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Math

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SUMMARY

If A(𝑋1 , 𝑌1 ) and B(𝑋2 , 𝑌2 ) are two distinct points.

𝑥 +𝑥 𝑦 +𝑦

(a) Midpoint of AB = ( 1 2 , 1 2)

2 2

𝑦2 −𝑦1 𝑦1 −𝑦2

(b) Gradient of AB = tan𝜃 = = , where 𝑥2 ≠ 𝑥1

𝑥2 −𝑥1 𝑥1 −𝑥2

(a) 𝑙1 is parallel to 𝑙2 ⇔ the gradients are equal,

(b) 𝑙1 is perpendicular to 𝑙2 ⇔ the products of the gradients is -1,

(a) Equation of a line parallel to the x-axis, cutting the y-axis at (0, c) is

y=c

(b) Equation of a line parallel to the y-axis, cutting the x-axis at (a, 0) is

x=a

(c) Equation of a line passing through a given point (𝑥1 , 𝑦1 ) and having

gradient m is y - 𝑦1 = m(x - 𝑥1 )

EXAMPLE

1. The coordinates of 4 points are O(0, 0), A(2, k), B(2k, 9) and

C(3k, 2k + 7). Find the value(s) of k if

(a) The points O, A and B are collinear,

(b) OA is parallel to BC

Solution

(a) If O, A and B are collinear, they lie on the same straight line,

i.e. gradient of OA = gradient of OB

𝑘−0 9−0

=

2−0 2𝑘 − 0

𝑘 9

=

2 2𝑘

2𝑘 2 = 18

𝑘2 = 9

k = ±3

(b) OA is parallel to BC,

i.e. gradient of OA = gradient of BC.

𝑘−0 2𝑘 + 7 − 9

=

2−0 3𝑘 − 2𝑘

𝑘 2𝑘 − 2

=

2 𝑘

𝑘 2 = 4𝑘 − 4

(𝑘 − 2)2 = 0

𝑘=2

2. The vertices of 𝜟ABC are A(0, -5), B(-2, 1) and C(10, k). Find the value of

k if <ABC = 90.

Solution

Since <ABC = 90,

Gradient of AB × gradient of BC = -1

1−(−5) 𝑘−1

( )× ( ) = -1

−2−0 10−(−2)

𝑘−1

i.e. (-3)( )= -1

12

k–1=4

k=5

Type equation here. CHAPTER 6

SUMMARY

The equation of a circle in the standard form is (x – a)2 + (y – b)2 = 𝑟 2 ,

where r > 0, (a, b) is the centre and r is the radius.

The general formof the equation of a circle is 𝑥 2 +𝑦 2 +2gx +2fy +c = 0,

where 𝑔2 + 𝑓 2 - c > 0, (-g, -f) is the centre and √𝑔2 + 𝑓 2 − 𝑐 is the

radius.

Graphs of the form y = 𝑎𝑥 𝑛 , where n is a rational number

(a) n is a positive rational number less than 1

1 1

(e.g. and )

2 3

3 5

(e.g. and )

2 3

1 3

(e.g. - and - )

2 2

(a) k > 0

(b) k < 0

EXAMPLE

1. Find the centre and the radius of the circle 2𝑥 2 + 2𝑦 2 - 3x + 4y = -1.

Solution

Rewriting the equation, we have

2𝑥 2 + 2𝑦 2 - 3x + 4y + 1 = 0

3 1

i.e. 𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 - 𝑥 + 2y + = 0

2 2

3 3

2g = − i.e. –g = ,

2 4

2f = 2 i.e. –f = -1,

3

Centre of circle = (-g, -f) = ( , -1)

4

3 1

=√(− )2 + (1)2 −

4 2

√17

=

4

2. In the figure, the line y = 6–x cuts the curve 𝑦 2 = 3x at the points A and B,

and the x-axis at C. Find

(i) The coordinates of A, B and C,

(ii) The ratio AC : CB.

Solution

(i) y= 6 –x (1)

2

𝑦 = 3𝑥 (2)

Subst. (1) into (2): (6 - x)2 = 3x

36 – 12x + 𝑥 2 = 3x

𝑥 2 – 15x + 36 = 0

(x-3)(x-12) = 0

x=3 or x=12

y=3 y= -6

A(3, 3) and B(12, -6)

Subst. y = 0 into (1) : x = 6

C(6, 0)

(ii) AC = √(3 − 6)2 + (3 - 0)2

= √18

3

= √2

= √72

6

=√2

3 6

AC : CB = √2 : √2

=1:2

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