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# CM HEUNIS © 2016 MOD 334 TEST WEEK A1

Modelling 334
Test Week 2016 Notes
Compiled by CM Heunis
 cmheunis@sun.ac.za
 0721028238

These notes serve as guidelines for the coming Test Week for Modelling 334 (2016).

 If you study these notes you will stand a good chance to do well in the coming test
 BUT you still need to work out additional examples
 Do all the Tutorials
 Do all the Tutorial Tests
 Work out ALL previous test week tests and / or examinations
 Contained within these notes will be a few shortcuts that will help you throughout your
studying process, as well as in the test.

Test information:

## Date: 18 March 2016

Time: 14:00 – 16:00
Venue: A107, A403A/B, A303B, A204 (to be confirmed)

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CM HEUNIS © 2016 MOD 334 TEST WEEK A1

## Test Week 2016 Notes ............................................................................................................................ 1

1. INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................... 3

2. EQUATIONS OF MOTION................................................................................................................. 4

3. LINEARIZATION ............................................................................................................................... 6

4. STATE MODELS................................................................................................................................ 7

## 6. ELECTRIC, HEAT AND FLUID SYSTEMS ........................................................................................... 13

List of Tables
Table 1 – Steps to solve IO-system ......................................................................................................... 5
Table 2 – Steps to Linearize a Non-Linear equation ............................................................................... 7
Table 3 – Steps to solve a system using State Models ............................................................................ 8
Table 4 – SOLVING Homogeneous Solution of A 2ND ORDER DE METHOD 1 ...................................... 10
Table 5 – SOLVING A 2ND ORDER DE METHOD 2 ................................................................................... 13
Table 6 – SOLVING A MIXED SYSTEM.................................................................................................... 16

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CM HEUNIS © 2016 MOD 334 TEST WEEK A1

1. INTRODUCTION
Throughout the Test Week test, you will be required to solve different types of DE’s (Differential
Equations).

1. What is a DE?

It is simply a mathematical equation that relates some function with its derivatives.

Example:

2𝑥 ′′ + 3𝑥 ′ − 2𝑥 + 3 = 0
2. What content will be covered?
 Systems & Linearization
 Solutions of DE’s - First and Second Order systems
 State Models
 Electrical, Thermal, Fluid and Mixed Systems

3. What are we going to do with the DE’s (i.e. what type of questions could we expect)?

The first thing you should know, is that the main aspect of the test would be to see whether you can
SOLVE a DE. This will be determined by means of the following questions:

##  Give the analytical equation for 𝑥(𝑡) in response to a step input

 Calculate the steady state of 𝑥 for the question
 Derive the operating temperature of a resistor in a circuit, given the DE
 Linearize the diﬀerential equation around the operating point
 Derive the equations of the state model
 Derive the differential equations that describe spring mass damper combinations, LRC
networks, DC motors, fluid and thermal systems, any combination of the above

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CM HEUNIS © 2016 MOD 334 TEST WEEK A1

## 4. What are the Assessment Rules of Modelling 334?

The test is one of the three formal assessment opportunities, namely the first opportunity (A1) which
takes place during test week. MOD334 uses the flexible assessment rules:

##  SP = 25%, A1 = 25% , A2 = 50%

 You are free to obtain any mark for the test – there is no “valskerm”
 Access to A2 (November examination): No class mark is required - you will write A2, no matter
what your mark is. A2 may not be postponed.
 The marks obtained in A1 are normally published within three weeks after the assessment on
SUNLearn or a similar manner. A student must at least obtain 40% in A2 or A3 in order to pass
the module. If you must write A1, A2 and A3, you must obtain 50%
 THEREFORE TRY TO DO AS GOOD AS POSSIBLE IN A1 AND A2

To summarize:

##  Get 50% average when you calculate the following equation:

 0.125 ∗ (𝑇𝑢𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝐴𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑔𝑒 + 𝐸𝑥𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑚𝑎𝑟𝑘) + 0.25 ∗ 𝑇𝑒𝑠𝑡 + 0.5 ∗ 𝐸𝑥𝑎𝑚 > 50%
 You have to get more than 40% in the first exam.

2. EQUATIONS OF MOTION
1. Definition

Equations of motion will be used to identify the general equations of a moving body. We are going to
focus on two types of equations, namely Translational and Rotational Systems.

2. General Equations

 Translational Systems
1. Mass force: 𝐹𝑚 = 𝑚𝑥̈
2. Spring 𝐹𝑘 = 𝑘𝑥
3. Damper 𝐹𝑏 = 𝑏𝑥̇
 Rotational Systems
1. Mass Inertia: 𝑇𝑚 = 𝐽𝜃̈
2. Spring 𝑇𝑘 = 𝑘𝜃
3. Damper 𝑇𝑏 = 𝑏𝜃̇

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CM HEUNIS © 2016 MOD 334 TEST WEEK A1

## 3. Questions and Steps

The following Table will explain the steps necessary to solve an Input-Output system. Please refer to
the Examples on Slides 18-71 from Lecture 1 as well.

## Question Steps Notes / Example

1. Sketch Free-Body Diagram
and take note of the 1. Note the direction of the arrow of
positive direction. movement. Acceleration and velocity
2. ALWAYS start with the are in that direction, and damping is
Spring and / or Damper. in the opposite direction.
 Determine the CHOOSE a direction for the 2. The masses next to these systems
general equation compression or extension of will have arrows in opposite
of an INPUT the spring / damper directions.
OUTPUT system 3. Use equilibrium to 3. For translational components:
determine equations of ∑ 𝐹 = 𝑚𝑥̈
components For rotational components: ∑ 𝑇 = 𝐽𝜃̈
4. Use equilibrium to 4. Substitute all equations to form one
determine equations of equation
system
Table 1 – Steps to solve IO-system

4. Notes:
 Note that if you start off by stating that 𝑥 is positive in the right direction, you should remain
consistent
 Rest assured that as long as you assume this, your answer will be correct (given that your
calculations are all correct w.r.t. the sign.
 You can choose your own directions for a spring and damper. As long as they are opposite
directions on each side. Furthermore, you should then comply with the original positive
direction that will be given in the question.
 Always test your answer: Double check that each term on the right has a + sign. Then you
know you have done it correctly.

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3. LINEARIZATION

1. Definition

When solving a system, you will find that sometimes, one of the dampers / springs is NOT linear. A
force in a spring / damper can be non-linear if it contains

• 𝑥 2 / 𝑥 𝑛 / √𝑥

## • Any product of two powers of a variable, like:

o 𝑦′ ∙ 𝑦
o 𝑦 ′′ ∙ 3𝑦
o 5𝑦 ′ ∙ 𝑦 ′′

2. General Equation

̅ = normal operating point – this is the value (usually in meters), that defines the average distance of
𝒙
𝑥 , and is usually done at steady state conditions (i.e. when 𝑥̇ = 0 ). It also refers to a state of
equilibrium:

̅ 𝑵𝑳𝑺 = 𝒇𝑵𝑳 (𝒙
𝑭 ̅)

̂ = small variation value – a value that defines the percentage of tolerance / error present in the
𝒙
linearization phase. These variations lead to the following equation

̅+𝒙
𝒙=𝒙 ̂

## 𝑓𝑁𝐿 (𝑥̅ + 𝑥̂)= 𝑓(𝑥̅ ) + 𝑥̂𝑓 ′ (𝑥̅ )

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## Question Steps Notes / Example

1. Derive DE using Table 1 1. For example,
𝐹𝑖 = 𝑚1 𝑥̈ 1 + 𝑏𝑥̇ 1 + 2,5√𝑥
2. Introduce 𝑥 = 𝑥̅ (linearize) ̅𝑖 = 𝑚1 ̅̅̅
2. 𝐹 𝑥̈ 1 + 𝑏𝑥̇̅̅̅1 + 2,5√𝑥̅ = 2,5√𝑥̅

## 3. Find value of 𝑥̅ if possible ̅𝑖 = 𝑔𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑛

3. This can only be done if 𝐹

## 4. Now Introduce 𝑥 = 𝑥̅ + 𝑥̂ 4. 𝐹 ̂𝑖 = 𝑚1 ̅̅̅

̅𝑖 + 𝐹 ̂1̈ + 𝑏𝑥̇̅̅̅1 +
𝑥̈ 1 + 𝑚1 𝑥
̂1̇ + 2,5√𝑥̅ + 𝑥̂
𝑏𝑥

## Linearize the 5. In steady state, the derivatives of

̅𝑖 + 𝐹
5. 𝐹 ̂1̈ + 𝑏𝑥
̂𝑖 = 𝑚1 𝑥 ̂1̇ + 2,5√𝑥̅ + 𝑥̂
equation 𝑥̅ are all 0
6. Apply 𝒇𝑵𝑳 (𝒙 𝒙)= 𝑓(𝑥̅ ) + 𝑥̂𝑓(𝑥̅ )
̅+̂ 6. 𝑓𝑁𝐿 = 2,5√𝑥̅ + 𝑥̂
̂) = 2,5√𝑥̅ + 𝑥̂1,25 (𝑥̅ )−0,5
̅+𝒙
∴ 𝒇𝑵𝑳 (𝒙
7. Substitute any given values (if any) ̅𝑖 = 0.1 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑥̅ =
7. For example, if 𝐹
𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟏𝟔, 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒏:
̂1̈ + 𝑏𝑥
̂𝑖 = 𝑚1 𝑥
𝐹 ̂1̇ + 31,25𝑥̂
8. Make sure the final answer only
̂1̈ + 𝑏𝑥
̂𝑖 = 𝑚1 𝑥
𝐹 ̂1̇ + 31,25𝑥̂
has incremental values (𝑥̂)
Table 2 – Steps to Linearize a Non-Linear equation
4. Notes:
 If 𝑥̅ is constant, then 𝑥̇ = 𝑥̈ = 0.
 ̅𝑖 will almost always be eliminated. Be sure to
If there is an input function, then the 𝐹
double check that.
 Eventually the signs are all supposed to be the same on the right hand side of the
equation.

4. STATE MODELS

1. Definition

Usually when the DE you need to solve becomes too complex, it is easier to represent it using a State
Model equation. Therefore, State Models can also be used to derive Input and Output expressions,
such as those shown in Section 2. When you are asked to give a State Model, you will immediately
write down the General Equation:

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2. General Equation

## Question Steps Notes / Example

1. For example, 𝑇𝑚 − 𝑇𝑘 − 𝑇𝑏 = 𝐽𝑚 𝜃̈𝑚
1. Derive DE using Table 1
and 𝑇𝑘 − 𝑇𝑝 = 𝐽𝑝 𝜃̈𝑝
𝑇𝑘
2. State variables = [ 𝑝 ]
2. Given: State variables, input 𝑚
and output 𝑻𝒎 = 𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑞𝑢𝑒
𝑻𝒌 = 𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑞𝑢𝑒 = 𝑘(𝜃𝑚 − 𝜃𝑝 )
𝑇𝑘′ 𝑇𝑘

3. We now want 𝑝 in terms of 𝑝 and 𝑻𝒎
Solve the Input- ′𝑚 𝑚
Output system 3. Derive each state variable and 𝑇𝑘′ = 𝑘(𝑚 − 𝑝 )
using State find a solution for each one 𝑇𝑘 𝑏𝑝
𝜃̈𝑝 = ′𝑝 = − 
Models. 𝐽𝑝 𝐽𝑝 𝑝
𝑇𝑚 𝑇𝑘 𝑏
𝜃̈𝑚 = ′𝑚 = − − 𝑚
𝐽𝑚 𝐽𝑚 𝐽𝑚
4. Write in matrix form
0 −𝑘 𝑘
𝑇𝑘′ 1 𝑏𝑝 𝑇𝑘 0
− 0
[ 𝑝 ] + [ 0 ] [𝑇𝑚 ]

[ 𝑝 ] = 𝐽𝑝 𝐽𝑝
′𝑚 1 𝑏 𝑚 1/𝐽𝑚
− 0 −
[ 𝐽𝑚 𝐽𝑚 ]

𝑇𝑘 0
𝑇𝑘 = [1 0 0] [ 𝑝 ] + [ 0 ] [𝑇𝑚 ]
𝑚 0

## Table 3 – Steps to solve a system using State Models

5. Notes:
 The input, output and state variables will always be given.
 If the derivative of your state variables is already present as another state variable,
then you only have to use a 0/1 vector to write it down (see below).

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𝑇′𝑘 0 −𝑘 0 𝑇𝑘 0
[ 𝜃𝑝̇ ] = [ 0 0 1 ] [ 𝜃𝑝 ] + [ 0 ] [𝑇𝑚 ]
̇𝑝 −1/𝐽𝑚 0 −𝑏/𝐽𝑚 𝑝 1/𝐽𝑚

 Even if you only have 1 of the state variables in your output, you still need to indicate

0
it with ‘0’, e.g. [ 0 ]
0

## 5. SECOND ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

1. Definition

Thus far we have solved Differential Equations that were independent of the time domain. This section
explains how to find the General solution of a DE in the form shown below, if there is TIME involved.

2. General Equation

## The following equation must be studied:

𝟏
𝑥̈ + 𝟐𝝎𝒏 𝑥̇ + 𝝎𝟐𝒏 𝑥 = 𝑓(𝑡)
𝒂𝟐

This is your general form of a DE. Therefore, when they ask for an analytical equation, you should start
off by writing this. Generally the DE also has the following form:

𝒂𝟏 𝒂𝟎 𝟏
𝑥̈ + 𝑥̇ + 𝑥 = 𝑓(𝑡)
𝒂𝟐 𝒂𝟐 𝒂𝟐

## The following equations will be given on the formula page:

The following equation will not be given (i.e. STUDY this one):

−𝑎1 ± √𝑎12 − 𝑎0 𝑎2
𝑝1,2 =
2𝑎2

Now you have an idea of all the necessary formulas you need to use to derive your expression

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## 3. Questions and Steps

The general question would be for you to give the analytical equation for 𝑥(𝑡) in response to a
certain input. This can be solved using 2 methods:
1 2

## Method from Engineering Mathematics Modelling method (using the frequency,

214 (solving the homogeneous equations) damping coefficient, etc.) From FORMULA PAGE

## Method 1 (EM214 Method)

Steps Example
Write down values that you are given in the
1. Show data question, for example: 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 = 𝑚 = 5
𝑑𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑖𝑛𝑔 = 𝑏 = 12, 𝑘 = 6

## 2. Derive Input-Output Equations (refer to

𝑘𝑦 − 𝑘𝑥 − 𝑏𝑥̇ = 𝑚𝑥̈
Table 1)

## 3. Get the General DE equation 𝑏 𝑘 𝑘

𝑥̈ + 𝑥̇ + 𝑥 = 𝑦(𝑡)
𝑚 𝑚 𝑚
𝒂𝟏 𝒂𝟎 𝟏
𝒙̈ + 𝒙̇ + 𝒙 = 𝒇(𝒕) ∴ 𝑥̈ + 2,4𝑥̇ + 1.2𝑥 = 1.2𝑦
𝒂𝟐 𝒂𝟐 𝒂𝟐
4. Now solve Homogeneous solution (left hand
side = 𝟎). Most important step: Switch DE Therefore:
in terms of 𝒎: 𝑥̈ + 2,4𝑥̇ + 1.2𝑥 = 0
𝒙′′ → 𝒎𝟐 Becomes:
𝒙′ → 𝒎 𝑚2 + 2.4𝑚 + 1.2 = 0
𝒙 → 𝒄𝒐𝒏𝒔𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒕 Solving m:
𝒄𝒐𝒏𝒔𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒕 → 𝟎 𝑚1 = −0,71 … 𝑚2 = −1,69 …
5. Get the general complementary solution
𝒙𝒄 by referring to the 3 cases (STUDY THEM!):

Case 1: 𝒎𝟏 = 𝒎𝟐 𝑚1 ≠ 𝑚2

## → 𝒙𝒄 = 𝒄𝟏 𝒆𝒎𝟏𝒕 + 𝒄𝟐 𝒙𝒆𝒎𝟐𝒕 Therefore the solution of the example is

Case 2: 𝒎𝟏 ≠ 𝒎𝟐 Case 2:

## → 𝒙𝒄 = 𝒄𝟏 𝒆𝒎𝟏𝒕 + 𝒄𝟐 𝒆𝒎𝟐𝒕 → 𝑥𝑐 = 𝑐1 𝑒 −0,71𝑡 + 𝑐2 𝑒 −1,69𝑡

Case 3: 𝒎𝟏 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒎𝟐 = 𝒄𝒐𝒎𝒑𝒍𝒆𝒙 (𝜶 ± 𝒊𝜷)
→ 𝒙𝒄 = 𝒆𝜶𝒕 (𝒄𝟏 𝐜𝐨𝐬(𝜷𝒕) + 𝒄𝟐 𝐬𝐢𝐧(𝜷𝒕))
Table 4 – SOLVING Homogeneous Solution of A 2ND ORDER DE METHOD 1

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## Method 2 (Modelling Method)

Steps Example
Write down values that you are given in the
question, for example:
1. Show data. Here the Non-Homogeneous 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 = 𝑚 = 5
side 𝒚(𝒕) is also present. 𝑑𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑖𝑛𝑔 = 𝑏 = 12
𝑘=6
𝑦(𝑡) = 0,1𝑈𝑠 (𝑡)

Example:
2. Derive Input-Output Equations (refer to
Table 1) 𝑘𝑦 − 𝑘𝑥 − 𝑏𝑥̇ = 𝑚𝑥̈

## 3. Get the General DE equation in the

following form: 𝑏 𝑘 𝑘
𝑥̈ + 𝑥̇ + 𝑥 = 𝑦(𝑡)
𝑚 𝑚 𝑚
1
𝑥̈ + 2𝜔𝑛 𝑥̇ + 𝜔𝑛2 𝑥 = 𝑓(𝑡) ∴ 𝒙̈ + 𝟐, 𝟒𝒙̇ + 𝟏. 𝟐𝒙 = 𝟏. 𝟐𝒚
𝑎2

Therefore:
from
𝑥̈ + 2,4𝑥̇ + 1,2𝑥 = 1.2𝑦(𝑡)
and
1
𝑦̈ + 2𝜔𝑛 𝑦̇ + 𝜔𝑛2 𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑡)

## Compare coefficients to derive 𝝉,  𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝝎𝒏 We see that: 2𝜔𝑛 = 2,4

The formulas for these equations can also be found 𝜔𝑛2 = 1,2

## on the formula page. ∴ 𝜔𝑛 = √1,2 = 1,095

2,4
∴= = 1,095
2𝜔𝑛
1
𝜏1,2 = − 𝑝 , where
1,2

−𝑎1 ± √𝑎12 − 𝑎0 𝑎2
𝑝1,2 =
2𝑎2

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## 5. Now use  to determine case.

Case 1:  = 𝟏

Case 2:  > 𝟏
We can see from the example that
 = 1.095 > 1 . Therefore it is a Case 2.
Case 3:  < 𝟏 ∴ 𝑥(𝑡) = 𝑐1 𝑒 −𝑡/𝜏1 + 𝑐2 𝑒 −𝑡/𝜏1
This means that our Homogeneous solution is:
𝑥𝑐 = 𝑐1 𝑒 −0,71𝑥 + 𝑐2 𝑒 −1,69𝑥
Note that these formulas will be on the
formula page.

## Here you need to have your DE in the form

𝒎𝒙̈ + 𝒌𝒙 + 𝒃𝒙̇ = 𝒌𝒚
∴ 𝟓𝒙̈ + 𝟏𝟐𝒙̇ + 𝟔𝒙 = 𝟔𝒚
Next, you are going to use one of the following 3 cases. Remember that you are going to use the
same Case as Step 5:

Here we see that Case 2 has another term (this is the non-homogeneous term):
→ 𝑲𝑨
Now determine the LIMIT from the chosen solution, as well as the limit of the DE:
−𝝉∞ −𝝉∞
𝐥𝐢𝐦 𝒙(𝒕) = 𝒙𝒔𝒔 = 𝑲𝑨 + 𝒄𝟏 𝒆 𝟏 + 𝒄𝟐 𝒆 𝟏 = 𝑲𝑨
𝒕→∞

∴ 𝒙𝒔𝒔 = 𝑲𝑨
𝐥𝐢𝐦(𝟓𝒙̈ + 𝟏𝟐𝒙̇ + 𝟔𝒙 = 𝟔𝒚)
𝒕→∞

∴ 𝟔𝒙𝒔𝒔 = 𝟔𝒚𝒔𝒔
Substitute:
𝒙𝒔𝒔 = 𝑲𝑨
𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝟔𝒙𝒔𝒔 = 𝟔𝒚𝒔𝒔
∴ 𝟔𝑲𝑨 = 𝟔𝒚𝒔𝒔

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## From the question, 𝒚(𝒕) = 𝟎, 𝟏𝑼𝒔 (𝒕)

∴ 𝒚𝒔𝒔 = 𝟎. 𝟏 (Step input becomes 1)
Then 𝟔𝑲𝑨 = 𝟔𝒚𝒔𝒔 becomes:
𝟔𝑲𝑨 = 𝟎. 𝟔
∴ 𝑲𝑨 = 𝟎. 𝟏

## This means that our Non-Homogeneous solution is:

𝒙𝒑 = 𝟎. 𝟏.
7. Determine the values of the constants.
From question, use initial values:
𝒄𝟏 = −𝟎. 𝟏𝟑𝟒𝟕 and 𝒄𝟐 = 𝟎. 𝟐𝟑𝟒𝟕

8. Final DE form:
𝑥(𝑡) = 𝑐1 𝑒 −0,71𝑥 + 𝑐2 𝑒 −1,69𝑥 + 0.1
𝒙(𝒕) = 𝒙𝒄 + 𝒙𝒑

## Table 5 – SOLVING A 2ND ORDER DE METHOD 2

4. Notes
 Be sure to choose one method, and keep with it.
 As you can see, the Homogeneous Solution can be derived in 2 ways, but the Non-Homogeneous
Solution only has 1 solution.
 Remember: HOMOGENEOUS = Complementary Solution and NON-HOMOGENEOUS = Particular
Solution

## 6. ELECTRIC, HEAT AND FLUID SYSTEMS

1. Definition

So far we know how to solve a 1st Order and 2nd Order Differential Equation. Usually students ask the
question – “Where and when are we EVER going to use these equations??”. Now this is exactly what
this section will explain – the use of differential equations in every day systems. As you can deduct
from the heading, the systems range from Electrical- and Heat- to Fluid systems.

2. General Equation

Solving these systems will take some time getting used to – luckily you can use the most helpful organ
of your body to your advantage – this should be the “brain” in most cases. Learn all the following
equations by heart (this is a weird saying – since, again, we are using our brain for this), and you might

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Electric

Heat

Fluid

## Now for an example to finish off this tiresome study:

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𝑻𝒄 =
𝒆𝒎 =
𝑻𝒎 =

## 1. Identify the given equations

𝑰𝒏𝒑𝒖𝒕𝒔 =
𝑶𝒖𝒕𝒑𝒖𝒕 =

𝑺𝒕𝒂𝒕𝒆 𝒗𝒂𝒓𝒊𝒂𝒃𝒍𝒆𝒔 = [ ]

1.

3.

## 4. For the Electric System, always start of with

𝑉𝑡𝑜𝑡 =
Kirchoff’s Voltage Law, or Current Law.
∴ = + +

We need [ ] in terms of

## 5. Solve the State model Equation

[ ] 𝒂𝒏𝒅 [ ]

𝒊
6. Find 𝒊′ IN TERMS OF 𝒎 AND 𝒆𝒔 , 𝑻𝒍 𝑖′ =
𝒍

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## 7. Now indicate the directions of the arrows. 𝐽𝑙

𝑇𝑐
𝑇𝑙
you (namely Tl). Then you know that the damping
AND coupling torque are in the opposite direction
𝑇𝑏
(Newton 3).
𝑇𝑐 Damper 𝑇𝑐
𝐽𝑚

𝑇𝑚 Motor
𝑇𝑐

Motor:

## 8. Derive the State Model Equations Damper: 𝑇𝑐 = 𝐵𝑐 (𝜃̇𝑚 − 𝜃̇𝑙 )

Drum:

𝒊
9. Find ̇ 𝒎IN TERMS OF 𝒎 AND 𝒆𝒔 , 𝑻𝒍 ̇ 𝒎 =
𝒍

𝒊
10. Find ̇ 𝒍 IN TERMS OF 𝒎 AND 𝒆𝒔 , 𝑻𝒍 ̇ 𝒍 =
𝒍

𝒊′ 𝒊 𝒆𝒔
[̇ 𝒎 ] = [ ] [𝒎 ] + [ ] [𝑻 ]
𝒍
̇ 𝒍 𝒍
𝒊 𝒆𝒔
𝒍 = [ ] [ 𝒎 ] + [ ] [ 𝑻 ]
𝒍
𝒍
Table 6 – SOLVING A MIXED SYSTEM

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Linearization (p. 6)

Second Order
DE’s terms (p. 9)
(p. 6)
Solutions (P. 12)
Homogeneous

Non-Homogeneous
Solutions (P. 12)

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