JAL-CHAKRA: TIDAL POWER PLANT

TACKLING POWER CRISIS IN INDIA
Ever since man first noticed the brilliance of the flickering yellow fiery flames, we have strived to illuminate our homes and bring light into our darkness filled worlds. Today, we are lighting more bulbs, powering more machines and guzzling more fuel than ever before and with six billion people, all competing for more energy, the future looks dire. Currently, there are 2 billion people worldwide without modern energy supply. With growing populations and ballooning demands for goods, energy and services, a new crisis ± the energy crisis stares us at point-blank. There is an urgent need for change, one that is fast and effective, to ensure that humans continue to survive and evolve on the planet that is our only home. Some of the statistics shows that with a generating capacity of 150GW and estimated peak demand of 103GW, we can serve a peak load of only 93GW. At the current annual generation capacity of 1, 30,000 MW, India faces shortages of nearly 9 per cent; the peak load deficit is higher at 10-11 per cent. India is not only experiencing an electricity shortage but is also increasingly dependent on oil imports to meet demand. The country¶s ability to secure a reliable supply of energy resources at affordable prices will be one of the most important factors in shaping its future energy demand. Look up at the tops of buildings, and on any given day, you are likely to find three, four or six smokestacks poking out of each, blowing gray-black plumes into the clouds. If the smokestacks are being used, it means the power is off and the building whether bright new mall, condominium or office is probably being powered by diesel-fed generators. The stock of coal and oil etc. will not last for long. So, there is a need to use renewable sources of energy. This has led to increasing interest in renewable sources such as biodiesel, solar energy, geothermal energy, tidal energy, wave power, and wind energy etc. In our opinion India must harness TIDAL ENERGY and we are proposing a plan for that here.

even at low tidal flow velocities (compared with wind speed).TIDAL ENERGY Although not yet widely used. It has one of the lowest impacts on the environment of any means of energy production. Since it is underwater. tidal power has potential for future electricity generation. 2. or river. and associated tidal currents. generating vastly more power in a highly predictable manner. while providing economic efficiency and environmental benefits. according to a 168-page report released in 2006 by the Electric Power Research Institute. Periodic changes of water levels. WHY TIDAL ENERGY Free-flow tidal power is fast emerging as the preferred technology for tapping ocean power. The power of tides can be harnessed in two ways: 1. This method is gaining popularity because of the lower cost and lower ecological impact compared to barrages. A higher density of water (832 times that of air) means that a generator can provide significant power. the greater the potential for tidal energy generation. Scientists know the movement of the tides for the next 1000 years. Turbines installed in the barrage wall generate power as water flows in and out of the estuary basin. it produces power whether the tide ebbs or flows. Tidal power. sometimes also called tidal energy. is a form of hydropower that converts the energy of tides into electricity or other useful forms of power. either in water level height or tidal current velocities. Tidal power is also one of the most reliable renewable energy resources. Barrage System This involves building a barrage across a bay or river that has high and low tides. Tidal energy is generated by the relative motion of the water which interacts via gravitational forces. which means that power companies can accurately predict exactly how much power they will get . bay. Tidal stream systems Tidal stream generators draw energy from currents in much the same way as wind turbines. are due to the gravitational attraction by the Sun and Moon. The stronger the tide. The turbines can be placed in the ocean or any river with a constant current over two meters per second.

THE SITE FOR SETTING UP THE PLANT Even though we boast of a long coastline of 7. It is extremely site specific. It is an inlet of the Arabian Sea along the west coast of India. A tidal current turbine gains over four times as much energy per meter squared of rotor as a wind turbine. Tidal turbines are somewhat better for the environment than the heavy metals used to make solar cells. solar is not always as predictable due to cloud coverage. its potential to harness tidal energy has been recognized by the Government of India. Since India is surrounded by sea on three sides.and when. which means that the potential for generating each unit of energy per meter is much greater than wind power can ever be. Although tidal and wind share the same basic mechanics for generating electricity. Moreover.000 times denser than air. in the state of Gujarat. . The location that we have chosen for setting up our plant is Gulf of Cambay.517 km. It is about 80 miles in length. water is 1. wind turbines can only operate when there is sufficient wind and they are sometimes considered aesthetically unappealing. such as estuaries or certain types of bays in order to bring down costs of dams. tidal energy cannot be produced everywhere. requires mean tidal differences greater than 4 m. The Narmada and Tapti rivers empty into the Gulf. Since the sun only shines on average for half a day. etc. and also favorable topographical conditions.

a large concrete block to hold it to the seabed.The Gulf is known for its extreme tides. this is again to design out components that could be unreliable. TECHNOLOGY USED We are using tidal stream system because of the lower cost and lower ecological impact compared to barrages. For efficient power production by a tidal stream system. Another difference is that it uses a "gravity base". We have to install our turbines at a depth of around 30m below the water level so that ships can easily pass through that area. The "Swanturbines" design is different from other devices in a number of ways.77 m. convert mechanical energy to electrical energy by generator. which is sufficient. Finally. this concept allows simple installation and maintenance retrieval in . We will be installing our turbines at such a distance from the shore where water depth is sufficient.6m/s. it is simple to see that water speeds of nearly one-tenth of the speed of wind provide the same power for the same size of turbine system. rather than drilling into the seabed. This is more efficient and there is no gearbox to go wrong. current velocity >=2m/s is needed. They use a blade to extract the kinematic energy from ocean flow. means that a single generator can provide significant power at low tidal flow velocities (compared with wind speed). Marine current turbines are not a completely new technology. transfer the electricity to a shoreside power conditioning station by underwater cable. which vary greatly in height and run into it with amazing speed. 800 times the density of air. the blades are fixed pitch. The most significant is that it is direct drive. because they are similar in many aspects to wind turbine. where the blades are connected directly to the electrical generator without a gearbox between. rather than actively controlled. The mean current velocity in the Gulf of Cambay is 2. which are already well developed and commercialized. and finally transmit the electricity by overhead transmission line to an existing electricity grid. Here we are using swanturbines which has advantage over simple turbines. Tidal stream generators draw energy from currents in much the same way as wind turbines. Given that power varies with the density of medium and the cube of velocity. The higher density of water. The maximum tidal range is 11 m with average tidal range of 6. Using rotor dynamic modelling.

4m  Nominal Generator Speed ± 1000rpm . robust and serviceable yawing mechanism is used for maximum flow capture.5MW  Depth of Water Lowest Astronomical Tide (LAT) ± 24m  Depth of Water Mean Sea Level (MSL) ±26.both shallow and deep water and minimization of vibrations. hence increasing the maintenance period. A gearless low speed generator offers a high efficiency over a range of speeds with minimal maintenance demands through the use of novel structural and electromagnetic topologies. Figure showing swan turbine Turbine's specifications:  Rated power=1.2m  Depth of Water Highest Astronomical Tide(HAT) . A simple.28. This can increase power capture by up to 45% which is extremely advantageous in terms of cost of energy.

The investment is needed is for various purposes like installing the turbines. subsea cable cost. COST ESTIMATION The total estimated cost of setting up the plant is 100 crores. The distribution of these costs for various purposes is as shown below: . which makes it difficult for fish and wildlife to migrate through those channels.40m  Rotational axis-horizontal IMPACTS ON ECOSYSTEM Tidal turbines can have varying environmental impacts depending on whether or not fences and turbines are constructed with regard to the environment. tidal fences and turbines do not block channels or estuarine mouths. subsea cable installation.3rpm  Tip Speed ± 12 m/s  Diameter of Rotor ± 20m  Mean Spring Current ± 3.4m/s  Spacing between two turbines in a row-30m  Total height of the turbine. Tidal fences block off channels.7m/s  Max Current ± 4. thus. The main environmental impact of turbines is their impact on fish. interrupt fish migration or alter hydrology. getting the structural steel elements. In order to reduce fish kill. we are introducing fences with large spaces between the caisson wall and the rotor foil enough to allow fish to pass through. Nominal Rotor Speed ± 14.8m/s  Rated Speed ± 2. We are also using a sonar sensor auto-breaking system that automatically shuts the turbines down when marine mammals are detected. power conversion system and on-shore grid connection. Unlike barrages. these options offer energy generating capacity without dire environmental impacts.

farm configuration. environmental factors. fog etc) Sea conditions (wind and wave etc) Tidal flow speed . Contributors to each of these are as follows: Component lifetime and failure rate: y Blade Electricity generator Shaft Brake Cable Support column y y y y Environmental factors: y y y Weather (Rain.OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE COST O&M costs are affected by component reliability. and other factors.

some cause for optimism lies in the fact that pre-commercial testing of some near-shore turbines has resulted in turbines operating without failure over a five-year period. we have to produce 60GWh per year in order to meet the energy demands of the people. Population of Gulf of Cambay region is near about 1 lakh. shape etc) Farm size Other factors y y y y y Labor and materials discount rates Nominal operational life time of components Transmission coefficients Electrical efficiency coefficient Mechanical loading The lifetime of the device will significantly affect O&M costs. . creating a ³tidal fence´ and (ii) wide spacing. Wide spacing. and because O&M costs incurred in the years furthest in the future are the most highly discounted. and requiring higher maneuverability of maintenance craft. which typically extend to 30 years or so. despite the lack of a systematic maintenance program. Tidal turbine lifetime might be extrapolated from that of current offshore platforms. drives up maintenance by exposing more cable. with the spacing between turbines being a key variable. The turbines that we are using have a rating of 1. Designers of tidal turbines in the UK and Canada have projected lifetimes of 20 -30 years for their designs (Pearson 2005).5MW. Spacing that is close decreases turbine efficiency because the flow through each turbine affects the flow through its immediate neighbors. Although accurate estimates of operational lifetime of tidal turbines will not be available until more experience is gained with full-scale devices. So. Farm size affects O&M costs for tidal turbines in a manner that is similar to that for offshore wind farms. both because older equipment requires more attention. on the other hand. Turbine farms have two alternative spacing modes: (i) side-by-side. OUTPUT FROM THE PLANT In India per capita power consumption is around 600 KWh per year.Farm configuration: y y y Offshore distance Device geometry (size.

in/ref/ae/oce/oce.in/mainpage. This project will come up with the solutions to the hurdles that India is facing in representing itself as a developed economy in the global forefront.about.org/wiki/Tidal_power . creating hundreds of local jobs. The energy left after serving demands of the people can be used for industrial development of concerned region.We are planning to install 20 turbines.wikipedia. Tidal turbines generate electricity for around 10hrs a day.com/od/tstartinventions/a/tidal_power. So annual total production of our plant will be 110 GWh.eai.htm http://www. REFERENCES       http://inventors. CONCLUSION Our proposed plant is very much apt for serving our purpose by using renewable tidal power.gov.htm http://en.html http://www.gujarat.org/wiki/Energy_crisis http://en.wikipedia. It has the potential to create a new local industry based on tidal power in the State.darvill.htm http://www.clara.kalpasar. Gulf of Cambay is the ideal location for its setup as the environmental impacts have been assessed and are generally considered to be insignificant. this tidal power project has the potential to place Gujarat at the forefront of the fight against climate change. Coupled with the recent announcements on concentrated solar power projects in the State.net/altenerg/tidal.

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