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UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

ANTIOXIDANTS HEALTHY ICE CREAM

Report_Assignment 3

GROUP 19

GROUP PERSONNEL:
DINDA WULAN ALINDI (1606831533)
FARADILLA ANDIANI PRATIWI (1606886173)
MAROSTA WIDIGARKA (1606887346)
NAZRUL RAHMAN (1606905216)
RAFDIAUFAR HAZMAN HAKIM (1606895165)
SULTAN SHIDDIQI SALMAN (1606905374)

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT


ENGINEERING FACULTY
UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA
MARCH 2019
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
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LIST OF CONTENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY..................................................................................... 2
LIST OF CONTENT .............................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................ 4
LIST OF TABLES .................................................................................................. 5
CHAPTER 1 PRODUCT SPECIFICATION ......................................................... 6
1.1 Background ............................................................................................. 6
1.2 Product Positioning ................................................................................. 6
1.3 Product Ingredients ................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.3.1. Product Composition........................................................................... 6
1.3.2. Product Specification .......................................................................... 6
CHAPTER 2 PRODUCT DESIGN AND COMMUNICATION VISUAL ........... 7
2.1 Profile of Company ................................................................................. 7
2.2 Brand ....................................................................................................... 7
2.3 Tagline..................................................................................................... 8
2.4 Logo ........................................................................................................ 8
2.5 Product Prototype Design ....................................................................... 9
2.6 Packaging Prototype Design ................................................................... 9
CHAPTER 3 PRODUCT MANUFACTURING .................................................. 11
3.1 Market Analysis .................................................................................... 11
3.1.1. Market Segmentation ........................................................................ 11
3.1.2. Market Capacity ................................................................................ 11
3.2 Raw Material ......................................................................................... 11
3.3 Block Flow Diagram ..............................Error! Bookmark not defined.
3.4 Equipment Specification ....................................................................... 11
3.5 Mass and Energy Balance ..................................................................... 16
3.5.1. Mass Balance .................................................................................... 22
3.5.2. Energy Balance ................................................................................. 22
3.6 Process Scheduling ............................................................................... 23
3.7 Process Distribution Entities ................................................................. 23
3.8 Plant Location ....................................................................................... 23
3.9 Plant Layout .......................................................................................... 23
CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSION ............................................................................... 24
REFERENCES...................................................................................................... 24
4

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1 Mind Map of Existing Concept Ice Cream Product .. Error! Bookmark
not defined.
Figure 1.2. Mind Map of New Concept Ice Cream Product Error! Bookmark not
defined.
Figure 1.3 Mind Map of Existing and New Concept Ice Cream Product ...... Error!
Bookmark not defined.
Figure 2.1. Questionnaire Form for Antioxidant Healthy Ice Cream ............ Error!
Bookmark not defined.
Figure 2.2. Percentage of Respondents’ Age .........Error! Bookmark not defined.
Figure 2.3. Respondents’ Interaction with Ice Cream Product ... Error! Bookmark
not defined.
Figure 2.4. Percentage of Respondents’ Price Range Preference for Antioxidant
Healthy Ice Cream..................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
Figure 2.5. Percentage of Respondents’ Interest in Buying Antioxidant Healthy
Ice Cream ...............................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
Figure 2.6. Percentage of Respondents’ Preference in Ice Cream Texture ... Error!
Bookmark not defined.
Figure 3.1 Conceptual Map ....................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
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LIST OF TABLES

Table 1.1 List of Specifications .............................Error! Bookmark not defined.


Table 1.2 Existing Ice Cream Concept ..................Error! Bookmark not defined.
Table 1.3 Existing Ice Cream Concept ..................Error! Bookmark not defined.
Table 1.4 List of Ice Cream Concept .....................Error! Bookmark not defined.
Table 2.1 Concept Selection by RVF Method .......Error! Bookmark not defined.
Table 2.2. List of Criteria .......................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
Table 2.3. List of Concept Screening .....................Error! Bookmark not defined.
Table 2.4. the Description of Score Weight ...........Error! Bookmark not defined.
Table 2.5. Rating the Concept Ideas ......................Error! Bookmark not defined.
Table 2.6. Concept Scoring ....................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
Table 3.1. Concept Specification ...........................Error! Bookmark not defined.
6

CHAPTER 1
PRODUCT SPECIFICATION

1.1 Background
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1.2 Product Positioning
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1.3 Product Ingredients
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1.3.1. Product Composition
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1.3.2. Product Specification
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CHAPTER 2
PRODUCT DESIGN AND COMMUNICATION VISUAL

2.1 Profile of Company


The name of this new company is PT. Oxy Healthy Ice Cream. As a new
company that’s going to enter the market and compete with other existing
companies on the same product type, our goal is to create a new trend for the people
and socialize that eating healthy food and tasty food doesn’t have to be a separated
product. Our company will keep on developing our product and create a healthy ice
cream dessert that is not only tasty, but also a healthy food, and could be eaten as a
regular everyday food. Our company will distribute our product to restaurants that
sells healthy ice cream products, and opens our own retail stands. The profit will be
divided by agreements. The highest decision of this company is determined by
shareholders meeting whereas are attended by chief executives and directors with
several managers. PT Oxy Healthy Ice Cream is a local private company that
manufactures our own products and gains capital from bank loans and stock
investors.
2.2 Brand
The brand of this new antioxidant healthy ice cream is Loxy. We pick our
product name based on the catchiest abbreviation from antioxidant healthy ice
cream. The “LO” comes from low fat and low sugar content that is because we set
our product to be as healthy as possible but also still consider how it will affect the
taste of the product. The “X” comes from the most stand out letter from antioxidant,
we didn’t put another “O” because it would be catchier to mix it through. And lastly,
we chose the letter “Y” from the word healthy. Thus, we have “Loxy” as our brand.
We also try to point out our main feature of the product because our
company is going to compete in the world of healthy ice cream, we put ahead the
low fat and low sugar content and also the antioxidant content to make our product
stands out more in the market, because the other competitors mostly only points out
the “low fat and low sugar”, but our company made this Loxy product that stands
out from the most of the products that’s on the market. By adding this antioxidant
content will point out that antioxidants will give a lot of benefits for the human
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health such as prevents radicals from entering the body, tightening up the skin, and
many more benefits.
2.3 Tagline
Our tagline is “Healthy can be tasty!” comes from our product that is not
only tasty but also have antioxidant contents and low fat and low sugar which makes
it beneficial for the human health. We point out that ice cream that have a stereotype
of high in sugar and can be fattening, we here have a duty to overcome that
stereotype by convincing the customers that our product does not only offers a great
taste of refreshing dessert but also offers a great health benefit by the low fat and
low sugar content, and we also modify it by adding antioxidant to give more
benefits to the human body to help get rid of the bad stereotype, so that customers
does not have to be afraid of eating ice cream.
2.4 Logo
Logo is an important representation for a new product. A logo is also used
to attract people to buy the product. Catchy logo will help the product to be
remembered by people. The logo of the product is shown below.

Figure 2.1. Logo of The New Product of Antioxidant Healthy Ice Cream

The logo shows ice cream in the colour of white and brown which represents
the choices of vanilla and chocolate taste for the product. The heart with the smiley
face in the cup symbolizes healthy benefits of the ice cream for the organs and body.
The colour pink symbolizes liveliness and nurturing, that is the expected effect after
consuming this antioxidant healthy ice cream.
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2.5 Product Prototype Design


The prototype of this product is soft and creamy ice cream in chocolate and
vanilla flavour. This product contains antioxidant from cinnamon and aloe vera
which contains large amounts of highly potent polyphenol antioxidants. The
product contains low amount of fat and sugar which can reduce risks caused from
high amount of fat and sugar. The sweetness of this product comes from stevia, an
artificial sweetener that does not contain any calories. Each serving is already
concentrated in the suitable amount of every ingredients in order to reach the
healthy purpose from this product. Consumers will not harm their healthy diet by
consuming this product, on the contrary they will gain a lot of healthy benefits from
the antioxidant, such as protect against the cell damage that caused by free radicals.
2.6 Packaging Prototype Design
The packaging of this product is plastic tube available in two sizes, 1 litre and
250 ml. The tube is round and has a lid to protect the ice cream from contaminant.
The material is polypropylene plastic suitbale for direct food contact and freezing.
The logo and ingredients information can be directly printed onto the packaging.

Figure 2.2. View of the product packaging


The ice cream is available in two sizes to accommodate the needs of the
customer. The smaller size can be consumed personally, for the bigger size it can
be used to accommodate the needs of restaurant or reseller of the product.
The secondary packaging will be made of single-walled cardboard with the
size of 40 x 24 x 16 cm, so that each of the secondary package can contains up to
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30 containers of 250 ml. For 1 litre, the single-walled cardboard is the size of 43 x
32 x 23 cm, so each of the secondary package can contains up to 24 container of 1
litre ice cream. The colour of this package will be brown with Loxy logo and some
regulation-obligated content.

Figure 2.3. Appearance of single-walled cardboard


(Source: www.dinastindopratama.com)

16 23
cm cm

Figure 2.4. Appearance and dimensions of the secondary packaging


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CHAPTER 3
PRODUCT MANUFACTURING

3.1 Market Analysis


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3.1.1. Market Segmentation
LALALALA
3.1.2. Market Capacity
LALALALA
3.2 Raw Material
LALALALALA
3.3 Manufacturing Process
3.3.1. Block Flow Diagram
In designing manufacturing process, first, we should start at the simplest
design of a plant which is Block Flow Diagram (BFD), the simple flow of process
made from blocks. The BFD of manufacturing process of Healthy Antioxidant Ice
cream explain the process in creating ice cream at plant scale. The BFD will explain
the overall process principle in order to give an easier understanding of
manufacturing process. The BFD of Healthy Antioxidant Ice Cream is presented at
Figure 3.X below.

Figure 3.X Block Flow Diagram on Manufacturing Process of Healthy Antioxidant Ice
Cream
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BFD is used as a fundamental design in order to design the detail and


complexity of process. The BFD can be used to design the process efficiently and
economically. So, designing BFD at the start will be an important step before
designing the plant. After designing the BFD, we should make process detail to
cover the disadvantages of BFD which is its simplicity.
3.3.2. Process Description and Operation Condition
From the BFD figure above, each process in the diagram can be described.
The description of process will give an explanation about how the process works
and the ideal operation to produce efficient and economical process. The operation
gives a preview about product quality.
a. Creaming
In order to manufacture low fat ice cream, the whole milk have to be
processed to remove the fat content from the milk. The process to remove fat
from whole milk are called creaming. Fat from whole milk are removed by
placing the whole milk into centrifugal separator. The centrifugal separator will
spins some of the fat globules out of the milk which leaves the low fat milk
behind.
b. Mixing
The second step in processing ice cream is composing the mix. The
ingredient are selected based on the ingredient formulation and calculation of
the recipe. The ingredients are weighted and mixed together to produce what is
known as ice cream mix. The amounts of liquid ingredients are measured with
a calibrated measuring stick, directly added as predetermined volumes or
weights. The mixing process requires rapid agitation in order to incorporate
powder into the mix, which is why, the mixing process use a high speed
blenders. All liquid ingredients (milk, cream, concentrated milk, syrup, etc.) are
placed in the vat, and the agitation and heating are started at once.
In order to facilitate operation with a fully liquid system, it is often required
to dissolve the dry ingredients needed in the mix. These are usually made in
concentrated form and stored refrigerated until needed. The pre-treatment of
dry ingredients are important that such ingredients be hydrated to the same
concentration from batch to batch. Liquefying dry ingredients well ahead of
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time for their use, permits foam to dissipate and colloidal substances to hydrate
fully.
c. Batch Pasteurization
Pasteurization of all mixes are required because the process destroys all
pathogenic microorganisms, in order to safeguarding the health of consumers.
Furthermore, most hydrolytic enzymes, even the natural ones which contains in
raw milk that could change the ice cream flavor and texture are destroyed by
pasteurization. But, pasteurization adds additional expense into the manufacture
process because it is necessary to heat up the mix in order to dissolve or hydrate
dry ingredients.
Pasteurization consists in rapidly heating to a definite minimal temperature
and holding at that temperature for a minimal time, then rapidly cools down the
mix to <5°C. The main function of Pasteurization are consist of below:
• Renders the mix substantially free of vegetative microorganisms,
killing all of the pathogens likely to be in the ingredients,
• Brings solids into solution,
• Aids in mixing by melting the fat and decreasing the viscosity,
• Improves flavor of most mixes,
• Maintain and extends mix quality to a few weeks, and
• Increases the uniformity of the product.
In the batch system, the mix is usually compounded in the vat. During the
pasteurization process, heat is applied by circulating hot water between the
double walls of the vat, while the ingredients are being added and blended. Once
all ingredients have been added to the vat and the minimal temperature of 69°C
has been achieved, the pasteurization process is started. As soon as the minimal
time of heating of 30 min has elapsed, mix is pumped through the homogenizer
and then to a continuous cooling device.
d. Two-stage Homogenization
The main purpose of homogenization is to make a stable and uniform
suspension of the fat by reducing the size of fat globules to less than about 2
μm. When a mix is properly homogenized, the fat will not rise and form a cream
layer nor will the frozen product have a greasy or buttery appearance or
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mouthfeel. Homogenization is usually accomplished by forcing the mix through


a very small orifice under suitable conditions of pressure and temperature, using
a positive displacement pump to provide the pressure.
Homogenization efficiency increases with increases in temperature.
Because the homogenization precedes pasteurization by several seconds and the
mix is composed of raw milk, the minimum temperature for homogenization is
60°C. At this temperature, milk lipase is virtually inactivated, ensuring that
lipolysis will not take place as the protective membrane is stripped from the fat
globules during homogenization. Furthermore, higher temperatures limit
clumping of fat globules and reduce the energy needed to run the homogenizer.
Mixes vary in their fat content and other components which made several
homogenizer valve designs exist because pressures necessary to produce
adequate dispersion of fat also vary. The process required two-stage
homogenization with the first stage at 2000 psig in order to break fat molecule
in mix containing 10%w of fat. Under usual conditions, fat globules tend to
cluster upon exiting the first homogenizing valve. This is overcomes by
operating the second stage homogenizer at a low pressure, which is 500 psig.
Pressure of 500 psig on the second-stage homogenizer is generally satisfactory
for cluster breakup regardless of the quantity of fat in the mix.
e. Cooling
The ice-cream mix enters the pasteurizer at a temperature of 60°C and is
then heated to 85°C. Prior to ageing, the mix needs to be cooled to 4°C and
maintained at that temperature while in the ageing process. The cooling phase
consists of two steps. In the first step, the ice-cream is cooled to 70°C by
regenerative heat-exchange and in the second step, cooling water is used to
further cooling to approximately 20°C. The final temperature of 4°C is then
achieved by cooling the mix with ice-water.
f. Ageing
After cooled to 4°C, the mix is then aged for at least four hours and usually
overnight. The ageing is used to allow time for the fat to cooldown and
crystallize, and for the proteins and polysaccharides to fully hydrate. Ageing is
performed in insulated or refrigerated storage tanks and silos. Mix temperature
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should be maintained as low as possible without freezing. An aging time


overnight usually gives the best result under average plant condition which
improve whipping quality of the mix and improve the ice cream texture.
g. Continuous Freezing
After ageing process, the mix is drawn into a flavor tank where any
liquid flavors are added. Following that, the mix then enters the dynamic
freezing process which both freezes a portion of the water and whips air into
the frozen mix. The dynamic freezing process are done by a heat exchanger
called the barrel freezer.

Figure 3.X Continuous Ice Cream Barrel Freezer


(Source: www.uoguelph.ca)
The barrel freezer is a scraped-surface, tubular heat exchanger, which is
jacketed with a boiling refrigerant. Mix is pumped through this freezer and is
drawn off the other end in 30 seconds with about 50% of its water frozen. The
rotating blades inside the barrel keeps the ice scraped off the surface of the
freezer and there are also dashers inside the machine which help to whip the
mix and incorporate air.
Soft ice cream generally contains a considerable quantity of air, up to half
of its volume. This gives the product its characteristic lightness. Ice cream
without air would be similar to a frozen ice cube. The amount of air in ice cream
are termed as overrun which can be calculated mathematically. In soft-serve ice
cream, the mix keeps this semi-frozen slurry consistency and then continued to
the packaging process.
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h. Packaging
Mixes are prepared in a large plant for sale to ice cream retailers who freeze
ice cream on the premises where retail sales take place. Filling is done on the
same equipment used for fluid milk, and the containers for the packaging are
firm-walled plastic. After filling, the packaging are sealed using plastic which
gives the containers the product brand logos. After sealing, the plastic are
distributed in cartons.
i. Finished Product
Product that have been placed in the carton packaging would be stored in
storage room until it is delivered to the supplier or to the market.
3.4 Equipment Specification
3.4.1 Centrifugal Separator

(Source: www.alibaba.com)

A separator that is used for separating the fat content inside the
milk in order to decrease the fat content inside the milk. The material is
the milk from cow from the milk supplier.

Product Name Manual Centrifuge Milk Separator


Brand Juneng
Capacity 1000-1500 L/H
Weight 520 Kg
Motor Power 4 kW
Dimension 810 x 850 x 1350 mm3
Price $17.910/unit
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(source: Alibaba.com)

3.4.2 Vacuum Homogenizer Mixer

(Source: www.alibaba.com)

Mixer is used for combining the materials that are in the form of
liquid, such as milk and liquified sugar, excluding the liquified gelatin. The
purpose of this unit is to mix the milk and the sugar compound into a
homogenized mixture.
Product Name Vacuum Homogenizer Mixer/ High
Pressure Milk Homogenizer
Brand Hento
Capacity 500-2000 L/H
Weight 100 Kg
Motor Power 5.5 kW-37 kW
Dimension 1030 x 450 x 990 mm3
Price $3.599/unit
(source: Alibaba.com)
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3.4.3 Milk Pasteurizer

(sumber: www.alibaba.com)

Pasteurizer is used for the process pasteurization, a process in which


a certain packaged and non-packaged food such as milk and its derivatives
are treated with mild heat, usually less than 100oC (212oF), to eliminate the
pathogens and extends shelf life.
Product Name 2015 New Design Milk Pasteurizer for
Milk Processing
Brand Flourish
Capacity 730-910 L
Weight 380-800 Kg
Motor Power 1.5 kW-5.5 kW
Dimension 920 x 920 x 1400 mm3 – 1400 x 1400
x 2000 mm3
Price $2.680/unit
(source: Alibaba.com)
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3.4.4 Two-stage Homogenizer

(sumber: www.alibaba.com)

Two-stage homogenizer is used for the homogenization process, a


process to make a stable and uniform suspension of the fat by reducing the
size of fat globules to less than about 2 μm. The homogenization process
are done in two stages in order to break fat molecule. The first stage break
fat molecule at 2000 psig in mix containing 10%w fat. The second stage
operates at lower pressure at 500 psig in order to break fat cluster after first
stage.
Product Name Two stages Milk Processing Types
dairy homogenizer
Brand SAMRO
Capacity 2000 L
Weight 2500 Kg
Motor Power 7.5 kW-15 kW
Dimension 1600 x 1100 x 1600 mm3
Price $4.500/unit
(source: Alibaba.com)
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3.4.5 Cooling vessel


Product Name Sanitary Heating and cooling jacket
mixing vessel
Brand HUNDOM
Capacity 10000L
Weight
Motor Power 0.75 kW-75 kW
Dimension 550 mm3 x 500 mm3 x 914.4 mm3
Price $10,000/unit

3.4.6 Cooling heat exchanger stage 1 & 2

Product Name Heat Exchanger Plate Milk Cooling

Brand Jiangxing
Weight 105 Kg
Liquid Flow Rate 2.5 m/s
Max. Working Pressure 3 MPa
Dimension 429 mm2 x 125 mm2 – 2246 mm2 x
746 mm2
Price $5,000/unit
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3.4.7 Ageing storage tank


Ice cream needs to undergo the ageing process in order for allowing
the fat to cooldown and crystalize, and for the protein and poly saccharides
to fully hydrate.

(Source: www.alibaba.com)

Product Name Stainless steel jacketed ice cream tank


Brand Beyond
Capacity 2500
Weight 300 Kg
Power 3 kW
Dimension 2000 x 2000 x 2940 mm3
Price $8.000/unit
(Source: Alibaba.com)
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3.4.8 Continuous freezing tank


3.4.9 Packaging filler
3.4.10 Packaging belt conveyor
3.4.11 Storage before distribution

3.5 Mass and Energy Balance


LALALALALA
3.5.1. Mass Balance
LALALALALA
3.5.2. Energy Balance
The analysis of energy balance is very important in the manufacturing of a
product, especially in the calculation of economical revenue. Every day, the factory
will always need electricity as the source of energy of its operation. The
manufacturer tries to roughly estimate the need of electricity power the factory and
assess the power supply needed in each of the process. The energy balance should
be calculated too in terms of determining how much energy is required in every
process and every day by using that equipment in the author’s manufacturing area.
The power usage is based on equipment’s energy specification and duration of
equipment operation. The calculation of the energy balance is shown in the table
below.
Table x.xx Energy Balance for One Day

Power per Working Time Total Power


Equipment quantity equipment per per equipment Consumed
hour (kW) (hour) (kWh)
Centrifugal
1 4 1.66 6.64
Separator
Vacuum
Homogenizer 1 30 1.5 45
Mixer
Pasteurizer 1 5.5 2.5 13.75
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2 Stage
Homogenization 1 15 2.66 39.9
Vessel
Cooling Vessel 1 45 1.33 59.85
2 Stage Heat
2 220 1.33 292.6
Exchanger
Ageing Storage
5 3 23 69
Tank
Continuous
1 24.2 1.83 44.286
freezing tank
Filler 1 1.5 1.5 2.25
Belt Conveyor 1 70 1.5 105
Total Energy Consumption Per Day (kWh) 678.276
(source: Personal Data, 2019)

3.6 Process Scheduling


Process Scheduling is related to the time needed to produce the product based
on market share and production capacity. Process Scheduling is important is order
to optimize the process time to manufacture the product. To determine how long
each manufacturing process takes, all of the factor affecting the process should take
into account, including the mass balance, etc. In the scheduling part, the most
efficient time of product manufacturing cycle is determined in order to reduce
useless energy consumption which will reduce the manufacturing cost. The process
scheduling are shown below for a manufacturing cycle in one day.
3.7 Process Distribution Entities
LALALALALA
3.8 Plant Location
LALALALALA
3.9 Plant Layout
LALALALALA
CHAPTER 4
CONCLUSION
• LALALALALALALALALALALALALALALA

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