You are on page 1of 9

Power MOSFET types

Within the overall arena of power MOSFETs, there are a number of specific technologies that have
been developed and addressed by different manufacturers. They use a number of different
techniques that enable the power MOSFETs to carry the current and handle the power levels more
efficiently. As already mentioned they often incorporate a form of vertical structure

The different types of power MOSFET have different attributes and therefore can be particularly
suited for given applications.

 Planar power MOSFET: This is the basic form of power MOSFET. It is good for high voltage
ratings because the ON resistance is dominated by the epi-layer resistance. This structure is
generally used when a high cell density is not needed.
 VMOS: VMOS power MOSFETs have been available for many years. The basic concept uses a
V groove structure to enable a more vertical flow of the current, thereby providing lower ON
resistance levels and better switching characteristics. Although used for power switching, they
may also be used for high frequency small RF power amplifiers.
 UMOS: The UMOS version of the power MOSFET uses a grove similar to that the VMOS FET.
However the grove has a flatter bottom to it and provides some different advantages.
 HEXFET: This form of power MOSFET uses a hexagonal structure to provide the current
capability.
 TrenchMOS: Again the TrenchMOS power MOSFET uses a similar basic grove or trench in the
basic silicon to provide better handling capacity and characteristics. In particular, Trench power
MOSFETs are mainly used for voltages above 200 volts because of their channel density and
hence their lower ON resistance.

Power MOSFET breakdown voltage


The breakdown voltage is a key parameter for any power device including power MOSFETs. As
these devices may operate a voltages well in excess of those encountered in lower power electronic
circuits, the voltage breakdown voltage is an important aspect of any power MOSFET device.

In most power MOSFETs the N+ source termination and the P body junction are shorted using
source metallisation. This avoids the possibility of spurious turn on of the parasitic bipolar transistor
within the structure.

In operation, when no bias is applied to the gate, then the device is able to provide a high drain
voltage through the reverse biased P type body and N+ epitaxial layer junction (shown as P-silicon
and N- on the planar power MOSFET diagram). When high voltages are present, most of the applied
voltage appears across the lightly doped N- layer. If a higher operational voltage is required, then the
N- layer can be more lightly doped and made thicker, but this also has the effect of increasing the
ON resistance.

For lower voltage devices, the doping levels for the P silicon areas and the N- become comparable
and the voltage is shared across these two layers. However if the P silicon area is not thick enough
then it can be found that the depletion region can punch through to the N+ source region, giving rise
to a lower breakdown voltage.

On the other hand, if the device is designed for too high a voltage, then the channel resistance and
threshold voltage will increase. As a result careful optimisation of the device is needed. Also when
choosing power MOSFET devices, it is necessary to opt for one that provides the correct
combination of breakdown voltage and ON resistance.
SINGLE PHASE FULL WAVE
CONTROLLED RECTIFIER
Single Phase Full Wave Controlled Rectifier with ‘R’ load:
Figure below shows the Single phase Full Wave Controlled Rectifiers with R load
• The single phase fully controlled rectifier allows conversion of single phase AC into DC. Normally this is
used in various applications such as battery charging, speed control of DC motors and front end of UPS
(Uninterruptible Power Supply) and SMPS (Switched Mode Power Supply).
• All four devices used are thyristors. The turn-on instants of these devices are dependent on the firing signals
that are given. Turn-off happens when the current through the device reaches zero and it is reverse biased at
least for duration equal to the turn-off time of the device specified in the data sheet.
• In positive half cycle thyristors T1 & T2 are fired at an angle α .
• When T1 & T2 conducts
Vo=Vs
IO=is=Vo/R=Vs/R
• In negative half cycle of input voltage, SCR’s T3 &T4 are triggered at an angle of (π+α)
• Here output current & supply current are in opposite direction
∴ is=-io
T3 & T4 becomes off at 2π.
Single Phase Full Wave Controlled Rectifier with ‘RL’ load:
Figure below shows Single phase Full Wave Controlled Rectifiers with RL load.
Operation of this mode can be divided between four modes
Mode 1 (α toπ)
• In positive half cycle of applied ac signal, SCR’s T1 & T2 are forward bias & can be turned on at an angle α.
• Load voltage is equal to positive instantaneous ac supply voltage. The load current is positive, ripple free,
constant and equal to Io.
• Due to positive polarity of load voltage & load current, load inductance will store energy.
Mode 2 (π toπ+α)
• At wt=π, input supply is equal to zero & after π it becomes negative. But inductance opposes any change
through it.
• In order to maintain a constant load current & also in same direction. A self inducedemf appears across ‘L’ as
shown.
• Due to this induced voltage, SCR’s T1 & T2 are forward bais in spite the negative supply voltage.
• The load voltage is negative & equal to instantaneous ac supply voltage whereas load current is positive.
• Thus, load acts as source & stored energy in inductance is returned back to the ac supply.
Mode 3 (π+α to 2π)
• At wt=π+α SCR’s T3 & T4 are turned on & T1, T2 are reversed bias.
• Thus , process of conduction is transferred from T1,T2 to T3,T4.
• Load voltage again becomes positive & energy is stored in inductor
• T3, T4 conduct in negative half cycle from (π+α) to 2π
• With positive load voltage & load current energy gets stored
Mode 4 (2π to 2π+α)
• At wt=2π, input voltage passes through zero.
• Inductive load will try to oppose any change in current if in order to maintain load current constant & in the
same direction.
• Induced emf is positive & maintains conducting SCR’s T3 & T4 with reverse polarity also.
• Thus VL is negative & equal to instantaneous ac supply voltage. Whereas load current continues to be
positive.
• Thus load acts as source & stored energy in inductance is returned back to ac supply
• At wt=α or 2π+α, T3 & T4 are commutated and T1,T2 are turned on.
What is an Ideal Op Amp?
An ideal op amp is an op amp that has perfect conditions to allow it to function as an op amp with 100%
efficiency.

An ideal op amp will display the following characeristics, of which are all explained in detail below. Ideal
op amps will have infinite voltage gain, infinitely high impedance, zero output impedance, its gain is
independent of input frequency, it has zero voltage offset, its output can swing positive or negative to the
same voltages as the supply rails, and its output swings instantly to the correct value.

In real life, as with all ideal components, an ideal op amp does not exist. However, if we can get an op
amp to display as close as possible the characteristics of an ideal op amp as closely, we can make a
more efficient op amp that has better output in real-world conditions.

Now we will go over all of these characteristics of an ideal op amp mentioned above, so that you can
know what each is and so the difference between an ideal case and a real case. Below is a table that
charts each of the major characteristics of an op amp and how they differ in ideal and real op amps.

Ideal Op Amp Characteristics

Characteristics Ideal Op Amp Real Op Amp

An ideal op amp will have infinite voltage gain. Op


amps are devices that many times are used to
function as amplifiers. A voltage is input into the op
Infinite Voltage amp and as output, it produces the voltage A real op amp can only
Gain amplified. An ideal op amp will produce mega-gain, produce a finite gain.
practically, it will be able to produce infinite gain. It
will amplify the signal infinite times over so that we
can have as much gain as we'd ever need.

An ideal op amp will have infintely high


input impedance. This will ensure that the op amp A real op amp has finite input
causes no loading in the circuit. The lower the input impedance. Even though
impedance, the more current that an op amp will many types of op amps, such
Infinitely high
draw. The higher the impedance, the lower the as MOSFETs, have extremely
input impedance
current that an op will draw. We want high input high input impedance, in the
impedance so that the op amp doesn't disturb the order of teraohms, it is still
original circuit by pulling current from it. To do this, finite.
we need infinitely high input impedance.

An ideal op amp will have zero output impedance. A real op amp will always
When an op amp produces its output signal, we have some output
Zero Output want the op amp to have zero voltage so that the impedance, though it is low.
Impedance maximum voltage will be transferred to the output A typical value can be
load. Voltage is divided in a circuit according to the 75Ω.
amount of impedance present in a circuit. Voltage
drops across a component of higher impedance. In
order for the voltage to drop across the output load,
that load must be of greater impedance than the
output of the op amp. This is why, ideally, we want
the output impedance of the op amp to be zero

In real op amps, the gain that


In an ideal op amp, the gain that the op amp
is produced is only for a
produces will be independent of frequency. This
certain bandwidth of
Gain Independent means that regardless of the frequency of the input
frequencies. Outside of this
of Frequency signal going into the op amp, the gain that is
bandwidth, the gain that the
produced will be constant and good across all
op amp produces will
frequencies.
decline.

A real op amp will have slight


In an ideal op amp, if no voltage is applied to the offset even if the voltage
Zero Input Voltage inverting and noninverting input pins, the op amp applied to the pins are the
Offset will output a voltage of 0, since there is no difference same. To correct this offset,
at all of the voltage applied to the 2 input pins. voltage must be applied to
the offset pin.

In an ideal op amp, the ac voltage which is fed into


Positive and the op amp to be amplified will swing all the way up In real op amps, the
Negative Voltage for the DC positive supply rail and all the way down amplified signal will not fully
Swings to Supply for the DC negative supply rail, making 100% reach the DC supply rails.
Rails efficient use of the DC voltage supplied to an op They will fall short of it.
amp.

In real op amps, the


In an ideal op amp, the output will swing instantly to
amplified signal will take
Output swings the amplified voltage value. There will be no time
time to reach the fully
instantly to the delay between the time the voltage is input into the
amplified voltage value. This
correct value op amp till the time it is output. It will all be
is determined by the slew
instantaneous.
rate of the op amp.
Again, ideal op amps can't exist because op amps, as all electronic components, will have some internal
resistance, which won't allow maximum efficiency. However, if we can get real op amps as closely as
possible to ideal conditions, we will have very efficient, useful op amps.
C2. Example curent controlled device a diode or BJT : the input voltage changes little as the input current changes a large amount
SCR, GTO, GTR C3: Example voltage curent controlled device a vacuum tube or FET: the input impedance is very high so the
input current is not well-determined. The input power factor is improved.  It prevents the output voltage from becoming
negative.  The Load current waveform is improved. The input power factor is improved.  It prevents the output voltage from
becoming negative.  The Load current waveform is improved. IGBT, MCT, IGCT, SIT 4. What are the advantages of free
wheeling diode in rectifier circuit? The input power factor is improved It prevents the oputput voltage from becoming negative
The Load current waveform is improved 6. What are characteristic of ideal OPamp Infinite open loop voltage gain Infinite input
impedance Zero output impedance Infinite Bandwidth Zero offset voltage 7. what are the different types of power mosfet +
Planar power MOSFET: This is often thought of as the basic form of power MOSFET. This form of device is good for high
voltage ratings because the ON resistance is dominated by the epi-layer resistance. This structure is generally used when a high
cell density is not needed. + VMOS: VMOS power MOSFETs have been available for many years. The basic concept uses a V
groove structure to enable a more vertical flow of the current, thereby providing lower ON resistance levels and better switching
characteristics. Read more about VMOS FETs +UMOS: The UMOS version of the power MOSFET uses a grove similar to that
the VMOS FET. However the grove has a flatter bottom to it and provides some different advantages. Read more about UMOS
FETs + TrenchMOS: Again the TrenchMOS power MOSFET uses a similar basic grove or trench in the basic silicon to provide
better handling capacity and characteristics. In particular, Trench power MOSFETs are mainly used for voltages above 200 volts
because of their channel density and hence their lower ON resistance. Read more about TrenchMOS +HEXFET: This form of
power MOSFET uses a hexagonal structure to provide the current capability. 8. what are the different method to turn on the
thysristor ? When forward biased, Uak> 0, the thyristor can be opened in two ways. First, it is possible to increase the anode-
cathode voltage until the maximum forward voltage value, Uth, max is reached. The equivalent resistor in the anode-cathode
circuit will suddenly drop and the thyristor current will be completely due to the circuit. beyond identification. This method is in
fact not applied due to unwanted open cause and does not always increase the voltage to the value of Uth, max. Furthermore, it is
the case that the thyristor opens itself under the action of voltage pulses at a random, unforeseen time. The second method,
applied in practice, is to put a certain value current pulse on the control poles and cathode. The controlled current pulse changes
the state of the thyristor from a high impedance to a low impedance at a small anode-cathode voltage. If the current through the
anode-cathode is greater than a certain value called the maintenance current (Idt), the thyristor will continue to be in the current
conduction state without the existence of a control current pulse. This means that the thyristors can be controlled by pulse pulses
of a certain pulse width, so the power of the control circuit may be very small, compared to the capacity of the force circuit where
the thyristor is a closed element. cut, control current.
Kết thúc cuộc trò chuyện
Nhập tin nhắn...