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Automated Urban Water Supply System and Theft Identification, Harshal A. Gaikwad, Prof. V.G.

Puranik, Journal Impact WATER
Factor (2015): SUPPLY
8.9958 (Calculated by GISI) SYSTEM AND THEFT
Harshal A. Gaikwad1, Prof. V.G. Puranik2

Volume 6, Issue 6, June (2015), Pp. 36-44

Article Id: 40120150606005 IJECET
International Journal of Electronics and Communication
Engineering & Technology (IJECET)
© IAEME: Http:// ©IAEME
ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print)
ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online)

Student, Department of Electronics and Telecommunications,
Vishwabharti Academy’s College of Engineering Ahmednagar, SarolaBaddi,
Ahmednagar-414201, India
Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics and Telecommunications,
Vishwabharti Academy’s College of Engineering Ahmednagar, SarolaBaddi,
Ahmednagar-414201, India


Water is precious gift to mankind and we need to preserve quality of this natural resource.
This paper presents a model showing how efficiently water can be distributed in urban areas through
pipelines and how corrosion of pipes driving water to individuals can be prevented along with theft
identification system which shows theft of water from a particular pipeline by giving visual
presentation, this prototype will provide solution for existing water distribution network to prevent
diseases caused by contaminated water.

Keywords: Automation, pH, PLC, TIA portal, Theft Identification


This paper is presented to develop prototype which will provide efficient system for quality
monitoring of water distribution network in urban areas thus preventing diseases caused by
contaminated or polluted water and also helps in increasing life of pipes.
In urban areas there is tremendous need of water and water distribution network plays an
important role in delivering water for individuals. For the efficient delivery of water is dependent on
water flow rate , pressure of water and purity of water but sometimes it is found that some
individuals run motors to suck more water from pipeline to drain point to serve their excessive need
of water. This in turn disturbs steady flow of water and due to that other consumers in that particular
area get affected because of this ‘theft’ of water, so to avoid water theft there must be some system
which will ensure steady flow water for all individuals in that particular area, for that there must be
provision to measure the difference in pressure between two points and shut down that particular
valve to prevent theft of water. Fig.1 shows the overview of system to be implemented which
consists of water distribution network, Programmable Logic Controller, Supervisory Control and
Data Acquisition, sensors and actuators. In this system, sensors that are field devices are connected 36
Automated Urban Water Supply System and Theft Identification, Harshal A. Gaikwad, Prof. V.G.
Puranik, Journal Impact Factor (2015): 8.9958 (Calculated by GISI)

to PLC and they send signal to PLC for appropriate action at that instance. PLC in turn controls field
devices and actuators and simultaneously sends data to SCADA center through protocol. SCADA
center gives visual presentation of whole system and it creates fault report for every fault occurred
for future use. In this paper one of the important parameter is considered to maintain quality of water
i.e. ‘pH’ which stands for Potential of Hydrogen which gives indication of quality of water whether
it is good for health or not. Extreme pH values indicates water is not suitable for drinking purpose
and may lead to diseases such as cholera, diarrhea and hepatitis Also if this acidic water flows
continuously in pipelines leads to corrosion of pipelines thus reducing life of pipes. This system will
prevent entry of this contaminated water in distribution network and maintains quality of water.

Fig.1 Overview of System


A. Structure of the System

Fig. 2 Detailed Block Diagram of the System 37
Automated Urban Water Supply System and Theft Identification, Harshal A. Gaikwad, Prof. V.G.
Puranik, Journal Impact Factor (2015): 8.9958 (Calculated by GISI)

This proposed prototype based on the architecture which is of three layers, each layer deals
with specific function and all layers are interconnected. This three layer architecture deals with
monitoring of water storage and prevent theft of water. Fig.2 shows the detailed block diagram of
system. PLC (Programmable Logic controller) is the heart of the system all sensors and actuators are
connected to input and output module of PLC. There are different types of programming PLC viz.
Ladder, Boolean and Grafect but in developing this prototype ladder logic is used to program
Siemens S7 1200 PLC therefore we can optimize programming of PLC at any instance to match
requirement. PLC is interfaced to SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) unit to
monitor and control flow of water in the distribution network. Sensors and Actuators included in the
water distribution network are interfaced to PLC’s input and output module. The logic can be easily
stored on a disk so that it can be loaded into a PLC. Program logic can be changed according to the
requirement of system. PLC is again interfaced to SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data
Acquisition) unit so as to monitor and control the water distribution network. SCADA system is
designed to realize the automatic controlling of valve and parameter transformation such as pipeline
pressure and water quality. Actual process takes place within water supply and distribution network.
Water supply systems consist of one storage tank consisting level sensor, pH sensor. Distribution
network consist of pipeline for water flow and pressure switch in order to open and close the valve.
Announcement will be done for ‘Water Contaminated’ and ‘Theft Identified’ along with alarm
indication on SCADA screen.

Fig. 3 Siemens S7 1200 PLC

B. Hardware Implementation
A prototype is implemented to supersede current water distribution network with advanced
automation techniques using PLC and SCADA.

Field Instrument Layer Design and Development

Level Sensor: Sensor used is capacitive type which will sense the level of water. It is on/off
type of sensor. It gives signal 0v or 24v according to level of water inside tank. Fig.3 shows the pH
electrode, it is an electrochemical type of sensor used to sense the potential of hydrogen content of
water that is pH value of water. As the pH value become above and below the normal value of
drinking water the sensor gives input signal to PLC to take necessary action.

Fig. 4 TL 42 type pH electrode 38
Automated Urban Water Supply System and Theft Identification, Harshal A. Gaikwad, Prof. V.G.
Puranik, Journal Impact Factor (2015): 8.9958 (Calculated by GISI)

pH electrode measure pH value between 0 to14 range. pH value above 7 means water has basic
property and if it is below 7 then it has acidic property.
Pressure Sensor: Pressure sensor is on/off type switch which is maintained at certain points of
water pipeline before taps, when this pressure changes from set point then the signal given to PLC.
At constant pressure of outlet valve this PVC pipe gets filled with water, which creates some sort of
pressure at pressure sensor. If we maintain the flow of distribution valve at regulated pressure, no
theft of water is detected. But if we increase the flow than regulated flow hooter sounds and
annunciator will announce theft of water occurred and ‘Water Theft’ is detected. Basically it is a
reed type of switch. Whenever the magnet inside the sensor moves close and away from the sensing
element it gives the signal either 0v or 24v.

Control Layer Design and Development

In this Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
(SCADA) are used. PLCs are typically industry hardened and fault tolerant. Siemens S7 1200 PLC is
used. It is compact model PLC from Siemens and proprietary Software is used to develop the ladder
logic is known as Total Integrated Automation (TIA) portal Version11. Modules can be added to S7
1200 for future use Siemens provides the standard and reliable communication means called as

Fig. 5 TIA Portal Programming window

PROFINET. As there is inbuiltcommunication driver no extra setup is required for

communication between SCADA (PC) and PLC. Fig.4 shows the picture of Siemens S7 1200 model.
It has 14 inputs and discrete outputs. Among the 14 inputs, 2 inputs are analog. Power supply
requirement is 24V.
The main part of the system is PLC The selection of PLC unit depends on I/O signals from
field instrument layer. Requirements for developing this prototype are a Personal Computer (PC)
with Windows 7 32-bit along with TIA portal Version 11. Ladder logic is developed to control the
process according to the response from field devices. PLC is connected to computer by using an
Ethernet cable called as PROFINET. SCADA is used to monitor and control field instruments from a
remote computer situated away from system. Win CC SIMATIC HMI is used to configure the
hardware and process status is displayed on the SCADA screen. SCADA encompasses the collection
of information, transferring back to the central site, carrying out necessary analysis and control and
then displaying that information on the number of operator’s screens or displays. Required control
actions are then conveyed back to the process. PLC and SCADA system has several advantages. The
computer can store and record very large amount of data. On SCADA screen START and STOP bits
are provided to start and stop system according to the operator’s demand. As the process parameter
changes the change is displayed on SCADA screen on Real time. SCADA Screen is developed using
Win CC flexible software. WinCC in the TIA Portal is the software for all HMI applications ranging 39
Automated Urban Water Supply System and Theft Identification, Harshal A. Gaikwad, Prof. V.G.
Puranik, Journal Impact Factor (2015): 8.9958 (Calculated by GISI)

from the simplest operation solutions with Basic Panels to SCADA applications on PC-based multi-
user systems.

C. Software Development
Ladder logic is developed using STEP7 professional v11 software (TIA). In modular
structure program calls specific code blocks that perform specific tasks. Complex automation tasks
are divided into smaller subroutine tasks which correspond to the functional tasks being performed
by the process. Fig.5 shows the modular structure programming. It consists of OB i.e. Organization
Block which provides main structure of the program. OB is the interface between operating system
and user program. In the fig.5 there is FCs which stands for the functions. These FC i.e. functions are
like subroutines similar to C programming which is a code block that typically performs a specific
operation on a set of input values. Developed system has four inputs and five outputs. All the inputs
and outputs are digital. At the input side there are four sensors that are connected to input of PLC
which has fixed memory address, and PLC reads the status of respective sensor b reading input
memory bit during every scan cycle. At the output side there are five outputs, out of five, four are
solenoid valves and one is Hooter. All outputs are assigned to fixed memory address. Output status is
displayed on PLC at these address points. Table 1 shows the connection of PLC with field
instruments.Fig.6 shows logic flowchart of operations. System is initiated by pressing START button
from SCADA. Initially when the PLC is ON, all valves are closed hence the Hooter remains ON.
When START button is pushed from the SCADA unit system checks all of the inputs. If the Level
and pH inputs are normal the distribution valve is opened automatically. The most Challenging task
in this prototype is to maintain the water pressure and sense the difference in pressure within
pipeline. To identify the excess flow of water there is development of small model which consist of
PVC pipe with magnetic proximity sensor. When pH values changes drastically then distribution

Fig.6 Flowchart of the system 40
Automated Urban Water Supply System and Theft Identification, Harshal A. Gaikwad, Prof. V.G.
Puranik, Journal Impact Factor (2015): 8.9958 (Calculated by GISI)

Table 1: PLC connections with field instruments

Valve will be closed and annunciator will give announcement of ‘Water Contaminated’ along with
indication on SCADA screen. When pressure changes at pressure sensor then annunciator will give
announcement of ‘Theft Found at Location 1 or 2’ according to location of fault at two distribution
pipelines. To avoid unavoidable circumstances there is a provision to stop the process immediately
when STOP button pressed from SCADA screen, it will close all the valves.

D. Piping Structure of prototype model

Fig.7 shows the piping model of a prototype designed. In the prototype model enclosed tank
is taken which is of 5 liters. Tank height is taken at approximately of 1m. 4 solenoid valves are used.
For construction of Prototype model aluminum tank is used.

Fig. 7 Piping Structure for Prototype 41
Automated Urban Water Supply System and Theft Identification, Harshal A. Gaikwad, Prof. V.G.
Puranik, Journal Impact Factor (2015): 8.9958 (Calculated by GISI)


A. Results for sensor output

Level Sensor:

Table 2: Results for Level Sensor

Water Level Output voltage of sensor
Up 24V
Down 0V

Table 2 gives the output voltage for the level sensor. It gives 24v when level in a tank is
reached up that means switch is closed and 0v when level in a tank reach down that is switch is open.

pH Sensor:

Table 3: Results for pH sensor

Table the output voltage for the pH sensor. These output voltages are mapped according to

Fig. 8 pH Value for Acidic Test

The pH scale. Acidic solutions have positive output voltages.Fig.8 shows the experimental
setup to check the pH value of water and different contents of water. Storage tank containing pH
sensor is interfaced to signal conditioning circuit and display circuit and pH value of tap water is
measured. Display shows the value of 7.87.As the potable water range is 6.5 to 8, Value shown by
the normal water is appropriate. When the pH of water is normal the LED on INPUT relay board
will be on and on OUTPUT relay board the distribution LED gets on. Lemon Juice added to storage
tank and its pH value is also measured. Fig. 8 shows the pH value of Lemon juice that shows pH
value 4.85 which is an acidic condition.Fig.9 shows input module, 0th position LED glow which
indicates we are getting PH value normal hence outlet valve SV2 is OPEN and output LED of 1st
position glow. 42
Automated Urban Water Supply System and Theft Identification, Harshal A. Gaikwad, Prof. V.G.
Puranik, Journal Impact Factor (2015): 8.9958 (Calculated by GISI)

Fig. 9 Output status on PLC

All the five LED,S glow which are showing all the valves are OPEN and Hooter sounds
identifying that PRS1 and PRS 2 are not healthy and water theft is taking place. SCADA screen is
showing the same result. To operate the PLC we have to give command from SCADA unit hence
START button must be pressed

B. Results for SCADA

Fig.10 shows SCADA output when change in pH takes place due to contaminated water that
time hooter sounds and alarm gives indication of “Water Contaminated”. Simultaneously it will shut
off distribution valve to prevent distribution of contaminated water.

Fig. 10 SCADA output screen


This prototype provide better solution for existing water storage and distribution network so
that quality of water can be maintained as advanced automation using PLC and SCADA is used.
Uninterrupted operation of water distribution takes place due to advantages of PLC over other
controllers and SCADA gives graphical interface which can be beneficial for unskilled operators to
understand and also stores data for future use.Web SCADA will be used to extend area of the project
and technology of wireless communication will be used to interface field devices to PLC. 43
Automated Urban Water Supply System and Theft Identification, Harshal A. Gaikwad, Prof. V.G.
Puranik, Journal Impact Factor (2015): 8.9958 (Calculated by GISI)


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