file:///C:/pkp.blogspot.com-Gnu-linux-for-beginners-tamil-p1.

txt
1 of 4 6/5/2008 2:10 PM
0|GdO
** Lül08| - 1 **
=8|ûüû: O. Gd. 8ûOMG.
u|GGk80: mksarav@mitindia.edu
MOMü OdOû: http://mksarav.tripod.com
gu|þLLg|LL: 11 =dGLßLû 2000.
0G0|: =dûu OLLLOû 2mOßdd|ü g|m.8|GG8ßu| 0ßdûß¿G.
20du|G =G0ß8OGdu u00u, MddL0Oûül0 2uu LlOþgg|mgg0dOu 8|ûuu Lßûßu0
OGd@ u|GGk80 M8üüOu.
******
"0|GdO"-8|0 LMlüß00 =ûOgóLG OGO0g|md@u 20dOu OûGO0d|G0G.
MLLül08| O0MdGGO dMlLMLß0|Oü GûuO LüGL0ggg Mgû0gOûdKddßd OmgLLLLgß@u.
Lg|gßd dMlLMLß0|d d0OlOü MgßL0@LOmd@, MLLül08|OüL LlGL00Oó 800 dLGußd
Mmd@u. OG|Ou OüG0 Lßm0du. Oü08| g|mOlOGüßd@u. M0@
OluddLLLOlmd@u
MLmuLß0ßG dLLOudu üG|dO Mü0@gugg|0@u MLßm0óu.
¶m Mü0@gugg|0 (=LLGûLL0 8|OLu) Mm Odd|üL L@g|du 2M0. MdûG0 OG0
=OþddLL0u dmLL@g| u00u =LLlu|GdOG MuGMLßmLdu. 2MOuül0 0|GdO ¶m
OmOuüßG Mü0@gugg|G dmLL@g| uL0Gu. GNU OG0 g|LLgg|G dþ g|m.û88ûL
OLß0GuG (Richard M Stallman) gO0Ouül0ßG @m 8d0 uddKu LüGL0góu OMMu
üG|dO Mü0@gugg|0 2uuOgL GLßGG0 =gG|Ou 8dg|Oßü0g L0GO0 MuGMLßmudOu
2mOßdd|Gßûdu. GNU OGLó GNU's NOT UNIX OGLgG ðmdduß@u. g0GLßó Free
Software Foundation OG0 =OuLLlG H0u GNU MuGMLßmLdu =OGgóu "MuGMLßmLdu
gG|uG|gOdGdß =00ó ¶m 0|0OGgód@ uL0Gu M8ß0gußG ¶m MLßmu =00. =ó Mußgg
uG|g 8Ogßügg|0@u LüGLL GOM0u" OG0 OMMgGgß0 2mOßddLLLL GNU/GPL (General
Public License) OG0 O0M8GO|G dþ MOu|ülLLL0d|G0G. MOgLL00| GuQu OlLûu
=0|ü http://www.gnu.org OG0 MOMü gugg|0 M8G0 LßûOOülLOu. MddßûMgg|Gß0
0|GdOO GNU/0|GdO OG0OþLLó 8ß088|00gß@u.
Og0|0 OlOûOßdL LMlüß00 8|0 =LLLOL dLLOudOuL LßûLGLßu. =OOLGLßó
0|GdO|G =LLLOLd dmgóddu L00|üu =ûßüGOßu. MLLül08|du =OGgóu RedHat
0|GdO-Lg|LL 6.2 9L LlGL00| OmgLLLLgß@u. u|d =ûgßd ¶m8|0 dLLOudu 20du
dMlLMLß0|ül0|md@u 0|GdO|0 (SuSE-Linux, Debian-Linux etc..,) M8ü0LLßuQu
GLßd0ßu.
1. (=) 0 0du LMlüß00u Mü0@gugg|G MLüOû =0|ü:
uname
(=) 0 0du LüGL0góu 0|GdO MdûG0|G Lg|LOLd dML0|ü
uname -r
2. g0GLßó LMlüß00u OLûdLûülG MLüOû =0|ü:
pwd
pwd OGLó present working directory =00ó print working directory OG0
Mdßuu0ßu.
3. ¶m OLûdLûül0 2uu GdßLLdu|G LLLüO0d dßM ls dLLOuOüL LüGL0gg0ßu.
0|GdO|0 (MLßóOßd üG|dO 20dgg|0) O00ß GdßLLdu u00u óOM-OLûdLûdu =OGgóu
Ramanathan
Digitally signed by Ramanathan
DN: cn=Ramanathan, c=IN, o=Commercial Taxes Department, Chennai.6.
Ph:9442282076, ou=Asst Director, CTSTI,, email=ramakalai@gmail.com
Date: 2008.07.23 19:55:51 +05'30'
file:///C:/pkp.blogspot.com-Gnu-linux-for-beginners-tamil-p1.txt
2 of 4 6/5/2008 2:10 PM
(L (GOû) OLûdLûülG dþ OûO8üßd =0ddLLLLmd@u. / OG0 @0|ü 0 (L
OLûdLûOü @0|d@u. 0|GdO|0 ¶Gû G0ûgg|0 L0û LMlüß000ßu. GuQu ¶mOGû ¶Gû
G0ûgg|0 L0 GOO0dOu8 M8üü OLüu. MgGß0 0|GdOO Multi user - Multi Tasking
=LLGûLL0 8|OLu OG0 ð0Oû. 20dKOLü =OM0dOu =00|üûLu|m0ó Lßódßdd
0|GdO|0 ¶OMOßm GdßLL u00u OLûdLûd@u Gû LßódßLL dO8gOg =MlOldd OLüu.
MOO8g|Oü MLßóOßd üG|dO uddu File Permission OL0 MLûu|OG OG0 ð0Oßûdu.
0|GdO 20dgg|0 uddOu HG0 gûußd Llûdd0ßu: 1) GdßLL u00u OLûdLûddOu
2mOßd@LOû (User) (2ûOuüßuû) 2) =OmLG G8û0ó ¶m g|LLgg|0 LMlüß00u =Oûó
8dßddu (Group) 3) Ll0û (Others) =0d|0gg|0 User-Group-Others OG0 M8ß0du|G
OgM0mgóddOu ¶G0 G8ûggß0 0Gdß (U Go - 0 GLß) OG0 Omu. ¶OMOßm GdßLL
u00u
OLûdLûd@u M0g 0Gdßddu|G 2ûOudOuL L00|d dML0|ü ls -l OG0 dLLOuOüL
LüGL0gg0ßu. O0Gd (L OLûdLûülG dþ 2uu GdßLLdu|G 0Gdß OMLOßugOg MOu|Gü
MdßM0 Oßm0du Lßûdd0ßu.
ls -l /
g|Oûül0 OGG Mgûd|0ó? O00ß GdßLLdKd@u LLdd-Omg-Müdd|LLßûdd OG0
HG0 OOd
=LLLOL 2ûOudu M0g 0GdßOlGmd@ 2MLß-M0O0üß OG0 2MOuOü Gu0dML dLLOu
=0|Oldd|0ó. LLdd (read), Omg (write), u00u Müdd|LLßûdd (execute) OG0
M0g HG0 OOd 2ûOudOu rwx OG0 ðmddußdd @0|LLl0Oû. =d ¶OMOßm GdßLLl0@u
rwx (U), rwx (G), rwx (O) OG0 0Odd|ûd Oß80du 2M0. 2gßûMußd M0Gd
tamil.txt OG0 GdßLLl0@, 2ûOuüßumd@ Omg-LLdd, @mOl0@ Omg-LLdd,
u00u
Ll0md@ LLdd uL0Gu =g|dßûOM0.
-rw-rw-r-- 1 mksarav mksarav 1086 Aug 16 17:36 tamil.txt
4. ¶m dLLOuOü OOOß0 LüGL0gg GOM0u OG0 MgûüßOlLLß0 G8ßû0ó GLßü
OlLGOMLßu. 20dKddßdGO man OG0 uG|gG O0G0ûOu 2gOd dßgódMdßMLmdd|0ßG.
O.dß. ls OG0 dLLOuOüL L00| GuQu =0|0ó Mdßuu man (manual OGLgG ðmddu)
dLLOuOü LüGL0gg|, GgOOüßG 2gOlOüLML00ßu.
man ls
M0g uG|gû üßMûG0 20dKd@g MgûüßOlLLß0:
man man
5. 0|GdOO8 LüGL0góu ¶OMOßm LüGLßLLßumd@u =OmdMdG0 LlûgGüd OLûdLû
OG0
¶G0 Mmd@u. =Oûgu GdßLLddu =OGgóu MgG dþ Lßódßgó OOddLL0u. MgOG 08û
GOßu OLûdLû OGLû. MLßóOßd 20du 08û G0u|G MLüûG0Gü M0g OLûdLû
=Ou0g|md@u. 2gßûMußd OGOOLü 08û G0u mksarav OGLgß0 OGó GOßu OLûdLû -
/home/mksarav. 20du GOßu OLûdLûülG dþ "tmp" OG0 OLûdLûOü 2mOßd@0du.
¶m OLûdLûül0|m0ó u0M0ßm OLûdLûd@ uß0 "cd" dLLOuOü LüGL0gó0du.
mkdir /home/mksarav/tmp
cd /home/mksarav/tmp

6. OGG 0MLûdGu - GLßûLdd|0gß? "pico" OLLLOû LüGL0gg| ¶m "8|" LGûßd|ûßu
OmóGOßuß? LlGdß, LüGL0góOg0@ u|dOu Ou|OuüßGó. Odd|üd dLLOudu
=OGgOgüu
file:///C:/pkp.blogspot.com-Gnu-linux-for-beginners-tamil-p1.txt
3 of 4 6/5/2008 2:10 PM
dOL8| Mm Oûdu|0 dßLLd MdßMLmd@u. 20du LGûßd|ûßOu G8u|gó MOu|Gü0
dMLGûß0 u00u X ddOu ¶mG8û =(ggOu.
pico test.c
#include<stdio.h>
int main(void) {
printf("Hello World\n");
return 0;
}
7. Oßm0du.., gcc OG0 =0Lg "8|" duOL0OûL LüGL0gg| 0uó test.c LGûßd|ûßOu
duOL0 M8üü0ßu. gcc OüL LüGL0gg| C u00u C++ LGûßd|ûßudOud duOL0 M8üü
OLüu. =OLLLOL test OG0 GdßLLl0 G8u|gó OOdd -o OOL LüGL0ggOu.
gcc -o test test.c
MLGLßó test 9 Müdd|L LßûLGLßuß?
./test
gßO u00u OlMGLßO Mü0@gugOgL GLß000ßu0 0|GdO|0 ¶m ·OLO0d @0|LLlLLß0
=Og g0GLßó LMlüß00u OLûdLûül0 (current dir) GgLßó. Gu0dML dLOLOuül0 .
OG0 @0|ü 0 g0GLßó 0 0du LMlüß00u OLûdLûül0 test OLO0 Gg0uß0
=0|O0gód|0ó.
8. (=) ¶m MLdOL OL0|G Og0 8|0 OûdOuddßM head dLLOuOüL LüGL0gg0ßu
head /home/mksarav/test.c
head /usr/doc/HOWTO/DOS-Win-to-Linux-HOWTO
(=) Oß0 L@g|ülOGL LßûOOülL tail dLLOuOüL LüGL0gg0ßu.
tail /usr/doc/HOWTO/DOS-Win-to-Linux-HOWTO
(M) Mußgg MLdOL ·OLO0üu LßûOOülL cat dLLOuOüL LüGL0ggOu
cat /home/mksarav/test.c
(Þ) ¶m 0 ML MLdOL ·OLO0 Mdßk8u Mdßk8ußd 0|0gg|L LßûOOülL more dLLOu
LüGL0u. more dLLOuOüL LüGL0góu GLßó LlGG0ßdd|8 M800 OLüßó. OGGO less
OG0 u0M0ßm dLLOu 2mOßddLLLLó. Mg|0 OGG0ßdd| u00u LlGG0ßdd|üu M8000ßu.
("less" is more than "more"). GuQu less dLLOuül0 L0GO0 8|0LL O8g|dKu
2uuG. 2gOld@ man dLLOuOüLGLßGG0 info OG0 dLLOuOüüu LüGL0gg0ßu. O0Gd
info H0u less 9LL00| =0|0ó MdßuK0du Lßûdd0ßu.
cat /usr/doc/HOWTO/DOS-Win-to-Linux-HOWTO | more
cat /usr/doc/HOWTO/DOS-Win-to-Linux-HOWTO | less
info less
MLßóOßd üG|dO 20dgg|0 ¶m dLLOuOüLL00| GuQu OlLûu0|ü ðmddußd RTFM OG0
@0|LLlLLmLLßûdu. Mg0@ Read The Fine Manual (RTFM) OG0 MLßmu.
Ll0dß0gg|0 O0g 8|0 OlOu|du MgOG Read The Fucking Manual OG0 =Oþddg
MgßL0d|OlLLßûdu. 20du O8g| OLLL GOM0ußGßQu =OþgódMdßuK0du.
9. MGO0ü Ggg| u00u g0GLßOgü G0ûgOgL dßM date dLLOuOüL LüGL0ggOu
date
file:///C:/pkp.blogspot.com-Gnu-linux-for-beginners-tamil-p1.txt
4 of 4 6/5/2008 2:10 PM
10. O00ß GOO0dOuüu OLggLl0@ 8|OLgg|0|m0ó MOu|Gü0 logout =00ó exit
dLLOuOüL LüGL0gg0ßu. 0ßG@ OmgóddOud ðL OLL M8üü O0|Ou M0O0MüG0ß0
M800ußd dMLGûß0 u00u D dOü ¶mG8û =mggOu.
** 0G0| **
Ramanathan
Digitally signed by Ramanathan
DN: cn=Ramanathan, c=IN, o=Commercial Taxes Department, Chennai.6.
Ph:9442282076, ou=Asst Director, CTSTI,, email=ramakalai@gmail.com
Date: 2008.07.23 19:56:38 +05'30'
file:///C:/pkp.blogspot.com-Gnu-linux-for-beginners-tamil-p2.txt
1 of 3 6/5/2008 2:10 PM
0|GdO
** Lül08| - 2 **
=8|ûüû: O. Gd. 8ûOMG.
u|GGk80: mksarav@mitindia.edu
MOMü OdOû: http://mksarav.tripod.com
gu|þLLg|LL: 13 =dGLßLû 2000.
0G0|: =dûu OLLLOû 2mOßdd|ü g|m. 8|GG88ßu| 0ßdûß¿G.
20du|G =G0ß8OGdu u00u, MddL0Oûül0 2uu LlOþgg|mgg0dOu 8|ûuu Lßûßu0
OGd@ u|GGk80 M8üüOu.
******
LßO, u00u OlMGLßO LüGLßLLßuûdu 800 ð0g0 Oü08|Oü Gu0MdßMLß0
LüGL0góOó u|dOu Ou|Ouüßd|Ol0u. 0|GdOO MLß0ggOOû ¶m 000 OlOüu -
Odd|üLLMldOu 0|GdO|0 Gu0MdßuOó OLLL? - GLßG0 =gg|üßO8|ü Ol8ü0dOu HOWTO
OG0 GdßLLdu|0 Oluddußd Omg|ülmLLßûdu. MggOdü HOWTOddu u00u 8ßgßûM
LüGLßLLßuûdKd@ óOMLûüu 2gOld@0|LLdu GLßG0O0O0 OmóOg0MdGG0
20dußOlü @m ¶G0 Linux Documentation Project OG0 g|LLgg|Gdþ
M8ü0LL0Omd|0ó. OGGO =0ggOO0 20dKd@ OGgOu 80Ggdu Om0gß0 Og0|0
man u00u info dLLOudOuL LüGL0gg|L Lßm0du. =g|Qu Oluddu
ML0OLüOl0O0MüG0ß0 G0ûßd http://www.linuxdoc.org OG0 OO0uOGd@8 M8G0
LßûOOül00du. 20dKd@g GgOOüßG HOWTO 0|88üu d|OLd@u. MMLûM0L
O8g|ül00ß uddOud dmgg|0 MdßM0 0|GdO MuGMLßmLdOu 8|.L. ül0 Lg|O M8üó
gmu 0|0OG0dGu MggOdü HOWTOddOuüu G8ûgGg 8|.L. ül0 gmd|0ßûdu.
2gßûMußd 0 0du RedHat 0|GdO LüGL0gg|Gß0 /usr/doc/HOWTO OG0 OLûdLûül0
=0g 8|.L. MOu|üßOg0@ O0Ogü ußguOOû MOu|O0g =OGgó HOWTOddKu
=L0d|ülmd@u. OGGO 20duó 80Ggdgg|0dßG OlOLOü Og0|0 20du dMlLMLß0|ül0
Mmd@u HOWTO OL0du|0 GgLLLßm0du - M00ßg LL8gg|0 MMLûM0LOL =0d0ßu.
G8ßdußG OlOüu: MóOOû ðußû MmLg|0@u Gu0LLL 20d Mußþ|du|0 M0g HOWTOddu
MOu|O0óuuG. óûg|mOLußd O0g ¶m M0g|ü Mußþ|du|Qu MOO MOu|üßdOl0O0.
80GgßOußG OlOüu: =dGO 0|GdO d00dMdßML Ll0@ 0 0du Ll0md@ LüGL0u OMMu
gu|þ Mußþ|ül0 HOWTO Omg 000 80gûLLu dßgódMdßM0 Mmdd|0ó. M880gûLLgOg
gO0OlL0OlLßg ûdu!!
MG| Lül08|Oüg MgßL0@GOßuß..?
1. (=) 0|GdO|0 ¶m ·OLO0 0d0 O0LLg0@ cp dLLOuOüL LüGL0gg0ßu.
=GgGLßG0 ¶m ·OLO0 =þ|LLg0@ rm dLLOuOüL LüGL0gó0du.
cp /home/mksarav/tamil.txt /home/mksarav/tamil/tamil.txt
rm /home/mksarav/tamil.txt
cp -R /home/mksarav/tamil /home/mksarav/temp
-R OG0 ð0g0 gdOO0d (switch) dßLLl dLLOud@ Mdß0gGgßGuüßGß0 =·ó Mußgg
OLûdLûOüüu dßLLl M8üó Ol0u. -R OGLó Recursive OGLOgd @0|dd|G0ó.
Gu0dML 2gßûMgg|0 tamil OG0 OLûdLûülG dþ 2uu O00ß ·OL0du u00u óOM
OLûdLûdu =OGgOgüu 0dM00góOl0u. =O0O0 temp OG0 OLûdLûülG dþ Ggdd|
OOd@u. 0|GdO|0 ¶m ·OLO0 =þ|d@u GLßó 8ûO ¿ßdd|ûOgüßd Mmdd GOM0u.
file:///C:/pkp.blogspot.com-Gnu-linux-for-beginners-tamil-p2.txt
2 of 3 6/5/2008 2:10 PM
DOS LMlggugg|0 2uuóGLßG0 UNDELETE dLLOu 0|GdO|0 d|OLüßó. OGGO ¶mOO0
u00ó ¶m ·OLO0 =þ|góOlLLß0 uM0u =Ogg g|muLLML0 Oþ|Gü d|OLüßó. =dGO
¶m GdßLOL =þ|d@u OG MûM0OO0 Güß8|gó OLMO0ddOu.
(=) ¶m OLûdLûOü =þ|dd GOM0ußGß0 dþdML dLLOuOüL LüGL0ggOu:
rm -Rf <OLûdLûülG MLüû>
O.dß. rm -Rf /home/mksarav/temp
M0Gd -f OG0 OOlL8, Gu0MdßM0 20du|Lu O0g GduOlOüüu GdLdßu0 temp
@0uLgOgGü |MGLß0 =þ|góOl0u. (Recursively forced remove). MddLLOu
LßO|0 2uu deltree dLLOud@ 8uußGó.
2. =þ|d@u Mgßþ|O0 OlL0OlL08 80G0 =d@u Mgßþ|0|0 Þ0L0GOßuß..?
20dKd@ wordstar Mgû0g|m0gß0 =OGó 2LGLl0Oß 8Gdßgûû 0|GdO|Qu
Mmdd|0ßû. =OOd@ joe (John's Own Editor) OG0 MLüû. Oßm0du G¿ßOl0
MûM0 OßûgOg OLL M8üü0ßu.
joe test.txt
My name is M K Saravanan. I am wasted my life without contributing a
single tamil software program to the Free Software Community. It will
never happen again.
MOg8G8u|gó OOdd ^KS dOü =mggOu (^ OGLó dMLGûß0 Ctrl dOüd @0|dd|0ó).
joeOO OlL0 MOu|Gü0 ^KX OG0 ddOu ¶mG8û =mggOu. MOOlLgg|0 G¿ßOOL
L00|d @0|LLlLLgG dßûMu, MOg Omg|dMdßMLmd@u GLßó MOu|Gü uOþ G¿ßMOG0
MdßLLd MdßMLmdd|0ó. uOþGü 2Gd@u G¿ß LlLd@uß?
3. 0 0du Mdß0d@u ¶OMOßm dLLOuOüüu M80 (Shell) OG0 ¶m 8|0LL LGûßd|ûßu
gßG M8ü0L0gód|0ó. 0|GdO-2LG MLmuLßQu bash (Bourne Again SHell) OG0
M80O0ggßG LüGL0góOßûdu. üG|dO 8ßuûß¿ügg|0 Bourne SHell u|dOu
LlûL0ußGó. MOgggmOl Bourne Shell 0O0d dßLLQu g|0GOßü0g M80
LGûßd|ûßu ¶G0 GOM0MuG0 G0ßddgGgß0 GNU =OuLLlQuuOûdu 2mOßdd|üó gßG
M0g bash M80. Mg|0 Bourne Shell 0|0 2uuOgd dßLLQu L0GO0 OlG8O
dLLOudu 2M0. =LLß... GL8|dMdßMGL ¶m Odd|üußG @0d@Oþ|Oü8 M8ß00
u00óOlLGLGG! 0|GdO-8|0 Tab dd@ ¶m OlG8O ud|Ou 2M0. M80 LlûßuLL0
¶m ·OL0 MLüOû OLL M8üüu GLßó Om ·OL0 MLüOûüu OLLM8üü GOMLü
=O8|üu|0O0. ¶m8|0 OmgóddOu uL0Gu OLLM8üóOlL0 Tab dOü
=mgg|LLßm0du.. OlOuO OLLLülmdd|0ó?
ls /usr/doc/HOWTO/DOS-[Tab dOü =mggOu]
less /ho[Tab] -- OGG 0Ldd|0ó OG0 dOG|ü0du.
MG|Gu0 GgOOül00ßu0 ¶m OmgOgd ðL OLL M8üüßg ûdu. Tab 20dKd@g
óOMLûOßG.
4. =LddL /usr/doc OLûdLûd@8 M8G0 =0Gd Mmd@u ·OL0dOu8 800
LûLLLLßm0du. MLmuLß0ßG G0û0du|0 20dKd@ Omu 80Ggdgg|0dßG Oluddu
OmOóu M0g OLûdLûül0 2uu OL0du|0 Mmd@u. 0 0du MGOLß0 M8üg|md@u
L0GO0 MuGMLßmLdu|G Lßd@MuGGLOG @0|LLdu =OGgóu M0g OLûdLûül0 gßG
@LMdßMLmd@u. 20du 0|GdO 8|OLgg|0 /usr/doc/LDP OG0 OLûdLû Mmdd|0gß
OG0 Lßm0du. LDP OGLó Linux Documentation Project OGLgG ðmdduß@u.
file:///C:/pkp.blogspot.com-Gnu-linux-for-beginners-tamil-p2.txt
3 of 3 6/5/2008 2:10 PM
M0g OLûdLûülG dþ MLmuLßQu 0ßG@ óOM OLûdLûdu Mmd@u.
install-guide
lpg
nag
sag
MO00|0 ðußû ¶m L¿G Lggdu Omóu =uOl0@ 0|GdO L00|ü OlOü0du MdßLLd
d|Ldd|G0G. 0|GdOO OOOß0 install M8üü GOM0u OGLó install-guide LQu,
0|GdO LGûßd|ûßumd@ 2MLßG gdO0du =OGgóu lpg (linux programmer's guide)
OG0 OLûdLûülQu, M0LGOßûd ¿ßuLOßGdKd@ GgOOüßG gdO0du =OGgóu nag
(Network Administrator's Guide) OG0 OLûdLûülQu, M0g|üßd 20du 0|GdO
8|OLgOg OOOß0 0|ûOd|LLó OGLG GLßG0 Ol8ü0du - sag (System
Administrator's Guide) OG0 OLûdLûülQu 2uuG. MO00|Quu ·OL0du =OGgóu
html OLOl0 MmLLgß0 MO0O0L LLgóL Lßûdd M0LOGdL LlûO8OûL
LüGL0gó0du. M0LOGdLLl0 dþdMLOß0 OLL M8üüOu:
file:/usr/doc/LDP/install-guide/index.html
file:/usr/doc/LDP/lpg/lpg.html
file:/usr/doc/LDP/nag/nag.html
flie:/usr/doc/LDP/sag/sag.html
LlG@0|LL: M0LOGdL M00ßgOûdu lynx OG0 MLdOL LlûO8OûL
LüGL0gg|LLßm0du. üG|dO uddu L00ßM0dußd M0g lynx 9L
LüGL0gg|Omd|0ßûdu. lynx LüGL0góOg0@ u|dOu Ou|OuüßGó. dOL8|
MmOûdu|0 lynx Odd|üd dLLOudOud dßLLdMdßMLmd@u. OGG ¶G0 -lynx8|0
d|ûß·LldO8L Lßûdd OLüßó. =dGO gif ·OL0dußd Mmd@u 8|0 dußM0
=OLLLdOu (stored as .gif files) 20duß0 lynx 8|0 Lßûdd OLüßó.
5. 0 0du dLLßüu LLdd GOMLü 8|0 ·OL0dOud M0Gd @0|LLlL0uGuG.
less /usr/doc/HOWTO/DOS-Win-to-Linux-HOWTO (@0|LLßd LßO =GLûdKd@)
less /usr/doc/HOWTO/Unix-Internet-Fundamentals-HOWTO
OGGLß Mó less 8|0@ M0MdGG GOO0 OG0 0|OGddßg ûdu. more u00u less
O8LLüGL0gg|üu (cat dLLOuOüL GLßG0) ¶m MLdOL ·OLO0L LLdd OLüu.
M8ß00LGLßGß0 8|0 G0ûgg|0 |OGOüOlL (O|..O|.. cat 9ggßG M800ußd) M0g less
Lgg|8ß0|ggGußd M8ü0L0u. 8|0 G0û0du|0 HOWTO ·OL0du|0 2uu gO0LL u00u
2L-gO0LLdOu Lu|8M8G0 dßL0Og0dßd 8|0 OlG88 dLLOudOuL (Formatting
commands) LüGL0gg|ülmLLßûdu. MO0O0L Lû0óMdßM0 less =g0Gd00ß0GLß0
GgOOüßGO0O0L Lu|8M8G0 dßL0u.
** 0G0| **
Ramanathan
Digitally signed by Ramanathan
DN: cn=Ramanathan, c=IN, o=Commercial Taxes Department, Chennai.6.
Ph:9442282076, ou=Asst Director, CTSTI,, email=ramakalai@gmail.com
Date: 2008.07.23 19:57:08 +05'30'
file:///C:/pkp.blogspot.com-Gnu-linux-for-beginners-tamil-p3.txt
1 of 4 6/5/2008 2:10 PM
0|GdO
** Lül08| - 3 **
=8|ûüû: O. Gd. 8ûOMG.
u|GGk80: mksarav@mitindia.edu
MOMü OdOû: http://mksarav.tripod.com
gu|þLLg|LL: 16 =dGLßLû 2000.
0G0|: =dûu OLLLOû 2mOßdd|ü g|m. 8|GG88ßu| 0ßdûß¿G.
20du|G =G0ß8OGdu u00u, MddL0Oûül0 2uu LlOþgg|mgg0dOu 8|ûuu Lßûßu0
OGd@ u|GGk80 M8üüOu.
******
0|GdO|0 ¶Gû G0ûgg|0 L0 GLû LMlüß000ßu OG0 M8ßGGGG. OGML00ßu (1970-80
du|0) L0dO0ddþdu u00u =ûßü88|dðL0du|0 uL0Gu dMlLMLß0| O8g| Mm0gó.
=ddß0 dLLgg|0 MuülG-LlGûu u00u u|G|-LlGûu GLßG0 OOdd dMlLMLß0|du gßG
Mm0gG. MG0 LüGL0ggLL0u Ll.8|. ddu =LGLßó dM0LlLddLLLGOül0O0. ¶m
LlûgßG üG|dO M8ûOû Mmd@u. ¶OMOßm óO0ülQu dumb terminal OG0
M8ß00dðLü dMld@u g|0G00 dMlüßLMLß0|du 8|0 Mmd@u. MOOüOGgóu üG|dO
M8ûOmLG LlOMddLLLLmd@u. (dumb terminal-G0|0 ußG|LLû u00u
OlO8LL0Od uL0Gu Mmd@u. 0 0du OLLM8üüu ¶OMOßm Omgóu dumb terminal
H0ußd LlûgßG üG|dO M8ûOOûüOL0ó =0@ 20du|G 2uu 0 Lû80|ddLLL0 OlOL
uM0u dumb terminalQdGd =OLLl OOddLL0u) ¶OMOßm Lu MLûu|G0|Qu ¶mOû
=uû0ó LMlüß000ßu. ¶Gû G0ûgg|0 L0û MOOß0 LMlüß00|dMdßMLmLLßûdu.
2MOuül0 MOûdu 2uu|0u =OGgó dLLOudOuüu Llûß8O M8üOó üG|dO M8ûOûß@u
üGdO|0 L0GO0 LüGLßLLßuûdOuüu =OLüßuu dßM ¶OMOßmOmd@u LlûgGüd
"08ûG0u" OG0 ¶G0 Mmd@u. =Oû gGd@ ¶m LßOGOûOLüu OOgódMdßuu0ßu.
MLLL ¶Gû G0ûgg|0 L0 GLû OdOOggß0 dMlLMLß0| 2mLL0uß? OG0 0 0du GdLL ûdu.
=g0dßdggßG O00ß 08ûdOuüu dLL GuüLLg0@MdGG0 ¶m O¿ußOGüu
OOgg|mdd|0ßûdu. =Omd@ "8LLû-08û" (super user) OG0 MLüû. üG|dO
8ßuûß¿ügg|0 =Oû gßG ûß¿ß. =Oû OOggó gßG 8LLu. =Oû 0|OGggß0 OGG
GOM0ußGßQu M8üü0ßu. 08Oû =ddOu, =þ|ddOu, =LLLLOLddOu =g|dßûu
LOLgg 8ûOßg|dßû. 8Lû-08mdMdGG0 "root" OG0 ¶û OlGO8 08ûG0u 2M0.
M0g root-LG LßOGOûOL u00óu ðL Ll0md@ ð0dðLßó. u|dL LßódßLLßd
OOgg|mdd GOM0u.
1. 0|GdO¤u üG|dO @0uLgg|0 Ll00gOG OGLgß0 Gu0M8ßGG =OGgó =u80dKu
=OOd@u MLßm0óu. 2gßûMußd OGó =QO0dgg|0 2uu 0|GdO dMlLMLß0|ül0
LMlüß00 OGd@ (8Lû 08ûß0) Mdß0ddLLLL 08û-G0u mksarav.
0 0du 0|GdO 8|OLgg|0 0Oþüu OG Og0|0 20du 0ßd|G G0Ou (08ûG0u gßG)
GdL@u. Ll0@ 20du dLO8M8ß0O0d (password) GdL@u. =Og88û Lßûgó 20dOu
2uGu =OLLOgß GOMLßuß OGLOg OLMO0d@u.
Red Hat Linux release 6.2 (Zoot)
Kernel 2.2.14-12 on an i686
login: mksarav
Password: ****
¶m 08û gGOOLü dLO8M8ß0O0 (password) uß00|dMdßuu passwd OG0 dLLOuOü
LüGL0gg0ßu. Og0|0 20duó g0GLßOgü dLO8M8ß0O0üu, LlGL 0 0du Lg|ügßd
Ggû0Mg0d@u dLO8M8ß0O0üu GdL0u. 20du O8g|ddßd passwd dLLOu Mdß0ggß0
OGG 0Ld@u OG0 dGþ Mdß0góuGuG. Mg|0 [mksarav@localhost]$ OG0
file:///C:/pkp.blogspot.com-Gnu-linux-for-beginners-tamil-p3.txt
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dßLLdMdßMLmLLOg 0|GdO LlûßuL (linux prompt) OG0 ð0Oßûdu (gßO|0 c:\>
9LGLßG0ó). M0g LlûßuLOL 20du MOLLLL OLLL GOM0ußGßQu uß00|üOugód
Mdßuu0ßu. =OgLL00|Mü00ßu LlGGß0 dßMGLßu.
[mksarav@localhost]$ passwd
(current) UNIX password:
New UNIX password:
Retype new UNIX password:
passwd: all auhtentication tokens updated successfully.
[mksarav@localhost]$
2. MG| 8|0 ðOßû8|üußG dLLOudOuL LßûLGLßu. whoami (¿ßdd|8ßG LLu =00)
OG0 ¶m dLLOu 2M0. 2gßûMußd 0ßG mksarav OG0 08ûG0Guß0
LMlüß00|dMdßMLmd@uGLßó whoami OG0 dLLOu Mdß0ggß0
mksarav
OG0 dßL0u. OGG Mó! ðgg uLggGußG dLLOuüßd Mmdd|0Gg... üßûßOó
gGOGggßGG whoami OG0 GdL0dMdßuOßûduß? (ûuM uOûO|Oüg gOlû) OG0
20dKd@g GgßG0u. superuser OLGLßóu root OG0 08û G0u|0 LMlüß00 ußLLßû.
gGdMdG0 gG|üßd ¶m 08û =ddOMOL 2mOßdd|d MdßM0 =0g 08û G0u|0 gßG
LMlüß00Oßû. 2gßûMußd O0du =QO0dgg|0 2uu 0|GdO dMlLMLß0|d@ 0ßG gßG
superuser. OG0ßQu OGdMdG0 gG|üßd mksarav OG0 u0M0ßm 08û =ddOML
2M0. OLMLßmóu 0ßG mksarav OG0 08ûG0u|0 gßG LMlüß00GOG. ¶mGOOu
superuser =d LMlüß00 GOML O0gß0, mksarav LlûßuL0 Mm0óMdßMGL su OG0
dLLOuOüd Mdß0ggß0, superuser-ûG dLO8M8ß0O0d GdL@u. 8ûüßdd
Mdß0góOlLLß0 superuser OgßGgOg =OL0óOl0GOG. dþdML 2gßûMgOg dOG|ddOu
[mksarav@localhost]$ su
Password:
[root@localhost]# whoami
root
[root@localhost]# exit
[mksarav@localhost]$ whoami
mksarav
[mksarav@localhost]$
"uOLüG, 0|GdO LlûßuL0 gßG username@localhost OG0 LßMlül0 OLMLßmóGu
08ûG0Oud dMOGGß0 dßLLdMdßMLmdd|0ó, Ll0@ Og0@ M0g whoami ? " OG0
0 0du GdLLó OG dßg|0 Olmd|0ó. 0|GdO LlûßuL OLMLßmóGu 08ûG0Oud
dßLLdMdßMLmdd GOM0u OG0 =O8|üu d|OLüßó. PS1 OG0 ¶m 0MLû Mmdd|0ßû.
MOg environmental variable OG0 M8ß0Oßûdu. environmental variable-du
0|O0üGO 2M0, GgOOLL0uGLßó ¶OMOßG0ßd =Olþgó Ol0d|G0G. M0g PS1 G|Lu,
0|GdO LlûßuLLßd OGG dßL8|üu|ddGOM0u OG0 0 0du OOûü0dd0ßu. PS1 OG0
environmental variable-0|0 g0GLßó OGG Mmdd|0ó OG0 dM0LlLLLg0@
dþdML dLLOuOüd Mdß0góL Lßûdd0ßu.
echo $PS1
2gßûMußd, MddLLOuOü OGó dMlLMLß0|ül0 Mdß0ggGLßó, dþdMLOß0 Lg|0 O0gó
[mksarav@localhost] $ echo $PS1
[\u@\h] \$
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3 of 4 6/5/2008 2:10 PM
[mksarav@localhost]
Mg|0 \u OGLó 08ûG0Ouüu, \h OGLó 20duó dMlLMLß0|ülG MLüOûüu
@0|dd|0ó. (MOg hostname OG0 ð0Oßûdu - 0|GdOO MGOLß0 M8üüu GLßGg
20du dMlLMLß0|d@ ¶m MLüOû OOdd8 M8ß0Qu. MLüOûd OOddßu0 =GßOgüßdd|Gß0
=óOßdGO localhost OG0 MLüOû OOgóOl0u. hostname-9L L00| M0LMOßûdd|0
=gg|üßügg|0 OlûOßdd dßMGLßu)
üG|dO|0 Linux, Sun Solaris, Digital UNIX, HP-UX, IRIX, FreeBSD OG0
L0GO0 OOdüM0. 0|GdOOg gOlû Ll0 OOddu|Mu00ßu, 0ßd|G LlûßuL MO0uGG $
8|GGgOg dßLLdMdßMLmd@u. 2gßûMußd Sun Solaris 8|0 LMlüß00u GLßó
dþdMLOß0 dßL8|üu|d@u:
SunOS 5.7
login: mksarav
Password:
$
O0g 08mddßOó gß0du LMlüß00uGLßó OGgOu MOL00 O0LLLß0 MLßóOßd
superuser ûLu g0duó Llû88OGOüd ð0Oßûdu. =Oûdu|G Llû88OGOüg g ûLLg0@
8LLû08û Om0ó =Oû 8|OLgg|0Gd O0ó 8ûM8üü GOM0u OGLg|0O0. 2Ldßû0g
MLgg|0|m0Gg Ll0û MLüû0 0ßd|G M8üü OLüu. dþddML 2gßûMgOgd dOG|ü0du:
$ whoami
mksarav
$ su vijay
Password:
$ whoami
vijay
$ exit
$ whoami
mksarav
$
¶GûüLüßd whoami 9L L00|dð0| GLßûLdd|G0Gß . . . MLMLßmgßOó Lû0ggß,
¶OMOßmOmu gßG üßMûG0 Mgû0ó MdßuKOó =OOuO ð0Lu00 OG0. (000GOOu
0uó L0 =Ogßû0dOud dßLLd Mdß0dd 0|¿ OßþdOdül0 whoami dLLOu M0O0
[uG8ßL8|Oüg gOlû] )

3. (=) ¶m L0dO0ddþdgg|0 Mü0Llü0 dMlLMLß0|dðLgg|0|m0ó LgóLGLû
u00u GOg|ülü0 dMlLMLß0|dðLgg|0|m0ó 90ó GLû dumb terminal Oßül0ßd
0|GdO|0 LMlüß00|dMdßMLmdd|0ßûdu OG0 OOgódMdßuGOßu. g0GLßó üßMû00ßu
0ßd|G M8üg|mdd|0ßûdu OGLOgd dML0|ü who OG0 dLLOuOüL LüGL0gg0ßu. O.dß.
[mksarav@localhost] $ who
mksarav tty6 Oct 13 22:29
[mksarav@localhost] $
LlG@0|LL: dumb terminal gßG Mmdd GOM0u OG0 =O8|üu|0O0. telnet,
rlogin GLßG0 dLLOudOuL LüGL0gg| OlMGLßO GLßG0 Ll0 8|OLgg|0|m0óu 0ßd|G
M8üü Oþ|du 2M0. =O0O0L L00| M0LMOßûdd|0 =gg|üßügg|0 OlûOßdd dßMGLßu.
(=) who GLßGG0 w OG0 ¶m dLLOu 2M0. w OlG LMlMüGG OGLOg 0 0dGu
LüGL0gg|d d00d MdßuK0du.
4. (=) 0 0du LüGL0góu MLmuLß0ßG dLLOudu =OGgóu C LGûßd|ûßudGu.
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4 of 4 6/5/2008 2:10 PM
MLßóOßd MO0O0 /usr/bin (or) /bin (or) /usr/local/bin (or) /sbin (or)
/usr/sbin (or) /usr/local/sbin GLßG0 OLûdLûdu|0 OûO8üßd =0dd|
OOgg|mLLßûdu. ¶m dLLOud@MLßG H0 LGûßd|ûßudu O0d|mdd|G0G OGLOgd
dML0|ü whereis OG0 dLLOuOüL LüGL0gg0ßu.
[mksarav@localhost] $ whereis ls
ls: /bin/ls /usr/man/man1/ls.1.gz
[mksarav@localhost] $
M0Gd ls OG0 dLLOuülG H0 LGûßd|ûßu /bin G|0 Mmdd|0ó OG0u, =g0@MLßG
2gOld@0|LLdu /usr/man/man1/ls.1.gz OG0 ·OL0|0 Mmdd|0ó OG0u whereis
dLLOu 0ud@ =0|O0gód|0ó.
(=) whereis 9L GLßGG0 which OG0 dLLOuOüüu LüGL0gg0ßu.
which ls
which date
which mkdir
5. ¶m dLLOuOüL L00| 2gOld@0|LLdu ML0 man (or) info dLLOudOuL
LüGL0gg0ßu OG0 M8ßGGGG. dLLOuGü OGGMOG0 MgûüOl0O0 - 20dKd@ ¶m
keyword uL0Gu Mgû0g|mdd|0ó. 2gßûMgg|0@ sort L00| OGgOu
dLLOuülmdd|0gß OG0 0 0du dML0|ü GOM0u. OLLLd dML0|Oó?
man -k sort
-k OG0 OOlLO8L LüGL0gg| 20dKd@g GgOOüßG keyword9d Mdß0ddOu. Mg0@
0|dûßd apropos OG0 u0M0ßm dLLOuüu 2M0. OüG0 Lßm0du:
apropos sort
apropos who
** 0G0| **
Ramanathan
Digitally signed by Ramanathan
DN: cn=Ramanathan, c=IN, o=Commercial Taxes Department, Chennai.6.
Ph:9442282076, ou=Asst Director, CTSTI,, email=ramakalai@gmail.com
Date: 2008.07.23 19:57:40 +05'30'

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