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Implementation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) in a SME:


Case Study of a Bakery

Article · December 2012


DOI: 10.2478/v10222-012-0057-5

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Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci., 2012, Vol. 62, No. 4, pp. 215-227
DOI: 10.2478/v10222-012-0057-5
http://journal.pan.olsztyn.pl
Original paper
Section: Food Technology

Implementation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) in a SME: Case Study of a Bakery

Nuno Ricardo Pombo Marques1, João Carlos de Oliveira Matias1*, Raquel dos
Reis Baptista Teixeira2, Francisco Miguel Ribeiro Proença Brojo3

1
Technological Forecasting and Industrial Management Research Team of CAST Research Unit, University of Beira Interior,
Department of Electromechanical Engineering, Calçada Fonte do Lameiro, 6201 – 001 Covilhã, Portugal
2
Quality Manager, Padaria da Ramalha, S.A., Parque Industrial do Canhoso, Lote A 21, 6200-027 Covilha, Portugal
3
University of Beira Interior, Department of Aeronautic Sciences, 6201 – 001 Covilhã, Portugal

Key words: Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP); hazards; Critical Control Points (CCP’s); Pre-Requirements Operational Program
(PROP); food safety; small and medium enterprise bakery

This article provides technical details concerning the  development and  implementation of  Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP)
in one of the largest bakeries of Cova da Beira – Portugal. A generic HACCP plan in accordance with legal requirements was made through a detailed
audit and analysis of data collected in the company. It was verified by overview of the HACCP system implemented in the bakery, that there was no
reduction in quality of the final product during the manufacturing process and the implementation of the requirements was particularly strong, having
been instrumental the total commitment and sense of responsibility of all workers.

INTRODUCTION TO HACCP Jonge et al., 2004; Yeung & Yee, 2012], are overcome using
an objective tool, the  Hazard Analysis and  Critical Control
There is now a growing concern in the population about Points (HACCP).
food. Increasingly, what people eat is of utmost importance, HACCP system does a  systematic and  structured ap-
especially in aspects related to health and nutrition. proach to identifying hazards – biological, chemical and phys-
Many of the diseases currently affecting the general popu- ical – and the likelihood of these occurring at all stages of food
lation, such as cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, diabetes production, from raw material to the final product, and define
or certain cancers, are caused or associated with the food we preventive measures to minimize occurrence of these dangers
eat, substantially reducing consumer confidence in  relation by  application of  immediate corrective measures to ensure
to food safety. Simultaneously, the  consumer’s attention to the safety of food produced, i.e., of the final product. This has
food safety and  quality has increased. The  cases of  bovine been proved the most, or the one of the most, effective way
spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) transmissible to humans to ensure food safety (e.g. [Ropkins & Beck, 2002; Ropkins
(Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease), the use of hormones in the pro- et al., 2003; Arvanitoyannis & Traikou, 2005; Varzakas & Ar-
duction of meat, the use of antibiotics as animal growth pro- vanitoyannis, 2007; Arvanitoyannis & Varzakas, 2008, 2009;
moters, the pesticide residues in plants and animals, the pres- Raspor & Jevšnik, 2008; Arvanitoyannis et al., 2009; Jonna-
ence of  nitrates in  the  waters, the  doubts associated with lagadda et al., 2009; Varzakas, 2011]. The HACCP method-
the genetically modified organisms market, or cases of avian ology is  referred to by  various organizations, as the  system
influenza in humans, reduced consumer confidence regarding of analysis and control of health risks associated with a food
the safety of food [Moura et al., 2008]. On the other hand, product. Its application is mandatory from 1 January 2006,
the  major hazard in  food production is  the  microbiological by EC Regulation No. 852/2004 of April 29, laying down gen-
contamination [Jeng & Fang, 2003; Walker et al., 2003; Bas eral rules to be implemented by all operators. Consequently,
et al., 2007]. these operators must implement self-regulation systems
To increase consumer confidence it is essential to imple- based on the principles of HACCP, a preventive system that
ment systems that require producers and companies to follow allows a systematic and proactive management of food safety
criteria of food safety. The new challenges facing the consum- hazards.
er, their selection criteria and the perception of food risk [de The implementation and effective functioning of a HACCP
system require knowledge of the hazards inherent to the in-
* Corresponding author: Tel: +351 275 329 947; Fax: +351 275 329 972
frastructures, tools and human resources. A HACCP system
E-mail: matias@ubi.pt (João Carlos de Oliveira Matias) that really works in practice will depend on the competency

© Copyright by Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences
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216 HACCP in a SME: Case Study of a Bakery

of the people who both developed and operate it, and the pre- be followed which are laid down in 7 main principles and con-
requisite programs, that support it [Mortimore, 2001]. stitute the basis for the establishment of a HACCP plan, all
To prevent, reduce or eliminate contamination of  food of them to be considered in its practical application [Almeida,
during storage and preparation, every aspect should be con- 1998; UNIHSNOR, 2005]:
trolled using pre-requisite procedures and  a  HACCP plan. 1st Principle: Hazard analysis and  identification
The  prerequisites provide the  foundation for effective of  preventive measures – This phase identifies the  physical,
HACCP implementation and should be in operation before biological and chemical hazards in each process set defined
HACCP. Once this has been achieved, the HACCP plan may in the flowchart;
be  developed and  implemented. As a  general rule the  pre- 2nd Principle: Identification of  the  Critical Control
requisites should be  used to control hazards associated Points (CCP) – The identification of Critical Control Points
with the food service environment (premises and structures, is established according to the decision tree;
services, personnel, plant and  equipment), while HACCP 3rd Principle: Establishment of critical limits – The es-
should be  used to control hazards associated directly with tablishment of  critical limits is  essential for consistency
food processes (storage and preparation) [Bolton & Maun- in the safety analysis of the processes involved;
sell, 2004]. Therefore, pre-requisites are an essential element 4th Principle: Establishment and  implementation
in the task of developing simple, effective HACCP systems, of monitoring procedures to control the CCP – It is impor-
but in many areas there is a lack of understanding of the pre- tant to assess whether the  CCP is  effectively under control
requisites concept, and even a fear in some sectors that pre- through proper monitoring procedures;
requisites might dilute the  strength of  HACCP [Wallace & 5th Principle: Determine corrective actions in case of de-
Williams, 2001]. viation of critical limits – This principle intends to establish
HACCP has been progressively introduced and  applied actions to correct deviations in the monitoring of each CCP;
in food industry, but HACCP systems have not been homo- 6th Principle: Establishing systems for recording and ar-
geneously implemented across all food industry sectors, more chiving data that document the HACCP – This principle in-
by technical barriers (Barriers prior to HACCP implementa- tends to establish procedures to ensure that the HACCP plan
tion are: illusion of  control, company size, type of  product, is being effective;
company’s customers food safety requirements, etc.; Barriers 7th Principle: Procedure to assess whether the HACCP
during the process of HACCP implementation are: Manage- system is  working properly – This principle aims to define
ment, Personnel, Infrastructure; and  Barriers after HACCP the procedures for the keeping of records and documentation
systems have been implemented are: Difficulties in  verifica- relating to the plan. These procedures are monitoring, sam-
tion and validation of HACCP) and unwillingness by manu- pling, analysis, audit of HACCP, validation of critical limits
facturers [Panisello & Quantick, 2001]. Experiences highlight- (confirming that the CCP is kept under control) and inspec-
ed a number of barriers, burdens and also perceived benefits tion of manufacturing processes.
of  the  successful implementation and  operation of  HACCP
[Taylor, 2001; Bas et al., 2007; Jeng & Fang, 2003; Eves & CASE STUDY
Dervesi, 2005; Taylor & Kane, 2005; Damikouka et al., 2007].
A recent study realized by Mensah & Julien [2011] shows Any company wishing to implement the HACCP system
that there is  no significant effect of  size of  enterprise on should have as its main concern to provide its customers safe
the drivers, benefits and challenges to compliance with food and healthy products. To do these, it needs to create, estab-
safety regulation. However, importance has been given to lish, document and  maintain a  system of  self-control based
the  specific situation of  the  Small and  Medium Enterprises on the seven HACCP principles referred to above, ensuring
(SME’s) (e.g. [Taylor, 2001; Bas et al., 2007; Taylor & Kane, food safety.
2005; Walker et al., 2003; Poumeyrol et al., 2010]). The barri- This control system identifies all hazards, whether biolog-
ers are even greater, given the size and structure of institutions, ical, chemical or physical, negatively affecting food and turn-
bearing in  mind that the  operators require good knowledge ing it unsafe for consumption. Through analysis of these haz-
necessary to implement the system and also good information ards preventive measures are specified that must be followed
and  training of  all employees [Panisello & Quantick, 2001; to avoid food contamination. This process requires the com-
Taylor, 2001; Bas et al., 2007; Walker et al., 2003; Taylor & mitment of  the  whole team involved, since only united will
Kane, 2005; Eves & Dervesi, 2005; Mensah & Julien, 2011]. able to eliminate all risks and prevent the onset of these.
Its principles can be  applied in  a  variety of  locations. Through a  detailed audit and  analysis of  data collected
HACCP has evolved continuously over the years, becoming in the company studied, a plan was elaborated to implement
nowadays the  most complete and  efficient system [Costa the  HACCP system in  accordance with legal requirements.
Neto & Figueiredo, 2001; Surak, 2009]. Once implemented, this should be followed by the team re-
sponsible and amended where necessary.
The seven principles of HACCP
The proper identification of CCPs (Critical Control Points) Company identification
is a key issue in HACCP, because the major efforts in process Bakery based in  the  Canhoso Industrial Park, Covilhã,
control will be directed towards these steps [Damikouka et al., Portugal, which bakery and pastry are the main activities, as
2007]. For the  practical application of  the  HACCP concept well as commercial establishments, breakfast pastries and re-
according to Codex Alimentarius [FAO, 1997], 7 rules have to tailing of food products.

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N.R.P. Marques et al. 217

TABLE 1. Product description and intended use.


The products the company produces and sell are divided
into four families: bread (40%), biscuits (10%), assorted pas-
tries (30%) and snacks (20%). The products and services are PRODUCT DESCRIPTION
directed exclusively to the internal market. Trade name Traditional bread “bola”
Characterization
Definition of the team responsible summary
Bread Mix
A team was constituted to analyze and coordinate all pro-
Organoleptic Characteristics:
cesses involved in implementing the system. Only by setting
Physical state: Solid
the team responsible it is possible to increase the quality levels
of all processes and products. Color: Light Brown
Thus, given the  quality of  human resources available Scent: Typical
and  the  characteristics of  the  company, the  HACCP team Flavour: Typical
consists of the following elements:
Microbiological Characteristics:
– Administrator Product
– Bakery Administrator (responsible for the  production Total microorganisms (30 ºC): ≤ 105 UFC/g
description
sector of the bakery) Enterobacteriaceae spp: ≤ 10² UFC/g
– Director of Quality (team coordinator) Staphylococcus aureus: ≤ 10² UFC/g
– Pastry Administrator (responsible of  the  production Salmonella spp: Absence in 25g
sector of the pastry)
Listeria monocytogenes: Absence in 25g
The team meets regularly to discuss and define where nec-
essary the following [Pinto et al., 2010]: Fungi (Molds) and Yeasts: ≤ 10² UFC/g
– The company’s quality policy with regard to food safety, Units of 30 gr. and 48 gr.
setting clear objectives; Wheat Flour, Water, Rye Flour, Prepared
– Coordination of efforts; Powder [Rye Flour], Gluten Flour, Salt, Malt
– Analysis of results and set targets for improvement; Flour, Acidity Regulator: Citric Acid (E170),
Ingredients
Wheat Flour, Emulsifier (E472e), Agent
– Analyze and  investigate possible deviations from nor- Flour Treatment: L-Ascorbic Acid (E300)
mality, seeking to identify causes and  take corrective and Enzymes], Yeast, Salt and Improver
measures;
– Revise the self-control plan as needed. Conservation in a cool dry place
The  administrator, as the  highest authority, ensures Terms of Use Shelf life: Product of the day
the smooth running of the company and makes them comply Ready to spend
with all legal requirements for its proper functioning. It is also
Product not packed:
his responsibility to monitor all phases of the plan and the re-
Transport of goods in passenger car with closed
sponsibilities and  coordination of  all running operations, Conditions
box, adapted for this purpose and provided
of Carriage /
both internal and external of the company. with ventilation by indirect process.
Packaging
The  team coordinator is  responsible for implement- Packaging in white trays with
background closed and barred sides
ing, maintaining and  monitoring the  plan. The  organiza-
tion of  team work is  essential. The  quality of  raw materials PRODUCT USE
and  products is  his responsibility. To keep plans previously
established to the organization of work, cleanliness and hy- The product mentioned is for the general population,
except for sensitive groups (Coeliacs)
giene of  premises and  equipment involved is  also within its
competences. Place of Sale Bakery, pastry and home delivery
The  head of  production (Pastry and  Administrator as- Regulation (EC) No 852/2004
signed to the  bakery sector) is  responsible for coordinating Applicable Law of 29 April and Regulation (EC)
the laboring products, as the name implies. It is essential to No 1441/2007 of 5 December
proper planning of the production process to ensure that every-
thing is normal. The coordination and instruction of produc- Description of productive process
tion workers is under his control. Where necessary he should A  flowchart was produced from the  analysis of  the  pro-
start and proceed to amends of the self-control program. duction process (Figure 1).

Product description and intended use HAZARDS ANALYSIS AND IDENTIFICATION


The  HACCP plan is  directed solely at bakery products. OF CCP’S AND PROP (PRE-REQUIREMENTS
As there is a wide variety of products in this area, a generic OPERATIONAL PROGRAM)
framework was developed for the  description of  only one
product (Table 1). The hazard analysis provides the identification of poten-
Although the plan is directed to a product, it is important tial hazards associated with all phases of  the  process from
to note that the  HACCP plan to be  implemented, applies receipt of raw materials to final consumer.
equally to all other bakery products, with the same manufac- The risk assessment is done based on the hazard analy-
turing process. sis, according to the  probability of  occurrence and  severity

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218 HACCP in a SME: Case Study of a Bakery

TABLE 2. Analysis Matrix. Severity vs Probability (Adapted from: [Ba-


tista et al., 2003]; [Ribeiro, 2002]).

A (4) RS RMe RMa RC

PROBABILITY
M (3) RS RMe RMa RMa

B (2) RS RMe RMe RMe

D (1) RS RS RS RS

  D (1) B (2) M (3) A (4)

 
  SEVERITY
RS –Satisfatory Risk; RMe – Lower Risk; RMa – Increased Risk; RC –
Critical Risk.

Index (RI) of each step of the manufacturing process is de-


fined taking into account the following [Ribeiro, 2002]:

IR = Probability x Severity

Based on the calculations of the matrix (Table 2), it appears that


for this study, the IR varies between 1 (Satisfactory Risk) and 16
(Critical Risk). The calculated Risk Index can be seen in Table 3.
According to Tables 2 and 3, where the RI is higher than 8,
a CCP is identified and managed by the HACCP plan, defin-
ing the critical limits, parameters to be monitored and correc-
tive actions to implement on each step. If there was no CCP
(IR ≤8), the  results should be  handled by  PROP, acting on
FIGURE 1. Flowchart of the production process. the basis of good manufacturing practices and which aim to
implement corrective actions for improvement of  each step.
of identified hazards. It is also evaluated the preventive mea- The RI contributes to the analysis and identification of CCP’s
sure established for its control. In risk assessment, the follow- and PROP (Table 4).
ing data are considered [Batista et al., 2003]:
– Review of customer complaints; ANALYSIS OF RESULTS
– Return of lots or shipments;
– Results of laboratory tests; It was not identified a CCP for the production of the tra-
– Data from monitoring programs of  agents of  food- ditional bread “bola”. None of the steps undermine food se-
borne illness. curity and pose greater risk to public health.
Thus the hazards can be divided into four groups accord- The  absence of  a  CCP does not require the  creation
ing to their severity to human health [Batista et al., 2003; Ri- of a HACCP plan. Thus, throughout the manufacturing pro-
beiro, 2002]: cesses that pose a lower risk (IR ≤8) to the health of the con-
A – High (4): Severe consequences for consumer health; sumer, the  system is  managed by  the  PROP, who selects
M – Medium (3): Serious consequences for consumer and evaluates the control measures in a specific stage, con-
health; tributing to its improvement.
B – Low (2): Zero or very small effects for consumer
health;
TABLE 3. Likelihood of danger.
D – Neglectable (1): Without consequences for consum-
er health.
IR RISK INDEX (RI) CONCLUSION
Concerning its probability of occurrence, the risk is divid-
IR ≤ 4 Satisfactory Risk
ed as follows [Batista et al., 2003; Ribeiro, 2002]: Risk managed by PROP²
A – High (4); 4 ≥ IR ≤ 8 Lower Risk
M – Medium (3); 8 ≥ IR ≤ 12 Increased Risk Risk managed
B – Low (2); 12 ≥ IR ≤ 16 Critical Risk by HACCP ³ plan
D – Neglectable (1).
Pre-Requisites Operational Program (PROP) – Selection and evalu-
The  combination of  the  severity with the  probability re- ation of control measures, previously obtained from the analysis of haz-
sults in the following table (Table 2). In this, there are com- ards and determination of critical control points. In PROP and oppos-
binations that reproduce risks with the  greatest impact on ing to what happens in a CCP, failures in the production process does
consumer health. not directly affect the product, and is therefore an essential difference
between them [Cruz et al., 2006].
The  analysis matrix allows us to estimate a  level of  risk HACCP Plan – Document prepared in accordance with the principles
across the two levels (Probability vs. Severity). Thus, the Risk of the HACCP system.

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TABLE 4. Hazards analysis and identification of CCPs and PROP.

ACCEPTANCE RISK
LEVEL ON RISK EVALU- PROBABLE DECISION TREE
STAGE RISK ATION CONTROL MEASURES REMARKS

CCP
PRP
THE FINISHED EFFECT CAUSES
PROP

PRODUCT P S IR Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
N.R.P. Marques et al.

Check cleanliness of transport


Damaged vehicles and personnel. Control Given the control carried
Biological: packaging. of integrity of the packaging, out at the reception for
As product With con-
Microbial 1 4 4 Incorrect labeling and shelf life. HACCP Yes No No --- transport vehicles and pack- --- x ---
datasheet sequences
contamination hygiene certificate from the supplier. Main- age integrity, this step
practices tain facilities and equipment for is not considered a CCP
1. Recep-
the operation properly sanitized.
tion of raw
materials Physical: Given the control carried
(Room Temp.) Contamina- Without out at the reception for
Damaged HACCP certificate from the sup-
tion by foreign Absence conse- 1 1 1 Yes No No --- transport vehicles and pack- --- x ---
packaging plier. Control of package integrity.
objects (hair, quences age integrity, this step
insects) is not considered a CCP
Chemical:
--- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
Unidentifyed
Control the product temperature.
Check transport vehicles hygiene
Inadequate and personal hygiene. Control-
Biological: Given the control carried
transport ling the integrity of the packaging,
Microbial out at the reception for
As product With con- temperature. labeling and shelf life. HACCP
contamination 1 1 4 Yes No No --- transport vehicles and pack- --- x ---
1. Reception datasheet sequences Incorrect certificate from the supplier. Keep

Unauthenticated
and multi- age integrity, this step
of raw materi- hygiene facilities, equipment and uten-
plication is not considered a CCP
als (refriger- practices sils for the operation properly
ated between sanitized. Perform task in a fast,

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0 and 10ºC) hygienic and seamless way.
Physical:
--- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
Unidentifyed
Chemical:
--- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
Unidentifyed
Given the control carried
Check cleanliness of trans-
Biological: Incorrect out at the reception for
With con- port vehicles and personnel.
Microbian Absence 1 4 4 hygiene Yes No No --- transport vehicles and pack- --- x ---
sequences Control of integrity of pack-
contamination practices age integrity, this step
aging during transport.
is not considered a CCP
1a Reception
of packag- Physical:
--- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
ing/storing Unidentifyed
material
Given the control carried
Chemical:
Inadequate out at the reception for
Presence With con- Confirm suitability of material for
Absence 1 2 2 packaging Yes No No --- transport vehicles and pack- --- x ---
of undesirable sequences food use (presence of food symbol)
material age integrity, this step
substances
is not considered a CCP
219
Biological:
Pest control plan. Keep containers
220
Microbial
closed and secured in proper place. Given the existence
contamination Traces
Compliance with good personal of a Company Pest
(Salmonella, of pests.
With con- hygiene practices. Control Plan and the ful-
Staphylococ- Absence 1 4 4 Incorrect Yes No No  --- --- x ---
sequences Keep facilities, equipment fillment of good hygiene
cus aureus hygiene
and utensils for the operation practices, this step is not
and Escherich- practices
properly sanitized. Perform FIFO considered a CCP
ia coli; Pests
2. Storage (first in, first out) stock rotation.
– Leptospira)
of raw materi-
als (Room Physical:
Temp.) Contamina- Keep containers securely closed Given the control car-
tion by foreign Without Incorrect and placed in proper location. ried out during storage
objects (hair, Absence conse- 2 1 2 hygiene Controlling the integrity of pack- Yes No No  --- and compliance with good --- x ---
decorations, quences practices aging. Compliance with good hygiene practices, this step
pieces of pack- personal hygiene practices. is not considered a CCP
aging, insects)
Chemical:
--- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
Unidentifyed
Control storage temperature.
Keep containers securely closed
Verifying compliance
Biological: Inadequate and placed in proper location.
As product With con- with good manufacturing
Microbial 1 4 4 storage Keep facilities, equipment Yes No No   --- x ---
2. Storage datasheet sequences and hygiene practices, this
contamination temperature and utensils for the operation
of raw materi- step is not considered a CCP
properly sanitized. Perform FIFO
als (refriger-
(first in, first out) stock rotation.
ated between
0 and 10 ºC) Physical:
--- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---

Unauthenticated
Unidentifyed
Chemical:
--- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
Unidentifyed

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Keep containers properly closed Given the existence
Biological: Traces
and secured in proper place, of a Company Pest
Microbial of pests.
With con- protected from contamination. Control Plan and the ful-
contamina- Absence 1 4 4 Incorrect Yes No No --- --- x ---
sequences Maintain facilities and equipment fillment of good hygiene
2a Storage tion (Pests hygiene
for the operation properly practices, this step is not
of packag- – Leptospira) practices
sanitized. Pest Control Plan. considered a CCP
ing/storage
material Physical:
--- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
Unidentifyed
Chemical:
--- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
Unidentifyed
Biological:
Microbial Perform the task quickly, hygieni-
contamination cally and without interruptions.
3. Weighing Incorrect Verifying compliance with
(Salmonella, As product With con- Compliance with good personal
and mixing 1 4 4 hygiene Yes No No --- good hygiene practices, this --- x ---
Staphylococ- datasheet sequences hygiene practices. Keep facili-
ingredients practices step is not considered a CCP
cus aureus ties, equipment and utensils for
and Esche- the operation properly sanitized
richia coli)
HACCP in a SME: Case Study of a Bakery
Physical:
Contamina-
tion by foreign
Without Incorrect Greetings from good per- Verifying compliance with
objects (hair,
Absence conse- 1 1 1 hygiene sonal hygiene practices. Vi- Yes No No --- good hygiene practices, this --- x ---
decora-
quences practices sual inspection of salt step is not considered a CCP
tions, pieces
N.R.P. Marques et al.

of packaging,
stones – salt)
Chemical: Without Incorrect Keep the sites, equipment Verifying compliance with
Detergent Absence conse- 1 1 1 hygiene and fixtures for the opera- Yes No No --- good hygiene practices, this --- x ---
residue quences practices tion properly sanitized step is not considered a CCP
Biological:
Microbial Perform the task quickly, hygieni-
contamination cally and without interruptions.
Incorrect Verifying compliance with
(Salmonella, As product With con- Compliance with good personal
1 4 4 hygiene Yes No No --- good hygiene practices, this --- x ---
Staphylococ- datasheet sequences hygiene practices. Keep facili-
practices step is not considered a CCP
cus aureus ties, equipment and utensils for
and Esche- the operation properly sanitized
richia coli)
Physical:
Contamina-
tion by foreign
Without Incorrect Compliance with good per- Verifying compliance with
objects (hair,
Absence conse- 1 1 1 hygiene sonal hygiene practices. Vi- Yes No No --- good hygiene practices, this --- x ---
4. Kneading decora-
quences practices sual inspection of salt step is not considered a CCP
tions, pieces
of packaging,
stones – salt)

Unauthenticated
The existence of pieces
- Incorrect
of metal can be fatal to
Physical: hygiene

Download Date | 3/26/16 6:35 AM


With con- - Check the integrity of the mixer the health of consum-
pieces of metal Absence 1 4 4 practices Yes No Yes No --- --- X
sequences spiral after each mixing cycle ers. Nevertheless, since
contamination – Mixer spi-
for this step RT ≤ 8,
ral damaged
then it is not a CCP
Chemical: Without Incorrect Keep the sites, equipment Verifying compliance with
Detergent Absence conse- 1 1 1 hygiene and fixtures for the opera- Yes No No --- good hygiene practices, this --- x ---
residues quences practices tion properly sanitized step is not considered a CCP
Biological:
Microbial Keep product well packed
contamination in proper places, protected from
Incorrect Verifying compliance with
(Salmonella, As product With con- contamination. Compliance with
5. Rest 1 4 4 hygiene Yes No No --- good hygiene practices, this --- x ---
Staphylococ- datasheet sequences good personal hygiene practices.
practices step is not considered a CCP
cus aureus Maintain facilities and equipment
and Esche- for the operation properly sanitized
richia coli)
221
Physical:
Compliance with good personal
222
Contamina- Without Incorrect Verifying compliance with
As product hygiene practices. Keep prod-
tion by foreign conse- 1 1 1 hygiene Yes No No --- good hygiene practices, this --- x ---
datasheet uct well packed in proper place,
objects (hair quences practices step is not considered a CCP
protected from contamination.
insects)
Chemical:
--- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
Unidentifyed
Biological:
Microbial Perform the task quickly, hygieni-
contamination cally and without interruptions.
Incorrect Verifying compliance with
(Salmonella, As product With con- Compliance with good personal
1 4 4 hygiene Yes No No --- good hygiene practices, this --- x ---
Staphylococ- datasheet sequences hygiene practices. Keep facili-
practices step is not considered a CCP
cus aureus ties, equipment and utensils for
and Esche- the operation properly sanitized
6. Division richia coli)
and Molding
Physical:
Contamina- Without Incorrect Verifying compliance with
Compliance with good per-
tion by foreign Absence conse- 1 1 1 hygiene Yes No No --- good hygiene practices, this --- x ---
sonal hygiene practices
objects (hair, quences practices step is not considered a CCP
decorations)
Chemical:
--- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
Unidentifyed
Biological:
Microbial Incorrect
contamination hygiene
Temperature control of the refrig- Verifying compliance with
(Salmonella, As product With con- practices

Unauthenticated
1 4 4 erated space. Compliance with Yes No No --- good hygiene practices, this --- x ---
Staphylococ- datasheet sequences Inadequate
good personal hygiene practices step is not considered a CCP
cus aureus refrigeration
and Esche- temperatures

Download Date | 3/26/16 6:35 AM


6a. Retarda-
richia coli)
tion of fer-
mentation Physical:
Contamina- Without Incorrect Verifying compliance with
Compliance with good per-
tion by foreign Absence conse- 1 1 1 hygiene Yes No No --- good hygiene practices, this --- x ---
sonal hygiene practices
objects (hair, quences practices step is not considered a CCP
decorations)
Chemical:
--- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
Unidentifyed
Biological:
Microbial The subsequent stage
contamination Compliance with good per- of cooking eliminates any
Incorrect
7. Fermenta- (Salmonella, As product With con- sonal hygiene practices. Keep microbial load that can
1  4   4 hygiene Yes No Yes Yes --- x ---
tion (Stove) Staphylococ- datasheet sequences facilities, equipment and utensils be developed in the prod-
practices
cus aureus for the operation properly sanitized uct, so this step is not
and Esche- considered a CCP
richia coli)
HACCP in a SME: Case Study of a Bakery
Physical:
--- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
Unidentifyed
Chemical:
--- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
Unidentifyed
Biological: Incorrect
N.R.P. Marques et al.

Microbial hygiene Compliance with good personal hy-


This step is critical because
contamination practices. giene practices. Meet binomial time
at this stage is that the mi-
(Salmonella, As product With con- Insufficient / temperature set (10–12 minutes
 1 4  4  Yes No Yes No croorganisms in the product --- --- x
Staphylococ- datasheet sequences cooking at 200–220ºC) for the process so
will be deleted. If RI ≤ 8
cus aureus time and / that at the interior is reached at
this step is not a CCP
8.Baking and Esche- or cooking least a temperature of 70 ° C
richia coli) temperature
Physical:
--- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
Unidentifyed
Chemical:
--- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
Unidentifyed
Biological:
Compliance with good per-
Microbial Incorrect Verifying compliance with
As product With con- sonal hygiene practices. Keep
contamination 1 4 4 hygiene Yes No No --- good hygiene practices, this --- x ---
datasheet sequences facilities, equipment and utensils
(Staphylococ- practices. step is not considered a CCP
for the operation properly sanitized
cus aureus)
9. Cooling
Physical:
--- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
Unidentifyed
Chemical:
--- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
Unidentifyed

Unauthenticated
Biological:
Microbial Compliance with good personal

Download Date | 3/26/16 6:35 AM


contamination hygiene practices. Perform the task
Incorrect Verifying compliance with
(Salmonella, As product With con- quickly, hygienically and without
1 4 4 hygiene Yes No No --- good hygiene practices, this --- x ---
Staphylococ- datasheet sequences interruptions. Keep facilities,
practices. step is not considered a CCP
cus aureus equipment and fixtures for the op-
and Esche- eration properly sanitized.
richia coli)
Physical:
10. Packag- Compliance with good per-
Contamina- Without Incorrect Verifying compliance with
ing / Storing sonal hygiene practices. Perform
tion by foreign Absence conse- 1 1 1 hygiene Yes No No --- good hygiene practices, this --- x ---
the task quickly, hygienically
objects (hair, quences practices. step is not considered a CCP
and without interruptions.
decoration)
Chemical: Incorrect Verifying compliance
Keep facilities, equipment and fix-
Detergent resi- hygiene with good hygiene prac-
Without tures for the operation prop-
due, migration practices. tices and the adequacy
Absence conse- 1 2 2 erly sanitized. Confirm suitability Yes No No --- --- x ---
of undesirable Inadequate of the packaging mate-
quences of the packaging material for food
substances packaging rial to food use, this step
use (presence of food symbol).
into the food material is not considered a CCP
223
Biological:
224
Microbial Compliance with good personal
contamination hygiene practices. Keep product
Incorrect Verifying compliance with
(Salmonella, As product With con- well packed in proper place, pro-
1 4 4 hygiene Yes No No --- good hygiene practices, this --- x ---
Staphylococ- datasheet sequences tected from contamination. Keep
practices. step is not considered a CCP
cus aureus facilities, equipment and fixtures
and Esche- for the operation properly sanitized
richia coli)
Physical:
11. Exposi- Compliance with good personal
Contamina- Without Incorrect Verifying compliance with
tion / Sell hygiene practices. Keep prod-
tion by foreign Absence conse- 1 1 1 hygiene Yes No No --- good hygiene practices, this --- x ---
uct well packed in own place,
objects (hair, quences practices. step is not considered a CCP
protected from contamination.
decoration)
Verifying compliance
with good hygiene prac-
Chemical: Without Incorrect
Keep local and utensils for tices and the adequacy
Detergent Absence conse- 1 2 2 hygiene Yes No No --- --- x ---
the operation properly sanitized of the packaging mate-
residues. quences practices.
rial to food use, this step
is not considered a CCP
Biological:
Compliance with good personal
Microbial Incorrect Verifying compliance with
As sampling plan With con- hygiene practices. Keep facili-
contamination 1 4 4 hygiene Yes No No --- good hygiene practices, this --- x ---
for analysis sequences ties, equipment and fixtures for
(Staphylococ- practices. step is not considered a CCP
the operation properly sanitized
cus aureus)
Physical:
12. Expedition Compliance with good personal
Contamina- Without Incorrect Verifying compliance with
hygiene practices. Keep prod-

Unauthenticated
tion by foreign Absence conse- 1 1 1 hygiene Yes No No --- good hygiene practices, this --- x ---
uct well packed in own place,
objects (hair, quences practices. step is not considered a CCP
protected from contamination.
decoration)

Download Date | 3/26/16 6:35 AM


Chemical:
--- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
Unidentifyed
Biological:
Microbial
contamination Compliance with good personal hy-
Incorrect Verifying compliance with
(Salmonella, As product With con- giene practices. Protect the product
1 4 4 hygiene Yes No No --- good hygiene practices, this --- x ---
Staphylococ- datasheet sequences from direct contact with customers
practices. step is not considered a CCP
cus aureus and environmental contamination.
and Esche-
13. Distri- richia coli)
bution
Physical:
Compliance with good personal hy-
Contamina- Without Incorrect Verifying compliance with
giene practices. Protect the product
tion by foreign Absence conse- 1 1 1 hygiene Yes No No --- good hygiene practices, this --- x ---
from direct contact with customers
objects (hair, quences practices. step is not considered a CCP
and environmental contamination.
decoration)
Chemical:
--- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
Unidentifyed
HACCP in a SME: Case Study of a Bakery
N.R.P. Marques et al. 225

In this study, the step of cooking is the largest contributor

MOD.30 – Not con-


formal product zone

conformal product

Corrective action.
MOD.18 – Cor-

Record internal
MOD.32 – Not
integrity record
to the  proliferation of  microorganisms and  therefore a  spe-

of the product.
Kneader spiral
rective action
REGISTRY

temperature
MOD.34 –
cific PROP is directed to this step. Although there is no critical
limit for the stage, the nonfulfillment of the manufacture plan
(time, 10 to 12 min and temperature, 200 to 220°C for baking
the “bola”), will lead to a product unfit for consumption. As
such, there is a need to create a PROP for the stage (Table 5),

Director of Quality.
RESPONSIBILI-

Employee making

employee respon-
Oven operator or
TIES AND AU-

Actions – Direc-

Administration.
and Corrective which followed, contributed to its improvement and quality.

sible for firing.


THORITIES

tor of Quality
Monitoring –

the kneading
Correction

Likewise, the step kneading has a physical risk (pieces of met-


al contamination) with consequences and there is also need to
create a PROP for the stage (Table 5).

FINAL CONSIDERATIONS AND  RECOMMEN-


CORRECTIVE

of the kneader

nomial time /
Replacement

DATIONS
temperature.
Reset the bi-
ACTIONS

spiral
ACTIONS TO IMPLEMENT 

The HACCP system is complex and constantly evolving.


To be implemented, all steps must be verified and implement-
ed so that everything goes as planned.
inside the product is achieved
Extend or shorten the cook-

It is essential that the flowchart is well planned, analyzed on


a temperature above 70°C.
sired end product and that
not located, the entire batch

ing time to achieve the de-


place, properly identified as

tion, must be rejected, put


in place, duly identified as
nonconforming product.
(If the pieces of metal are

a not compliant product)


- Location and removal

of product should be dis-


carded, placed in proper

If the product is not fit


for human consump-

the ground and that it contains as much information as possible.


CORRECTIONS

of scrap metal;

Only a well planned flowchart facilitates the control of the entire


process, making it easier to detect possible deviations.
On the other hand, it is essential to establish verification
procedures. The plan should be audited periodically, or when-
ever there are changes to it, not only in terms of manufactur-
ing processes, but also whenever there is a new product. This
entire process must be documented and filed in a proper place
the kneading

Responsible

for this purpose. Finally, each quarter, the whole plan should


employee /
Employee

of quality.
director
WHO?

making

be reviewed, discussed and validated by the team and respon-


sible administration. Whenever a plan is validated, the former
is obsolete, being in force always the latest.
When the objective is to produce safe foods that do not
Visual ob- Every knead-
MONITORIZATION

WHEN?

ing cycle

constitute any risk to public health, the use of preventive tools


Weekly

is the best way of achieving this.


The HACCP system is constantly evolving and is now rec-
ognized as one of the most effective control of food produc-
tion Ther-
of the product. mometer.
servation

Penetra-
HOW?

ovens /

tion. The implementation of this system in the food industry


Clock

today is  a  legal obligation, stamping all workers and  staff


responsibilities. However, this does not depend on itself to
be effective, depends crucially on the implementation of a set
Binomial time

ture. Internal
temperature
Mixer spiral

/ tempera-
WHAT?

of  prerequisites, where the  application of  good hygiene


and safety is essential.
From the  overview of  the  HACCP system implemented
in  the  bakery, there was no reduction in  quality of  the  final
The goal is to reach
Meet binomial time
-- Check the integ-

product during the manufacturing process, with particularly


inside the product
hygiene practices.

temperature at or
Compliance with

/ temperature set
spiral after each

for the process .
rity of the mixer

good personal
MEASURES

above 70 ° C.
CONTROL

mixing cycle

strong implementation of prerequisites and total commitment


and sense of responsibility of all employees. Rather, there was
a guarantee of product quality, as shown by several studies,
TABLE 5. Pre-Requisites Operating Plan.

demonstrating that the HACCP system has a positive effect


of  the  quality of  end products (e.g. [Trafiałek & Kołożyn-
4. Kneading Contamination
by metal pieces

-Krajewska, 2007, 2011; Sikora & Nowicki, 2007]).


multiplication
(Salmonella,
Staphylococ-
Biological:

and Esche-
richia coli)
cus aureus
Microbial
Physical:

Because it  is  a  complex system it  is  recommended how-


RISK

ever, that the company regularly runs training in this area with


the aim of instilling habits and make workers more receptive
to the change of working methods. Only through education
and awareness of all elements of the food chain it is possible
8. Baking
STAGE

to achieve the best performance and best results.


It is up to the HACCP team to make the entire manage-
ment of  the  system. They must adopt a  firm stance, persis-

Unauthenticated
Download Date | 3/26/16 6:35 AM
226 HACCP in a SME: Case Study of a Bakery

tent and determined in carrying out their duties, in order to -certified prawn processing units. J. Food Qual., 2009, 32, 177–
achieve all objectives. –189.
17. Mensah L.  D., Julien D., Implementation of  food safety man-
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