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Aerodynamic bodies subjected to pitching motions or oscillations exhibit a stalling behavior
different from that observed when the flow over a wing at a fixed angle of attack separates.
Dynamic stall occurs on any airfoil or lifting surfaces when it is subjected to time-dependent
pitching, plunging or vertical translation or other type of non-steady motion that takes the effective
angle of attack above its normal static stall angle. In the case of a dynamically pitching body such
as an airfoil, the shear layer near the leading edge rolls up to form a leading-edge vortex (LEV)
which provides additional suction over the upper airfoil surface as it convects downstream. This
increased suction leads to performance gains in lift and stall delay, but the LEV quickly becomes
unstable and detaches from the airfoil. The LEV detachment is accompanied by a dramatic
decrease in lift and sudden increase in pitching moment. This complex unsteady flow process is
referred to in general as dynamic stall. Dynamic stall is an effect most associated with helicopters
and flapping wings, though also occurs in wind turbines and due to gusting airflow.

The factors affecting the unsteady aerodynamics of airfoil oscillating in pitching motion are mean
angle, amplitude of oscillation, reduced frequency, Reynolds number, Mach number and the type
of pitch motion. The seminar will comprise of a comprehensive review of important terms
associated with the phenomenon, different regimes encountered in dynamic stall, the effect of
different parameters on the intensity and phase of dynamic stall and different approaches to model,
simulate and experimentally analyze the phenomenon. Further, the unique flow physics
accompanying unsteady boundary layer separation and variation of dynamic stall mechanisms in
different conditions will also be discussed.

1. Carr, L.W., McAlister, K.W. and McCroskey, W. J. (1977) “Analysis of the
Development of Dynamic Stall based on Oscillating Airfoil Experiments.” NASA TN D-
2. W. J. McCroskey, K.W. McAlister, and L.W. Carr, "Dynamic Stall Experiments on
Oscillating Airfoils," AIAA Journal, Vol. 14, Jan. 1976, pp. 57-63.
3. McCroskey, W J. (1981) “The Phenomenon of Dynamic Stall.” NASA TM 81264.
4. K.W. McAlister, L.W. Carr, and W.J. McCroskey, “Dynamic stall experiments on the
NACA 0012 airfoil”, Tech. Rep. NASATP 1100, 1978.
5. Carr, L.W., 1988. Progress in analysis and prediction of dynamic stall. Journal of
aircraft, 25(1), pp.6-17.
6. K. Mulleners and M. Raffel, “Dynamic stall development”, Experiments in Fluids, Vol.52
No.3, pp.779–793, 2013.