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Project Preparatory Report On

Design And Fabrication Of A

Composite Fin With Graphene Coating


RAHUL KUMAR Roll No:1502202

RAKESH KUMAR Roll No:1502204

RITESH JHA Roll No:1502208

RITU RAJ MISHRA Roll No:1502209

Under the guidance of

Prof. Arnab Lahiri


APRIL 2018
This is to certify that the project report entitled “Design And
Fabrication Of A Composite Fin With Graphene Coating” is
submitted by-
RAHUL KUMAR Roll No-1502202
RAKESH KUMAR Roll No-1502204
RITESH JHA Roll No-1502208
RITU RAJ MISHRA Roll No-1502209

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the Degree of Bachelor
Technology in Mechanical Engineering is a bonafide record of the work carried out
under our guidance and supervision at School of Mechanical Engineering,Kiit




The project was evaluated by us on 9/4/2018


TOPIC Page Number









In the recent years, a lot of experiments have been conducted to increase the rate of
heat transfer.Therefore its believed that improvement and application of newly
modified fins in Heat Transfer process will play a vital role in the application of
various industrial uses like power plants, electronics and automobile industries which
will bring a rapid change in the sale and market value of these industries.Some of the
tech giants have already started implementing the latest techniques to enhance their
increasing profit in the technology market.Several Heat transfer properties will be
enhanced if we use composite material (copper+graphene) instead of pure
copper,aluminium.Near about 5 to 10% performance of fin can be enhanced if we use
composite material over conventional material.Performance of composite fin will be
enhanced if use perforated fin or triangular partition fin

Keyword Composite Material, Fin, Graphene


Symbols Description Unit

k Thermal Conductivity W/mK

ɳ Fin Efficiency -

ϵ Fin Effectiveness -

Tb Fin Base Temperature K

T Surrounding Temperature K

h Heat Transfer Coefficient W/m2k

Qfin Actual Heat Transfer Rate KW

From The Pin

Qfin_max Ideal Heat Transfer Rate From kW

The Fin At Base Temperature

Fins are surfaces that extend from an object to increase the rate of heat transfer to or from
the environment by increasing convection.Extended surfaces have fins attached to the
primary surface on one side of a two-fluid or a multifluid heat exchanger. Fins can be of a
variety of geometry—plain, wavy or interrupted—and can be attached to the inside, outside
or to both sides of circular, flat or oval tubes, or parting sheets. Pins are primarily used to
increase the surface area (when the heat transfer coefficient on that fluid side is relatively
low) and consequently to increase the total rate of heat transfer. In addition, enhanced fin
geometries also increase the heat transfer coefficient compared to that for a plain fin. Fins
may also be used on the high heat transfer coefficient fluid side in a heat exchanger
primarily for structural strength (for example, for high pressure water flow through a flat
tube) or to provide a thorough mixing of a highly-viscous liquid (such as for laminar oil
flow in a flat or a round tube). Fins are attached to the primary surface by brazing,
soldering, welding, adhesive bonding or mechanical expansion, or extruded or integrally
connected to tubes. Major categories of extended surface heat exchangers are
Tube-finTube-fin (Figure 1), and Tube-fin (Figure 2, individually finned tubes – Figure
2a and flat fins on an array of tubes – Figure 2b) exchangers. Note that shell-and-tube
exchangers sometimes employ individually finned tubes—low finned tubing (similar
to Figure 2a but with low height fins) [Shah (1985)].
Figure 1.

Figure 2.
Basic heat transfer and pressure drop analysis methods for extended and other heat
exchangers have been described by Shah (1985). An overall design methodology for heat
exchangers has also been presented by Shah (1992). Detailed step-by-step procedures for
designing extended surface plate-fin and tube-fin type counterflow, crossflow, parallelflow
and two-pass cross-counterflow heat exchangers have been outlined by Shah (1988).
In this entry, the theoretical and experimental/analytical nondimensional heat transfer
coefficients for some important extended surface geometries are summarized and a table of
fin efficiencies for some important extended surfaces is provided.
Fin efficiency and extended surface efficiency

The concept of fin efficiency accounts for the reduction in temperature potential between the fin

and the ambient fluid due to conduction along the fin and convection from or to the fin surface,

depending on fin cooling or heating situation. The fin temperature effectiveness or fin efficiency is

defined as the ratio of the actual heat transfer rate through the fin base divided by the maximum

possible heat transfer rate through the fin base, which can be obtained if the entire fin is at base

temperature (i.e., its material thermal conductivity is infinite). Since most real fins are “thin,” they

are treated as one-dimensional (1-D), with standard idealizations used for analysis [Huang and

Shah (1992)]. This 1-D fin efficiency is a function of fin geometry, fin material thermal

conductivity, heat transfer coefficient at the fin surface and fin tip boundary condition; it is not a

function of the fin base or fin tip temperature, ambient temperature or heat flux at the fin base or fin

tip. Fin efficiency formulas for some common plate-fin and tube-fin geometries of uniform fin

thickness are presented in Table 1 [Shah (1985)]. These results are not valid when the fin is thick

or is subject to variable heat transfer coefficients or variable ambient fluid temperature, nor for fins

with temperature depression at the base [see Huang and Shah (1992) for specific modifications to

the basic formula or for specific results]. In an extended surface heat exchanger, heat transfer takes

place from both the fins (ηf < 100%) and the primary surface (ηf = 100%). In this case, the total

heat transfer rate is evaluated through a concept of total surface effectiveness or surface

efficiency ηo defined as:

ɳfin = Actual heat transfer rate from the pin

Ideal heat transfer rate
From the fin if the entire fin were at base temperature
ɳfin = Qfin/Qfin_max = Qfin/hAfin (Tb - Ta )
ϵ= Heat transfer rate from the fin of base area Ab
Heat transfer rate from the source of area Ab

ϵ= Qfin/Qfin.max =Qfin/hTb(Tb-Ta)

Literature Review
1. Hybrid Design Service,INC (James Pinion-President)
Date-6th September,2016
They worked on Graphene composite fin and they observed tremendous enhancement in
Heat Transfer properties.The corrosion resistant,thermal conductivity increased and
material became lighter.

2. Abdullah H.Alessa-8th August 2008 et al.

He had studied the natural convection heat transfer enhancement from a horizontal
rectangular fin embedded with equilateral triangular perforations. The heat dissipation rate
from the perforated fin is compared to that of the equivalent solid one. The effect of
geometrical dimensions of the perforated fin and thermal properties of the fin was studied
in detail. They concluded that, For certain values of triangular dimensions, the perforated
fin can result in heat transfer enhancement. The magnitude of enhancement is proportional
to the fin thickness and its thermal conductivity. The perforation of fins enhances heat
dissipation rates and at the same time decreases the expenditure of the fin material.
3.Sable, M.J. et al. 8th August 2010
He had investigated for natural convection adjacent to a vertical heated plate with a
multiple v- type partition plates (fins) in ambient air surrounding. As compared to
conventional vertical fins, this v-type partition plate’s works not only as extended surface
but also as flow turbulator. In order to enhance the heat transfer, V-shaped partition plates
(fins) with edges faced upstream were attached to the two identical vertical plates. They
observed that among the three different fin array configurations on vertical heated plate,
V-type fin array design performs better than rectangular vertical fin array and V-fin array
with bottom spacing design. The performance was observed to improve further, with
increase in the height of the V-plates (fin height)

Project Material

The allotrope form of carbon consisting of a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a
hexagonal lattice is known as Graphene. Graphene is an exciting material. It has a large
theoretical specific surface area (2630 m2g−1), high intrinsic mobility (200 000
cm2 v−1 s−1), high Young's modulus (∼ 1.0 TPa)and thermal conductivity (∼ 5000
Wm−1K−1),and its optical transmittance (∼ 97.7%) and good electrical conductivity merit
attention for applications such as for transparent conductive electrodes,among many other
potential applications. Graphene has been experimentally studied for over 40 years, and
measurements of transport properties in micromechanically exfoliated layers, of graphene
grown on (SiC), large‐area graphene grown on copper (Cu) substrates, as well as a variety
of studies involving the use of chemically modified graphene (CMG) to make new
materials, have in part led to a surge in the number of publications and in the amount of,
e.g., National Science Foundation grants recently awarded in the USA.[5]

As a robust yet flexible membrane, graphene provides essentially infinite possibilities for
the modification or functionalization of its carbon backbone. Graphite oxide (GO) offers
potential for the production of CMG on the ton scale. First prepared almost 150 years
ago,GO has emerged as a precursor offering the potential of cost‐effective, large‐scale
production of graphene‐based materials.

In this review, the synthesis, physical properties, and potential applications of graphene
and of CMG (with particular focus on graphene oxide) will be briefly discussed. Several
recent reviews have appeared about graphene and related materials. We also note reviews
of the chemistry of GO or exfoliated platelets derived from GO, namely ‘graphene
oxide’, and of the chemistry of graphene. Applications will be discussed for monolayer,
bilayer and few‐layer (3 to ∼ 10 layers) graphene or GO‐derived graphene‐based

Properties of Graphene

* Thinnest material ever,1 atom thin layer

* Strongest material and still flexible
* Only surface
* Best thermal conductor
* One of the best electrical conductors
* Transparent or Opaque
* Extremely Light Weight
* Environmental Friendly
* Hexagonal 2 Dimension
* Thermal Conductivity of approximately 2000W/mK at room temperature.
Figure 3. Application of Graphene

Figure 4. Industrial Application


Many of the investigators have used solution based deposition including membrane
filtration,deep coating ,layer by layer,spray coating, spin coating, chemical vapor
deposition, physical vapor deposition. But a great majority of them used the great
expensive of CVD for the deposition of Graphene on copper metal .

High surface finished fin can be achieved by applying a coating of Graphene using CVD

CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition)

 In the chemical vapor deposition(CVD) processes solid is deposited from a vapor by

chemical reaction occuring on or in the vicinity of a normally heated substrate surface
 The resulting material is in the form of thin film material, powder or single material
Support the growth of material,with a wide range of Physical,Tribological and Chemical
CVD Uses

CVD is commonly used to deposit conformal films and augment substrate surfaces in ways
that more traditional surface modification techniques are not capable of. CVD is extremely
useful in the process of atomic layer deposition at depositing extremely thin layers of
material. A variety of applications for such films exist. Gallium arsenide is used in
some integrated circuits (ICs) and photovoltaic devices. Amorphous polysilicon is used in
photovoltaic devices. Certain carbides and nitrides confer wear-resistance. Polymerization
by CVD, perhaps the most versatile of all applications, allows for super-thin coatings
which possess some very desirable qualities, such as lubricity, hydrophobicity and
weather-resistance to name a few. CVD of metal-organic frameworks, a class of crystalline
nanoporous materials, has recently been demonstrated.Applications for these films are
anticipated in gas sensing and low-k dielectrics CVD techniques are adventageous for
membrane coatings as well, such as those in desalination or water treatment, as these
coatings can be sufficiently uniform (conformal) and thin that they do not clog membrane


Existing materials like copper,aluminium ,brass etc.have been used in the production of
fins,but there are also some flaws existing with these materials. For application of fins for
the industrial uses we need to have fins with smaller surface area, efficient,
a larger life span of the structure with a proper working condition.But the above mentioned
elements are not fulfilling the requirements of today’s needs. Aluminium has a high
affinity towards oxygen.Consequently the surface area of the fin gets corroded with time
which consequently reduces the efficiency of the fin..
Our objective is to increase the fin performance and fin properties(like mechanical &
thermal properties) by using graphene layered fin instead of copper fin. Further to increase
the performance and to reduce material requirement of the graphene layered fin by making
equilateral triangular perforation and by making V-shape partition plates.

The members of our group individually came up with a common idea to do detailed survey
about various elements used in the production and application of fins and their various
physical and chemical properties.The members,while going through the research process,
came across a material known as Graphene and decided to have a deep knowledge about
the materials and its various properties.We found out that Graphene has been proved to be
a very useful material specially for the electronics and automobile industry. We also found
that it has been newly discovered in the past couple of years and being rarely available in
the market and high cost it is currently uneconomical for the researches and project works
of students.To help us out we approached various industries and institutes like Tata
Steel ,Institutes Of Minerals and Materials Technology,Central Tool Room and Training
Center and we acknowledged the fact that for the current time its only available for the use
of industrial purpose and in the coming couple years it will also be available to the students
persuing various technical degrees. Our research on this material is still going on with a
precise vision to prove that how it is a perfect material to be used in the formation of fins.
To find a solution to the above mentioned problems, we need to apply a coating of
Graphene over the copper fin to reduce the surface affinity towards oxygen. For this we
have visited institutes like Institutes Of Minerals And Materials Technology and we were
told that we can conduct the CVD process but the cost for CVD process was beyond our
budget. Prior to that we had also visited many iron and steel industries like TISCO,Tata
Cummins, Adhunik Power and Resource Limited.
We acknowledged the fact that Graphene is a material rarely available in the market ,but
cost of Graphene is not too high.
We as a member of the group have decided to have a numerical data analysis on the
efficiency and industrial working output of the fin made up of different material , and we
have decided to have a detailed research on the difference that it brings on using Graphene
instead of some convential material that has been used in the post few years



GRAPHENE OXIDE-10 gms 2900/-
Cu metal 500/-
Manufacturing cost 3000/-
Miscellaneous 3000/-
Total 9400/-
The scientific activities involved in the increment and application of industrial
techniques specifically Heat Transfer process have become a prime focus specially for
the electronic and automobile industry. In today’s high end technological procedure
and boosted up process we need to have materials with minimum investment,low
quantity and much higher efficiency compared to earlier elements which have proved
to be existing with some major flaws which have become a dominant problems for the
large scale industries.In the present scenario the application of Graphene has been
proved to be beneficial for the industrial applications which will help to amplify their
personal revenue. If we lay our focus on the usage of fins then the usage of fins coated
with Graphene will bring a drastic change in the present applications of their usages.
Therefore we have concluded to bring the primary focus on the usage of Graphene in
the production of fins which will bring a major change in the industrial sector.


[1]. Hybrid Design Service,INC (James Pinion-President)Date-6th September,2016.

[Google Scholar]Internation Journal of Refrigeration, 55, 204-209
[2]. Abdullah, H. Alessa and Mohammed, Q. Al-Odat, “Enhancement of Natural
Convection Heat Transfer from a Fin by Triangular Perforations of Bases Parallel and
Toward its Base”, The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, vol. 34, pp.
531-544, 2009.
[3]. Sable M.J., Jagtap S.J., Patil P.S., Baviskar P.R. and Barve S.B., “Enhancement
of Natural Convection Heat Transfer on Vertical Heated Plate by Multiple V-fin
array”, IJRRAS, vol. 5, issue 2, pp. 123-128, 2010.
[4]. Rajput R. K., “Heat and Mass Transfer”, S. Chand & Company Ltd., New Delhi,
[5]. N.Usha Kiran,Sanjukta Dey,Bimal P. Singh andLaxmidhar Besra *
Colloids and Materials Chemistry Department, CSIR—Institute of Minerals and
Materials Technology, Bhubaneshwar 751013, India