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Present Tense Passive Voice

Simple present (fakta, kebiasaan, perintah):

Present Tense Rumus
Simple S + is/am/are + V3
Continuous S + is/am/are + being + V3
Three times + do/does
Always Perfect S + has + been + V3
Often + is/am/are Perfect S + has + been + being + V3
Usually continuous
Past Tense Rumus
Simple S + was/were + V3
Present Continuous (sedang berlangsung):
Continuous S + was/were + being + V3
Perfect S + had + been + V3
Right now
At the moment Perfect S + had + been + being + V3
At present continuous
At this time + is/am/are + V-ing
At this moment
Present Future Rumus
Simple S + will/shall + be + V3
Continuous S + will/shall + be + being +
Perfect S + will + have + been + V3
Present perfect (continuous)
Already Perfect S + will + have + been +
Just + has/have + V3 continuous being + V3
For (selama/durasi) + has/have + been + V-ing Past Future Rumus
Since (sejak) Tense
Simple S + would/should + be + V3
Past Tense Continuous S + would/should + be +
being + V3
Simple past: Perfect S + would/should + have +
Yesterday + did/V2 been + V3
Just now + was/were Perfect S + would/should + have +
Last month/year/etc continuous been + being + V3

Past continuous:
The other form of passive:
At this time yesterday + was/were + V-ing
At.....o’clock yesterday , or
Need + to be + V3
Past perfect (continuous)
Before Need +
After + had + V3
When + had + been + V-ing
By the time
By the end of

Future tense
Simple future:
Next.... + will/shall + V1/be
Soon + is/am/are + going to
The folowing day

Future continuous:
At this moment tomorrow
At this time tomorrow
At present next week + will/shall + be + V-ing
The following day

Future perfect (continuous):

By next... + will + have + V3
By the end of this... + will + have + been +
By the time S + V1 (s/es) + O/C
Adjective clause

Adjective clause : 7. Adv. Clause of contrast

Who Subject of person  Although
Whom Object of person  Eventhough
Whose Possessive of person and animal  However
Which Subject and object of thing  Neverthesless
Where Location  Whereas S+ P
When Time  Still
That Pengganti: who dan which  On the other hand
 But
Noun clause :  Yet
That  While
Who  Despite + noun phrase
Which S + Predicate
 Inspite of
8. Adv. Clause of conditional
 If
 Unless
Ex: I know what you think.
(Whether diikuti or atau will)

Adverb clause : suffixes examples

1. Adv. Clause of time + tion Discussion
 When + ment Statement
 On which Noun/kata benda + ness Sadness
 After S+P + ity Reality
 Before + ence Difference
 While + hood Childhood
 Since + ship Friendship
+ ist Scientist
2. Adv. Clause of place + or Promotor
 Where + er Reader
 Wherever S+P + an Librarian
 In which + cy pregnancy

3. Distance, frequency, and manner clause

suffixes examples
 As + adv + as
+ ful Beautiful
 As
+ less Useless
 As if S+P
Adjetive/kata sifat +y Claudy
 As though
+ ic Heroic
4. Adv. Clause of reason + ous Serious
 Because + cal Historical
 As S+P + ish Childish
 Since + ive Active
 For + ent Different
 Because of + able Readable
 Due to + noun phrase
 Owing to suffixes example
+ en Enlarge
5. Adv. Clause of result Verb/kata kerja + ize Centralize
 So, hence, thus, therefore, consequently + ify Beautify
 So + adj/adv + that En + ensure
 So + many/few + that
 So + much/little + that
 Such + noun + that

6. Adv. Clause of purpose

 So that S+P
 In order that
 In order to + V1
Question tags (..., kan?)

Kata khusus:
 Positive sentence, negative question tag (aux/be + POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE
not + S) Good/well Better The best
Ex: She is Linda, isn’t she? Bad/ill Worse The worst
Little Less The least
 Negative sentence, positive question tag (aux/be + S) Much/many More The most
Ex: You are not a liar, are you? Far (jarak) Farther The farthest
Far Further The furthest
Catatan: (information)
Never, hardly ever, barely, rarely, scarcely, merupakan
kata negatif secara otomatis. Irregular comparison
1. Multiple number + as + much/many + noun
Pola ksusus: +as + noun/pronoun
I am = aren’t I Ex: this soap costs twice as much as the
I am not = am I other one.
Let’s = shall we 2. The + er/more + S + Verb + the + er/more +
That/this is = isn’t it S + Verb
Kal. Perintah/larangan = will you Ex: the more you study, the smarter you will
3. S +Verb + the + er/more + of the two +
Ex: Amir is the smarter of the two boys.
1. Preference dengan menyebutkan pembanding

No Form
1 S + like + noun1/V-ing1 + better than + noun2/V-
2 S + prefer + noun1/V-ing1 + to + noun2/V-ing2 1. Both........and......+ jamak
3 S + would rather + V1 + than + V1 2. Not only......but also...+ tunggal/jamak
3. Either.....or... + tunggal/jamak
S + would rather + have + noun1 + than + have + 4. Neither....nor.... + tunggal/jamak
*tunggal/jamak ditentukan subjek terdekat terakhir.
4 S + would prefer + to V1 + rather than + V1

2. Preference tanpa menyebutkan pembanding

Elliptical sentence
No Form A. Positive eliptic
1 Prefer + to V1  Kalimat, and S + be/aux + too
2 Prefer + V-ing  Kalimat, and so + be/aux + S
3 Would rather + V1 Ex: She is smart, and I am too, or
4 Would prefer + to V1 She is smart, and so am I.

Degree of comparison B. Negative eliptic

 Kalimat (-), and S + be/aux + not + either
 Kalimat (-), and neither + be/aux + S
Ex: Sarah is not here, and Cindy is not either,
1. Positive degree (perbandingan setara) or
 As + adj/adv + as Sarah is not here, and neither is Cindy.
 Not + so + adj/adv + as
 The same + noun + as C. Contrast
 To be + like + noun  Kalimat (+), + but + kalimat (-)
 Alike  Kalimat (-), + but + kalimat (+)
 Different from Ex: Rahman is a clever student, but his
brother is not.
 The same with
2. Comparative degree (lebih...daripada)
 1-2 suku kata = - er...........than
 2-lebih suku kata = more –...........than
3. Superlative degree (paling)
 1-2 suku kata = the + - est
 2-lebih suku kata = the most –
Concordance (penyesuaian subject dan predicate Modals
1. Selalu dengan predicate tunggal:
Fungsi modal Modal yang digunakan
Anyone No one Someone Everyone Each Menyatakan  Can/could + V1
Anything Nothing Something Everything Either kemampuan  To be + able + to + V1
Anybody Nobody Somebody Everybody Neither  To be + capable + of + V-ing
Menyatakan ijin  Can/could
Ungkapan tertentu yang menyatakan:  May/might
 V-ing/gerund  To be + allowed + to + V1
 To be + permitted + to + V1
 Uang
Menyatakan  Can/could
 Waktu kemungkinan  May/might
 Berat Menyatakan  Must
 Jarak keharusan/kewajiban  Should
 Volume  Ought to
 Judul buju/majalah/koran  Have to/has to/had to
 Nama pelajaran Menyatakan  and
Gerund ModalInfinitive
present + V1/be + V-
 Nama jenis penyakit kesimpulan ing/be + complement.
 One of + Noun jamak  Gerund
Modal past + have + V3/been
 None of + Noun Jamak + V-ing/been + complement.
Pengertian modal:
 Either of + Noun Jamak
 Neither of + Noun Jamak  Might have = mungkin sudah
 Each of + Noun Jamak  Ought to/should have = seharusnya sudah
 The Number of + Noun Jamak  Must have = pasti sudah
 Each of + Noun Jamak  Could have = seharusnya bisa

2. Selalu dengan predikat jamak
 Penghubung and
 Both....and..
 Several
Kata kerja yang diikuti to + V1:
 Many
 Few allow plan intend instruct
ask advice repair claim
Predikat mengikuti subject pertama: invite tell tend fail
 S1 as well as S2 request order offer learn
 S1 together with S2 agree convince seem retend
 S1 along with S2
desire attend persuade want
Ex: The man as well as his two sons is staying at the
hope expeed urge decide
force arrange promise would like
Predikat mengikuti subjek ke-2: need aim threaten would love
 Neither + S1 + nor + S2 refuse deserve intend hasitate
 Either + S1 + or + S2 wish afford mean manage
Ex: Neither the students nor the teacher is able to demand attempt pretend try
solve the problem.
warn appear beg care
consent expect prepare regret
Gerund remember struggle swear volunteer
Verbs followed by Gerund:

Kata kerja yang bisa diikuti Gerund/Infinitive (V1)

avoid succeed in confess to be accustomed to
deny afraid of postpone recent for
enjoy appreciate resent object to start can't stand
keep finish better of be used to like begin
admit consider think about be isterested in prefer continue
mind delay can't help resume remember stop
miss recall count on depend on forget need*
practice practice resist keep on love
suggest give up worry about quit
put of rely on risk advise
think of capable of look foward to anticipate
discuss complete dislike mention
recollect recommend regret suggest
tolerate understand
Participle (kata penjelas yang berupa V-ing atau V3) Appositive (penjelas tambahan terhadap kata benda di
1. Present participle depannya).
a. Digunakan untuk continuous tense
Ex: He is reading a newspaper. Ciri-ciri khusus:
b. Setelah kata: see, hear, smell + O + V-ing
bermakna tidak sengaja.  S,_____, Predicate (diapit 2 tanda koma)
Ex: she heard a woman crying last night.
 S + P, _______
c. Pengganti because, as, since, dan for
(karena ) yang dilakukan oleh 1 orang yang  ______, S + P
Cara pengerjaan tidak boleh diawai dengan:
Ex: Because she was coming late to the
meeting, she was not allowed to come into
1. Subject
the room.
2. Predicate (Verb, Aux. Verb)
 Coming late to the meeting, she was
not allowed to come into the room. 3. Kata “that”
d. Setelah kata kerja: find, catch, leave, send, 4. Possesive adjective (my, your, etc)
keep + O + V-ing.
Ex: the baby sitter left the baby crying. Namun harus diawali dengan:

2. Past prticiple (pengganti because, as, since, 1. V-ing/V3

dan for yang menggabungkan 2 kalimat yang 2. Which + aux./to be + V1/V2
salah satunya pasif dilakukan oleh orang 3. Noun phrase
yang sama)
V3 + O/C, kalimat (simple +O/C, kalimat
(simple present/past)).  Mr. Jhonson, leads the ceremony, always
smiles at other people. (salah)
Ex: because the market was located in the  Mr. Jhonson leading the ceremony, always
center of town, the market become very smiles at other people. (benar)
 Located in the center of town, the
Conditional sentence (pengandaian)
market become very busy.
3. Perfect participle (penggabung 2 kejadian Types If clause Main clause
dilakukan oleh orang yang sama). Type 1 If + S + V1  Will/shall + V1
(Future  Will/shall + be +
Bentuk aktif (after+ S + had + V3): possibility) complement
Type 2 If + S +  Would/should +
Ex: After he had collected many stamps, he (Present V2/were + V1
sold them. unreal) complement  Would/should +
be +
 Having collected many stamps, he sold complement
them. Type 3 If + S+ had +  Woud have +
(Past unreal) V3/been + V3
Bentuk pasif (after + S + had + been + V3): complement  Would have +
been +
Ex: After the boy had been treted badly, the
boy cried.

 Having been treted badly, the boy

Subjunctive (pengharapan) Reported speech
A. Types of reported speech:
1. Future subjunctive 1. Statement (penghubung : that)
Ket. Waktu: tonight, tomorrow, net..., soon. Ex: she said that she were a singer.
2. Question:
Wish a. Yes/no question (penghubung : if/ whether)
Ex: she ask me if/whether I am sad.
As if
As though b. 5WH question (penghubung : 5WH)
Would rather Ex: she asked me what to do.
If only 3. Imperative (penghubung : to)
Ex: if only she would come with me tonight. Ex: she ask me to do my homework.
Prohibition (penghubung : not to)
2. Present subjunctive Ex: she command me not to sleep on her bed.
Ket. Waktu: now, right now, at this time, at the
moment. B. Perubahan tenses
Direct speech Indirect speech
Wish Present-present Present-present
As if Past-present Past-past
As though Past-past Past-past
Would rather perfect
If only
Ex: Burhan acts as if he were the president C. Perubahan waktu
3. Past subjunctive today That day
Ket. Waktu: yesterday, last....., ago. Tonight That night
Yesterday Te day
Wish before/tyhe
As if previous day
As though Two days ago Two days before
Would rather Tomorrow The next
If only day/the
Ex: My mother wished she had ironed the following day
clothes last night. Next Then
Now At that time
Other form of subjunctive:
Advice insist require
Ask order suggest
Noun Phrase
Command propose urge
Demand recommend request Observation + SAPTSCOM + Noun
Decree determine vital S : size
Necessary important imperative A : age
Suggestion desire desirable T : temperature
Essential mandatory obligatory P : participle (-ing/V3)
S : shape
Obligation crucial urgent
C : colour
O : origin
Ket: S + V + that + S + V1/be M : material
Ex: it is necessary that the people lock the door
before leaving. Ex: That beautiful old smiling American lady is my


Get O + To V1 (Aktif)
Tell O + V3 (passive)

Ex: she asks me to tell the truth.

Make O + V1 (Aktif)
Let O + V3 (passive)

Ex: she lets her friends see thepicture.


Pola inversi bisa dipakai dengan syarat:

1. Kalimat tanya
2. Pola conditional sentence tanpa if
3. Kalimat diawali kata:
Never neither not just
Hardly ever no sooner barely
Scarcely few little
Nor only if only with
Only after seldom not untill
4. Setelah prepositional phrase:
Under the circumtances
At no time
In no chance

Ex: Had I gone to Ba;i, I would have met my cousin.

Stative verbs (tidak bisa di bentuk –ing)


verbs of see, know, feel, taste,
1 sense sound, smell, hear, appear
verbs of
2 belief trust, believe
verbs of hope, expect, wish,
3 perception understand
verbs of
4 preference like, want, prefer, need
verbs of
5 ownership own, have
verbs of
6 emotion love, hate