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PETROLEUM EXPLORATION AND DEVELOPMENT

Volume 43, Issue 3, June 2016


Online English edition of the Chinese language journal

Cite this article as: PETROL. EXPLOR. DEVELOP., 2016, 43(3): 514–521. RESEARCH PAPER

Cement bond quality evaluation based on acoustic variable


density logging
TANG Jun1, 2, *, ZHANG Chengguang1, 2, ZHANG Bixing3, SHI Fangfang3
1. Key Laboratory of Exploration Technologies for Oil and Gas Resources, Ministry of Education, Yangtze University, Wuhan 430100, China;
2. School of Geophysics and Oil resources, Yangtze University, Wuhan 430100, China;
3. Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China

Abstract: A new method of cement bond quality evaluation was proposed by combining numerical simulation and calibrated cased hole
acoustic logging data. The effects of the cement channel angle and the quality of the second bond interface (the interface of cement with
formation) on acoustic variable density logging data were analyzed. Based on the analysis result, a new cement bond evaluation standard
was presented after revising the traditional CBL/VDL method. The axisymmetric acoustic field was simulated by real axis integral
method, while the non-axisymmetric acoustic field was simulated by 2.5-D finite differential method. After comparing with the calibrated
cased hole acoustic logging data, the research has the below results: the numerical simulation result matches with the calibrated well log-
ging data very well and the new method is reliable; the amplitude of the first acoustic arrival in the case hole decreases as the angle of
cement channel decreases, and the denser the cement is, the faster the amplitude of cased hole acoustic waveform decays; the lower limit
of cement channel angle is around 45 degrees which can be detected by acoustic logging; the formation acoustic waveform is not easy to be
detected in time domain, however it is easy to be detected in frequency domain, especially in limestone formation, the first arrival only can be
detected when the annulus width of the second bond interface is small. According to the research result of the numerical simulation of
cased hole acoustic field and acoustic variable density logging data, new evaluation criteria of cement bound quality were presented.

Key words: cement bond quality; acoustic variable density logging; acoustic field in cased well; cement channel angel; interface bond in-
dex

Introduction equation. But in the real cased wells, the anisotropy of forma-
tion and borehole fluid, and the acoustic logging tool itself
To ensure production safety of oil and gas wells and extend
will definitely affect the borehole acoustic field. Although
service life of casing, the space between the casing and for-
some researchers have already studied the effect of logging
mation is usually filled by cement, to bind the casing and
formation closely. As oil and gas wells are generally more tool, casing type, fracture, formation dip on the cased well
than 1 000 m deep, quick and effective evaluation of cement acoustic field with numerical simulation[1217], limited by ex-
quality in cased wells is particularly important. Acoustic log- perimental conditions, the physical models in the researches
ging is the main method nowadays used in evaluating the ce- normally were only a few meters long, much shorter than the
ment quality in oil and gas industry. The evaluation includes real cased wells in oilfields. That is to say the previous re-
bond interface I (the bond interface of casing and cement) and searches had their limitations. In addition, there are a lot of
bond interface II (the bond interface of cement and formation). different kinds of acoustic logging tools in the market, though
Previous researches have already proved that bond interface I CBL/VDL is the cheapest and quickest acquisition tool widely
can be evaluated from the casing arrival waveform, while used in the oilfield to evaluate the cement quality, there aren't
bond interface II can be evaluated from the formation arrival much report about its application in evaluating cement chan-
waveform[12]. neling and bond interface cement quality.
Borehole acoustic field study is the foundation of cement According to the actual size of oil and gas wells, the
quality evaluation with acoustic logging. A lot of researches non-axisymmetric acoustic field has been numerically simu-
and studies on this topic have been conducted at home and lated with 2.5-D finite differential method and then compared
abroad[311], most of them were theory research based on wave with the casing waveform acquired by acoustic variable den-

Received date: 26 Mar. 2015; Revised date: 25 Feb. 2016.


* Corresponding author. E-mail: tangjun@yangtzeu.edu.cn
Foundation item: Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41274141).
Copyright © 2016, Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, PetroChina. Published by Elsevier BV. All rights reserved.
TANG Jun et al. / Petroleum Exploration and Development, 2016, 43(3): 514–521

sity logging tool in the calibration wells to evaluate the reli- limestone and granite. Well 3 and Well 4 were used to model
ability of the numerical simulation method and analyze the the situation of sector cement channeling. Both of them
effect of cement channeling angle on the acoustic variable have a casing diameter of 139.70 mm, casing thickness of
density logging; and the axisymmetric acoustic field has been 7.72 mm, cement sheath thickness of 38 mm, formation inner
calculated with real axis integral method to analyze the effect diameter of 216 mm and outer diameter of 1216 mm. Five
of the annulus width of bond interface II on the casing arrival different situations from the well bottom to the top, eccentric
waveform and formation arrival waveform; based on the casing and different cement channel angles of bond interface I
analysis of the effect of cement density and cement channel- of 22.5°, 45°, 90°, 180° and 360°, (Fig. 1) were simulated.
ing angle on the CBL/VDL logging quality, a new improved The cement density of Well 3 is 1.89 g/cm3, while Well 4 is
cement bond quality evaluation method with CBL/VDL data 1.20 g/cm3. As Fig. 1 shows, the amplitude of the casing arri-
has been advanced in this study. val becomes smaller with the decrease of the cement channel-
ing angle. The same variation trend of the cement channeling
1. Research methods of acoustic field in cased
angle and the amplitude of the casing arrival waveform shows
well
that acoustic logging data can be used to evaluate cement
Real acoustic logging data and the numerical simulated data channeling angle.
in standard calibration wells were used to study acoustic field
1.2. Numerical simulation of acoustic field in cased well
in cased well. On one hand, the real logging data taken from
calibrated wells can validate the reliability and accuracy of the Poor cementation between casing and formation can be
new simulation method, on the other hand, the numerical separated into two different types, non-cementation of annulus
simulation can compensate the limited number of calibration and partial cementation of annulus. Non-cementation means
wells and lower research cost. there is no cement between casing and formation. Partial ce-
mentation means there is cement in part of the annulus be-
1.1. General introduction of the calibration wells
tween casing and formation. The former would result in axi-
The calibration wells were constructed by Xin Jiang Log- symmetric acoustic field, while the latter non-axisymmetric
ging Service Company to calibrate downhole logging tools. acoustic field.
There are eight calibration wells named as Well 1–8. The
1.2.1. Axisymmetric acoustic field
cement density in these calibration wells is from 1.20 to 2.25
g/cm3 and the formation lithology includes shale, sandstone, The axisymmetric acoustic field was numerically simulated

Fig. 1. The model of No.3 calibration well and waveform from CBL/VDL.
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TANG Jun et al. / Petroleum Exploration and Development, 2016, 43(3): 514–521

by real axis integral method in this study. Casing, cement and Tyy  V Vy  Vy
formation are symmetrical along the well axis. This kind of  x   K z  iVz    2  Gyy (6)
t  x y  y
symmetric acoustic field can be treated as multi-layer media
Tzz  V Vy 
cylindrical open acoustic field which has the analytical solu-  x   K z  iVz   
tion and the borehole acoustic field can be described as below: t  x y 
p  r , d , t     X   e  it  A1I0  kr r  e  ikd d  dk
 
(1) 2 K z  iVz   Gzz (7)
 
  
Txy  V Vy 
1.2.2. Non-axisymmetric acoustic field   x   (8)
t  y x 
Fig. 2 is the model of non-axisymmetric casing well which   iTxz     iVz  
can represent the absent of cement between casing and forma-     K zVx   (9)
t  x 
tion at an interval, so coming a sector space between casing
and formation, that is the so-called cement channeling. In this   iTyz     iVz  
    K zV y   (10)
study, 2.5-D finite differential method was used to simulate t  y 
the non-axisymmetric acoustic field to save the computer ca- Introducing monopole acoustic source into the equations:
pacity and improve the computing speed. g jk  F  t    r   jk (11)
In the research of borehole acoustic field, borehole and
For the monopole acoustic source, the 2-D borehole acous-
formation parameters only vary in x-y plane and keep constant
tic fields come from the 2-D finite differential calculation in
in z plane representing the borehole axis. This assumption can
x-y plane according to different kz. After inverse Fourier
simplify the 3-D differential equation to 2-D finite differential
Transform, we can get the 3-D acoustic field in the cased well
equation after Fourier Transform in z plane which corresponds
with designed cement channeling. To guarantee the stability of
to the different z component kz; and then the 3-D result can be
the calculation, the time step should meet:
obtained after inverse Fourier Transform.
For an inhomogeneous isotropic medium in Cartesian co-
1
t  (12)
ordinate system, the density can be defined as ρ(x,y,z) and vmax x  y 2  z 2
2

Lame Constant can be defined as λ(x,y,z) and μ(x,y,z). This is To guarantee the convergence of the calculation, the
a second order hyperbolic partial differential equation. The axis step should be constrained as below:
solution can be separated into first order partial differential max  x, y, z   vmin / 4 f max (13)
equation about velocity and stress, then doing Fourier Trans-
To guarantee the accuracy of the calculation, the
form along z axis to the equations, we can get:
maximum axial wave number should meet:
Vx Txx Txy 2π 3πf max
    K z  iTxz  (2) k z max   (14)
t x y z vf
Vy Txy Tyy
    K z  iTyz  (3) 2. The research result of acoustic field in cased
t x y well
Vz   iTxz    iTyz  2.1. Comparison of numerical simulation method with
    K z Tzz (4)
t x y calibration wells
Txx  V Vy  V Fig. 3 is the velocity spectrum in x-y plane at different ce-
 x   K z  iVz    2 x  Gxx (5)
t  x y  x ment channeling angles of 0°, 90°, 180° and 360°. It can be
seen the figure can reflect the true cement channeling situation.
The numerical simulation was based on the real borehole
size, cement parameters and formation parameters of the cali-
bration wells. The detailed parameters are listed in Table 1.
Fig. 4 is the acoustic full waveform comparison of 2.5-D
Table 1. Parameters of the numerical simulation.
P-wave veloc- Shear wave Density/ Outer di-
Medium
ity/(m·s1) velocity/(m·s1) (kg·m3) ameter/mm
Liquid in
1 500 0 1 000 124.26
borehole
Casing 5 400 3 300 7 800 139.70
Cement 3 406 2 018 2 095 216.0
Formation 6 733 3 892 2 781 ∞
Fig. 2. Model of non-axisymmetric casing well.

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Fig. 3. Velocity spectrum in x-y plane at different cement channeling angles.

2.2. Impact of sector cement channeling on acoustic field

The full acoustic waveforms at different cement channeling


angles of 22.5°, 45°, 90°, 180° and 360° were obtained by
numerical simulation method. Fig. 5 is the cross plot of ce-
ment channeling angle with the amplitude of the casing arrival.
The normalized amplitude of casing arrival is the ratio of the
amplitude of onsite casing arrival with the amplitude of free
pipe. It can be seen from Fig. 5 that the denser the cement, the
faster the attenuation of the amplitude of casing arrival will be
as the cement channeling angle decreases. When the cement
channeling angle is between 90° and 270°, there is obvious
Fig. 4. Comparison of simulated full waveform with full wave-
form from CBL/VDL logging data. difference on the attenuation of the amplitude of casing arrival
under different cement densities. Despite the changes in ce-
finite differential simulation result with the real CBL/VDL ment density, when cement channeling angle is less than 45°,
logging data when the borehole is fully cemented in limestone the change of the amplitude of casing arrival is ignorable.
formation. It can be seen from this figure that the first wave- That is to say the lower limit of the cement channeling angle
form arrival time from 2.5-D finite differential simulation is which can be identified by acoustic logging is 45°. The nu-
the same as the real logged waveform from CBL/VDL, and merical simulated results can match with the real logging data
the first 3 waveforms match with each other very well, prov- in Well 3, proving the accuracy of the numerical simulation
ing the numerical simulation method is reliable. method.
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Fig. 5. Relationship between channeling angle and the ampli-


tude of the casing arrival by numerical simulation.
Fig. 7. Frequency spectrum at varying width of bond interface
2.3. Effect of bond interface II quality on the acoustic II .
field
that when the cement channel width is around 0 mm, there is
Cementing quality bond interface II is affected by cement no casing arrivals and the full waveform can represent the
sheath and formation factors, and there is no uniform acoustic formation waveform. The main frequency is the formation
evaluation method and standard so far in the industry. Acous- arrival frequency which is around 15-17 kHz. When the width
tic field of bond interface II in sandstone and limestone for- of bond interface II annulus increases but is still less than 5
mation was numerically simulated with real axis integrated mm, the main frequency is still around 15-17 KHz, but there
method. According to Hu[8] and Liu’s[18] previous research, the are some other confusing frequency higher than 17 KHz in the
velocity of limestone is normally faster than the velocity of waveform. When the width is bigger than 5 mm, the forma-
casing arrival. When casing, cement and formation are well tion arrival will disappear in the waveform. The main fre-
bonded with each other and there is enough transmitter to quency now is the frequency of casing arrivals (around 17-18
receiver spacing in the acoustic tool, formation waveform will KHz). In addition, based on the simulation results, it is diffi-
arrive earlier than casing arrival, which is favorable for the cult to pick up the formation arrivals in time domain in sand-
theory research of formation waveform arrival and cementing stone formation, so, the frequency analysis on the full wave-
quality of bond interface II. form is the effective method to evaluate cementing quality of
Figs. 6 and 7 are the waveform and spectrum of bond in- bond interface II.
terface II in limestone formation when the T-R spacing is
1524 mm and cement density is 1.5 g/cm3. 3. New cement bond quality evaluation standard
It can be seen from Fig. 6 that formation waveform arrives based on CBL/VDL logging
the receiver earlier than casing arrival when the width of the There are two different cement bond quality evaluation
bond interface II is around 0 mm. When the width is between standards in the industry. One is evaluating the bond relation-
0.5 to 20 mm, the amplitude of the first formation arrival de- ship of casing, cement and formation in lateral based on ce-
creases, while the later coming arrivals mix with the other ment strength, cementing strength and logging data. The other
either formation waveform or casing arrivals. It is difficult to is evaluating the isolation capacity of the cement in vertical
pick up the formation first arrivals signal in time domain. Fig. direction along the borehole axis since the cement can prevent
7 is the same waveform but in frequency domain. It is clear fluid flow. A lot of oil and gas companies in China have their
own cement evaluation standard and most of them are based
on the cement bond quality valuation standard for cased well
with acoustic logging [19]. But this standard, only using the
waveform amplitude, can't evaluate the cementing quality of
bond interface II. A new evaluation standard based on the
cased well CBL/VDL acoustic field research is proposed in
this paper.
3.1. Evaluation parameters

The definition of interface I cementing index is:


lg Cmax  lg C
BI1  (15)
lg Cmax  lg Cmin
The definition of the ratio of the bonded cement with ce-
Fig. 6. Full waveform at varying width of bond interface II. ment annulus is:

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Fig. 8. The relationship between cementing index and ratio of the bonded cement with cement annulus.

I c   360    / 360 (16) higher than 0.8 is considered good cementing quality, the
Fig. 8a is the cross plot of bond interface I cementing index bond interface II cementing index should be higher than 0.78.
with ratio of the bonded cement with cement annulus at 4 If the ratio of bonded cement with cement annulus of lower
different cement densities based on the cased well acoustic than 0.5 is considered poor cementing quality, the bond inter-
field research and formula 15 and 16. The cross plot shows an face II cementing index of less than 0.45 is considered poor
obvious linear relationship between bond interface I cement- cementing quality.
ing index and the ratio. Generally, cementing quality is con- 3.2. New evaluation standard
sidered good when the ratio of bonded cement with cement
The new cementing quality evaluation standard is based on
annulus is higher than 0.8 (which means the cement channel-
the real CBL/VDL logging data in calibration wells and the
ing angle is less than 72°). From Fig. 8a, when cement density
numerical simulation results. The standard integrates the
is 1.2 g/cm3, the ratio of bonded cement with cement annulus
waveform amplitude, bond interface I cementing index and
is higher than 0.75, indicating good cementing. When cement
bond interface II cementing index. Tables 2 and 3 are the de-
density is 1.89 g/cm3, the ratio of bonded cement with cement
tailed evaluation standard.
annulus is higher than 0.8, indicating good cementing quality.
When cement density is 2.25 g/cm3, the ratio of bonded ce- Table 2. Cementing quality evaluation standard in conventional
ment with cement annulus is higher than 0.82, indicating good cement density (1.51.8 g/cm3)
cementing quality too. That is to say, when cement density is
Waveform Cementing index Cementing index
higher, the evaluation standard should be higher, while cement Evaluation results
amplitude/% of interface I of interface II
density is low, the standard should be lower. <15 0.81.0 0.81.0 Poor cementation
When the cementing quality of bond interface I is good, the Good cementation
formation waveform is closely related to the cementing qual- of interface I
<15 0.81.0 <0.8
ity of bond interface II. Due to the interference of casing arri- Poor cementation
val and surface wave arrival, it is difficult to pick up forma- of interface II
tion arrivals directly from time domain. The method in refer- Moderate
1530 0.50.8 0.50.8
ence [20] was used to calculate the amplitude of formation ar- cementation
rival, which was then corrected by lithology. The definition of >30 <0.5 <0.5 Poor cementation
bond interface II cementing index is:
Table 3. Cementing quality evaluation standard in lower ce-
lg A  lg Amin
BI 2  (17) ment density (<1. 2 g/cm3)
lg Amax  lg Amin
Waveform Cementing index Cementing index
Evaluation results
According to the results of cased well acoustic field re- amplitude/% of interface I of interface II
search in this paper, the cement channeling angle at the bond <25 0.751.00 0.81.0 Good cementation
interface II has a strong impact on the amplitude of the forma- Good cementation
tion waveform, so we can transform the amplitude of the for- of Interface I
<25 0.751.00 <0.8
mation wave into bond interface II cementing index and the Poor cementation
cement channeling angle into the ratio of bonded cement with of interface II
cement annulus to find out their relationship. It can be seen Moderate
2545 0.450.75 0.50.8
from Fig. 8b that this two factors are in linear relationship. cementation
>45 <0.45 <0.5 Poor cementation
When the ratio of bonded cement with cement annulus of

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4. Conclusions Cmin—casing amplitude in cement well;


d—space between acoustic source and receiver, m;
The cased well acoustic field has been investigated by
fmax—the highest sound source frequency, Hz;
combining the real logging data from the calibration wells
F(t)—source time-domain function;
with the numerical simulation. The cased well acoustic field
gjk—the monopole sound source function matrix;
can be classified into axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric
Gxx, Gyy, Gzz—the sound source function of Fourier transform
problems. The axisymmetric acoustic field was simulated by
along z axis, which are all function of x, y, t, Kz, Pa/s;
real axis integral method, while the non-axisymmetric acous-
I0—the first kind of zero-order Bessel function of imaginary ar-
tic field was simulated by 2.5-D finite differential method.
gument;
The amplitude of casing first arrival with channeling angle
Ic—the ratio of the bonded cement with cement annulus, f;
simulated by 2.5-D finite differential varies in the same trend
k—wave number, m1;
with the results from logging, proving the numerical simula-
tion is reliable. kr—the wave number component along radial direction, m1;

Both of the real acoustic logging data and the numerical kz—the wave number component along z axis, m1;
simulation show that the cement channeling only can be de- Kz—z of Fourier transform;
tected by acoustic tool when the cement channeling angle is p—pressure response, Pa;
higher than 45°. Meanwhile, the amplitude of the casing arri- r—distance from borehole axis, m;
val varies at different degrees with the cement channeling r—Vector distance from borehole axis, m;
angle at different cement densities. t—time, s;
When the borehole situation and the acoustic tool are suit- Txx, Tyy, Tzz, Txy, Txz, Tyz—the stress components of Fourier trans-
able, the bond interface I cementing quality can be evaluated form along z axis, which are all function of x, y, t, Kz, Pa;
by the casing arrivals, while the bond interface II cementing vf—acoustic velocity, m/s;
quality can be evaluated by the formation arrivals. In this re- vmax, vmin—the maximum and minimum velocity, m/s;
search, when the width of the annulus at bond interface II is Vx, Vy, Vz—the velocity of Fourier transform along x, y, z axis, m/s;
less than 5 mm wide, the formation arrival signal can be taken x, y, z—rectangular coordinate, m;
as first arrival, it is easily recognized on time spectrum in X(ω)—function of frequency spectrum;
limestone formation and closely related to the width of the δ—unit-step function;
annulus at bond interface II. When the annulus at bond inter- δjk—unit-step function matrix;
face II is more than 5 mm wide, the formation arrival in lime- Δt—time interval, s;
stone formation cannot be identified and cannot be used to Δx, Δy, Δz—space interval, m;
evaluate the cementing quality of bond interface II either. θt—channel angel (°);
The new standard presented in this paper is based on the λ—first order Lame constant, Pa;
real CBL/VDL logging data in calibration wells and numeri- μ—second order Lame constant, Pa;
cal simulation results. The evaluation standard includes the ρ—density, kg/m3;
bond interface I cementing quality evaluation and bond inter- ω—angular frequency, Hz.
face II cementing quality evaluation at different cement densi-
ties. References
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