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May 06, 2019

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modelling notes for Dynamic modelling and control of engineering

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Modelling 334

Test Week 2016 Notes

Compiled by CM Heunis

cmheunis@sun.ac.za

0721028238

These notes serve as guidelines for the coming Test Week for Modelling 334 (2016).

PLEASE NOTE:

If you study these notes you will stand a good chance to do well in the coming test

BUT you still need to work out additional examples

Do all the Tutorials

Do all the Tutorial Tests

Work out ALL previous test week tests and / or examinations

Contained within these notes will be a few shortcuts that will help you throughout your

studying process, as well as in the test.

Test information:

Time: 14:00 – 16:00

Venue: A107, A403A/B, A303B, A204 (to be confirmed)

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CM HEUNIS © 2016 MOD 334 TEST WEEK A1

Table of Contents

1. INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................... 3

2. EQUATIONS OF MOTION................................................................................................................. 4

3. LINEARIZATION ............................................................................................................................... 6

4. STATE MODELS................................................................................................................................ 7

List of Tables

Table 1 – Steps to solve IO-system ......................................................................................................... 5

Table 2 – Steps to Linearize a Non-Linear equation ............................................................................... 7

Table 3 – Steps to solve a system using State Models ............................................................................ 8

Table 4 – SOLVING Homogeneous Solution of A 2ND ORDER DE METHOD 1 ...................................... 10

Table 5 – SOLVING A 2ND ORDER DE METHOD 2 ................................................................................... 13

Table 6 – SOLVING A MIXED SYSTEM.................................................................................................... 16

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CM HEUNIS © 2016 MOD 334 TEST WEEK A1

1. INTRODUCTION

Throughout the Test Week test, you will be required to solve different types of DE’s (Differential

Equations).

1. What is a DE?

It is simply a mathematical equation that relates some function with its derivatives.

Example:

2𝑥 ′′ + 3𝑥 ′ − 2𝑥 + 3 = 0

2. What content will be covered?

Systems & Linearization

Solutions of DE’s - First and Second Order systems

State Models

Electrical, Thermal, Fluid and Mixed Systems

3. What are we going to do with the DE’s (i.e. what type of questions could we expect)?

The first thing you should know, is that the main aspect of the test would be to see whether you can

SOLVE a DE. This will be determined by means of the following questions:

Calculate the steady state of 𝑥 for the question

Derive the operating temperature of a resistor in a circuit, given the DE

Linearize the diﬀerential equation around the operating point

Derive the equations of the state model

Derive the differential equations that describe spring mass damper combinations, LRC

networks, DC motors, fluid and thermal systems, any combination of the above

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CM HEUNIS © 2016 MOD 334 TEST WEEK A1

The test is one of the three formal assessment opportunities, namely the first opportunity (A1) which

takes place during test week. MOD334 uses the flexible assessment rules:

You are free to obtain any mark for the test – there is no “valskerm”

Access to A2 (November examination): No class mark is required - you will write A2, no matter

what your mark is. A2 may not be postponed.

The marks obtained in A1 are normally published within three weeks after the assessment on

SUNLearn or a similar manner. A student must at least obtain 40% in A2 or A3 in order to pass

the module. If you must write A1, A2 and A3, you must obtain 50%

THEREFORE TRY TO DO AS GOOD AS POSSIBLE IN A1 AND A2

To summarize:

0.125 ∗ (𝑇𝑢𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝐴𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑔𝑒 + 𝐸𝑥𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑚𝑎𝑟𝑘) + 0.25 ∗ 𝑇𝑒𝑠𝑡 + 0.5 ∗ 𝐸𝑥𝑎𝑚 > 50%

You have to get more than 40% in the first exam.

2. EQUATIONS OF MOTION

1. Definition

Equations of motion will be used to identify the general equations of a moving body. We are going to

focus on two types of equations, namely Translational and Rotational Systems.

2. General Equations

Translational Systems

1. Mass force: 𝐹𝑚 = 𝑚𝑥̈

2. Spring 𝐹𝑘 = 𝑘𝑥

3. Damper 𝐹𝑏 = 𝑏𝑥̇

Rotational Systems

1. Mass Inertia: 𝑇𝑚 = 𝐽𝜃̈

2. Spring 𝑇𝑘 = 𝑘𝜃

3. Damper 𝑇𝑏 = 𝑏𝜃̇

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CM HEUNIS © 2016 MOD 334 TEST WEEK A1

The following Table will explain the steps necessary to solve an Input-Output system. Please refer to

the Examples on Slides 18-71 from Lecture 1 as well.

1. Sketch Free-Body Diagram

and take note of the 1. Note the direction of the arrow of

positive direction. movement. Acceleration and velocity

2. ALWAYS start with the are in that direction, and damping is

Spring and / or Damper. in the opposite direction.

Determine the CHOOSE a direction for the 2. The masses next to these systems

general equation compression or extension of will have arrows in opposite

of an INPUT the spring / damper directions.

OUTPUT system 3. Use equilibrium to 3. For translational components:

determine equations of ∑ 𝐹 = 𝑚𝑥̈

components For rotational components: ∑ 𝑇 = 𝐽𝜃̈

4. Use equilibrium to 4. Substitute all equations to form one

determine equations of equation

system

Table 1 – Steps to solve IO-system

4. Notes:

Note that if you start off by stating that 𝑥 is positive in the right direction, you should remain

consistent

Rest assured that as long as you assume this, your answer will be correct (given that your

calculations are all correct w.r.t. the sign.

You can choose your own directions for a spring and damper. As long as they are opposite

directions on each side. Furthermore, you should then comply with the original positive

direction that will be given in the question.

Always test your answer: Double check that each term on the right has a + sign. Then you

know you have done it correctly.

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CM HEUNIS © 2016 MOD 334 TEST WEEK A1

3. LINEARIZATION

1. Definition

When solving a system, you will find that sometimes, one of the dampers / springs is NOT linear. A

force in a spring / damper can be non-linear if it contains

• 𝑥 2 / 𝑥 𝑛 / √𝑥

o 𝑦′ ∙ 𝑦

o 𝑦 ′′ ∙ 3𝑦

o 5𝑦 ′ ∙ 𝑦 ′′

2. General Equation

̅ = normal operating point – this is the value (usually in meters), that defines the average distance of

𝒙

𝑥 , and is usually done at steady state conditions (i.e. when 𝑥̇ = 0 ). It also refers to a state of

equilibrium:

̅ 𝑵𝑳𝑺 = 𝒇𝑵𝑳 (𝒙

𝑭 ̅)

̂ = small variation value – a value that defines the percentage of tolerance / error present in the

𝒙

linearization phase. These variations lead to the following equation

̅+𝒙

𝒙=𝒙 ̂

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CM HEUNIS © 2016 MOD 334 TEST WEEK A1

1. Derive DE using Table 1 1. For example,

𝐹𝑖 = 𝑚1 𝑥̈ 1 + 𝑏𝑥̇ 1 + 2,5√𝑥

2. Introduce 𝑥 = 𝑥̅ (linearize) ̅𝑖 = 𝑚1 ̅̅̅

2. 𝐹 𝑥̈ 1 + 𝑏𝑥̇̅̅̅1 + 2,5√𝑥̅ = 2,5√𝑥̅

3. This can only be done if 𝐹

̅𝑖 + 𝐹 ̂1̈ + 𝑏𝑥̇̅̅̅1 +

𝑥̈ 1 + 𝑚1 𝑥

̂1̇ + 2,5√𝑥̅ + 𝑥̂

𝑏𝑥

̅𝑖 + 𝐹

5. 𝐹 ̂1̈ + 𝑏𝑥

̂𝑖 = 𝑚1 𝑥 ̂1̇ + 2,5√𝑥̅ + 𝑥̂

equation 𝑥̅ are all 0

6. Apply 𝒇𝑵𝑳 (𝒙 𝒙)= 𝑓(𝑥̅ ) + 𝑥̂𝑓(𝑥̅ )

̅+̂ 6. 𝑓𝑁𝐿 = 2,5√𝑥̅ + 𝑥̂

̂) = 2,5√𝑥̅ + 𝑥̂1,25 (𝑥̅ )−0,5

̅+𝒙

∴ 𝒇𝑵𝑳 (𝒙

7. Substitute any given values (if any) ̅𝑖 = 0.1 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑥̅ =

7. For example, if 𝐹

𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟏𝟔, 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒏:

̂1̈ + 𝑏𝑥

̂𝑖 = 𝑚1 𝑥

𝐹 ̂1̇ + 31,25𝑥̂

8. Make sure the final answer only

̂1̈ + 𝑏𝑥

̂𝑖 = 𝑚1 𝑥

𝐹 ̂1̇ + 31,25𝑥̂

has incremental values (𝑥̂)

Table 2 – Steps to Linearize a Non-Linear equation

4. Notes:

If 𝑥̅ is constant, then 𝑥̇ = 𝑥̈ = 0.

̅𝑖 will almost always be eliminated. Be sure to

If there is an input function, then the 𝐹

double check that.

Eventually the signs are all supposed to be the same on the right hand side of the

equation.

4. STATE MODELS

1. Definition

Usually when the DE you need to solve becomes too complex, it is easier to represent it using a State

Model equation. Therefore, State Models can also be used to derive Input and Output expressions,

such as those shown in Section 2. When you are asked to give a State Model, you will immediately

write down the General Equation:

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CM HEUNIS © 2016 MOD 334 TEST WEEK A1

2. General Equation

1. For example, 𝑇𝑚 − 𝑇𝑘 − 𝑇𝑏 = 𝐽𝑚 𝜃̈𝑚

1. Derive DE using Table 1

and 𝑇𝑘 − 𝑇𝑝 = 𝐽𝑝 𝜃̈𝑝

𝑇𝑘

2. State variables = [ 𝑝 ]

2. Given: State variables, input 𝑚

and output 𝑻𝒎 = 𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑞𝑢𝑒

𝑻𝒌 = 𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑞𝑢𝑒 = 𝑘(𝜃𝑚 − 𝜃𝑝 )

𝑇𝑘′ 𝑇𝑘

′

3. We now want 𝑝 in terms of 𝑝 and 𝑻𝒎

Solve the Input- ′𝑚 𝑚

Output system 3. Derive each state variable and 𝑇𝑘′ = 𝑘(𝑚 − 𝑝 )

using State find a solution for each one 𝑇𝑘 𝑏𝑝

𝜃̈𝑝 = ′𝑝 = −

Models. 𝐽𝑝 𝐽𝑝 𝑝

𝑇𝑚 𝑇𝑘 𝑏

𝜃̈𝑚 = ′𝑚 = − − 𝑚

𝐽𝑚 𝐽𝑚 𝐽𝑚

4. Write in matrix form

0 −𝑘 𝑘

𝑇𝑘′ 1 𝑏𝑝 𝑇𝑘 0

− 0

[ 𝑝 ] + [ 0 ] [𝑇𝑚 ]

′

[ 𝑝 ] = 𝐽𝑝 𝐽𝑝

′𝑚 1 𝑏 𝑚 1/𝐽𝑚

− 0 −

[ 𝐽𝑚 𝐽𝑚 ]

𝑇𝑘 0

𝑇𝑘 = [1 0 0] [ 𝑝 ] + [ 0 ] [𝑇𝑚 ]

𝑚 0

5. Notes:

The input, output and state variables will always be given.

If the derivative of your state variables is already present as another state variable,

then you only have to use a 0/1 vector to write it down (see below).

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CM HEUNIS © 2016 MOD 334 TEST WEEK A1

𝑇′𝑘 0 −𝑘 0 𝑇𝑘 0

[ 𝜃𝑝̇ ] = [ 0 0 1 ] [ 𝜃𝑝 ] + [ 0 ] [𝑇𝑚 ]

̇𝑝 −1/𝐽𝑚 0 −𝑏/𝐽𝑚 𝑝 1/𝐽𝑚

Even if you only have 1 of the state variables in your output, you still need to indicate

0

it with ‘0’, e.g. [ 0 ]

0

1. Definition

Thus far we have solved Differential Equations that were independent of the time domain. This section

explains how to find the General solution of a DE in the form shown below, if there is TIME involved.

2. General Equation

𝟏

𝑥̈ + 𝟐𝝎𝒏 𝑥̇ + 𝝎𝟐𝒏 𝑥 = 𝑓(𝑡)

𝒂𝟐

This is your general form of a DE. Therefore, when they ask for an analytical equation, you should start

off by writing this. Generally the DE also has the following form:

𝒂𝟏 𝒂𝟎 𝟏

𝑥̈ + 𝑥̇ + 𝑥 = 𝑓(𝑡)

𝒂𝟐 𝒂𝟐 𝒂𝟐

The following equation will not be given (i.e. STUDY this one):

−𝑎1 ± √𝑎12 − 𝑎0 𝑎2

𝑝1,2 =

2𝑎2

Now you have an idea of all the necessary formulas you need to use to derive your expression

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CM HEUNIS © 2016 MOD 334 TEST WEEK A1

The general question would be for you to give the analytical equation for 𝑥(𝑡) in response to a

certain input. This can be solved using 2 methods:

1 2

214 (solving the homogeneous equations) damping coefficient, etc.) From FORMULA PAGE

Steps Example

Write down values that you are given in the

1. Show data question, for example: 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 = 𝑚 = 5

𝑑𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑖𝑛𝑔 = 𝑏 = 12, 𝑘 = 6

𝑘𝑦 − 𝑘𝑥 − 𝑏𝑥̇ = 𝑚𝑥̈

Table 1)

𝑥̈ + 𝑥̇ + 𝑥 = 𝑦(𝑡)

𝑚 𝑚 𝑚

𝒂𝟏 𝒂𝟎 𝟏

𝒙̈ + 𝒙̇ + 𝒙 = 𝒇(𝒕) ∴ 𝑥̈ + 2,4𝑥̇ + 1.2𝑥 = 1.2𝑦

𝒂𝟐 𝒂𝟐 𝒂𝟐

4. Now solve Homogeneous solution (left hand

side = 𝟎). Most important step: Switch DE Therefore:

in terms of 𝒎: 𝑥̈ + 2,4𝑥̇ + 1.2𝑥 = 0

𝒙′′ → 𝒎𝟐 Becomes:

𝒙′ → 𝒎 𝑚2 + 2.4𝑚 + 1.2 = 0

𝒙 → 𝒄𝒐𝒏𝒔𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒕 Solving m:

𝒄𝒐𝒏𝒔𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒕 → 𝟎 𝑚1 = −0,71 … 𝑚2 = −1,69 …

5. Get the general complementary solution

𝒙𝒄 by referring to the 3 cases (STUDY THEM!):

Case 1: 𝒎𝟏 = 𝒎𝟐 𝑚1 ≠ 𝑚2

Case 2: 𝒎𝟏 ≠ 𝒎𝟐 Case 2:

Case 3: 𝒎𝟏 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒎𝟐 = 𝒄𝒐𝒎𝒑𝒍𝒆𝒙 (𝜶 ± 𝒊𝜷)

→ 𝒙𝒄 = 𝒆𝜶𝒕 (𝒄𝟏 𝐜𝐨𝐬(𝜷𝒕) + 𝒄𝟐 𝐬𝐢𝐧(𝜷𝒕))

Table 4 – SOLVING Homogeneous Solution of A 2ND ORDER DE METHOD 1

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CM HEUNIS © 2016 MOD 334 TEST WEEK A1

Steps Example

Write down values that you are given in the

question, for example:

1. Show data. Here the Non-Homogeneous 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 = 𝑚 = 5

side 𝒚(𝒕) is also present. 𝑑𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑖𝑛𝑔 = 𝑏 = 12

𝑘=6

𝑦(𝑡) = 0,1𝑈𝑠 (𝑡)

Example:

2. Derive Input-Output Equations (refer to

Table 1) 𝑘𝑦 − 𝑘𝑥 − 𝑏𝑥̇ = 𝑚𝑥̈

following form: 𝑏 𝑘 𝑘

𝑥̈ + 𝑥̇ + 𝑥 = 𝑦(𝑡)

𝑚 𝑚 𝑚

1

𝑥̈ + 2𝜔𝑛 𝑥̇ + 𝜔𝑛2 𝑥 = 𝑓(𝑡) ∴ 𝒙̈ + 𝟐, 𝟒𝒙̇ + 𝟏. 𝟐𝒙 = 𝟏. 𝟐𝒚

𝑎2

Therefore:

from

𝑥̈ + 2,4𝑥̇ + 1,2𝑥 = 1.2𝑦(𝑡)

and

1

𝑦̈ + 2𝜔𝑛 𝑦̇ + 𝜔𝑛2 𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑡)

4. Start with the Homogeneous Solution. 𝑎2

The formulas for these equations can also be found 𝜔𝑛2 = 1,2

2,4

∴= = 1,095

2𝜔𝑛

1

𝜏1,2 = − 𝑝 , where

1,2

−𝑎1 ± √𝑎12 − 𝑎0 𝑎2

𝑝1,2 =

2𝑎2

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CM HEUNIS © 2016 MOD 334 TEST WEEK A1

Case 1: = 𝟏

Case 2: > 𝟏

We can see from the example that

= 1.095 > 1 . Therefore it is a Case 2.

Case 3: < 𝟏 ∴ 𝑥(𝑡) = 𝑐1 𝑒 −𝑡/𝜏1 + 𝑐2 𝑒 −𝑡/𝜏1

This means that our Homogeneous solution is:

𝑥𝑐 = 𝑐1 𝑒 −0,71𝑥 + 𝑐2 𝑒 −1,69𝑥

Note that these formulas will be on the

formula page.

𝒎𝒙̈ + 𝒌𝒙 + 𝒃𝒙̇ = 𝒌𝒚

∴ 𝟓𝒙̈ + 𝟏𝟐𝒙̇ + 𝟔𝒙 = 𝟔𝒚

Next, you are going to use one of the following 3 cases. Remember that you are going to use the

same Case as Step 5:

Here we see that Case 2 has another term (this is the non-homogeneous term):

→ 𝑲𝑨

Now determine the LIMIT from the chosen solution, as well as the limit of the DE:

−𝝉∞ −𝝉∞

𝐥𝐢𝐦 𝒙(𝒕) = 𝒙𝒔𝒔 = 𝑲𝑨 + 𝒄𝟏 𝒆 𝟏 + 𝒄𝟐 𝒆 𝟏 = 𝑲𝑨

𝒕→∞

∴ 𝒙𝒔𝒔 = 𝑲𝑨

𝐥𝐢𝐦(𝟓𝒙̈ + 𝟏𝟐𝒙̇ + 𝟔𝒙 = 𝟔𝒚)

𝒕→∞

∴ 𝟔𝒙𝒔𝒔 = 𝟔𝒚𝒔𝒔

Substitute:

𝒙𝒔𝒔 = 𝑲𝑨

𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝟔𝒙𝒔𝒔 = 𝟔𝒚𝒔𝒔

∴ 𝟔𝑲𝑨 = 𝟔𝒚𝒔𝒔

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CM HEUNIS © 2016 MOD 334 TEST WEEK A1

∴ 𝒚𝒔𝒔 = 𝟎. 𝟏 (Step input becomes 1)

Then 𝟔𝑲𝑨 = 𝟔𝒚𝒔𝒔 becomes:

𝟔𝑲𝑨 = 𝟎. 𝟔

∴ 𝑲𝑨 = 𝟎. 𝟏

𝒙𝒑 = 𝟎. 𝟏.

7. Determine the values of the constants.

From question, use initial values:

𝒄𝟏 = −𝟎. 𝟏𝟑𝟒𝟕 and 𝒄𝟐 = 𝟎. 𝟐𝟑𝟒𝟕

8. Final DE form:

𝑥(𝑡) = 𝑐1 𝑒 −0,71𝑥 + 𝑐2 𝑒 −1,69𝑥 + 0.1

𝒙(𝒕) = 𝒙𝒄 + 𝒙𝒑

4. Notes

Be sure to choose one method, and keep with it.

As you can see, the Homogeneous Solution can be derived in 2 ways, but the Non-Homogeneous

Solution only has 1 solution.

Remember: HOMOGENEOUS = Complementary Solution and NON-HOMOGENEOUS = Particular

Solution

1. Definition

So far we know how to solve a 1st Order and 2nd Order Differential Equation. Usually students ask the

question – “Where and when are we EVER going to use these equations??”. Now this is exactly what

this section will explain – the use of differential equations in every day systems. As you can deduct

from the heading, the systems range from Electrical- and Heat- to Fluid systems.

2. General Equation

Solving these systems will take some time getting used to – luckily you can use the most helpful organ

of your body to your advantage – this should be the “brain” in most cases. Learn all the following

equations by heart (this is a weird saying – since, again, we are using our brain for this), and you might

just receive a ton of marks for free.

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CM HEUNIS © 2016 MOD 334 TEST WEEK A1

Electric

Heat

Fluid

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CM HEUNIS © 2016 MOD 334 TEST WEEK A1

𝑻𝒄 =

𝒆𝒎 =

𝑻𝒎 =

𝑰𝒏𝒑𝒖𝒕𝒔 =

𝑶𝒖𝒕𝒑𝒖𝒕 =

𝑺𝒕𝒂𝒕𝒆 𝒗𝒂𝒓𝒊𝒂𝒃𝒍𝒆𝒔 = [ ]

1.

3.

𝑉𝑡𝑜𝑡 =

Kirchoff’s Voltage Law, or Current Law.

∴ = + +

We need [ ] in terms of

[ ] 𝒂𝒏𝒅 [ ]

𝒊

6. Find 𝒊′ IN TERMS OF 𝒎 AND 𝒆𝒔 , 𝑻𝒍 𝑖′ =

𝒍

15

CM HEUNIS © 2016 MOD 334 TEST WEEK A1

𝑇𝑐

𝑇𝑙

HINT: Always start with the direction that they give Drum

you (namely Tl). Then you know that the damping

AND coupling torque are in the opposite direction

𝑇𝑏

(Newton 3).

𝑇𝑐 Damper 𝑇𝑐

𝐽𝑚

𝑇𝑚 Motor

𝑇𝑐

Motor:

Drum:

𝒊

9. Find ̇ 𝒎IN TERMS OF 𝒎 AND 𝒆𝒔 , 𝑻𝒍 ̇ 𝒎 =

𝒍

𝒊

10. Find ̇ 𝒍 IN TERMS OF 𝒎 AND 𝒆𝒔 , 𝑻𝒍 ̇ 𝒍 =

𝒍

𝒊′ 𝒊 𝒆𝒔

[̇ 𝒎 ] = [ ] [𝒎 ] + [ ] [𝑻 ]

𝒍

̇ 𝒍 𝒍

𝒊 𝒆𝒔

𝒍 = [ ] [ 𝒎 ] + [ ] [ 𝑻 ]

𝒍

𝒍

Table 6 – SOLVING A MIXED SYSTEM

16

CM HEUNIS © 2016 MOD 334 TEST WEEK A1

Linearization (p. 6)

Second Order

DE’s terms (p. 9)

(p. 6)

Solutions (P. 12)

Homogeneous

Non-Homogeneous

Solutions (P. 12)

17

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