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www.elsevier.com/locate/jfoodeng

P.K. Sahoo a, I.A. Ansari b, A.K. Datta b,*

a

Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya,

Mohanpur 741 252, Nadia, West Bengal, India

b

Department of Agricultural and Food Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal, India

Abstract

Heat exchanger fouling is a common phenomenon during high temperature processing of milk. The temperature of milk raises

from 90 C to 150 C during Ultra-High-Temperature (UHT) sterilization process. At such high temperature, the minerals and dena-

tured proteins deposit on the heat exchanger surface, also known as fouling. Fouling acts as resistance to heat transfer, hence the

performance of the heat exchanger is reduced. Using hydrodynamics and heat balance concept, a mathematical model was formu-

lated. Simulation was performed with the model to predict the fouling behavior as a function of time and position within the helical

triple tube heat exchanger (HTTHE). At an early period of operation, the uniform fouling deposit occurs throughout the length of

the heat exchanger due to constant heat exchanger wall temperature. With progress of time, the fouling deposit and also Biot num-

ber (i.e., local fouling factor) increases towards the outlet of the heat exchanger since the interface temperature between fouling

deposit and milk approaches towards the bulk milk temperature, that increases towards the heat exchanger outlet. The fouling

deposit stabilizes after 105 min since no net deposit occurs after that time.

2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Milk; Fouling; Simulation; Helical triple tube; Heat exchanger; UHT

for UHT sterilizers. Fouling layers increase the heat

UHT sterilization of milk means heating milk by a transfer resistance, which leads to reduction of milk out-

continuous process to 135–150 C and holding it for a let temperature. Fouling also reduces the ﬂow area of

few seconds. The sterilized milk is not completely free milk so that pressure drop increases. Since fouling re-

of organisms. It is free of sporulating, toxicogenic and duces the continuous run time of a heat exchanger, hence

pathogenic organisms to a level so that it remains safe frequent cleaning is needed. Although many researchers

for consumption for several weeks at room temperature and scientists all over the world have already worked and

(Pien, 1955). The electrochemical deposition of milk sol- developed lots of fouling models, the actual mechanism

ids such as denatured proteins and mineral salts, is most of fouling is yet to be known. After surveying numerous

severe in the temperature range of 90–120 C (Burton, fouling mechanisms (Changani, Belmar-Beiny, & Fryer,

1988). Since a tubular heat exchanger is likely to main- 1997; Taborek, Aoki, Ritter, Palen, & Knudsen, 1972a)

tain a constant wall temperature of 160 C, the deposi- it is suggested to develop a fouling model considering

ﬂow pattern and temperature of the process plant.

According to Visser and Jeurnink (1997) the very high

*

Corresponding author. Fax: +91 3222 82244.

ﬂow rates of ﬂuid can be able to prevent its solids depo-

E-mail addresses: pks_1973@lycos.com (P.K. Sahoo), ansari@ sition and subsequent sticking. A series of possible scale

mailcity.com (I.A. Ansari), akd@agfe.iitkgp.ernet.in (A.K. Datta). up strategies (i.e., constant Reynolds number, constant

0260-8774/$ - see front matter 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2004.08.014

236 P.K. Sahoo et al. / Journal of Food Engineering 69 (2005) 235–244

Nomenclature

Ai2 heat transfer surface area based on inside diameter of middle tube, m2

Ao1 heat transfer surface area based on outside diameter of innermost tube, m2

Bi Biot number, dimensionless

Bimi Biot number at outer surface of innermost tube, dimensionless

Bimo Biot number at inner surface of middle tube, dimensionless

CPf speciﬁc heat of process ﬂuid at mean temperature, J/kg K

Dc coil diameter, m

Deq equivalent diameter of tube, m

Di1 inner diameter of innermost tube, m

Di2 inner diameter of middle tube, m

Do1 outer diameter of innermost tube, m

E activation energy, J/mol

f friction factor, dimensionless

g acceleration due to gravity = 9.81 m/s2

hc1 steam/condensate heat transfer coeﬃcient at surface of innermost tube, W/m2 K

hc2 steam/condensate heat transfer coeﬃcient at surface of outermost tube, W/m2 K

hf ﬁlm heat transfer coeﬃcient with fouling, W/m2 K

hf0

ﬁlm heat transfer coeﬃcient without fouling, W/m2 K

kc thermal conductivity of condensate, W/m K

kd deposition rate constant, s1

kr removal rate constant, s1

L length of tube, m

N number of nodes

NDN dean number, dimensionless

(NDN)critical critical dean number, dimensionless

NNu Nusselt number, dimensionless

NPr Prandtl number, dimensionless

NRe Reynolds number, dimensionless

Q ﬂow rate of process ﬂuid, m3/s

q heat transfer rate, W

R universal gas constant = 8.314 J/mol K

rd1 outer radius of innermost tube including fouling layer on its outer surface, m

rd2 inner radius of middle tube including fouling layer on its inner surface, m

ri1 inner radius of innermost tube, m

ro1 outer radius of innermost tube, m

ri2 inner radius of middle tube, m

ro2 outer radius of middle tube, m

t time, s

Tf temperature of process ﬂuid, C

T IN

f initial temperature of process ﬂuid, C

Tﬁ temperature at the interface of fouling deposit and process ﬂuid, C

Ti1wall temperature of wall at inner side of innermost tube, C

Ti2wall temperature of wall at outer side of middle tube, C

Ts temperature of steam, C

Ui2 overall heat transfer coeﬃcient for the inner surface of middle tube in helical triple tube heat exchanger

with fouling, W/m2 K

0

U i2 overall heat transfer coeﬃcient for the inner surface of middle tube in helical triple tube heat exchanger

without fouling, W/m2 K

Uo1 overall heat transfer coeﬃcient for the outer surface of innermost tube in helical triple tube heat exchan-

ger with fouling, W/m2 K

0

U o1 overall heat transfer coeﬃcient for the outer surface of innermost tube in helical triple tube heat exchan-

ger without fouling, W/m2 K

P.K. Sahoo et al. / Journal of Food Engineering 69 (2005) 235–244 237

x distance along heat exchanger length, m

qc density of condensate, kg/m3

qf density of process ﬂuid at mean temperature, kg/m3

k latent heat of condensation, J/kg

kd thermal conductivity of fouled layer, W/m K

kw thermal conductivity of tube wall, W/m K

/mi ﬁlm coeﬃcient and thermal conductivity ratio for outer surface of innermost tube, dimensionless

/mo ﬁlm coeﬃcient and thermal conductivity ratio for inner surface of middle tube, dimensionless

sw shear stress at the tube wall, N/m2

lc viscosity of condensate, Pa s

lf viscosity of process ﬂuid at mean temperature, Pa s

lwall viscosity of process ﬂuid at wall temperature, Pa s

d thickness of fouling layer, m

DP pressure drop, N/m2

Da temporal separation of nodes along-characteristic, s

shear stress and constant temperature change for fouling in the innermost tube and also in the outer annulus at a

ﬂuid) is tested using a computational model of a simple constant temperature of 160 C. Milk inlet temperature

heat exchanger (Schreier & Fryer, 1995). Air bubble at is maintained 90 C, which is taken from preheating sec-

the surface accelerates the fouling process and causes a tion of the UHT sterilizer setup. Milk outlet tempera-

shift in the protein composition from serum proteins to- ture is recorded at regular time intervals. Milk gains

wards casein. At high shear rates, the ﬂow condition may enthalpy from steam through tube walls (i.e., walls of

prevent this deposition of casein micelles (Jeurnink, middle and innermost tubes). The enthalpy balance on

1995). The model of Swartzel (1983) predicts the run time the outer surface of the inner tube and also on the inner

and changes in thermal eﬀects throughout the processing surface of the middle tube of the concentric HTTHE, as

of milk. The mathematical model developed by Sandu shown in Fig. 1 is given by:

and Singh (1991) estimates the increased energy costs

dT f

associated with fouling of heat exchangers. Delplace, Af qf vf C pf T f dt Af qf vf C pf T f þ dx dt

Leuliet, and Levieur (1997) and Yoon and Lund (1994) dx

developed temperature proﬁle models to predict the þ U o1 Ao1 ðT s T f Þdt þ U i2 Ai2 T s T f dt

change in product temperature during fouling. The

dT f

model of Reitzer (1964) relates the linear temperature ¼ Af qf C pf dxdt

change with second order chemical reaction for crystal dt

growth. A temperature dependent milk fouling model or;

is formulated and simulated in a double concentric tube

dT f dT f

heat exchanger to predict fouling thickness on the heat Af qf C pf dx vf þ ¼ ðU o1 Ao1 þ U i2 Ai2 ÞðT s T f Þ

dx dt

exchanger surface (Ranjan & Datta, 1999). Biot number

is a dimensionless local fouling factor that can be used or;

for the design of heat exchanger. In this paper we have

dT f dT f ðU o1 Ao1 þ U i2 Ai2 ÞðT s T f Þ

formulated and then simulated a local milk fouling vf þ ¼

dx dt Af qf C pf dx

model to predict the fouling thickness, Biot number

and bulk milk temperature as a function of time and po- or;

sition along the length of the helical triple tube heat

dT f dT f ðU o1 At1 þ U i2 At2 ÞðT s T f Þ

exchanger. vf þ ¼

dx dt qf C pf

where;

2. Development of fouling model

Ao1 2pro1 dx 2r A

At1 ¼ ¼ ¼ 2 o1 2 At2 ¼ i2

2.1. Enthalpy balance in control element Af dx p r2i2 r2o1 dx ri2 ro1 Af dx

2pri2 dx 2r

During thermal processing, milk ﬂows in the middle ¼ 2 ¼ 2 i2 2

p ri2 r2o1 dx ri2 ro1

annular portion of the Helical triple tube heat exchanger

(HTTHE) at a constant ﬂow rate of 135 l/h. Steam ﬂows ð1Þ

238 P.K. Sahoo et al. / Journal of Food Engineering 69 (2005) 235–244

Ui2,Ai2

Af.ρf.νf.CpεTf.δt

Uol,Aol δTf

Af .ρf .νf .Cpf Tf + δx δt

δx

δx Tube wall

Passage for steam

x x + δx

Passage for milk

Eq. (1) is a constitutive expression in partial diﬀerential The condensate heat transfer coeﬃcient (hc1) is esti-

form for ﬂuid temperature distribution in tubular heat mated (Kern, 1997) by the following expression:

exchanger. 0:25

k3c q2c gk

hc1 ¼ 0:5754 ð4Þ

2.2. Heat transfer equations for HTTHE lc Di1 ðT s T i1wall Þ

The distribution of ﬂuid, wall and deposit tempera- The ﬂuid side heat transfer coeﬃcients (h0f and hf) are

tures in a concentric triple tube heat exchanger is shown estimated based on an iterative technique developed by

in Fig. 2. The temperature distribution was used to de- Sahoo (2001). The basic equation involved in the itera-

rive the heat transfer expressions as given below. tive method is as follows:

(i) Without fouling, outer surface of the inner tube 0:53

2 3 0:8 0:33 Di2 Deq

0 h 0

r ln ro1 N Nu ¼ 0:027ðN Re Þ ðN Pr Þ 1 þ 3:5

q 4 hf f i1 ri1 ri1 Do1 Dc

Ts Tf ¼ 0 þ þ 5

hf Ao1 hc1 kw ro1 ð5Þ

Putting, The properties of the process ﬂuid such as qf, lf, Cpf etc.

are estimated at bulk mean temperature of the ﬂuid for

h0f h0f ri1

ln ro1

ri1

/mi ¼ þ ð2Þ each iteration step.

hc1 kw Eq. (5) is derived from Dittus–Boelter equation

and q ¼ U 0o1 Ao1 ðT s T f Þ. (Geankoplis, 1997) replacing the term ðllwall f

Þ

0:14

by

We get, 0:53

ðDDo1i2 Þ (Zuritz, 1990) for ﬂow in annular region of tube.

D

1 1 ro1 Furthermore the term ½1 þ 3:5ð Deqc Þ is multiplied on the

¼ /mi þ1 ð3Þ Dittus–Boelter equation (Chopey & Hicks, 1984) for

U 0o1 h0f ri1

the helical conﬁguration.

(ii) With fouling, outer surface of the inner tube

Steam in 2 3

outermost tube 0 ro1 0 rd1

Steam in 0

q 4 hf h f r i1 ln ri1

h f r i1 ln ro1

0

ri1 hf 5

innermost tube

Ts Tf ¼ 0 þ þ þ

hf Ao1 hc1 kw kd rd1 hf

Ts

Ts

Tsw Putting,

Twd Deposit Tsw

0 ro1

Twd h0f hf ri1 lnð ri1 Þ

/mi ¼ þ ;

Tf hc1 kw

Tfd

Tfd Wall of

Innermost tube q ¼ U o1 Ao1 ðT s T f Þ

and

o1

Milk Bimi ¼ ð6Þ

kd

Fig. 2. Distribution of ﬂuid, wall and deposit temperatures in a

concentric triple tube heat exchanger. In Eq. (6), rd1 = ro1 + d.

P.K. Sahoo et al. / Journal of Food Engineering 69 (2005) 235–244 239

We get, L v2

DP ¼ 4f qf ð13Þ

Deq 2

1 1 1 ro1 ri1 ri1 h0f

¼ þ ðBimi 1Þ þ ð7Þ The expression for Deq with the assumption of uni-

U o1 U 0o1 h0f ri1 ro1 hf rd1

form fouling thickness (d) both in the outer surface of

(iii) Without fouling, inside surface of the middle tube inner tube and the inner surface of the middle tube is

2 3 given by:

0 ro2

q h 0 h f r o2 ln ri2 ro2

Ts Tf ¼ 0 4 f þ þ 5 Deq ¼ Di2 Do1 4d ð14Þ

hf Ai2 hc2 kw ri2

Substituting the value of Deq in equation (13), we get

where, 32fLQ2 qf

DP ¼ 2 3

ð15Þ

0:25 p2 ðDi2 þ Do1 Þ ðDi2 Do1 4dÞ

k3c q2c gk

hc2 ¼ 0:725 ð8Þ The friction factor can be calculated for turbulent ﬂow

lc Do2 ðT s T i2wall Þ

in helical tube by the following expression (Srinivasan,

Putting, Nandapurkar, & Holland, 1970).

0:042

0 ro2

h0 hf ro2 ln ri2

f ¼ 0:5 0:2 ð16Þ

/mo ¼ f þ ð9Þ N Re DDeqc

hc2 kw

and q ¼ U 0i2 Ai2 ðT s T f Þ: (for (NDN)critical < NDN < 14,000 and 0:0097 < Deqc <

D

Then, 0:135).

NRe can be derived for triple tube heat exchanger as

1 1 ri2

¼ /mo þ 1 ð10Þ follows.

U 0i2 h0f ro2

Q

(iv) With fouling, inside surface of the middle tube qf vf Deq qf Af Deq

N Re ¼ ¼

2 3 lf lf

0 ro2 0 ri2

q 4 hf 0 h f r o2 ln ri2

h f r o2 ln rd2 ro2 h0f 5 qf QðDi2 Do1 4dÞ

Ts Tf ¼ 0 þ þ þ ¼ h i

hf Ai2 hc2 kw kd rd2 hf p

ðDi2 2dÞ2 ðDo1 þ 2dÞ2 lf

4

4qf Q

Using, ¼

pðDi2 þ Do1 Þlf

0 ro2

h0f hf ro2 lnð ri2 Þ

/mo ¼ þ So,

hc2 kw

4qf Q

N Re ¼ ð17Þ

q ¼ U i2 Ai2 ðT s T f Þ pðDi2 þ Do1 Þlf

and The inlet pressure of the helical triple tube heat exchan-

h0f ri2 ln rrd2i2 ger was maintained at 5.1 bar when running the heat

Bimo ¼ ð11Þ exchanger with milk at constant ﬂow rate of 135 l/h.

kd The outlet temperature and pressure of the HTTHE

In Eq. (11), rd2 ¼ ri2 d. was recorded at 10 min intervals. The outlet tempera-

We get, ture and pressure both decreases with time due to in-

crease of fouling deposit. The properties (i.e. qf, lf

1 1 1 ri2 ro2 h0f ro2

¼ þ ðBimo 1Þ þ ð12Þ etc.) of ﬂuid were calculated at bulk mean temperature

U i2 U 0i2 h0f ro2 ri2 hf rd2 of ﬂuid. From the recorded pressure drop data, mean

fouling thickness was calculated using the Eq. (15),

2.3. Experimental fouling which is shown in Table 1. From mean fouling deposit

data, average Biot numbers were calculated using Eqs.

During UHT processing of milk in the tubular heat (6) and (11).

exchanger, considerable amount of fouling deposit on

the heat exchanger surface. The fouling deposits increase 2.4. Simpliﬁcation of heat transfer equations

the pressure drop across the heat exchanger. The pres-

sure drop for the turbulent ﬂow in a tubular heat ex- The simpliﬁcation of heat transfer equations means

changer can be computed with a standard ﬂuid ﬂow the expression of overall heat transfer coeﬃcients (i.e.

equation (Geankoplis, 1997) as given below. Uo1 and Ui2) as the function of their respective Biot

240 P.K. Sahoo et al. / Journal of Food Engineering 69 (2005) 235–244

Table 1

Experimental fouling data during UHT processing of milk in HTTHE

Time, min Milk outlet temperature (Tout), C Pressure drop (DP), bar Mean fouling layer thickness (d), mm

0 142 0.00 0.00

10 141 0.07 0.25

20 140 0.12 0.41

30 139 0.17 0.47

40 135 0.22 0.51

50 134 0.28 0.56

60 133 0.39 0.61

70 130 0.66 0.68

80 128 0.93 0.72

90 126 1.03 0.73

100 124 1.25 0.75

110 123 1.54 0.77

120 123 1.54 0.77

130 123 1.54 0.77

ro2 h0 ro2

ðBimo 1Þ þ f

ri2 hf rdx2

2

¼ 0:4761Bimo þ 0:5801Bimo þ 0:0407 ð19Þ

Applying Eq. (19) into Eq. (12), the following is

obtained:

ri1 h0

Fig. 3. Plot of ro1

ðBimi 1Þ þ hff rrd1i1 vs. Bimi. 1 1 0:4761Bi2mo þ 0:5801Bimo þ 0:0407 ri2

¼ 0 þ

U i2 U i2 h0f ro2

numbers. Uo1 can be expressed as the function of Bimi

and Ui2 can be expressed as the function of Bimo. h0f U 0i2

h0

Plotting a graph of rro1i1 ðBimi 1Þ þ hff rrd1i1 vs. Bimi, a U i2 ¼

h0f þ ð0:4761Bi2mo þ 0:5801Bimo þ 0:0407Þ ri2

ro2

U 0i2

polynomial line of second order (R2 = 0.99) is obtained

as shown in Fig. 3. ð20Þ

h0

The term ½rro1i1 ðBimi 1Þ þ hff rrd1i1 is taken from Eq. (7) Similarly putting Eq. (18) in Eq. (7), the following is

and Bimi data are taken from experimental fouling. obtained:

The regression equation of Fig. 3 is:

h0f U 0o1

ri1 h0 ri1 U o1 ¼

ðBimi 1Þ þ f ¼ 0:3043Bi2mi þ 0:261Bimi þ 0:0155 h0f þ ð0:3043Bi2mi þ 0:261Bimi þ 0:0155Þ ro1

U 0o1

ro1 hf rd1 ri1

ð18Þ ð21Þ

h0

Plotting a graph of rro2i2 ðBimo 1Þ þ hff rro2

d2

vs. Bi mo, a poly-

nomial line of second order (R2 = 0.99) is obtained as 2.5. Simpliﬁcation of ﬂuid temperature distribution

shown in Fig. 4. expression

h0

The term ½rro2i2 ðBimo 1Þ þ hff rro2

d2

is taken from Eq. (12)

and Bimo data are taken from experimental fouling. The characteristic technique described by Acrivos

(1956) is used to convert Eq. (1) in partial diﬀerential

form to ordinary diﬀerential form. A characteristic mesh

for constant wall temperature heat exchanger is shown

in Fig. 5.

Along the characteristic line:

dx

¼ vf ða-characteristicsÞ ð22Þ

dt

x ¼ constant ðb-characteristicsÞ ð23Þ

Employing the Eqs. (20)–(23) into Eq. (1), this equation

h0

Fig. 4. Plot of ro2

ri2

ðBimo 1Þ þ hff rro2

d2

vs. Bimo. is simpliﬁed to:

P.K. Sahoo et al. / Journal of Food Engineering 69 (2005) 235–244 241

2 3

ro1 U 0o1 h0f ri2 U 0i2 h0f

24 þ 5

ro1 ri2

h0f þð0:3043Bi2mi þ0:261Bimi þ0:0155Þ U 0o1 h0f þð0:4761Bi2mo þ0:5801Bimo þ0:0407Þ U 0i2

dT f ri1 ro2

¼ ðT s T f Þ ð24Þ

dt r2i2 r2o1 qf C pf

2.6. Formulation of local fouling rate model The deposit rate constant (kd) is the function of shear

stress at the wall (sw) of the tube, which is shown as

The expression for the local fouling model was derived (Ranjan & Datta, 1999):

based on the concept that the net rate of solids accumu-

lation is the diﬀerence between the rate of solids deposit 1011

kd ¼ ð28Þ

and the rate of reentrainment due to ﬂuid shear forces sw

(Fryer & Slater, 1985). The same approach has been fol-

The shear stress at the wall under turbulent ﬂow condi-

lowed by Taborek et al. (1972a) and Taborek, Aoki, Rit-

tion Geankoplis (1997) is expressed as:

ter, Palen, and Knudsen (1972b). A generalized equation

as suggested by Fryer and Slater (1985) can be written for 22:45lf Q

local overall rate of solids accumulation as: sw ¼ ð29Þ

D3eq

dBi E 1

¼ k d exp k r Bi ð25Þ The values of activation energy (E) and removal

dt R T fi rate constant (kr) were taken from Fryer and Slater

where the term k d exp½ ER T1fi is a solids deposition rate (1985).

term and (krBi) is a solids reentrainment term.

Activation energy (E) = 92 · 103 kJ/kg mole.

Eq. (25) can be modiﬁed based on the conﬁguration

Removal rate constant (kr) = 0.0013 s1.

of helical triple tube heat exchanger as given below.

The thermal conductivity of milk fouling deposit (kd)

dBimi E ðT s T f Þ was chosen to 0.6 W/m K (Yoon & Lund, 1994).

¼ k d exp k r Bimi

dt R ðT s T f ÞT fi

E ðT s T f Þ

¼ k d exp k r Bimi 3. Simulation procedure

R T s ðT fi T f Þ þ T f ðT s T fi Þ

2 3

E /mi þ 0:3043Bi2mi þ 0:261Bimi þ 0:0155 þ rro1i1 The number of nodes along a-characteristics (i.e. the

¼ k d exp 4 5 length of heat exchanger in which ﬂuid ﬂows) were

R T s 0:3043Bi2 þ 0:261Bimi þ 0:0155 þ ri1 þ T f /

mi

mi ro1

selected. The temporal separation of nodes along a-

k r Bimi ð26Þ characteristics (i.e. time taken by ﬂuid to move between

two consecutive nodes) were thus set:

2 3

dBimo E /mo þ 0:4761Bi2mo þ 0:5801Bimo þ 0:0407 þ rro2i2 L 1

4

¼ k d exp 5 Da ¼ ð30Þ

dt R T s 0:4761Bi2 þ 0:5801Bimo þ 0:0407 þ ro2 þ T f / N 1 vf

mo ri2 mo

k r Bimo ð27Þ The values of Bi, Tf and Ts are known at certain nodes

corresponding to the initial conditions and boundary

values.

(i) Initial conditions

Bimi ði; 0Þ ¼ 0; for i ¼ 1; 2; 3; . . . ; N

(i, j+1)

Tf = TfIN Bimo ði; 0Þ ¼ 0; for i ¼ 1; 2; 3; . . . ; N

(i-1, j) (i, j) (i+1, j) (ii) Boundary conditions

Process ﬂuid temperature Tf (i, j) is deﬁned for each

t (i, j-1) simulation.

Integration of Eqs. (24), (26) and (27) were done

using Modiﬁed EulerÕs technique. The numerical steps

x Bi = 0 used for estimation of temperature and Biot numbers

Fig. 5. A characteristic mesh for a constant wall temperature heat with time at each node points of the heat exchanger

exchanger. are given below.

242 P.K. Sahoo et al. / Journal of Food Engineering 69 (2005) 235–244

1 dT f Da

T f i þ ; j ¼ T f ð i ; jÞ þ ð31Þ

dt ði;jÞ 2

1

2 0.9 Time = 15 min

1 dBimo Da 0.7

Bimo i; j þ ¼ Bimo ði; jÞ þ ð32Þ Time = 60 min

2 dt ði;jÞ 2 0.6

Time = 90 min

0.5

0.4 Time = 105 min

1 dBimi Da

Bimi i; j þ ¼ Bimi ði; jÞ þ ð33Þ 0.3

2 dt ði;jÞ 2 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

Length, m

dT f Fig. 7. Variation of fouling deposit on the outer surface of inner tube

T f ði þ 1; jÞ ¼ T f ði; jÞ þ Da ð34Þ

dt ðiþ1;jÞ along the length of the heat exchanger with time.

2

dBimo

1

Bimo ði; j þ 1Þ ¼ Bimo ði; jÞ þ Da ð35Þ

dt ði;jþ1Þ 0.9 Time = 15 min

2 0.8

tube, mm

Time = 30 min

0.7

dBimi

Time = 60 min

0.6

Bimi ði; j þ 1Þ ¼ Bimi ði; jÞ þ Da ð36Þ

dt ði;jþ1Þ 0.5 Time = 90 min

2

0.4 Time = 105 min

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

responding to its Biot number using Eqs. (6) and (11). Length, m

tube along the length of the heat exchanger with time.

4. Simulation results and discussion

It is evident that the temperature increases along the deposit is uniform along the length of the heat exchan-

length of the heat exchanger towards the outlet as ger. The temperature of the interface (Tﬁ) between the

shown in Fig. 6. As time progresses, the temperature fouling deposit and the bulk ﬂuid is responsible for the

drops gradually at the respective nodes along the occurrence of fouling. In early stage of operation, as

length of the heat exchanger due to the occurrence of Tﬁ is equivalent to the constant wall temperature (i.e.

fouling. From the simulation, a constant outlet tem- steam temperature) of the heat exchanger, uniform

perature of 118 C was found after 105 min of operation distribution of the fouling deposit occurs throughout

of the heat exchanger. Hence, the rate of solids depo- the length of the heat exchanger. After about 30 min,

sition is equal to that of removal after 105 min. Also Tﬁ approaches towards the bulk ﬂuid temperature. As

from the experimental results as shown in Table 1, a the bulk ﬂuid temperature increases towards the outlet

constant outlet temperature of 123 C has been found of the heat exchanger, the fouling deposit increases to-

after 110 min. So the simulated prediction of the temper- wards the outlet. The trend of the fouling deposit is

ature is comparable with that of the experimental same on both surfaces of the heat exchanger. The foul-

results. ing deposit on the inner surface of middle tube is greater

Figs. 7 and 8 display the deposit behavior of the heat than that on the outer surface of inner tube according to

exchanger on the outer surface of the inner tube and the the Eqs. (6) and (11). With progress of time, as the foul-

inner surface of middle tube, respectively, with time of ing deposit increases, the ﬂow area available for the pro-

operation. At the beginning, the occurrence of fouling cess ﬂuid decreases. Since UHT sterilizer runs at a

constant ﬂow rate of 135 l/h, the velocity of process ﬂuid

increases with decrease in ﬂow area, which leads to in-

150 creased shear force. So the rate of deposit becomes

Time = 0 min

Temperature, °C

Time = 15 min

130 the ﬂuid shear forces. That means fouling deposit stabi-

Time = 30 min

120 lizes after 105 min since no net deposit occurs after that

Time = 60 min

110 time. Since milk ﬂows at constant ﬂow rate with inlet

Time = 90 min

100 temperature of 90 C and steam ﬂows at constant tem-

Time =105 min

90 perature of 160 C, equilibrium temperature as well as

0 1 2 3 the point of deposit stabilization was reached after

Length, m

105 min.

Fig. 6. Variation of temperature along the length of the HTTHE with Figs. 9 and 10 shows the variation of Biot number on

time of operation. the outer surface of the inner tube (i.e. Bimi) and on the

P.K. Sahoo et al. / Journal of Food Engineering 69 (2005) 235–244 243

Biot number on the outer

1.4

surface of inner tube

1.2

1.1 Time = 30 min temperature between the fouling deposit and the bulk

1

0.9 Time = 60 min ﬂuid and also the shear stress of the ﬂuid on the heat

0.8 Time = 90 min exchanger surface. The simulated constant Biot num-

0.7

0.6 Time = 105 min

bers can be used for the optimum design of heat

0.5

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 exchanger.

Length, m

Fig. 9. Variation of Biot number on the outer surface of the inner tube References

along the length of the HTTHE with time.

Acrivos, A. (1956). Method of characteristic technique- Application to

heat and mass transfer problems. Industrial and Engineering

Biot number on the inner surface

1.3 Time = 15 min Burton, H. (1988). Ultra high temperature processing of milk and milk

1.2 products. London: Elsevier Applied Science.

of middle tube

Time = 30 min

1.1

1

Changani, S. D., Belmar-Beiny, M. T., & Fryer, P. J. (1997).

Time = 60 min

0.9 Engineering and chemical factors associated with fouling and

0.8 Time = 90 min cleaning in milk processing. Experimental Thermal and Fluid

0.7 Science, 14, 392–406.

0.6 Time = 105 min

0.5

Chopey, N. P., & Hicks, T. G. (1984). Handbook of Chemical

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 Engineering Calculations. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Com-

Length, m pany, p. 33, Chapter 7.

Delplace, F., Leuliet, J. C., & Levieur, D. (1997). A reaction

Fig. 10. Variation of Biot number on the inner surface of middle tube engineering approach to the analysis of fouling by whey proteins

along the length of the HTTHE with time. of a six channels per pass plate heat exchanger. Journal of Food

Engineering, 34, 91–108.

Fryer, P. J., & Slater, N. K. H. (1985). A direct simulation procedure

inner surface of the middle tube (i.e. Bimo), respectively, for chemical reaction fouling in heat exchangers. Chemical

along the length of the heat exchanger with time. From Engineering Journal, 31, 97–107.

Geankoplis, C. J. (1997). Transport processes and unit operations (third

the expressions of Biot numbers [i.e. Eqs. (6) and (11)], it

ed.). New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., p. 239.

has been seen that the fouling deposit on the inner sur- Jeurnink, T. J. M. (1995). Fouling of heat exchanger by fresh and

face of the middle tube in cylindrical coordinate (i.e. reconstituted milk and the inﬂuence of air bubbles. Milchwissens-

ri2 ln rrd2i2 ) is greater than that of the deposit on the outer chaft, 50, 189–193.

surface of inner tube in cylindrical coordinate (i.e. Kern, D. Q. (1997). Process heat transfer. New York: McGraw-Hill

International, pp. 263–269.

ro1 ln rrd1 ). So Biot number on the inner surface of middle

o1 Pien, J. (1955). Deﬁnition of sterilized milk, milk sterilization. FAO

tube is greater than that on the outer surface of inner- Report (p. 7), 716, Rome.

most tube. The variation is found uniform along the Ranjan, R., & Datta, A. K. (1999). Milk fouling simulation in tubular

length of the heat exchanger during early periods of heat exchanger. In Proceedings 26th National Conference on ﬂuid

operation, since Tﬁ is the same as the wall temperature. mechanics and ﬂuid power (pp. 369–374), IIT, Kharagpur.

Reitzer, B. J. (1964). Process design and development. Industrial

Beyond 30 min, Tﬁ approaches towards the bulk ﬂuid

Engineering Chemistry, 4, 3.

temperature and the bulk ﬂuid temperature gradually Sahoo, P. K. (2001). Computer aided development and performance

increases towards the outlet of the heat exchanger. So evaluation of a helical triple tube Ultra-High-Temperature (UHT)

the Biot number increases towards the outlet of the heat milk sterilizer. PhD thesis, IIT Kharagpur, India.

exchanger. As the fouling deposit stabilizes after Sandu, C., & Singh, R. K. (1991). Energy increase in operation and

cleaning due to heat exchanger fouling in milk pasteurization. Food

105 min, the Bimi and Bimo attain their constant values

Technology(December), 84–91.

at that time. Schreier, P. J. R., & Fryer, P. J. (1995). Heat exchanger fouling: A

model study of the scale up of laboratory data. Chemical

Engineering Science, 50(8), 1311–1321.

5. Conclusion Srinivasan, P. S., Nandapurkar, S. S., & Holland, F. A. (1970).

Friction factors for coils. Transaction of Institution of Chemical

Engineers, 48, 156–161.

The performance of the heat exchanger in dairy Swartzel, K. R. (1983). Tubular heat exchanger fouling by milk during

industry is often hampered due to severe fouling. Opti- Ultra-High-Temperature processing. Journal of Food Science, 48,

mum design of heat exchanger for dairy processing 1507–1511.

is important to enhance their performance. This is Taborek, J., Aoki, T., Ritter, R. B., Palen, J. W., & Knudsen, J. G.

(1972a). Fouling: The major unresolved problem in heat transfer.

possible if fouling behavior is predicted accurately. In

Chemical Engineering Progress, 68(2), 59–67.

this work, the fouling behavior of the heat exchanger Taborek, J., Aoki, T., Ritter, R. B., Palen, J. W., & Knudsen, J. G.

was predicted through a simulation using theory and (1972b). Predictive methods for fouling behaviour. Chemical

principles of ﬂuid dynamics and heat transfer. From Engineering Progress, 68(7), 69.

244 P.K. Sahoo et al. / Journal of Food Engineering 69 (2005) 235–244

Visser, J., & Jeurnink, Th. J. M. (1997). Fouling of heat exchanger in their eﬀects on the temperature proﬁle during milk fouling. Journal

dairy industry. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 14, of Food Process Engineering, 17, 243–262.

407–424. Zuritz, C. A. (1990). On the design of triple concentric tube

Yoon, J., & Lund, D. B. (1994). Comparison of two operating methods heat exchangers. Journal of Food Process Engineering, 12, 113–

of a plate heat exchanger under constant heat ﬂux condition and 130.

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