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Lecture Handouts

St. Luke’s College of Nursing

SY. 2017 - 2018

Statistical Tests

Level of Measurement

Interval / Ordinal Nominal

Ratio

Describe one Median,

Mean, SD Proportion

group IQR

Compare one

One-

group to a Wilcoxon

sample Binomial test

hypothetical test

t-test

value

Determine the Pearson Spearman Chi-square test of

correlation / Correlation, Correlation Association,

association Relative Risk,

Linear Logistic

regression Regression,

Statistical Tests

Level of Measurement

Interval / Ordinal Nominal

Ratio

Compare three or One-way Kruskal- Chi-square

more unmatched ANOVA Wallis test test of

groups Homogeneity

Compare three or Repeated Friedman Cochrane Q

more matched measures test

groups ANOVA

Compare two Mann- Chi-square

Unpaired

unpaired groups whitney test of

t-test

test Homogeneity

Compare two Paired Wilcoxon McNemar’s

paired groups t-test test test

Chi Square (χ2)

The chi-square test of is used

when we wish to find out whether two or more

populations (unpaired groups) have the same

proportions for the different categories of

particular variable in the nominal scale.

e.g.

“comparison of the proportion of students who passed the Nursing

Licensure Exam (NLE) among those who studied in SLCN and those

who studied in University of Brighter East (UBE).”

χ2 test of Homogeneity

SLCN UBE

(110 students) (95 students)

105 5 85 10

pass fail pass fail

95.45% 89.47%

e.g.

“comparison of the proportion of students who passed the Nursing

Licensure Exam (NLE) among those who studied in SLCN and those

who studied in University of Brighter East (UBE).”

Hypothesis Testing: Steps

1. State the null and alternative Hypothesis

α = 0.05

α = 0.01

5. Interpret

Hypothesis Testing: Chi Square

test of Homogeneity

Populations

What is the value of P1?

SLCN = 95.45%

UBE = 89.97%

Hypothesis Testing: Chi Square

test of Homogeneity

Step 1

H0: P1 = P2

“the proportion of SLCN students who passed the NLE is the

statistically the same with UBE.”

Ha: P1 ≠ P2

“the proportion of SLCN students who passed the NLE is

statistically different with UBE.”

Step 2

Level of Significance: α = 0.05

Hypothesis Testing: Chi Square

test of Homogeneity

Step 3 : SPSS encoding (by frequency)

Hypothesis Testing: Chi Square

test of Homogeneity

Step 3 : SPSS encoding (by frequency)

Hypothesis Testing: Chi Square

test of Homogeneity

Step 3 : SPSS encoding (numerical labelling - school)

Hypothesis Testing: Chi Square

test of Homogeneity

Step 3 : SPSS encoding (numerical labelling - result)

Hypothesis Testing: Chi Square

test of Homogeneity

Step 3 : p-value

Hypothesis Testing: Chi Square

test of Homogeneity

Step 3 : p-value

Hypothesis Testing: Chi Square

test of Homogeneity

Step 3 : p-value

Hypothesis Testing: Chi Square

test of Homogeneity

Step 3 : p-value

p-value = 0.101

Hypothesis Testing: Chi Square

test of Homogeneity

Step 4

Level of

α = 0.05 Do not reject H₀

Significance

p-value 0.101

The p-value 0.101 is greater than α = 0.05

Hypothesis Testing: Chi Square

test of Homogeneity

Step 5

Interpretation:

“There is no sufficient evidence to conclude

that the proportion of students who passed

the NLE from SLCN is significantly different

from UBE.”

McNemer’s Test

Assesses if a statistically significant change in

proportions have occurred on a dichotomous

nominal trait at two time points on the same

population (paired groups).

(statisticssolution.com)

Also used for “before and after” experiments.

e.g.

“comparison of the proportion of diabetics elderly women before

and after eating ampalaya for 1 month in Brgy. Bantayog.”

McNemer’s Test

Two time points

Time 1 Time 2

1 month

P1 = 51 same population

P2 = 20

(32.69%) (12.82%)

e.g.

“comparison of the proportion of diabetic elderly women before

and after eating Ampalaya for 1 month in Brgy. Bantayog.”

Hypothesis Testing: Steps

1. State the null and alternative Hypothesis

α = 0.05

α = 0.01

5. Interpret

Hypothesis Testing: McNemer’s

Test

Populations

What is the value of P1?

Time 1 = 32.69%

Time 2 = 12.82%

DM statƵs

Hypothesis Testing: McNemer’s

Test

Step 1

H0: P1 = P2

“the proportion of Diabetics among elderly women in Brgy. Bantayog

is significantly the same with its previous proportion before eating

ampalaya.”

Ha : P1 ≠ P2

“the proportion of Diabetics among elderly women in Brgy. Bantayog

is significantly different with its previous proportion before eating

ampalaya.”

Step 2

Level of Significance: α = 0.05

Hypothesis Testing: McNemer’s

Test

Step 3 : SPSS encoding (excel format)

Hypothesis Testing: McNemer’s

Test

Step 3 : SPSS encoding (numerical labelling)

Hypothesis Testing: McNemer’s

Test

Step 3 : p-value

Hypothesis Testing: McNemer’s

Test

Step 3 : p-value

Hypothesis Testing: McNemer’s

Test

Step 4

Level of

α = 0.05 Reject the H₀

Significance

p-value 0.000

The p-value 0.000 is less than α = 0.05

Hypothesis Testing: McNemer’s

Test

Step 5

Interpretation:

“The proportion of diabetics among elderly

women in Brgy. Bantayog is statistically

different with its previous proportion

before eating ampalaya. It is now

significantly lower compared to 1 month

ago.”

t-test

Hypothesis testing for the difference

between two sample means.

(outcome/dependent variable) is

quantitative and was measured using

interval or ratio scale.

Paired t-test

Use in difference testing of means between

two related samples.

Paired t-test

Two related samples

“Left vs. Right” experiment:

Sample 1 Sample 2

Similar characteristics

e.g.

same weight, gender,

age (+ 2), nationality

e.g.

“Comparison of average number of absences in a month

of students from Kramer National High School, and

Santos National High School.”

Paired t-test

Two related samples

“Before and After” experiment:

Interv

Measurement 1 ention Measurement 2

e.g.

“Comparison of average Volatile Organic Compound

(VOC) level in parts per billion (ppb) in 5 days before

and after using Aloe Vera plant as an air purifying

agent during office hours.”

Bungcag et.al. (2016). Undergrad Thesis. TUA-SLCN Batch Leviticus

Paired t-test

Two related samples

“Before and After” experiment:

Interv

Measurement 1 ention Measurement 2

σ1 = 83.34 L E σ2 = 47.35

O R

E A

Paired t-test

SPSS Encoding (excel format)

Paired t-test

SPSS (Analyze)

Paired t-test

SPSS (p-value)

Unpaired t-test

To compare the means from two

samples that are unrelated or

independent from each other.

e.g.

“comparison of the systolic blood pressure

(mmHg) of employees in department A and

department B of Compact, Inc.”

Unpaired t-test

Department A Department B

e.g.

“comparison of the systolic blood pressure

(mmHg) of employees in department A and

department B of Compact, Inc.”

Unpaired t-test

SPSS Analyze

Other References

Lecture notes on Statistical Inference: Sampling Distribution of Two

Means and Hypothesis Testing for Two Means for Biostatistics 201 by

K.L. Cochon, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UP Manila

College of Public Health, 2013.

Biostatistics 201, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UP

Manila College of Public Health, 2013.

Estrella, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UP Manila

College of Public Health, 2016.

& Environmental Science.

http://www.statisticssolutions.com/non-parametric-analysis-mcnemars-

test/

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