the same altitude and then the procedure is repeated at various altitudes. The variations of turn rate and turn radius are shown in Figures 20 and 21 respectively.
41 .
42 .
43 .
1 Takeoﬀ run: distance estimate W dV g dt Writing equations of motion for run phase of take oﬀ T − D − µR = (36) where the normal reaction R = W . Thrust is given by BHP ∗ ηp /V . at sea level.L. Thus acceleration can be written as dV g = × [T − D − µ (W − L)] dt W writing dV dt as dV ds × ds . 44 . 0. dt we obtain ds = V dV W g T − D − µ (W − L) Now.0.8 Takeoﬀ and Landing distance estimates Takeoﬀ ﬂight can be divided into three phases: takeoﬀ run. BHP = constant = 135kW at 2700 rpm. transition and climb.8.
2 Distance covered in transition The entire power of the engine is assumed to be used to overcome drag and to accelerate to a velocity V2 given by V2 = 1.86m2 Density ρsl = 1.1 × 34. VT O = 1. where VS is stall speed.9253 m/s Substituting the values in the above expression. A dV of 2m/s was chosen for this particular exercise.2VS .225 kg/m3 Thus we obtain Vs = 28.1VT O .73 m/s and VT O = 34. and is calculated from F = VS = 2W ρSCLmax During takeoﬀ.8. keeping the intervals (dV) as small as possible. The height attained during transition is ignored.4775 = 37. the takeoﬀ weight W = 10673. we obtain s2 = 95. we obtain T −D = Thus W dV W V2 2 − V T O 2 .02 Here. ﬂap deﬂection (δf ) is 10o ⇒ CLmax = 1. we obtain s1 = 286 m 0.The distance covered during the run phase of takeoﬀ can be expressed as WV dV gF 0 where F is the accelerating force given by s1 = VT O (37) BHP ∗ ηp − D − µ (W − L) V ηp is a function of velocity and so the best way to estimate s1 is by doing numerical integration.4775 m/s Substituting the above values in equation 37 and performing numerical integration.42 We assume that the coeﬃcient of friction is 0.28 N S = wing planform area = 14. Writing the equations of motion.28 m 45 . × = × g dt g 2s2 F rom V2 2 − V1 2 = 2as V2 2 − V T O 2 W × s2 = g T −D Where T and D are evaluated at a mean speed between V2 and VT O V2 = 1.
due to uncertainty at associated with piloting techniques during landing.8.1 m/s. Ignoring vertical height covered in transition. 0. we obtain s3 = 113. However. the stalling speed is 25.11.28 + 113.7 m which is close to the value of 488 m given in Section 1.11.4 m Total takeoﬀ distance is given by s = s1 + s2 + s3 =286 + 95.4 = 494.3 Distance covered during climb phase The plane is assumed to climb to screen height (15m) at an angle of climb γ.5 degrees. we get γ= s3 = screen. 46 .ht γ Substituting the values in the expression given above. T and D are evaluated at V2 The climb angle γ was found to be 7. the following formula is used: Va 2 2a where Va = 1. where the climb angle γ is given by T −D W For the climb phase.4 Landing distance estimate The landing distance can be calculated in a manner similar to that for takeoﬀ.6 m/s.8. Taking a = 1.3 × VS in landing conﬁguration Taking the airplane weight as that during takeoﬀ but CLmax for landing ﬂap setting (1. Hence approach speed is 32.22m/s2 for a simple braking system yields sland = − sland = 436 m which is close to the value of 426 m given in Section 1.86).0.
47 . range. 3. steady climb. maximum speed. endurance. 2. A reasonable agreement has been observed between the calculated performance and the actual performance of the airplane.9 Acknowledgements The ﬁrst author (EGT) thanks AICTE for the fellowship which enabled him to carry out the work at IIT Madras. Performance of a pistonengined airplane has been estimated for stalling speed. Figure 25 presents the variations.Concluding remarks 1. of the characteristic velocities corresponding to • stalling speed VS • minimum radius of turn Vrmin • maximum rate of turn Vψmax ˙ • maximum angle of climb Vγmax • maximum rate of climb VR/Cmax • minimum speed as dictated by power Vminpower • maximum speed Vmax 0.takeoﬀ and landing. with altitude. turning. minimum speed.
48 .
U. ‘AIRPLANE PERFORMANCE STABILITY AND CONTROL’. 1989. ‘AERODYNAMICS. I’. 1995 Second edition). New York.Cormick B. John Wiley. [2] Mc. J ‘AIRPLANE DESIGN VOL. Kansas.A. and Hage R. John Wiley. [4] Roskam. U. AERONAUTICS AND FLIGHT MECHANICS’.Bibliography [1] Roskam.W.. Roskam aviation engineering corporation.E. [3] Jackson. (1979 First edition. [5] Perkins C. U.. Jane’s information group ltd. Roskam aviation engineering corporation. P (editorinchief) ‘JANE’S ALL THE WORLD’S AIRCRAFT (1999 − 2000)’. 1960. 1983. Surrey. 49 .A.S.S. J ‘METHODS FOR ESTIMATING DRAG POLARS OF SUBSONIC AIRPLANES’.K. Kansas.D.
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