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Introduction 3
An tic ip a te d Growth 3
UJ si'i of the G ui d cllllc \ 3
Wh o ~ h o ul d lI SC th e G ll idelin es ? 4
Orga ni sation o f th<: C u id e lin es 4

Urban Structure and 5

The Guideline. 7

A Should the Area be Reurbanised? 7

B What Type of Reurbanisotion Area is it? 11

Maj or Metro Ce nt res 13

Ccmrc ') 15

Corridors 16

! lI fi li Arc", 18

C What is the Appropriate Mix of Uses? 21

Mi xed U sc 21

B.d al1cc 22

M ix of Ii o usin g r ypcs 28

D What is the Appropriate

Overall Density level? 31

Gros s R c urb :1 n isat io n De m lty 33

US lIl g t h t' I) " ll si ty Gui(k ' liIl L'S 34

I The Urban Design Plan 35

F The Public Realm 39

Il o w mll c h Pu blic R c:dlll is R cquin: d ? 39

D c s i ~ 11 o f th e I'u b li c Itca IIIl 41

G Site-Specific Densities 43

H Pedestrian Environment 45

Parking 49

J Fit and Transition 51

K Special Features 55

Applying the Guideline. 1"\""'l'lr" 57

r A M c d i ulIl D e n s i t y Co r ri d or
A Low D CI1'i i ty Loca l C e ll t r e



Berridge Lewinberg Greenberg Ltd .

Pamela Blais
George Dark
Ke n G reenberg
Jonah Ing
N icola Jancso
Frank Lcwinbcrg
Mark Kcid
Stephane Tremblay
Michel Trocme
E,wirolllflclll: Monica Campbell

Municipality of Metropolitan
Toronto Steering Committee
John Gartner
John Livey
Edith Howard
13rcnda Ucrnards

Randy Mc Lean
Philip Abrahams
Harvey Low

Mi//isrry of Mlnlici!,al Affairs

Ruth Malady

Municipal Steering Committee

Joe Borowiec North York
Uarbara Leonhardt Torollto
Peter Moore Scarbo«)lIgh
Lou Mo retto York
Rick Tornasczc wicz Eas t Yc>rk
Perry Vagnini Etobimke

Graphic Design
Hambly & Woolley Inc.
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Printing mllilmum of 50% recycled mucna J
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The Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto
orporatc Printin g Se rvices Pnnled III Canada

Anticipated Growth
Rece nt p rojections indicate that the popula ti on of
the G reater Toro nto ArL'a is e xpected to incrC;l'\C
from 4 million to 6 mill ion ill the next 2 U to 30
years. The Muni cipali ty of Me trop olitan Toronto has
set targets :lim<.:d at :1ccomlllodating a mi nilllum of
30Q ,OOO new residents an d 400,000 ""W jobs o ver
thi s pe riod . As virtua lly all of Me tro's land area is
alrc.ldy urbani"icd, accom modating this growth will
invol ve redevelopment. A framework is needed to
gui de rhis process of " rcurb anisation".

Basis of the Guidelines

These Guidelin es w ere deve loped on th e basis of a

c body of rese arch presented in the Stu dy of the

N.. eurba ll isatioll of J\1er rIJ}J oiitall Tor(Jllto, the compan­

~ ion report to thi" do clIment. A compre hensive

P- approach was adopted, aim ed at integratin g e llviron ­

mental, eco n omic, social and built fo rIll issuc~ in

t he rcurb:lI1isatio n of Metropolitan Toro nto .


RClirbanisation providc..·s an oppo rtunit y to
achieve environmental goals, an d to improve the
soei,1 "nd ph ysi cal f.1 bnc of the lIle tropo lis. I' or
l'xJmple. rcurbanisation C.lIl re duce auto depe nd en ce
in nun y ways, such a'\ creatin g t he critic..:al dcnsitic..·s
needed for walking , cyclin g, and the li se of tran'\it.
OIll.' of th e fun dam ental implic:Ition'\ of th e
Gu idel ines io; that :t!! Ill;~or new developm en t is
sl.'rvcd b y tran 'iit. B y d efinition , reurbanbatioll
involves recil'vc1 o pin g :1iready urbanised areas, which
decreases pressu re for d evelo plllent of greenfield s
sites outside M l'tro. Reurbanisation pro vides
4 Gllld<:ltnt.·~ for tbe
Ilcurballl\.'irLOll of

Metropobt.111 Toronto
an opportunity to learn • wh ere shollid For plann ers, th e Eac h set o f G uidelin es is
from mistak es of the fCllfuallisa tioll occur? Guideli nes ind icate the preceded b y an e xplana­
past, and to crcate a • at what dellsiti es ? elements proposed devel­ tion o f their co ntex t and i,
hi gh-quality, livable
• what lalld rI ses arc opment should include, r:1ti onalc . An cxamplc
urb::lI1 environme n t,
appropriate? and offer a means of showing the application
with building at J
• how Hlll ch land shollid he eva luating such propos­ of th c G uid elines to an
human scale.
Reurbanisation ca n de/Jot ed to streets Q/ld als. Fo r cievL'iopers, th e area at Victo ria Park and

e nsure J range of pla ces parks , Guidelines indi cate what Danforth Avenues is
wh ere ne w ki nds of • what huilt for ms are th e M e tropolitan ca rr ied through the do c­
businesses ca n locate, appropriate? Government is looking ument. T hi s exampl e is
and prom o te diversity The G uidelin es are for in n ew devel o prn ent fo r the purp ose of illus­
o f ho usin g type :Ind
not intended to address sche llles. As a framework tration only, showin g
cho ice . Finally, rcurban­
small-scale forms of for guiding urban devel­ how th e G uid elin es
isation ca n support CO Ill­
intensifi ca tion , suc h as opment in th e futufe might be applied to a
rnunity building Jn d
co nversi o ns or infill. based on a comprche n­ parti cular area. T he i
social illtegration.
Rath e r, they are sive app ro ac h to social, drawin gs do not rep re­ i
Who should use addressed to th e large r ccono rni c , enVlfon m el1­ sen t a p ro posed plan fo r
the Guidelines? geog raphiol scal e of tal and built e nvironme nt th e area .
T he G uidelines are planning, imply ing an obje ctives , t hc Throughout the doc­ !
intend ed to provide overall urban structure G uid elines may also be um ent, there are also
gu idance to develop ers ,
for Metro, ane! suggest of inte rest to plann ers seve ral photog raphs lik e
loca l arca 3nd Metro
how the reurbanisation and policy m akns in the one below, d enoted
To ronto planne rs. co un­ of large r an.:as within the o th er jurisdi ctions. by a grccn border.
cillo rs or oth er in tc rest­ M etro f.lbric should be These arc p hotos o f i
cd perso ns rega rding rcurbaniscd. In most Orgonisation of existing building ty pes
h ow the process of rcur­ cases, it is th ese "reur­ the Gu ideli nes \vithin Metro, which
ba nisatio n is to un fo ld in banisation areas", The G uidelin es are \v o uld fit th c schem e fOf
Metro ove r the coming described bel ow, whi c h o rganised on th e bas is of reu rbanisatio n prese nted
yea rs. They deal with afC th e subj ect o f th e a "hierarchy of dec i­ in the G uidelines.
reurb ~lI1isatioI1 issue s at G uid elines , not individ­ sio ns" whi ch will lead

a full ran ge o f scales, ual development parcels th e read er throu gh an

addressing qu estions or sites. evaluati o n process fo r a

such as: reurb anisati o l1 area.

and Transit
It is anticipated that as urbanisation contin u e" o ut­
side Metro 's urban boundaries, there will be a signif­
ic ant influx of comilluccrs to M etro. Thi'i will result
in a vast increase tn the lIumbc:r of cars e n tering
Metro every day. For this rCJ'\OIl. and to 'mppo n
gC IlL'ral envirOIlmcllt:l1 objcctivc.:<o; associated with tlIt.:
• lise of transit (such as red uction, in air pollution,
1l0i'\L', and the global \A.1arllling effect), a fundamental
clement of the GuidL"lin cs is "'trong support for the
usc of transit tltr(lll,~" r(,Jlrbanisa tivlI at h'Y loulliems
with appropriate dell sili£'s alld land uses. The
Guiddines attempt to integrate land u '\c and tranliit
planning in many way"i. including, for ('x;lmpk. tying
the overall den sity of an area to the level of tr:msi[
service aV:lib.bk .
6 Cu!(khlll'~ for the.'
Rl'ltrb.lnt'JtH)[! of
M,: tropolit.lI) Toronto

At th e sa me tllllc. on existing: level, of priatt: dellsiti es fo r developers alike. Th,'

there is a need to tr:lI1sit '\crviCl.' or exist­ devdupllll·nt. Wl' haVl' approac h advocated
a context of cc rcaillty ing transport3tioll reco mm ended in tht: here Ie; designed to work
for dcvdopl11l'nt and ca paci ty. Pla1lllers are co mpanion n:porL that with the Illarketplace,
n.:devcioplllcnt deci­ relu ctant to approve {utlln: transit corrid ors. cre:Hing opportunities
sion-making. On(' of higher densiti es bl'GlllSC and th e gC IH:ral level of for grow th. In addition,
the ll13in stumblin g existing transportatio n transit service be th e framework could be
blocks in Cllrrent devd­ cap~l city may not exist, elltrcilched in Official impl eme nted so as to
oplllcnt planning is tlut and there is no reliable Pbn poli cy. In thi s way, create further certainty
levels of future transit long term plan for dt:vL']opmcnt decis ions for devclop,m'Ilt. If the
servICe 1Il any given transit illlprOV l:ln c nt,\ em be nudc in the con­ framework i!\ im ple­
location 3rc not kno\-vn. in Metro. text of gn.:atc..:r c..:rtainty Jllcnted in a proactive
Decisions regarding In orckr to introduce abollt tht' future trans­ way by local gove rn­
density become based an ekment of ce rtainty portation ca pacity avail­ ments. with reurbanisa­
into the dl'vdopmcnt able to se rvice new tion areas prL'd csignated
planning ]>roccss, and to deve lopmcnt. At the and urban d es ig n plans
provide a fi rmer bas is saIne timt: this approach developed, the planning
UpOIl which to Jllakt: would provide a lang­ approva lli process cou ld
decisions about appro ­ term ba~i s for ca pital be made Illore efficient.
funding ::llld co ne;tru c­
tion of c.lpital improvc­
ThUll while the .

Guidelines do g uide
Energy Usage II
(b.u / personl mCllts. d evelop lllent in ce rtain
A closer iut egratio n ways, for example.
of land USe planning 3nd directing it to certain
transportation plannin g, locations whL'rL' transit
Interci ty rail
and till· crcatio ll of a infrastructure c;m or will
more certain transit support it. we feci that

lig ht roil
framt:'I.,'ork, should serve the y also co ntain the
to smooth the plan nin g potential for a speed ier
69. prOCl:SS for pbnner" and approv:1is process which
City Bus
will serVL' the !lurket as
well as th e public.

Ropid roi l .



~ ijr

45 7 6 j
... ~

[ ~!
, ~
Certain types of areas
should not be reur­
l. "
, 111
banised because in their
l~ present form they play
an increasingly impor­
~ .3 tant role in the urban
,l fabric and urban envi­
I ..
' ~ ronment. Included are
l ..

, ~
Should the a~~aea;~;~:~:e~,
l .. open spaces,

!-- - ~

' . d?
be reur banise . and the low­
rise residen­
lL.j tial neighbourhoods
l !!~
(though the neighbour­

r~ Guidelil1es for llit,

hoods will continue to
be the locus of small
Reurbafl;satio" of

A1ctropolitau Torot/tv
scale forms of residential
~ intensification, such as

j accessory units and

minor infill) .

8 Guidclim'.. for tht: .­
Rl'llrb:lIlis.uioll of
MetropolItan Toronto

Other types of areas We have begun to ing the approach to

m ay be rcurbanised but appreciate th e truc develop m en t, to urb an ~
will requ ire a special challe nges in th e rCll1c ­ design, and to the ide n­
response. I n orde r to di atio n of "brown sites" ti ti catio n of reali stic
ensure a hl.:31 thy and to make them suitable goals fo r rcurb anisation.
d ive rse urban eco llom y for reurba nisatio ll . It is In [l e t , the tec hniques
and suffic ie nt land for esse ntial, the refo re, in an d perspec tive
in dustry in the future,
the ad hoc approach
areas where there is
reason to beli eve that
em ployed here are ve ry
simi lar in man y res pects
th at ha s gene rally bee n there ma y be significa nt to th ose w hi ch have
tak e n to the rc cit'signa­ pro b le ms of so il , air, b een d eveloped to deal
ti o n of u ndcrutilise d and W:l tcr quality, that with c llvironllH:ntally
in dustria l areas mllst be the pro cess of pl anning se nsitive natural areas.
replaced with one for reurbanisation begin T he isslie of co ntami- -­
whi ch bases sllch dcc i­
sions in the co ntex t o f a
w ith an e nvironmental
audi t w h ic h would pro­
nated sites re q u ires a
new ap proac h in which
Metro - wide assessment vide an understanding th e cost o f clean up is
of future needs for o f specific constrJints no t paid fo r throu gh
ind ustria l lands, and th e and o pportunities . bo n li S de nsity, thc n.~ by

Ill0St appropriate loca­ T hese are ofte n of such avo iding the res ulting
tions fo r redesig natio ns. a magn itucit.: that the y possib ility o f iluppro­
become give ns in shap­ pri ate bu ilt fo rms.


low· rise residential

• 9


1 low rise residential neighbourhoods should

not generally be the locus 01 reurbanisation.
Small scale lorms 01 residential intensilication
such as accessory units and minor infill may
continue to occur in these areas, however.

2 Existing natural areas, open spaces and parks

should be protected and enhanced.

3 When existing developments in natural areas,

such as ravines or valleys, become obsolete,
these areas should be restored to their natural

~ .

!~ condition rather than redeveloped.

~ .

> oJ
~ .


I 4 The reurbanisation 01 under·utilised industrial
lands should be decided in the context 01 a
broader understanding ollong·term supply and
!~ demand lor industrial lands, and the implications
~ ~
of decisions to reurbonise such lands on a Metro­
~~ wide basis. Redesignation 01 industrial lands
should not be decided solely on a site·by·site or
' "
!~ local area basis .


5 The reurbanisation 01 lands which are potentially

environmentally sensitive or contaminated should

begin with an environmental audit.

•_ oJ•
6 Contaminated sites should not receive density
. ~ bonuses to delray the costs 01 cleanup. Density
and built lorm decisions should be based on
'.' other criteria, as outlined below.
~ " '!


10 GUIdeline, for the
RClirballl~arioll of
Metropolitan Toronto











. "

The illustration identifies, in 0 part of Metro, some 01 the The oreD around Victoria Pork and Danforth contains
categories of land outlined in the Guidelines. Within this large amounts of vacant land, and some underutilised
window of the Metro area there are both open grid, . industrial space. For the purposes of illustrating the appli­
mixed use neighbourhoods, and some of the original sub­ cation of the Guidelines, we will assume that Guidelines
urban areos. It shows areas that would not be reur' 4 and 5 have been me t, i.e. that a Metro-wide study has I ..
bonised (e .g. nOI.urol areos, parks!, or areas where determined Ihal this is an appropriate areo for redesigna·
special responses may be required (contaminated siles, tion, and an environmental audit has been completed_
underutilised industrial areas), II is apparent thot only a
small portion of the overall urban DreG will be available
for reurbanisolion.

- '

•• 11

The particular urban

structure (the pattern of
distribution of develop­
ment) of a city or
metropolis has many
important though often
unrecognised implica­
tions. It affects the
amount o f congestion
and air pollution,


What type of the length of daily
commutes for
workers o f all
~ ~

reurbanisation kinds, the extent

to which the transit net­
~ area is it?
work is used efficiently,
the sense of local com­
! Guid e/i"t' s for the
~ RCllrbafli satioll of
:\1t'tropolit/J/I T orot/to
munity and neighbour­
3 hood, access to services
,; and shopping, opportuni­
ties for new businesses to
II e!.
[ - locate, and many other
' .!
I- aspects of urban life.
I e!
I ~
I _

l, -_

12 Guide li ne, t"Qr the
itcurb.l lll SJtlO1l of
M etrop ol itan Toronto •• •
Decisions about ca l, m any-centred
where rcurbanisa tio n urban structure: , with
shou ld occur, and at reurbanisation occur­
what densities, can only
be made meaningfully
ring primarily in many
nodes and centres, and ·


- .

within the framework o f along n :rtain streets or

I 6
a desired urb:lI1 structure. "corridors" . For reasons I •
) First, the role of a partic­ th at will be outlined
~ r
ular reurbanisation area below, the number o f

\~-----' \
\ n \
!l \
must be dctcnnincd the largest, most dense
\ within the ovaall urban employment concentra­
./ structure, :1I1d this sug­ tions, t h e "lI1ajor Met yo
1=-:' gests certain land uses eelltres J! would be limit­
'_ .J
and overall densities. ed to a ve ry few, while
Metro' 5 current structure
The appropriate lIses, other smaller, less dense • (I
has a dominant core and
densities an d built forms n o des or c(; n tres w ou ld
few centres and corridors.
on an indi vidua l site o r be much lllore 1111lller­
development parcel OllS . This mu lti-centred
with in a reurbanisatio n fo rm is th e typ e of
areJ arc the n dete rmined urban structure we arc
! ­
withi n this co ntext, recommending, which
based on o ther criteria, pro vides a context for
such as u rban design and reurbanisat ion and the
local £1ctors. Guidelines.
There is an cnor­
Uascd on o ur re vic'.-"
o f enviro nmental, eco­ mOllS amount of rcde­
,.­ \

nomic, socia l and b u il t velopmcnt potcntia) "in

environme n t considera­
tions, we have recom­
, ~
mended in the · ­
compan ion report a
The evolution of centres !.... '
partic ula r urb an struc­
and corridors across Metro
over time will result in
ture for Metro w h ic h

important benefits, such as we fee l best achieves a

shorter commutes and number of goals. Thi s is


stronger neighbourhoods . essentially a hierarchi­

, 13

Metro today. T hese ut ilised in d ust rial areas). GUIDELINES

G u ideli nes suggest t h at All rcurban isa tio n a r L.:J S

~ rcurbanisa tio n O CC lir arc w ell de fi ned in arca

7 An area of land which is to be reurbanised must
on ly in sel ected areas, and reflect a compact be planned in the context of its location and the
potential role defined for it in the overall strue'
w h e re t h e max im um develop m e nt fOf m tha t
ture of the Metropolitan region.
L.~ poten tial exists to supports wa lking as a
ach ie ve p u b lic goals viab le m ea ns of u rba n
• Reurbanisation will take place primarily
'i llch as those mentio ned transportation. Th e clas­ in four types of area:
ab o Y<". T h e G ui delines sifi cation o f types of
• maior Metro centres
~ direct rcu rban isati on to rcurba nisation areas is
'/celltres" or nodal COI1­ based on concentrations • centres

ceneratio ns of dc vclop­ which ex ist today in • corridors

mell r, an d IIco rridors" ,
Or li near concentrJtions
M etro, not on an
abstract h iera rc hy of
• infill areas.

l ~ of dcvcloprncl1t alo ng n e w types we h ave

m ajor streets and arteri­ inven ted .
als. In add itio n , there an.:
uill/ill area s!" w hi c h d o Major Metra Centres
; n ot rep rese n t co nce n tra­ A top planni ng prio ri ty
tions of deve lop m e n t, w ill be to e n su re t hat
but p laces w h ere t h e wo rkers fi lling th e
~ existing u rb an f.1bric 400,000 ne w j obs antic­

ij w ou ld be extended in to ipated w ith in Metro .

a large area w hi c h, fo r ll13 n y o f w h o m w ill li ve
vario us reasons, docs not o utside M etro , ,,v iII not
have sllc h a f.1 bric at re ly upo n t h e a u to m o­

~ prese nt (c.g. undcr- bile to trave l to work .

l ~

% increose
over ' 975

1975 113,741
1981 192,686 69%
~ 1991 294,181 159%
2011 ' 485,000 326%
• Prediction bosed on current
~ development trends,

14 GUlddlllC\ ror thl'

R curb;UU'JtlOIl of
Ml'rropol l c:m l ·oronw

------------------ - •
Major Metro centres related floorspace,
must therefore be scr­ which based on a gen­
viced by a hi g h- ca pa c i­ eral relationship
ty regional transit between transit and size
network . If GO tra ill s of employm ent concen­
were to fulfi l this ro le , tration observed in
vastly improved fn:­ other North American
qucncy of scrvict.: dur­ cities, will kad to at
ing peak times and least 30% to 40% of
improved service trips being taken by "

throughout the day transit. With Met ro's

would be required . devd oped transit system
If current development pot·
terns continue unchanged,
The size Of;111 Jnd tradition of transit
more and more people will employment concentra­ usc, it is expected that
commute longer distances
from outside Metro to jobs
tion (i.e . the total over 40% of trips will
in the Central Area. amOllnt of commercial be by transit.
flo orspace , or the tota l T his policy of focus­
number of w o rkers) is a ing e mpl oyment in J

critical f.1ctor in deter­ few centres located in

mining the degree of outer Metro will also
transit usc - the larger shorten trip lengt hs
the con centration, the (reducing auto-related
hi ghe r the share of trips polllltion and con ges­
takt:n by transit. tion), and provide a
_ Inner Metro H eadquarters of banks critical mass of CO Il CI.' Il ­
r':I Outer Metro
or lI1surancc co mpal1lCS, trated eco nomic activi­
business services such as tics necessary to support
management consu l­ economic development
tants, advertising firms in advanced industrial
or lawyers. are not econ oI11ies. T hc lII ajor
directly rdated in func­ Metro cellfres woul d be
tion to local or reside nt lim ited to the Central
pop ulation and shou ld Arca, North York City
Inner Metro was largely
be focused primarily in Centre , Scarborough
developed before World a few majo r centres . C ity Ce ntre, and onc
War II. Outer Metro was
built in the post-war,
We have set a general centre in w estern
automobile era. target of 15 million sq. Metro, near Kiplin g and
ft. of cmploY11lcnt­ Islington Avenues. f·

An urban structure with a
few centres reduces aver·
~ age trip lengths compared
to a single·centred city. 9 Malor M.tro C.ntr••:

• are the primary focus for new employment


• are few in numbe r, no more than the existing

mature concentrations consisting of the Central
Area; and three others;

• aside from the existing Central Area employment

concentration, should be located in outer Metro,
in locations that represent centres of gravity with
respect to present and future housing in and
around Metro;
• are located at points of highest capacity transit
accessibility; on rapid transit integrated with a
high capacity regional transit network, to respond
to the high levels of anticipated in-commuting
from beyond Metro's borders;

' ·1
t -~
Centres arc needed to provide
• are well distributed across Metro;

• have compact development, in an area of

between 75 and 150 hectares for major Metro
centres other than the Central Area;

l A full ron ge of typ es of seco ndary locations for • have roughly this amount of land available for

centres is necessary to "b"c k offi ce" employ­ redevelopment;

sup port div e rsity of ser­ m ent o r o th er special • are sufficiently large in floor space or number of
but no t n ecessaril y head jobs, with a minimum target commercial space of
~ vices, eco no mi c ::l ctivi­
about 15 million sq.ft.;
ti t,S, h Ollsin g ty pe s and office type uses , and to

bu ildi ng fo r1l1s. This se rve a w ide r area • are nodal in form , rather than linear, in order to
support an intensive pattern of walking and a
~ m eans cen tres ca n and within M etro. T hese high degree of accessibility.
co uld be ca ll ed " sec­
3 should V:Hy in size,

sco pe , ro le , and fun c­ a ndary cen tres," :tnd

ti o n. J\![ajtJf A1ctro are co mparab le to wh3t

centres a n .' COll cc ntra­ M etro's o ffi ciol pion

refers to as " inrerm edt-
~ tions of e mploym e nt,
serv ices and busin css t:s Jrl.' centres "
wh ich fu lfill a regional O ne of th l' m ajor
~ o r eve n nati ona l ro le weaknesses of Metro 's
; (c. g . t he Fi nan c ial urban stru ctu re has

Core). Ot her ce ntres bee n th e la ck o f co n-


16 Guide lin es for the

Rcurbal1l sa clon of
Met rop o li tan Toro nto

citi es all over North

Amer ica . Maj or stre ets
also act as tra nsit rOlltes,
and are therefore excel­
len t locat ions for
re urbanisatio n .
M etro 's maj or str ee ts
and roads arc an
untappcd resource .

Much of outer Metro R e urbanisat io n along

lacks centres and ,.
I11Jin strects and artcri -
ai s C:11l create a CO IllIl1U­

nity fo cus like the old

ccntratio ns of dcvd op­ that are no t well served and offices o r work­ main streets did, pro ­
ment whi ch serve as at present. shops . As such, they vidi ng a sense of place,
local com m uni ty foc i or Like all fcurban isation would b(' low or m edi­ local ser vi ces and
centres, especially in areas, secondary and um density, and do n ot amc nities that peopl c
ou ter Metro . This rok local centres sho uld be require a hi gh level of can w alk to from SU [­

has often been per­ walking ;ucas. Local resi­ tran sit se rvice. ro u nding neighbo ur­
form ed by the local or dents should be able to Secondary centres, 011 hoods. New build ing
rcgi OIui sh oppi ng ce ll ­ reach them easily and the o ther hand, n1JY alon g rnajor roads can
tre, whi ch ca nnot tr uly comfo rtably on foo t. have significant nUIll­ also better defin e
serve the multi ple They should also be well bers ofjobs, and would M etro 's u rban inu ge ,
fUll ctions that J rcal se rved by transit. be high density. T hey making the m Illore
community centre pbys The density permit­ will requ ire a high level fri endly to the pedcs­
- prov iding do ctor's ted in sec o ndary and transit service , I f scr­ tri~ln, w hile provi di ng
and o th er lo cal offices, local ce ntres depends viced by GO tra in, reside nts w ith exce ll ent
frui t stan ds, rn arkcts, primarily upon the ir again , a Illll c h Illore fre ­ access to transit.
c.. ~
specialty food stores role and the leve l of quent leve l of se rvice A strong re lations hip
and restau rants, public transit se rvi cc availab le, would be required . exists in M etro between
se rv ices, clinics, recre­ Local centres are the overall gross urban den ­ f I,

ationa l ce ntres, and so smallest, and may fulfill Corridors sity levels and tra nsit
on . Reurbanisat ion a rol e as :1 ce ntre for a Historically, "mall1 use: the highe r the den­
provides an oppo rtunity very small neighbour­ 50'/' ·ts'· have provided a sity, the greate r the
to create real comtnu- hood, consistin g on ly of cOIll.lTIunity focus and propo rtion of trips
Ility centres in areas a few sto re s, housing identity in town s and t3 kc n by trans it . Many


areas o f oute r Me tro available for redevel op­ GUIDELINES

have relatively low ment; in many cases

overall de nsities and they will be surrou nded
10 Cenf.e••
. :;0 low levels of transit usc . by very viable low de n­

- In rcurbanising these sity residential uses .
• are many;

areas, adding popu la­ K eference should be • are well served by transit or are designated to be
~ well served by transit according to the transit plan;
tio n and jobs (or in m ade to Gui delines
some cases where 1 to 4 . In other cases • are significantly smaller in size than the maior
Me/ro centres, fulfilling a secondary or local
ho useho ld size has both bnd and transit
centre function;
decreased , simply se rvice may be av ailable
-. rL:s toring po pulation) at places quite close to
• vary in size, from the very smallest local neigh­
bourhood centre, ~ch may consist only of a few
- :!j
cou ld resu lt in sign ifi­ one another. T he loca­ stores, housing and some offices or workshops; to
a more substantial secondary centre with a range

can t in creases in tra nsit
use, and support
tion o f nearby centres
o r corrido rs, existing
of services, shopping , recreation, residential and
employment uses up to SO hectares in area;

~ improved transit scr­ and future, should als o

• have adequate land area available

vice . This suggests that be taken into account, for reurbanisation;

- it wo uld be particularly
beneficial fo r corridors )
so that a good distribu­
ti on of centres and car­
• are developed in a compact manner;

• are distributed throughout Metro;

as well as CClltres I to be ridors of different sizes
fo rm ed in outer M etro. and types ean be • are located to respond to need

for a community focus.

In app lying th e ach ieved . In instances

Gu idelines, it is likely such as these, o n e area
11 Low Den.lfy Cenf.e.
~ that m any areas will lJl ay be designated as a
Low density centres are serviced at a minim um b
frequent, moderate capacity transit vehicles
... . '~ meet the transit criteria lower- order centre or
as buses or streetcars.
for centres of va rious corridor even th ou gh it
~ kinds . There :He many may meet the criteria of
12 Medium Den.lfy Cenf.e.
~ points along the a higher-order reurban­
Medium density centres are serviced at a mini·
Danforth , for example, isa tioll area . mum by frequent, intermediate capacity transit
3 vehicles in their own right-of-way, such as LRTs
where subway sto ps or buses, or advanced light rail (such as the
~ exist, m eeting th e critc­ Scarborough RT), possibly in addition to bus or
streetcar service.
~ ria fo r a high density
I Possible Future Corridors
centre . This does not
.! 13 High Den.lfy Cenf.e.
suggest that all of these High density centres are serviced at a minimum
:! places arc potential
by high capacity rapid transit, such as subway,
or two or more frequent intermediate capacity,
j high density centres .
dedicated right-of-way transit lines, and are

.!• Not all will have an

integrated with a high capacity regional transit
adequate supply of land
18 GlIidL'l Il1 C~ for the
R curballlsation of
Metropolitan TorolHo

GUIDELINES Infill Areas area might be an obso­

A fi nal category o f reur­ le te ind ustrial site with­
banisation includes in an existing residential
14 Co •• lelo...
those areas w hich do t:, bric. Because they are
• are located along present or future designated
not fall into "ny of the indeed " infiU" areas,
transit routes;
categories abovc, and their size and locat io n
• should especially but not exclusively be estab­
whic h when rcurban ised cannot be defined in thc
lished in low density areas, particularly outer
Metro; will not represent con­ sam e way that they can
centrations of urban for celJ/res o r corridors.
• where possible, link existing and future mojor
Melro centres and centres; development, but which H owever, some of the
arc nonetheless areas to general Guidelines out­
• are selected, in part, to improve equity across
Metro in access to trans it service; be rcurbanised. Such lined bel ow will apply
cases represent m o re an to sllch areas, in cluding
• a re identified, in part, on the ability to realise
underutilised development potential; ex tending or " infilli ng" Gui delines respecting
of the urban fabric ITIIlll lll Um use rl11 X, mJn­
• are identified, in part, on the need for a local
community focus ; when: redevelopment i111u m gross n:urba nisa­
opportunities exist. An tion densities. and urban
• will generally have a width (including the road
right-oF-way and Flanking properties) of example of th is type o f design.
between 100 and 1'Q metres depending on the
location and width of existing street_

l ' Low Donslty Co ••loIo..

Low density corridors are serviced at a minimum
by Frequent, moderate capacity transit vehicles
such as buses or streetcars.

10 Moollum Donslty Co ••loIo.s

Medium density corridors are serviced at a mini­
mum by frequent, intermediate capacity transit
vehicles in their own right-oF-way, such as lRTs
or buses, or advanced light rail (such as the
Scarborough RT) . They may also be serviced
by subways with stop spacing of less than
one kilometre.

Major transit routes are

much more close ly spaced
in inner Metro, providing
beHer transit accessibility
than in outer Metro.


Low Density Corridor Designated transit corridors, and the level of antiCipated
transit service, ore assumed to be laid oul in the new
low Density Centre
Melro Official Plan. For Ihis exercise. we have assumed
_ Med Density Corridor a hypothe tical transit system for the purposes of illustrat­
3 _ Med Density Centre ing Ihe applicalion 01 Ihese Guidelines only.
_ High Density Centre
The illuslralion shows a pallern of cenlres and
_ Major Metro Centre
corridors tha I could emerge over the long term as
o resull of Ihe applicalian of Ihe Guidelines.
The location and type of centre or corridor is
closely lied 10 Ihe availabilily of Iransi!.

20 GlIIdcllllC~ (or till'
Rcurb.ll11~,HIOJl of
Ml'tropohtJJI Torollto


,, ' . . )

•• •

. .. . .


The Victoria Park and Danforth 5ile has a large amount of Victoria Pork and Danforth w ill noturolly form 0 focal
land available lor redevelopment, including a shopping point for the high density centre, in the some way thot
centre with at-grade parking, vacant and underulilised Yonge and St. Clair do. The centre should be defined so
Industriol areos. The lorge number of holes in the urban that this intersection can assume a position of promi
form of this area and 0 loco tion within three municipali­ nence.
ties has not supported the crea ti on of a recognized
neighbourhood related to the intersection of these two Finally, the roil corridor consti tutes a barrier and dividing
importan t Metro thoroughfares. There is however on area line between two very different types of orea. North 01
01 approximotely 70 hectares that could be developed. the corridor there are large scale developmen ts, major
arterial roods ond high rise buildings . The area sou th 01
The area is extremely well serviced by rapid Ironsil ; the the corridor is characterized by a much smalle r grain of
BloorDanlorth subwoy, and commuter GO train. Despite
having this high level of transit service, we hove assumed
this site would not qualify as a major Metro centre.
low-rise residential neighbourhood.

Based on these considerations, the centre has been delin­

However , II does fit the choracteristics of a hi9h density eated as shown in the illuslrolion. The node is located
centre primarily north of the roil corridor . The boundary extends
to the south near Ihe relocated station in order to capture
The centre should be defined so as to capitalise upon the the excellent Iransit accessibility at this point. Most of this
ovoilability 01 both subway and GO. The pOlenliol for on 27 hectare centre includes areos located south of the
intermodal transportation node can be realised by relo­ Danforth thai are currently underu tili zed. N orth of the
cating the GO train platform. The GO Slation has been Danforth, the boundary is defined by existing residentiol
moved eastward to Victoria areas. Excep t lor the smoll
Park, in order to make it parcel near the GO station,
more accessible to the Ihe area to the soulh of the -'
Danlorth/Victorio Pork inter­ train corridor is not included
section, and to forge a clos· in the centre. Rather, this
er connection between the area would be considered on
GO station and the subway inlill area, extending Ihe fab­
stop to the north. GO ric of the existing neighbou r­
hood northword.

- Mixed Use
•. ,


:': , Before the spread of the

" -: ~ automobile in North
.." American cities, the
·. fabric of urban areas
tended to be very finely
mixed, comprised of
0 ­

• uses of all kinds in close

J proxImIty to one

. Whatisthe
another. The automobile
opened up vast new
areas for
~ • •

appropriate mix urbani­
ij allowing people to live
of uses? much farther from their
GUIdeline s f or the
Rel/rhan/ sari ofl of
place of work. Thus
A1rtrop(,/uan To,ont o
were born the first low
density auto-oriented
ij suburbs. In Metro and
~ beyond, there are many
, ~
examples, including
~: Willowdale or Don Mills.
22 Cuiddim'\ for til l'
R <.:urbani'\atioll of
Ml'twpolitJIl Toronto

In the auto age . th e idea ll y within walking regarding no ise o r

separation of land uses or cycling d ista nce . If cmissions should be
beelln e an obsession they arc not sufficiently permitted to be port of
wit h urban planners. close, the n walking will th e loca l urban fabric.
transportat ion planl1t: rs, not be possible . A mix Un fortunately, such cri­
b uilders, and re sidents of uses, on m ain streets teria do not exist at
alike, to the po int or arteria ls say, also prese nt and would have ••
AVERAGE LENGTH OF COMMUTES where zo ning even pro­ promotes the vita lity o f to be develo ped. But
hibited corner stores an area , and improves new industrics arc criti­
1977 1983
from fl'sidcntial areas. safety by ha ving m o rc cal to th e future diver­
Informatio n
workers: 7.5 6.0 As the e nvironmental activity at all tim es of sity ,nd vi" lit y of the
conse qu l'nces of this the day Jnd night , and urban econ olllY, all d
Industrial ['
worke rs : 7.0 8.0 pattern of urban living marc "eyes 011 the places mu st be provided
length of commute for industri­ are being re cognised street" . It al-;o strength ­ for the lli . Furthermo re,
a l workers has increased while
for those work ing in in forma­ (such as air poll utio n ens a se nse o f local industrial workers espe­
tion industries it has decreased.
Opening up localions where and globa l warmin g), co mmu n it y, by provid­ c ially have bee n subject
clean , small sco le industries
can loca te could coun teroct an d as the qUJlity of life ing lo cal opportunities (0 longer commutes as
this trend . in d ustry suburbanises.
im plications beco m e for residcnts to w ork,
SOl/rce: Kumar

clear (we spend morc shop, or take tiln e off Putting morc jobs clos­
and more of OlIr valu­ in th eir o wn neigh­ er CO w he re ind ustrial
able time co m muting bourhood. Employment workers live can
ever longer distances to and resi dential uses decrease thei r auto
wor k), it is valid to together ca n better sup­ depcndency.
question the und e rlyi ng port lo cal busi ll esses,
rati o nale fo r the se para­ increasing the diversity Balance
tio ll of uses, of scrviccs available . As we have become
A closer m ixing of Whil e some uses m arc so phisti cated in
differe nt uses wi thin clearly an: no t compa ti­ th inking abo llt m ixing
rc urbani sation 3reas has ble with so me oth ers, different land uscs, the
many imp u rtant bene­ parti cu larly heavy princ iple of m ix has
TRIPS BY WAL KING IN fits . From an cnvirol1­ in dustry, noxiou s, or b ee n take n furthe r.
mcntal pcrspcctive, it is noisy uses, many new Mixing land lIses is a
Copenhogen: 32 % essentia l for origins (sa y industries arc small in ne cessa ry b ut no t suffi­
Stockholm: 21 %
Zurich: 21 % the home) and destina­ scale and clean. cient co ndition fo r a.
Frankfurt: 27%
Metro Toronto : 6% tio ns (say a shop, o r Industries which mee t better city and e nviro n­
schoo l, or workplace) "good neighbour" ment. The relative mi x
Source: Newman & Kenworthy
(1980 dolo) to b e closer together, environlll ental criteria of uses, especially

e mp lo ym e nt uses and de nti:1l 3reas fro m GUIDELINES

h o usin g, is criti cal in pla ces of em ploy m ent,

:l c hi evin g ce rtain goals, so th at very fe w pe o pl e
Mix of U •••
parti cularl y th osc relat­ luve the o ppo rtunity to
17 P romoting mixed use development is the most
in g to decreasing :luto live wi thin w:1 lkin g o r
fundamental land use principle. All maior Metro
depe nde nce. cycl ing di stan ce o f th eir centres, centres, corrie/ors and infill areas should
be mixed use, i.e. including both housing and
In a perfec tl y "b:ll­ wo rkpla ce . A hu ge
employment uses, as well as community facilities
an ced" wo rl d , the concen trat io n ofj o bs and public spaces.
number o f worke rs e xists in th e Centr:!1
wh o live in a ne ig h­ A rea, w h ile most o th e r 1. As a minimum condition, the reurbanisation of
all major Metro centres, centres, corrie/ors and
bo urho o d o r local area regio ns of M etro arc
infill areas should contain a minimum resident
w o uld be th e sa 111 C as heavil y residential and population: job mix 01 90% residents and
10% jobs, or vice versa.
the number of j o bs d efici ent in j o bs.
availabl e in that area. Thro ugh re urba nisa­
19 New industry and industrial uses which meet
Th at wa y, the o reti call y, tio n, th is situa tion can
IIgood neighbour" environmental criteria
e ve ryo nc co uld live be impro ved upo n . Re­ should always be included in the delinition
of employment uses.
wh e re th ey wo rk ed , urb3 nisati o n prese nts an
an d co uld o ppo rtu nity to put j o bs
wa lk to wo rk. where la rge sup plies of

I• Of co urse, the real ho usin g currentl y exist,
w o rld is not likc this.
and to put ho us in g
Th ere are nuny ho use­ wh ere th ere 3rt' large
I• ho lds w ith tw o Of m O f e suppli es o f j o bs. T h is

!~ w orke rs. And th e ex ist­ will pro vide M etro res­

!ij ing pattern o f urban

development in M etro
ide nts w ith gre ater
o ppo rtunit ies to live

!.~ tends to srpa ra te resi­ close r to th e ir place

~ '3 of w o rk .


~ At present Metro is
dom inated by a single
3 Employmen t 1986 ce ntral area employ­
1 dot. 250 jobs ment concentration.
24 Guidelines for the ~
Rcurballlsation of
Metropol itan Toronto

The key to determining appropriate mix of uses for a given The idea of pro mot­ wo u ld be ach ieved if
reurbanisation area is that reurbanisation should improve
ing "balance " betwee n every area had propo r­
local balance, by moving the existing local res ident/job mix
toward the "target" balance of 1. 5 residents per job, rather emp loym ellt Jlld hou s­ tio ns of 2 .2 resident
than away from it.
ing has bee n ad opted ill population and 1.5 jobs,

• jobs jurisdictions, such as which can be more

• residents California, whe re air simply e xpressed as .5
pollution from automo­ residents pe r job.
biles has rcached UT1S11S­ Gut what zon ~ or
tainab k le vels, people area sho uld balance be

••••• • frequently spend tw o Jchi eved in? T hc

••••• • hours a day commut­

ing, w hi le so me lo wer
Guidelines suggest that
ba lance sho uld first be
•••• • echelon jobs go unfilled sought at a loca l lcvel,

•••• • 3.0 residents per 1 job
because workers cannot
reach the m. Balance
in orde r to promote
walki ng and cycl ing as a

••• • 1
sim p ly means ac h ie ving
a goo d proportion of
top pri ority. By
improving th e balan ce
•• • housing and emp loy­ within local area-s, llot
•• • f­ 1.5 residents per 1 job
l11ent wi thi n 3 give n on ly is the need to
* I DEAL *
•• zo ne or area . Perfect co mm ute long dista nces

••• balance wo uld be

achie ved if there were a
to work reduced, b ut
the re are more op po r­
• •• local job available fo r tuniti es for peop le [Q

•••• every w orker living in a wor k within th eir loca l


• ••• gIven zone . area, strengthen in g the

• •••• I n M etro, on avcr­
age, every housing unit
sense of community.

• •••• has ab o ut 1.5 members Genera l Balance

•••••• of the workfo rce. T hat Para me ters

. ~

• ••••• mea ns for an area to be Major Metro Centres

..s. ~ \ '-Wrn, S.
balan ced, there sho uld T he anticipated reside nt r
be 1.5 jobs for every and j ob growth in
.jUb ~r ~
housing unit. We also M etro is itself not bal­
kno \v that, on average, an ced - 300,000 ne w
every housing unit has resielents and 400 ,000 r
2. 2 people . So for nc w j obs mcans a res i­
Metro, ideal balan ce dent to job ratio of less
- ;;oj

th an o m.: resident per ba ck o ffi ce fun ctions, GUIDELINES

j o b (0 .75 to 1), com­ data processing. etc .) in

pare d to the " target" o f additio n to employ­
1 .5 to 1. From a bal­ mellt re lated to serving
20 The IIbalance l i or relative mix between employ­
ance point of view, the local populatio n
ment-related uses and residential uses at specific
there is a rela tive "s ur­ (i.c . retail, restaura nts, locations is critical to achieving the goals of reur ­
banisation . For Metra Taranto, the target level of
plus " o f jobs. In the se rvices , recreatio n ,
I'balance" is defined as 1.5 residents for every
stru cture section, w e etc.) . The balance in job.

noted the critical " (~Iz density eeHtres m ay
importa nce that a good therefore also be 2 1 It is unlikely that this "target" balance can actual·

6L ~ portio n of these jobs

sho uld be lo cated
weighted towards
employm ent, tho ugh
Iy be achieved in many local areas, given high
existing levels of local imbalance. What is impor'
tont, however. is that reurbanisation improve the
existing local area balance. That is, reurbanisa­
l~ wh e re w o rkers ca n not like ly to the same
tion should move the existing local resident I
reach che rn by transit, extent as lIIajor Me tro employment ratio towards 1.5 residents per job,
rather than away from it.
major M elro cEnires eel/ryes.

being th e primary Oth er centres are

22 As a general principle, the emphasis placed upon
fo cus. Major Metro eel/ ­ intended to fulfill a role
employment will be greatest in major Metro cen­
Ires ore therefo re likely primarily as local cen­ tres, and next greatest in high density centres,
and will decline as one proceeds down the
to be the ki nd o f tres and community
"urban hierarchy" of reurbanisation areas to
rcubanis~\ti o ll area mos t focuses. As a general medium density centres, low density centres and
weighted towards principle, the emp hasis
l _
em pl oyme nt lIses, o n employment will
23 The use mix in major Metro centres should be
th o ugh they wi ll decline in lIIedil/lII dell ­
most heavily weighted towards jobs, i.e. it will be
nonetheless contain sit)' cel/rres. and (111 appropriate in these locations to have a resident
1-- ... 1]
to job ratio of less than 1.5 persons per job.
significant amounts of again in low dell sily
~ "] residen ti al uses as well. centres.
24 The use mix range in high density centres can
also be weighted toward jobs, with a resident to
C entr es Improving Local job ratio of less than 1.5 persons per job.
O th er areas are less Area Balance

like ly to be w e ighted as
heav ily towards
With in the frame wo rk
set out in G u idelines
25 The appropriate balance ratio in other centres
and corridors will vary, depending upon existing
local area balance. In heavily residential areas,
emp loymen t as lIlajor 22-25, the specific m ix an employment component should be introduced.
In heavily employment-oriented areas,
Metro celltres . of uses fo r a given reur­
a residential component should be introduced.
High dells ity celllres, ban isatio n arca is dete r-
I ~
ho\ovcver. nu y include mi ned by referring to
some Ilon-I o c:t ll y rclat­ the existing mix o f uses
ed e I1l ploy m e nt (e .g. in th e area aro und the
, '-'
26 Guidehnes for the
Rcurballlsltion of
Metropolitan Toro nto

Residents / Jobs balance in some areas of Metro today celltre or corridor. In the ex isting loca l
heavily residential areas, balan ce zone has fou r
• ,ob,
• residents reurbanisation should residents per job, rC lIf­

introduce some jobs . In banisation must have

areas dominated by four or less res idents per
emp loyment, r~urbani­ job to maintain o r
'\ Crescent Town 38.7:1
sation sh uul d introdu ce improve the existing

'\ Samburgn Circle crea 14.2:1

'\. Malvern 10.7: 1

n.:sidcntial pop u latio n.
What area or "bal­
si tu ation. Id eall y, how-
ever, it wo uld have a
anee zo n e" sho ul d be higher proportion of
••••• • refer red to in order to jobs than the ex isting,
t •••• • dctc::rminc the existing to improve the local

•••• • level of bah nce' To

prolllote w alking, b:d­
arca balan cc, not j ust
lIuintJi n it, say two rt.'s­
t • • • • f- Tnorncliffe Pork 3 4:
anee shou ld occu r idents pe r job .
• • • • f­ Swansea 2.9-\­ within an area repre­ Many an:as of M etro
t • • • f­ Don Mills 2.4: sented by a radius of I are at presen t extremcly

•• • f- Annel': 2.0: 1 kilometre from the cel1­ unb alanced . I n ba lance

tre or corridor - equi va­ zo nes which arc very
t • • .­ 1.S reside nts pe r 1 job
"" IDEAL ... lent to J 10 minute walk . heavily reside ntial , it
•• Data regard ing the \:vo ul d not be unreasO Il­

• • • f-- Yonge-Eglinlon 1: 1. 7 n umbcr ofjobs and able for new d evelop­

• •• pop ul atio n withi n a m cnt to be heavily

•••• give n arca can be

approximated by using
we ighted to ward
emplo Ylnent. For
• • • • f - Co"'ol A,eo 103.3 Met ro's traffic zone example, som\.: areas in

••••• data. or census tract Metro have a mix as

• •••• dJta. Mun icipal sources high as 30 residents pe r

••••• • ma y also be available .

I n most cases, th e
job. In suc h cases, it
w ou ld be warran ted for
• ••••• Finonciol Core- 1:500
existi ng mi x will pro­ reurba nisation to
.j vide a minim uTll sta n­ stro ngly emph asise
dard, above which emp loyme nt uses, so
loca l balan ce wil l be long as there was no t
Soorce: Special Meolurementl and SPAC doto. /v\etro Plonnin9 Dept.. 19880010 im proved, Jnd below
• 1986 dolo, boMd on traffic %Or\4l$.
such a large amoun t o f
which it w ill be wors­ ncw development that
ened . For exam ple, if it wo uld actua lly swi ng
~ 27

.. the balan ce of the area In order to ac hieve the GUIDELINES

~ past the "idea l" bal­ "ideal " ba lance in the

ance, and so long as the zone, alm ost 10,000
26 The appropriate residential/emplaymllnt mix is

.[ =~
centre or corridor itself
di d n ot become a sin­
jobs wou ld be requ ired
in the centre (movin g
determined on a local area basis, in order to pro­
mote walking and cycling . The area of reFerence

. gle- usc district. I n most the f:lria to 1 .5 resi­

or "balance zone" is deFined by walking distance,
a radius of approximately 1 kilometre From the
reurbanisation area.
cases, the numbe r of dents pcr j o b) . Th e
j obs and l or rcsidl:llts to re urbanisation of local
27 In certain instances a wider balance zone may be
be added to an area cel/tres and corridors is
considered For the purposes of determining bal­
thro ugh rcurbanisation not likely to in volve ance. This would occur primarily:
will be qu ite small such a large am ou nt of
• Where the reurbanisation area plays a strategic
compa red to the exist­ new develo pment and or more than local role, particularly major Metro
cenlres and high density cenlres;
ing pop ulatio n an d new jobs. In such a
jobs, and suc h an out­ case, it is morc impor­ • Where benefits of balancing based on a wider
area outweigh beneFits of balancing based on a
come is no t likely. rant simply to make
local area .
T o illustrate . say the sun: the mi x in the bal­

- balance zOll e for a ccn-

Cre had an existing pop­
anee zone is im proved ,
as in reality, it m ay not
uloti o n of 15,000 be possible for t he idea l
res idents, and 500 jobs to be ach ieved . T he
(30 residents pe r job) . sa m e.; logic app li es to an
existing area that is
Centre heavily empl o yment­
- '0(01 balance zon.· o riented .
I n some cases, it m ay
be appropriate to look
beyo nd th e area defined
by wa lking distance as
the basis fo r ba lance.
T hi" will occu r p ri ma r­

il y with rcu rb anisation

"" ocol balance zon."

areas whose areas or

in fl ue nce arc no t j ust
, local, an d w hic h are
• li ke ly to draw people o r
w orkers fro m a larger
catchment are~l. Thi'\

28 Guidelines for the
Rcurbani satl OIl o f
Metropolitan TorontO

wider-area considcra­ served by transit wit h this to o ccur, the kinds wi t h type o f jobs and
tion will therefore like­ 11 0 sign ificant new tran- o f ho using provided vice versa cannot be •
Iy ap pl y mostly to ,"ajor sit investments loca ll y must be com pat­ d irected thro ugh g uid e­
Metro ce l lfres, and high re q uired. Th is strategy ible with the kinds of li nes . R athe r, it is m o st
density celltres . w ill ge nerally l11ean .jobs available, and vice approp riate si'-rI p!y to
Using a w ider are a placi ng employment versa . Pro viding luxury promo te the idea of
than that defined by lIses ou tside t he Central "executive" houses in a diversity - of h Olls in g
walking distance to Area. and reside n tial predomi nant ly industri­ ty pe and ernp lo Yl11ent
determ ine app ropriate uses within and ncar al area is not li ke ly to type - o n a local area
rcurbanisation bab ncc th e Centra l Area . resu lt in the benefits bas is, to rei nfo rce the
w o uld m ake sens t.: p ri - It shou ld also be ass o ciated with balance. be nefits of ba lance .
marily w here other noted that by exceed ing To im prove the likeli ­ T here are o t hc r
impo rtant benefits can the "ideal" loc:ll arc a h o od o f achieving these co m pell ing reas o ns fo r
be achieved, whic h balance in favo u r of benefits, housing types pro m o ti ng dive rsity. In
o u twe igh benefits em ployment, for e XJ11l­ would have to better recent years in Me tro ,
achieved b y balancin g pIe , the goals of pro- match j o b types o n , housing prices have
strictly at a lo ca l level. m at ing wa lking and lo cal are a b:lsis. increased substantiall y,
These benefits will con- p rovid ing a local centre Bu t these qualitative placing ho m c o wnc r­
sist p rim arily of short- or co m munity focus aspects o f hOllsing and ship we ll beyo nd t he
ening work trip lengths, will not be negated . emplo yment ca n no t means of midd le
improv ing the efficien ­ reasonab ly be co n- income citizens . As a
cy of usc of the existing Mix of Housing Types tro lled, especially res ult, we have see n an
transit service. and pro- The idea of pro ll1oting through zo nin g, for exod us to th e o utlying
moting the use of tran­ "balance" is an im po r­ ex amp le . A single regio ns o f t hose in
sit o ver t h e autom o bile . tant impro veme nt to b uild ing can adapt to search o f affo rdab le
For examp le, capaci­ the ge neral principle of many differe n t ty pes o f hOllsing.
ty currentl y exists bo t h m ixing land uses. businesses and jobs. A t the sam e ti me ,
on the subway and G O H owever, e ven balance. Neit h t.: r arc housing t he economy has
train routes ­ in pe rfectly executed as stock an d househo lds und ergone a dramat ic
COLI nter-co mm 1I ting described abo ve . cann o t static - co nvers io n o f restr ucturing. w it h the
directions . By putting guarantee th at walking ho uses can dranu tica ll y pe rm an e n t loss o f I11 J. ny
the righ t kinds of uses onel cycl ing wi ll be pro- change loca l popu lat ion we ll-paying indust rial as
in thl: right l ocati () n ~, m oted. or trips will be co mpositio n over tim c. well as othe r types o f
thi\ exi . . ting cap;H.: ity 'ihortelled . In order fo r For thest: rca'iOIl S) qu al­ -"
~ ..
C.l1l bt.: u\l·d, and IH:W itative i'i'wt:'\ of lIl atc h­ •
d l.:vclopllll·IH (:til hI.: jllg typl.: of ho u'iing

jobs. Taken together, One w ay of doing GUIDELINES

these trends represent a this is to ens ure d iversi­

potential for Met ro to ty of ho using types
Mix of H ou.lng Typ ••
become a mo re sociall y within each lo cal area .
28 Reurbanisation should aim to achieve am ,.... '
and eco nomically ~ t rati- This will not only pro­
housi ng unit types and sizes within local o·
tied city in years to m ote integratio n , bu t including a portion of affordable or intrinsically
affordable he>using .
co me, w ith the middle im prove com munity
tier of the urban popu­ stability. For example,

29 Emphasis should be placed on providing afford ·
latio n dim inishing. rcurba n isatio ll in t h e
able housing in all locations throughout the
The cultu ral, linguis­ Leaside arca o f East Metropolitan Reg ion .
tic, religious and racial Yo rk has intro duce d a
diversity of the new, smaller housing

m etropo lis is also unit type to th e periph­
expected to increase . c ry of that single-fami ly
l~ These parallel but unrc­ dwelling co m m unity.
lated processes of T his has permitted
increasing c u ltu r::11 or man y of the olde r local
linguistic divcrsitica­ residents to rn ove i nt o
rio n , cOlllbined with a m ore suitable ho usin g
potentiall y m o rL' w hile re m ain ing in
polarised urban socia l t h eir co mm unity.
structu re could repre ­
sent a perilous situa­
tion . In tegratio n of all
social groups, and
Iluillt:l ining a di ve rse..:
economy wit h a full
range o f jobs w ithi n
M etro will be
pa r:'IIllOunt. An impor­
tant component of this

w ill be physical integra­
tion, providing for
di versity, integration,

interactio n and (0111­


In 1990, nearly 40% of

ll1 unity ex pression

fj Metro ' s population was

within local areas. barn outside Canada.

30 Guideli ne\ for tht·

Rcurbam~.ltion of
Mc-tropo lil.lll Torollto


Determining existing local area balance.

An estimote of the existing residen t population 10
employment mix can be ob ta ined using Metro's traffic
zone dolo USing dolo from surrounding traffic zones,
the existing local population near Victoria Pork and
Danforth is 63,000, and the existing number of jobs
IS 10,000. This translates into a resident to job ratio
of 6 to I. The target balance level for Metro is 1.5
residents per job. New development mus t therefore
occur a t a rotio of 6.0 residents or less per job, in
order to make sure tha t the existing level of balance Introducing new housing
is nol worsened. The oreo is heavily weighted toward types on the periphery of
residential use. existing res idential areas
like this one in leaside, can
2 Determining existing wider area balance. promote social integration
As a high denSity centre. this area will represent a and community stability.
significant concentration of employment whose orea
of influence will extend beyond the local area. The
benefits of examining the reurbonisolion area in ils
larger context should be brought inlo consideration.
Given the high level of exisling Iransit service to this
area, and its location outside the central area in a
predominantly residential parI of Melro, it represents
an excellent location for a concentration of employ­
ment. For Scarborough residents, who can reach the
site by GO train or subway , the area could provide a
much needed alternative employment concentration to
the central area, substantially shortening trip lengths.
For cenlral city reSidents, a job concentration at this
point would make beller counter·flow use of existing
transit facilities and capacity_ In such a case, there
are significant benefits 10 be realised from placing
emphasis on employment In Ihis location

3 What are the general mix parameters for the

reurbanisation area?
As a high denSity centre, the general parameters
suggest the mix for this reurbonisation area is likely
to be weighted toward employment, i.e could be less
than 1.5 residents per job.

4 Conclusions

In view of the benefitS of increasing the employment
component, an aggressive approach which emphasis' ,
r \ \ I

es employmen t is appropriate here, indicating a mix r; ,".

/. ..

less than the 1.5 residents per job. A ratio of one resi­ \. '
, . ':, . I -; •.
dent per lob could be supported here, or even a ~~ .-==--
greater employment focus soy 0.75 residents per job . -'--., - . +. _....
~ .--::--c:::


The density, or the inten­
sity of urban use for a
given amount of land area
is related to a number of
important environmental
and community building
objectives. The approach
to density, and the specific
density numbers described

What is the below have been deter­
mined in order to achieve
appropriate overall ~t;:~er
'j Three of these are

density level? espec~ally important:
redUCIng auto depen­
GII/(/('/i"(,5 for 'he dency, creating a livable
1~(,II,b,J/l/sallo" of
,\.1rtrt'I}(J/itQPI '{oro"to built environment, and
ensuring diversity of
buildings, living and
work environments.

32 Gllllklttll'~ for rhl'
ItL'llrb,llli \.lt io ll of
M c:tro polit;l. 11 Toro ll to

Thefe ;H C three fun ­ areas serve d by subway EXISTING GROSS DENSITIES OF SOME AREAS IN METRO

damental ideas behind should therefore have

Corri do rs Resi de nts an d
reducing au to depen­ overa ll densities tiu t Portions o f: Wo rke rs per Hectare
Bayview 150
de n cy. T he first o f th ese reflect this significant
Mt. Pleasant 175
is to promote wa lk ing differential in capacity Victoria Park 200
Danforth 500
:'I nc! cycling as viable and accessibili ty.
Yonge St. 250-500
means of urban tr::l I1S­ These goals should Bloor 500
p o rtati o n. Thi s means n ever be achieved at the Centres
achieving certa in Inin i­ expense of a h igh q u ali­ Yang. / St. Clair 350-400
Yonge / Eglinton 400-450
mu m O VC TJ II densities in ty built fo rm an d urban
Central Area 450
rc u rb a ni sati o n arC'as . environ m ent, h owever. financ ial Core e 1800
Secondly, o ve rall dens i­ T h e density levels rec­ Source: Special runs, Metro Plonning Deportment, 1988 data .

-Source: Traffic ::tone doto, Metro Planning Deportment, 1986

rics sh o uld b e high o mm e n ded below are

enough to su p p o rt tra n ­ compatible wit h built tria l wo rksh o ps to co r­ b e n efits ass o ciated w it h ~-

sit service, and L'l1 cou r­ forms suited to the reur­ porate h eadquarters. and b e tter jobs/ h ousin g b al­
Jgc a high mo da l sp lit in b anisati o n area's posi­ a full choice of h o using ance (few!.:r auto trips,
fav o u r of t ransit usc . ti on in the u rban type and cn v iro n m cnt - sh orte r auto trips , lise of
Fin:!Ily, the app ro ac h hierarchy. it's lo catio n, from low-rise town- C Oll l~te r- C o lll muting

outlined bdow ties the and surro un ding h ouses to tru ly urb an transit ca p acity e tc. )
o verall density in a rCUT­ co n text. high rise living in major areas w hich have a n
banisation area to t h e It is :l lso important to A1e/yo cef/tres . appro priate usc m ix can
level o f transit service achieve a range of 1-1 igher overall d ensi ­ sllstai ll higher den si ties
provided there . For building forms a n d ties also bring the possi ­ t han t hose wh ich d o
example, a su bway h as urban environments that bility for improved 11 0 t . For t h is reason, the
ab out te n times the will sup port a wide quality of life, bette r o ve rall de nsities pe rm it­
capacity of a bus or ra nge o f economic lo cal :lmenities, a more ted Jre so m ewha t hi g hn
streetcar. R.eurbanisation activ ities - fro l11 indus- d iversified econ om y : ll1 d than t h ose t hat may
opp o rtu n ities, :lI1d :l no rm ally be prl'scribcd
mo re vibrant urban life . fo r areas plan n ed m o re
The approac h o ut­ conve n tionally.
lined below builds Up OIl A Ill orc d e tai led dis-
the G u idelines o utli n ed cussio ll o f thL' rat io nale
to th is po in t, e n co urag­ b e h in d t h e de nsity
itl g an appropriate mix numbers ca n b e fo un d
of ho usi ng and jobs at i ll t he compani o n
specific locati o ns. re po rt .
Maximising densities within Metro will reduce pressure I3ccause of the many
for development of greenfields sites outside of Metro.
•• JJ

Gross Reurbonisoton Guidelin es is t hat ill GUIDELINES

Density m aking decisions

30 "Gross reurbanisation density'" is a measure of the number
""' R educing auto depen­ regarding the natu re of of residents and/or workers per hectare.
dence and creating a rcurbanisat.ion, e mploy­
31 The "gross reurbanisation density" measures apply to
diversity of places wit h­ ment lIses and residen­ reurbanisation areas as a whole, that is, to the entire
major Metro centre, centre, corridor, or infill area,
in the rn t: tropolis are tial uses cannot be
including land area devoted to the public realm.
questio ns of density consid e red in j'>olation
32 Within the parameters outlined below and in following
m ost appro priately frol11 one anothe r. A
I • sections of the Guidelines, densities should always be
• ad d ressed at :l mo rc new m eas ure of density, maximised. in order to accommodate the maximum
_ Ir I
t· ~
number of residents and jobs within the already built-up
level, n ot 0 11 a one which captures
~ :J
I11 J cro

site - specific bas is. both employment and

area rather than on greenfields sites .

33 Low Don.lly Corridor.

A m ca~lIrc o f the residents is therefore

J The appropriate gross reurbanisation density in
in tensity of urban activ­ proposed: gross rcur­ low density corridors is 100 to 125 residents and
• workers per hectare.
• ity at a la rger geograp h­ banisatio n de nsity.

'.J · ical scale is appropriate, Gross rcurban isation 34 Modlum Don.lly Corridor.
The appropriate gross reurbonisotion density in
in this case fo r a given de nsity is a meas u re of
medium density corridors is 200 to 250 residents
major Nlelro celltre , the n u m ber of residents and workers per hectare.
•• and wo rkers per hectan:
ctllt re, co rridor o r iI/jill 35 Low Don.lty Contro.
~ area withi n Me tro . over a large are a . A The apprapriote gross reurbanisation density in
low density centres is 125 to 175 residents and
T ra dit io nall y, a " pop u­ g ross reurban isati o n
~ workers per hectare.

. ..
,I • •
latio n per hectare"
measu re has been ll sed
density of lOO residents
and wo rk ers per
36 Modlum Don.lty Conlro•
The appropriate gross reurbanisation density j
at chis macro selic • hectare, fo r example, medium density centres is 250 to 350 residents and
workers per hectare.
which captures only co uld be compri sed of
residential po pulatio n 75 wo rkers and 25 resi­
37 High Don.lty Contro.
an d not e m ployme nt. A dents . It appli e, at larg­ The appropriate gross reurbanisation density in
high density centres is 400 to 550 residen ts and
pre m ise of the appro:l.c h er urban scales, and is
workers per hectare.
o utlin ed in the used in th est:
38 Malor Molro Conlro.
G uideli nes at t he Over­
The appropriate grass reurbanisation density in
all Ic vd o f a reu rba nisa­ major Metro centres is 700 to 1000 residents and
workers per hectare.
If curre.,t ow c! ty tio n area - be it a major
f>t!riph:~al development A1ctro [Clltre, [Clllre, [or­ 39 Gonoral Don.lly Provl.lon.
00 It is of course likely that there will be some limited
ridor, or jlljtfl area.
reurbanisation that will nat fall into the categories of
Areas devoted to public corridors or centres, such as infill areas. In order to
support the possibility of transit, and to support walking
realm and deve lo pme nt
and cycling. such reurbanisation should meet minimum
parcels arc included in densities. Gross reurbanisatian densities of 80 residents
Oy and workers per hectare should be the minimum for all
the land area basis.
Source: I~: reurbanisation in Metro.
34 (, I d din e~ for rhe
Rl'urballlsation of
Metropolitan Toronto


Gro ss rCllrba ll isa tio l1 Using the Density
As a high density centre, the overal l gross reurbonisation
dCIl '\itics ca n be appl ied Guidelines denSity of the Victoria Pork/Danforth centre should fall in
to a [e urba nisation area D ensity le ve ls va ry the range of 400 to 550 residents and workers per
to es timate the to tal de pendin g upon the
num be r o f resid e nts and typ e o f re urban isatio n Using the gross reurbanisatian densities and opplying the
balance ratio determined for the area, above, we can
total nu mbe r of w o rk­ arc;]. Th ey arc hig he st
es timate the tolal number of residents and workers thai
ers that mig ht re aso n­ in the lII ajo r Metro ce n­ could be an ticipa ted in the centre over the long term
when reurbanisotion is complete. Above we determined
ably result in the long tres, and low es t in lo w
that the resident to job ratio for the centre could be in
tc rm whl:11 that arca is de1J sity co rrid ors. I n the range of 0.75 residents per job (or 1.5 lobs per resi­
den t). Applying this ratio to the gross reurbanisotion den­
reurban ised (incl uding eac h casc , a range is
sity of 450 residents and workers pe r hectare sugges ts a
any cx istin g res id ent or g i vcn fo r thl' gro ss breakdown of roughly 2 70 jobs and 180 residents per
hectare . Over the entire site area of 27 hectares , a total
worker p o pu latio n th at reurbanisati o n densi ty.
of about 7 ,300 jobs and 5,000 residents would result.
re mai ns). It th e re fo re For a particular rc ur­
In turn . we could apply floorspace overages to these
providt.:s J useful too l banisation area, the
numbers 10 es timate the 10101 amounl of floorspace .
fo r transpo rtatio n and appropriatl' mix deter­ Assuming 50 square metres of floors pace per reSident,
and 30 square metres per job, the total amount o f
transit plann in g, as well mined in Sec ti on C ca n
floorspace in the centre would be about 450.000 sq.m ..
as the plann in g of o th e r be applied to t h e gross
in fra stru cture slI ch as rcu rban isation de nsity
parks o r sc h oo ls: Aft e r fi g ures, and m u ltip lied
all , it is reside nts and b y t h e total area o f t h e
worke rs whi c h generate cellt re o r co rri dor, to
the need fo r sli ch giv e In indi cation of
infrastru cture, not th e total number of
floorspacc pe r sc. Uut it workers and re.;s ide nts
can also provid e a basis th at can be expec te d in
to esti mJte the total the.; lo ng te rlll.
amount o f fl oorspacc T h e Gu ide lines also
that will ex ist in the provi de site spec ifi c fsi
centre or corrido r, as ranges for e ach ty p e of
ill ustra te d in " Ap pl yin g rc urban isa ti o n Jrc a, 35

th e Gu idelin e s." disc lI ssed in Sec tion G.

•-'• 35
I ,

•• Urban design is site
<.1 planning at the level of
the city. The combina­
• J
, tion of the public
aspects of the city such
as parks, streets and
blocks, and sidewalks
' .J with the buildings and
natural environment

The Urban
creates the wide varia­
tion in urban form that
makes up Metro today.
Design Plan
Many of these combina­
tIons represent system­
atic and repeatable
: "j

relationships that can be
Gllitit'll/U S for t/lf

• J

< I
Rt' lIrballisOfic1I/ of

successfully used over

j\ / l'trt1!l,Ilitoll Toron,o
and over in many loca­
· ,

•• tions throughout Metro.

• r
In other cases site spe­
. cific conditions require

a unIque response to
"! j

achieve a successful
urban form.

36 GUidelines for the
RCllrb~ll1sJtioll of
Metropolitan Toronto

GUIDELINES Urban design direct­ to guide the process of

ly conditions ou r expe­ rcurbanisation an d
rience of the city. It m ake coord inated dec i­
40 An urban de sign plan should be prepared in con '
determines very rcal sions about uses, dens i­
junction with the reurbanisation of major Metro
centres, centres, corridors, and inlill areas. aspects of the urban ties, and built form o n
experience . sllch as [ h I.: ind ivi d ua l sites . It pro­
31110unt of sun 0 11 a vides a clear framewo rk
41 For the area to be reurbanised and in the context
of its surroundings, an urban design plan should park , or the arn o un t o f fu r respo nding quic kl y
define, in three dimensions, the fundomental type wi nd on a sidewalk. In :1I1d ratio nall y to de vel­
of repeatable urban form that the area could
add ition, it has signifi­ opment applicatio ns. It
exhibit after reurbanisation, created by the
characteristics of: cant but indirect im­ will also help to ensure
pacts. It can co n trib ute that n: u rba n isJ tio n
• the pedestrian and vehicular circulation system;
to a sense of cOll1l1lu ni­ results in a high qua li ty
• the open space system; ty, for example by pub lic rea lm , w ith suf­
identify in g the syste m ficient and well
• the distribution of uses over the

th rou gh whic h ' mai n designed roads, pedes­

reu rbanisation area ;

streets ' arc created so tria n areas and parks .

• the distribution of " 'tt fsi densities
that the y ca ll be repeat­ T he urban des ig n
by parcel or sub-area;

ed an d expanded. It can plans prepared to guide

• the overall height and massing of the buildings; pro mote a safe urban the evolution of re ur­
enviroll m ent, support banisation areas will
• the relationship between street and building;
walking and enhance all o w for interpretatio n
• the primary public entrances; the vi:1bility of tr:1llsit. of the gencral guide­
I n this section we lines to rcspond to thc
• the relationship between the type of proposed and
recommend th at an special fca tures of cac h
existing bu ilding types;
"urban design plan" be area. This detailed .
• integration of new development with
prepared for all lIIajor area-specific considera­
transit service;

Metro eelH res, eelilres, ti on will be especially

• standards for micro-climate, including
corridors and ilifill areas. critical in those areas of
sun/shade, and wind conditions.
An u rban design plan is M etro whic h :lrc more
a three-d imen sio nal subtlrb:ln in form and
42 Within a given reurbanisation area, and as a ge n­ plan for the illlportant whe rL' reur banisati on
eral principle, employment uses should be placed urba n dLsign aspects o f sho uld sec k to create a
closer to transit access points than residential uses .
an area, including the fOfl ll that is m ore (0 111­
Exceptions may occur however, for example with
respect to special needs housing . rdJ tionship wit h the pact and appropriate to
surro unding context, local co nditions. The
creation o r extensio n o f guidelines arc b roadly
the public realm, build­ descriptive; the princ i­
ing heights . and so a ll . ples th ey assert w ill
T he plan is a funda­ require elaborat io n in
m en tal tool use d as part an area-specific urba n
of a proactive app roac h design pial! .

:'-~.~:;!:l 1!-.jJ .
'f t." ·r .J'"~ iI "! !~tl'
, .)

'! . . ,
( ... . ·1 .. ...;;

l~ ,.

I.. -,.;:
I, r T ".,


I • • Urban Design Plan

The urban design plan shows on overoll concepl for Ihe

i• area, including the infi ll areas located south of the rail

corridor. The high density centre is loco led nor lh of Ihe


rail corridor and along Victoria Park Avenue .

The plan is slruclured around Ihe GO and subway sla'

tions. A major north-south open space is created olong
Victorio Pork linking the two stations and creallng one
comprehensive development node served by Ironsi!. The
relocaled GO slolian is flanked by develapmenl parcels
and becomes a focal point.

Building Heights Net Densities A new slreets and blocks structure is established in order
~ 10 rationalize the available space while providing identi­
fy 10 the area

The area soulh of Ihe Danforth provides on emplaymenl
3 focus and includes offices and retail, with light industrial
uses along the rail corridor. Mixed commercial/residen­
.. 3 lial parcels are locoled along Ihe main square. The
l• perimeter of the main square is seen as a mixed-use area
with on emphosis on height and density at the intersec·
I• lion of Danforlh and Viclarla Pork. Danfarlh is reinforced
as the main service corridor with street related retail

~3 • commercial
Residential uses to the north ensure proper integration
wilh Ihe exisling residenliol neighbourhoods . The overall
I 11m mixed use result is a highly mixed areo with a strong emphasis on

i o residential

i Land Use

i· 3
38 GUIdelines for the
Rcurbanisatioll of
Mctropohran Toronw



In order to ma ximise accessibility to Iransi l, employmen t

uses are placed closest to Transit slops, with mixed use
bUildings filling ou l Ihe cenlral square . Residenliol uses
ore placed next 10 the existing residential fabric, in order

to make on appropriate transition between the centre

and its surroundings.

Placing Ihe densesl bUildings nexl 10 Ihe Iransil slops also

maximises occessibili ly 10 GO and Ihe subway, by

pulling more people closer 10 the stalions. Denser build­

ings are also appropriate around the central square In
general, fSi densilies of 4X 10 6 X - in Ihe upper end of

Ihe range permilled In high density cenlres, are placed at

the centre, and diminish to 3X in the outer portions. Fsi

densities hove been kepi low 01 the northwest end of the

central pork space, next to the existing low-rise neigh
bourhoods. The bUilding heights follow a similar pallern
10 the site-specific densities, diminishing wilh dislance
from Ihe middle of Ihe centre.
, I

How much public realm
is required?
• I

, . When an area is to be
·, , reurbanised it usually
~ .~
means a considerable
increase in the density
or intensity of use. The
I .J reurbanised area will
.... need to

The public realm :~::to

people and become the

setting for a more com­
plex order of urban life.
·•• A single-storey shop­
•. J
ping centre and car park

. J
G uid elitl t's fo r ,h e
•~ R ellr ba tll Sdl ioll of
is quite a different place
,\4 ctropo litdtl T oron to
·•· from an urban centre

.­ I
which includes housing,

• J
offices, workshops,
community facilities

• I

• J

and shopping.


40 C;uidclillt's (or thL'
Rcurb.llli~Jt i oll of
MctropolitJIl Toronto

GUIDELINES When such a proces< site. One sou rce of th is

of rcurbanisatiol1 takes problem is that densi ty
place, it is vi tal to pay is attributed to the
43 The public realm consists of parks, streets, side­
careful atte ntion to the I.:lltirc r "gross" sitc to
walks and other open spaces. Included in the mea'
surement of the public realm for any crcati on uf a publ ic be redeve loped . Wh en
reurbanisation area is half of the width of local rc al m w hi ch supports the streets and parks arc
streets and arterials which may form the area's
public activity and a laid ut, the density
boundary. Expressways and other quasi-public
areas, such as hydro corridors, are not counted sense of community. fro lll these areas is th en
toward the public realm as they do not expressly An adequate public app lied to the develop­
serve the raurbanisation area. In general, publicly·
rea lm o f streets, si de­ me nt parcels , in addi­
accessible private open space would not be count·
ed toward the public realm. walks, parks and ope n ti on to the dc n ~ i [y that
spaces must be crc:l tcd. is alread y perm itted
The public reallll the re .
44 The public realm created in the reurbanisation of
an area should be dedicated to the municipality. plays a critica l role in T his is :Ul un pre­
Density should not be drawn from portions of the determining the quality dictable process, in that
reurbonisation area which constitute the public
of life in a city, in pro­ the real net de nsities
realm and reapplied to the development parcels.
viding access to public that res ult wi ll depe nd
amenities such as upo n the amount o f
4S In major Metro centres, centres, and infil/ areas,
ravines o r the wate r­ ro ads and parks created
the public realm should constitute a minimum of
30% of the total land area to be reurbanised. This front , and in providing 011 th l.: site . Frequ e ntly,
figure includes public roads, pa'r ks, sidewalks and public places where th e res ul ti ng amount o f
other publicly owned open spaces. Any existing
social integration, inte r­ density applied to the
public realm retained as part of the reurbanisation
can be counted toward the 30%. action, and community developm en t parcels is
building can occu r. ...imply too great , creat­
In some redevelop­ ing bui ldings that are
46 Corridors have a somewhat greater amount of pub­
lic realm, as the amount of developable land has m ent projects over the too b ig or too tal l.
been strictly defined as a depth of one property, past few decades, Wh en greenfields
which generally means the street accounts for a
streets, parks, buard­ sites arc urbanised for
higher share of the corridor's total land area. The
public realm for corridors is ideally between 30% walks, or ravine edges the first ti m e.: through :l
and 40% of its total land area. Existing public ha ve effecti vel y been Pla n o f Subdiv i.. ion , the
realm retained as part of the
privatised, ei the r public rea lm is dete r­
reurbonisation can be counted toward the
30% to 40%. th rou gh design, or mi ned and dedicated to
indeed t hrou gh private th e municipality. N o
An assoc iated prob­
lem wi th redevelop­
m ent projects withi n
Metro in the past has
been that the develo p­
ment~ arc simply too
dense; too bi g for th e ir
An open grid street system
b• ! 41



dens ity is att ribu te d to T he Guideli n es fur­
t he public rea lm. ther suggest a certain


Density applies on ly to m inimum port io n o f

l, ~ t h e remaini n g deve lop­

m ent pa rcels . Suc h an
t h e to tal b nd area of a
major Metro celltre ,
47 S ireel syslems should be designed 10 lacililate
integration , having the open, accessible qualities


• A appro ac h creates greate r celltre, corrido r o r il!fill

01 a grid syslem . This is achieved by making
frequent connections with the surrounding street
syslem, crealing blocks shaped 10 lacililale build­
certainty for the buil t area b e devoted to th e
ings fronting on streets and pedestrian circulation.
fo nn outco mes, ensures pu b lic rea lm . T ht.: pre ­

j an adequate a m o u nt of scribed figure s are based

411 The public realm should serve 10 knil a site inlo
publi c [calm, and that on research of the
the surrounding urban fabr ic, connecting streets,
'! roads. parks, a nd oth e r amount o f p ublic rcalm creating pedestrian linkages and assuring access
urb an c lem ents arc prov ided in d ifferent 10 public parks and open spaces.
tru ly p u blic . types of m ature urban
T h e G u ide line s co n texts in a number of 49 Building enlry should directly lace Ihe slreel in a
b e low suggest t h at a areas ac ross Metro . visible and accessible manner to allow for orien­
~ lalion ollhe building 10 Ihe public realm and 10

si m ila r ap pro ac h be
create the builHn security of "'eyes on the street".
ad opted fo r the re ur­ Design of the

Reverse lollronlages should nol be permitted.
ban isati o n of land . A n Public Reolm
~ ad equate pu b lic re alm W e have already made
50 A variety 01 parks and open spaces is fundamen ·
~ w ould be d eterm ined the case above, that a tal to the creation of a livable urban environment.
fo r rh e major Met ro hi gh q ualit y p ubli c Parks, natural preserves, public gardens, small
squares, allolmenlgardens and children's play

centre , ceutre , corridor real m b e incl ud e d in

parks combine 10 develop a hierarchy 01 public
o r ;,ifill area as a wh ole, rc urb an isat io n areas . open spaces that creates diversity and visual
a n d this lan d are a T h is p u bli c rea lm must interest in an urban environment.

would be su btracted
fr0 111 its total area . Nct
be m o re t h an t h e left
over spaces between 51 To be fully inlegraled as a camponenl of Ihe
b uil d in g de n si.t ies buil di ng p rojects . It public realm, significanl park spaces should


w ould the n appl y to
the rCIl13i ning develop­
beco m es a perm anent
fcat u n..: of t h e ci ty an d
have fronlage on and be highly visible from
a public slreel.

l :~
ment parcels . T he con­ mu st be des ig n e d to
52 Parks, plazas and olher open spaces should be
I :~
ce pt of "gro ss fs i" , that
is, of a coverage d ensity
endure ove r a long
period of t im e . In most
defined by Ihe urban labric around Ihem. The


salety and delinilion of open spaces is improved

appl ying to a whole site urban areas, ind ividua l il buildings face onlo Ihem.

befo re the public re alm
had b e e n subtracted,
wo u ld longe r exist .
L~ 11 0


Th is is a reasona bl e an d
fair ap proach wh en
increases in d ensity arc
b ei n g aw arded .
""4 "

l• A dosed street system


42 GUlde ltn cs for the

R cu rbanisa tion of
Metropo li tan Toronto


buildings will chan ge and blo cks integrates
se veral times in rebtio n neighbouring portions As a centre , the general
to a relatively stable of the city, redu ces principle of allacoling a
minimum of 30% o f the
public realm . That pub­ walking distances, and
land 10 be reurbanised 10
lic rea lm has a lot of promotes accessibility roods and parks applies.
C0l111110n characteristi cs to transit sto ps. Th ere is
Because of its prior use
that will reappea r in all a growing fecling that
as industrial land ser­
parts of M etro. an open grid of public viced by rail, there is vi r­
There have bee n streets actually has less lua lly no public reolm in
place in the existing
some problems with th e traffic co ngestion than
area. A new system of
treatment of the publi c the limited access, streets, sidewalks and
rca lm in Metro in the closed stree t systems . Streets and blocks parks will have to be cre­
ated as a framework for
past . Some redevelop­ Building entrances with
reurban isation. An open street pattern facilitates accessi­
ment projects in M etro dire ct access to the bili ty to and within the centre, connects to the surround­
"turn their backs" 011 street promote safety, ing area , and picks up on the existing stree t pattern
around the centre. The new system of streets and blocks
the surrounding area, and make walking more
proposed in the pion is a generous one , intended to give
and create an inward- interestin g . a strong sense of identity to the new centre. Overall , the
looki ng, detached Parks, plazas and public realm shown is aboul 40% of Ihe 10101 land areo
of the centre, surpassing the 30% minimum recommended
world . " R. everse lot open spaces playa criti­
in the Guidelines.
fro ntages", where th e ca l role in th e creation
back of lots face the of the distinct character An urban design plan for the area must preserve and
enhance all existing natural features. In addition, Victoria
main street , arc an of a neighbourhood ­
Park is shown as a park-like avenue, linking existing nat­
example of th is. so much so that many ural sites such as the
The pattern of st reets existing neighbour­ ravines to form on overall

and blocks in many hoods carry the name

park/ open space syslem H
along a north-south axis.
areas, with limited of the adja ce nt public The cenlrol landscaped
points of entry to a open spaces. Open mall along Vicloria Park
Avenue p rovides for a
block Jnd curvilinear spaces can ::t1so provide
dist i nctive framework for
street patterns , also a means of linking a developmenl 01 a higher
inhibits the integration reurbanisation area with densily while providing
bOlh visual ond physicol
of an area with its SUf­ th e surrounding com­
amenity along its length.
roundings. Walks to munity.
transit stops or stores The size, usc, loca­
The park system
arc le ngthened , and tion, stree t frontage and
transit vehicles ca ll find type of buildings sur­
it diffi cult to manoeu­ roundin g an open space
vre th e w indin g streets . systen1 are a critical
A morc ope n , inte­ compo nent of the urban
grated pattern of stre ets design plan for an area
of rc urbani sation.

In Section D , above, we
outlined gross reurbani­
sation densities, stated
in residents and workers
per hectare, that would
apply overall to the dif­
ferent types of reurbani­
sation area. This gross
measure of density is
Site-Specific appropriate at th~
macro scale, and IS
• • linked to goals such as
Densities promoting walking as a
means of urban trans­
Gllid(linrs for the

portation or supporting
Rrurbanisl1tlOn of

J\htropolitan Toronto
the use of transit.
Within this gross
reurbanisation density
framework, the issue of
building densities on
individual development
parcels appropriately
becomes primarily a
matter of urban design.
44 GUl<lclilH.'\ fo r th e
R c urball l ~ JtlOn o f
M etro polltall T o ro nto

GUIDELINES Building density ranges individua l d evelop m ent

are provided in th is scc­ parce l w ill be deter­
cion of th e Gu idel ines mined by the urban
S3 Within a reurhanisation area, a range of site·
specific densities can be accommodated within the
for each type o f reurban­ design plan, the parce l's --
overall gross reurbanisation density figure . Net isation :1rC3. Tht;sc sitc ­ location w ithin rhe rcur­
1I00r space index ("lsi") figures are provided for specific densities arc ballisation area, and the
each type of reurbanisotion area . Net hi means consistent with the (Of­ other general urban

that the density figures can be applied only to the
responding gross reur­ design guidelines prc­
development parcels; no lsi density is attributed to
land in the public realm . banisatiol1 densities. sc nted in th is document.
The site-specific dcn­ Most dt.:vclopmcnt
sity measure is the floor parcel.;; w ithi n a major
54 The appropriate floor space inde x density for any
individual development parcel in a reurbanisation space index (fsi), which IV/etn) (elltre or (elltre

area will be determined on the basis of an urban is the total amount of may not be rccommend­
design plan (Section E). floorspace in a bui ld ing cd fo r the highest fs i Iim­
div ided by thc net site its in the range .
55 L ow Den.lty Corridor. :lrc;:t of an individua l The net fs i dens ities
Site specific density within low density development parcel , that recommended arc also
corridors is 2X the area of the lot, net.
is, afte r the public n:alm consistent with the goa ls
ha'\ been subtracted. Th is of creating a livable
56 Medium Den.lty Corrldora measure indicates the u rban environment, and
Site specific density within medium densi­ m in imu lll and maximul1l appropriate built forms .
ty corridors is 3X the area of the lot, net.
fs is w hic h arc anticipated For example , site-specif­
for the various nct de ve l­ ic densit ies of over 4X
57 L ow De nsity Centre opmcnt parcels within net coverage would be
S,la opc" fic density wilhin low density
each lIIajor Metro eellfre, pcrmittL'd only in high
centr , 2-3X the area of the lot, net.
eelltre or corridor. dell sity (Clltres or major
The distribution of Metro (ClltrcS . Net fsi
58 Medium Den.lty Centre. nct fsi densities within den.;;ities of ove r oX
Site specific density within medium densi­
ty centres is 2-4X the area of the lot, net. the rcurbanisat ion area is wou ld on ly be permitted
dete rmined on t he basis in major Metro (elltres,
of urba n design consid­ that is, w ithin only 3.
59 H igh Den.lty Centre.
erations . T he f.;;i density very few locations
Site specific density within high density
centres is 3-6X the area of the lot, net. available upon any given in Metro .


60 M alar Metro Centre.
The nel fSi densities are dis­
Site specific density within mojor Metro tribuled so as 10 lake advan·
centres is 4- 12X the area of the lot, net. loge of Iransil access poinls,
ond 10 ensure a Iransition wilh
Ihe exist ing conlexl. As such,
Ihe highes l densily buildings of
5X to 6X are placed in lhe most
central ond prominent positions,
01 the corners of Danforth and
Victoria Pork, and near the He
and GO sto lions. lower densi­
lies of 3X 10 4X occur on Ihe
perimeter of the centre

..• We have placed a great

.• deal of emphasis in
•• these Guidelines on
promoting walking as a
viable form of urban
transportation, and have
outlined measures to
support this, including
improving the mix of
• uses at the local level
•• Pedestrian and ensuring adequate
• overall density levels.
Environment But these measures
alone will not support
an increase in walking if
the system of sidewalks
... Guidelines for the
and walkways is not
•. J R..t'lIrbdtlisfltiOtl of
Alt'tropolitan ToroPlto
supported by sufficient
·• . .. .
• actIvItIes or IS unattrac­
tive, discontinuous,
inaccessible or
. .

•.• .1'

L ,.
46 Guidt:li l lt'~
for (he 1lof
M etropolitan To rOllto

There arc many thro ugh . "Animation" or

examples in Metro of the enlivening of public
higher density, mixed and pedestrian space
lise places tha t do not makes those places morc
support walking at all. attractive, morc intercst­
Ilcsidcnts of areas SlI[­ ing, and safer. Animation
rounding the depends upon providing
Scarborough Town land uses within or
Centre wo uld be hard around public spaces
pressed to reach the CCI1­ which generate activity,
Cre on foot, as the cnv i­ and avo idi ng "dead" uses
ranment is gcared to which do not. Animating
cars, lacks sidewalks. and uses include retai l,
prese nts many obstacles restaurants, cultu ral
to the pedestrian . This amenities, recreational
type of ali enating walk­ f.,cilities, and offices .
ing expe rience is fa r less Providing residential uses
likely to be repeated o n in conjunction with
a regular basis. other uses can contribute
Part of the j o y o f to street activity for a
wa lking is the apprecia­ lo nger period of the day,

Reverse lots and blank tion of the envi ro nment as well as create a popu ­
walls do not result in a and street-related activi­ lation base for scrvice ,
high quality pedestrian ties that one is passing retail and entertainmc nt
~ 47


r;-,' uses at stree t level. considered as finish ing GUIDELINES

Dead uscs include park­ elements of the street

' ing lots, thl.: rcar of lots, infrastr ucture.
- 61 Reurbanisation should stress improving the con·
and bbnk walls.
Not all pedestr ian nectivity of places by pedestrian means, through
a system of pedestrian linkages.
Du ring the design environm ents require
-' process, considerati o n the sam e treat m ent to
62 The quality of the pedestrian environment can be
1 m ust be given to th e provide a successfu l
improved by attention to continuity, animating
Il ;j p h ysical im age and walking system in a uses, and improving visual interest and activity of
pedestrian spaces.
position of a street in neighbourhood. An
area's urb an de sign p lan
t he urban hierarchy.
1 Special conditio ns suc h should delin eate impor­
63 Maintaining the continuity and variety of a pedes..
trion environment is an important element of its

l~ as a ce ntre landsca ped

median, multiple rows
tan t pedestria n co nnec­
tions whic h link origins
attractiveness. The public realm and, in particu­
lar, public spaces should be surrounded by land
uses which will enliven them.
of tree pbntings o r and destinations. It is
extra wide sidewalks impo rta nt to remembe r
64 The pedestrian environment of arterial roads
become perm anent fea­ that a great dea l of the could be substantially improved by encouraging
street edge building.
tures in the urban envi­ successful wal king en vi­
, ~ ro n m ent and create a ronment in the older
65 Specific elements in streelscape design include:
J~ special neighbo urh ood areas of Metro is a sim­

l~ or community identity.
Li ghting, signage,
pie, repe titive sidewalk
syste m al ong the open
• provision of adequate sidewalks

• pedestrian scale lighting

,~ grid of publ ic streets.
special pavement treat­
• crosswalks and signalisotion to encourage
l~ m ents, and street fu rni­
pedestrian movement
ture shou ld be
I~ • s.reet tree planting

!~ • special features such as boulevards,

medians and public art.

66 Special tree planting and street or landscape fea­

tures should be considered in locations where a

special community focus is appropriate.

~~ .
'. .., .;: - .... -':""~
67 In areas of significant pedestrian activity,
consideration should be given to the require..

" ' ..
,,-.:r ....:;r..,
at.;.: ...... 111 ment for weather protection devices such as
.-. a.
.... 1 ....... "
canopies, awnings, arcades and colonnades.

i~ ,~,~ ,..r-

.."""-.. ...
,,:- ~


48 Guidchm-') for the

Reurbani ..atlol1 of
Metropolitan Toronto




The new north-south linear pork space connects the two

Ironsit slolions 01 the north and south ends of the centre.
Generous, treed sidewalks with weather protection pro­
vide a pleasant environment for the shorl walk between
the two stations. Streets ore lined with animating uses,
including relail 01 grade.

• 49

The treatment of parking
IS Important In many


respects - It can con­
•• tribute to or detract from
the quality of the urban
. .
enVIronment, It can
promote or inhibit walk­
~ ing and the use of transit.
By separating land
r; Parking uses, surface parking
increases walking dis­
I~ tances, and can create
I .~
I an uninspiring urban
I environment. When
surface parking is pro­

vided it should not be
Guidcllllt's for till'

f?'t' lI,bll'lI sa t,o" (if

permitted to reduce the
,".1f.'tr0I'0litl1f1 Torot/to
quality of the public
. ~ realm. Buildings and the
public realm, especially
sidewalks, should be
contiguous; parking lots
~ ijl

should not separate a


50 Gu idc lill l'~ (o r t h e

R C lirba ll i~ J. t i o n
Metro po li ta n T oro nto

GUIDELINES bui ld ing e n trance fro m lise in t h ose locat io ns

lie :

68 Surface parking should not be placed so as to

separate the public realm and building entrances.
the street and side wa lk.
Parking should be
located so as not t h e
where transit alterna­
rives curre ntly exist o r
wi ll exist in th e futun::.
break t his contiguity. Temporary surface
69 Surface parking should not be permitted in The availab ility o f parki ng policies can
park spaces.
park ing can e ncourage help in the initi al p has­
peo p le to use their ca r es of a re urban isat io n
70 Parking structures which face onto a street should
instead of transit . T he proposa l while all o w ing
be lined with active land uses at grade to enliven
the public realm. supply of park ing pro­ future development [0

vided in an a re a sho u ld rc m ove t h e parking

71 In determining parking requirements, the relation­ take into accoun t the o ve r time .
ship between parking supply and transit use
future transit framc­ In determinin g
should be considered. In general, greater provision
of parking will encourage auto use over transit. In work; if a go od leve l of app ro p riate levels fo r
areas of good present or future transit use, signifi­
transit service is provid­ the supply of pa rki n g,
cantly reduced parking requirements could be con­
sidered. ed or will be provided considerat io n co uld also
in the future , the sup­ be given to th e C, ct tha t
72 In mixed use development, parking requirements ply o f parki n g can be by m ixing diffe re nt
may be reduced on the basis that the demand
red u ced or eliminated, la n d uses w h ich ge ner­
created by different land uses could share common
facilities . or the onus sh ifted to ally ge nerate pa rk in g
ha"ve the proponent d emand at differe nt
73 Entrances to surface parking or underground park· demonstrate wh y any times of the day, the
ing lots should be carefully controlled when they
parking is ne cccssary. overa ll supply o f park­
occur across a public sidewalk. In the case of shop­
ping streets, vehicular access should occur from a Wh ile the absence of ing ca n be red u ced. Fo r
rear lone way.
slIrf.1ce pa rking is exam ple, in a con d o ­
desirable in a nu turc m inium Jnd o ffice
74 Street parking should be encouraged where it does
condition , it may be d evel o p mc nt , o ffice
not interrupt transit ope rations.
necessary in locations of workers w o u ld req u irc
sig ni fica nt autom o bile da yti m c parking while
lise to deve lo p a ph ased reside n ts wo ul d require
parking strategy as a nighttime p arki n g, sug­
part of the urban des ign gesting th at they co uld
plan fo r an arca. share so m e of the sam e
Ta this e nd, surf.1cc parking f.l cilities.
parking sho u ld no t be
allo v./cd as a permanent
• 51
, Some past redevelop­
ment proj ects in Metro
have resulted in very
large or tall buildings,
which are out of con­
text with their sur­
roundings. In part, this
has been due to the use
of "gross fsi" density
measures, an approach
Fit and which these guidelines
suggest should be elimi­
Transition nated (Sections F and G).
But in addition, local
zoning controls have set
many constraints, such
Gllideliuc s for the
RCllrba,,; sat;oll of
as minimum setbacks or
Ml'tropo/itall Toronto
maximum lot coverage,
which have encouraged
high rise buildings.
52 Gllldclll1l:S for the
RcurballlSJtlO 1l of
Metropo li tan Toronto

<;itiOI1, scale or building development with the scn<;iti ve transition into

type of the urban form existing Metro urban cxi<;ting surrounding
arollnd them. stru cture . areas. A gradual transi­
It is not possible, nor Tall buildings (over ti on in height ensures
is it desirable to pre­ eight storeys) arc not that new development
scribe uniform building c1imillZltcd, but arc is compatible with
heights for rcurbanisa­ restricted to a few existing .
Older areas of the city hove [ion areas that would be appropriate locations , These guidelines
high ucoverage" buildings
applied mechanically like the centre" of rCUf­ shou ld be used as prin­
i.e., the building foot print
tokes up a large proportion :lCr055 Metro. In a very banisation areas, corner ciples to assist in the
of the lot. general way, however, locations. or places of preparation of an urban
the guidelin es in this high transit accessibility. design plan. In most

I 1- , section suggest 3n alter­ R eurban isation areas cases great sensitivity to

native approach to the have been well defined the specific location
I 1--1 i", will be req uired to suc­
1___ 1 current practice of jux­ in the preceding guide­
I 1-
r - 1­

taposing very high and
very low buildings. The
Guid elin es suggest that
lines. Firm boundaries
arc necessary in order
to c reate a n orderly and
cessfully create a transi­
tion into 3n existing
Post-war buildings have much morc extensive
often had low lot coverage usc be made of low (up
like this area in Metro .
to three storeys) to
III other cases (all medium risc (fouf to
buildings were market­ e ight storeys) buildings -
ed for the long views that, because they lIti­

they offered residents. li ze a hi gh coverage of

Older areas of the city the.:.' site, arc higher den­
have high "coverage" sity but not high rise .
buildings i.e ., the build­ A variety of building Net densitie s of 3X hi can result in high ri se or low rise
buildings, depending upon the coverage.
ing footprint takes lip a types can still be
large proportion of the achieved within these
lot . Often thl· vicw paral1leters. The most
from these buildings is H,itablc building type
only good until another will be determined by
highrisc occurs in close location, context and
proximity. In many lI SC. One of the values
casco;; these high risc of this type of building
structures have nothing i~ a great ability to '\ uc­
There should be a gradual , consistent transition in building
to do with the compo­ ccssfully in tegrate new heights from a center or corridor to surrounding areas.


75 The height, size and typology (i.e. characteristics, Within the parameters of a comprehensive urban
fronts, backs, locations of entrances, etc. ) of build· design plan , the specifics of building transition will
ings introduced into an existing urban Fabric should vary depending on the location within Metro.
be compatible with what exists. This does not mean
' J,!
that they must be exactly the same size or have the
same floorplates, but they should have proportions 80 In low and medium density centres.
that do not result in an abrupt change and that do Generally low and medium densily cenlres should
not IIdwarF" the existing fabric. be composed of structures under 6 to 8 storeys. In
order to create a transition, buildings should be lim ­
ited in height when adjacent to existing low rise
76 In larger areas of reurbanisotion, it is important neighbourhoods. Immediately adjace nt to low rise
that a transition in scale be achieved between the houses a height limit of 3 storeys is desirable. When
new development and the existing fabric. Taller separated by a public street, park or other permo·
bu ildings can be accommodated in appropriate nent open space, 4 to 5 storeys could be compatible.
location s, providing that there is a positive contribu­
tion to the urban fabric.
81 locations which can be described as landmark loco ·
tions in a specific neighbourhood ca n be considered
77 In reurbanisotion areas bordering low-rise residen ­ as exceptions .
tial areas, residenti al uses will normally make a
better transition use, and are most appropriate at
the edge of reurbanisotion areas. 82 A long Urban Corridors.
Generally, along urban corridors a base height of 5
storeys at the street line is ·acceptable. It is possible
78 The principles of built form which apply tl? reurbani· that this base height will require modifications
salion in general should also apply to affordable downward to adjust to special site conditions or
housing, which shou ld not be given additional upward to 8 storeys in special locations such a s
height or density to make it work economically. The important intersections or transit stations.
additional costs of this form of housing, if any, must
be met through other mechanisms.
83 A long Suburban Corrldo.. ,
Generally suburban corridors have road right· of·
79 In the case of Q new community focus which seeks to way widths that are wider than urba n corridors and
convey a specific image, diHerent from the context, a base case of 7 storeys might be appropriate. Site
the project must be evaluated as to its impact on the specific review may suggest upward or downward
existing physical character of the neighbourhood. adjustments , with increases up to 9 storeys in spe­
cial landmark locations or at major intersections .
54 Guidclinc.:s for the
Rcurbanislcion of
Metropolitan Toronto


The overall distribution of heights is such that the tallest

bUildings are placed at the centre of the reurbonisalion
orea, and bUilding heights decrease with distance from
the centre , from ~igh rise 10 medium rise 10 low rise.
landmark bUild ings over 15 storeys are placed at the
north end of the new central park, serving 10 define and
anchor the area. Taller buildings ore also provided for
on each of the four corners althe Danforth/Victoria Park

Nex t to the existing residential orea, bUildings on the

central square ore limited in height, stepping down from
six storey ~moin slreet" type bUildings on the street
frontage, to two storeys 01 the rear next to the existing
houses . The property depth between the new bUildings
along Victoria Park and the existing houses is in the 35
to 45 me tre range This depth combined w ith the low
building heights creates a good transition between old
and new areas.


Both waterfront and
~ ravine park locations are
special features in
~ Metro's urban fabric
and should invite public

access. High rise struc­

l=. tures are often predomi­
nant along these special
locations, capitalising

upon private views . The
Don Valley/Taylor
Creek park system is
Ui Features
edged by high rise
structures, for example.
These structures limit
public access to both
Gllitielille s for tile
l~el/rbaIlISatlo" of
the top of bank and the
,\Il'lropolitall TOT<,"to
lower park system. The
.~ combined size of the
~ row of high rise struc­
~ tures also separates the

56 Guidelines for the
R Cllrba llis.atio n of
Metropol ita n To ronto

GUIDELINES remaining neighbour­ to natural features is

hood from the natural critical to th e success o f
amen ity. From the val­ a neighbo urh ood. The
84 The edge treatment of ravine and waterfront loco·
tions is a key element of the public realm. Any new ley floor park system re bti vc cl oseness o f the
development should create an edge condition thot
the imposing mass and buildings to th e water­
incorporates a public street and/or park system and
controls building scale. scale of the high rise front in the Beach is
structu res dctr:1 cts from more than offset by th e
85 Metro's recent endorsement of a waterfront trail the quality of the open ready, regular and easy
along lake Ontario means that such a trail should
space experie nce ava il ­ visual and physica l
be incorporated on all properties which front onto
the lake. A minimum waterfront linear corridor able to the large r popu­ access to the- wate r­
width of 7.5 to 15 metres has been identified and
latio n of Metro. fro nt.
must be adhered to for all new development.
I n many locations T hese special urban
the waterfront is simi­ features mllst be criti cal-
86 Where the reurbanisation of large areas occurs
through comprehensive planning, the public realm larly separated from the Iy evaluated in an area
olong the waterfront should be maintained at a min·
city by high rise struc­ of rcurbanisation to
imum width of 50 metres.
tures. The relatio nship ensure that a broad
betwee n a de nser mo re enjo yme nt of the value
87 Along waterfront locations, public access is critical
and the scale of building beyond the 50 metre public compact urban e nvi­ of these areas is possible.
space should not form a wall between the lake and
ronment and the access
the city fabric. Building height along waterfront
locations should be controlled by an urban design
plan which establishes the scale, character and loco·
tion of both public and private facilities in these spe·
cial waterfront locations.

aa Table land parks should be created in ravine edge

reurbanisation projects to create "lobbies" to the
extensive valley land parks system. Development
should be set back through use of a publicly occessi·
ble easement or public land dedication to a mini·
mum of 10 metres from the top of bank to allow for
a walkway, bicycle trail and access to valley land
park systems.

a9 Building heights along ravine edges should general·

Iy not exceed 6 to 8 stories in height. The scale of
edge structures must be sized to ensure compatibility
with the ravine setting and to ensure the enjoyment
of the notural scenery from the valley floor.

90 Microclimatic effects and conditions in existing parks

and public spaces should be considered for all reur·
banisotion areas.
Applying the


Corndor.. rc-pn:sent a dif­ these location.. the origi­ of W.lrdl:1l AVelllll:. At

A Mcdiunl fl'rr.:Ju context for reur­ nJI Inllit form i.. Llrgcly prl'SeIH the "frCl:t coml\tS
b,1Ili~Jtion than the CJ"e of ..till in P!.Kl'. A .. trong of 1950\ \trip null"
Density the centre \Ve have sho\Vn
.lboVl'. In the following
Jutomobi le orient.ltion with parking fronting on
hac; gre.Hly aOt'cred the l.awrellce, and som(' more
Corridor e:-.:.llllple . the G uideline..
are applied to a lIIedilflll
rdat lomhlp\ betwl'cn site
and buildlllg. Again, the
[l'n'llt mediulll to high
rise residential redevc:lop­
t/l'flsiry (("rit/or . The scheme that rnult.. IS ment proJccts.
locnion cho"el1 i ...HI intl'nded only to dlu"tratl' lmllledi,ltely behind
CXJlllpk of a .. ignifical1t how thl' Cuidelines might the Llwrel1rc AVClHll'
ft.'urbanlsatlon rl'source ill be applied when a illlear propertle~, Oil both qde",
the Metro context . area I .. being comidl'fed of thl' strect. ,lTl' low risc
Corridors outside of the for reurbanisation . singk faillily dwelling
oldn urban areas h:l.VC a f he corndor 111 qUl'~­ I1cIghbolirhood~ dOl1llllatcd
form that IS "llllliar to the !Ion I...1 "ection of by wide frolll,lgl' iot~ and 1
wdl rccognizl'd lIlain l awrence AVl'l1UC which 112 storl'y bU1ldlllbH;.'l't... although larger in extcnds e.lstward from
land base. In many of Vicrori.l Park to just cast

~~ I L-...:I......I Ii.. .
....' ~
L..G: ""'- '-I. L. ~ .J,: L..'----.J\ '-'-

t;::.t:!:...!2 l-Lt:..7 L c"

' t , ,,", L I:i L ~ ....L- L c.. ~


Should this oreo be The re ..ldentlJl arc-a" bal1l\,ltIon .lrl'.l. There Jre \Itt.'\) or WllldI would IIldl­
bchllld the buildinb'"5 on no other type... oflJnd lI\l' t. .ltl' .1g.limt rt:lIrballi~Jtion
Lawrence Avenue should wlllrh would rc-<.)lI1re a spe­ of the corridor (c .g. natural
not form part of the reur- nal re~pome (e.g. Indmtnal arl'd\).



~~ Whot type of The linc:lr nature of till' for redevelopment. particu­ runJ1lng al o ng I.awrencc to
rellrb,lIli~ation area along larly the low-intensity <;tnp Warde n. T he~t.: char.lCtcri'l­
~:ci Lawrence Avenue defines a mall\ . . " ith parking on the tic'i meet tht.: criu:ri.1 for ;1
orea is it? (orndor. fhcre 1<; :l good street.. And Jccordlllg to our mcdilflll dc'miry wrridoro.
."i( supply of underutihsed land hyporhl'tical transit plan,
that could be made available there IS an :J.rriruiarcd LRT

58 ApplYlIlg thl' CLlidl'h n ~"

What is the appropri­ The b.'lbn cc "targe t" s<.: t out corri dor \\'ill act primari ly as that corridors \vill not be
in tht: Guidelin es is 1.5 pe r­ ;lloca l cOl'llllluni ty fo c us, prim ary areas for ernp loy­
ate mix of uses?
sons pCI' job. Within an tht:rcfo re it is not ll eccsS:lry lllent uses. A greate r cmpha­
app roxi m ate oll e kilometre to conside r;). la rge r b:lbn ce sis on emp loym en t in new
babncc ZO lle frolll th e corri­ 'Zone . dcveloplllellt than wlut cur­
clor, t he existing rnix of llses Iteurban isat ion must rently exists, while main ­
is 2.6 residc llt"S per job. T he oc cu r at J maximum of2 .6 tainin g an emphasis on
loca l area is there fore lig ht reside nts per job, so as not residentia l ""ould represent
011 employm ent, and cou ld to ,,vorse n the ex isting level an ap propri:"lte approach to
benefit by the introductio n ofbJi3n cc. At th e sa lli e this area, say 2.0 residcllts
of employm ent uses. This time, the Guiddint:s sugges t per job.

What is the appropri ­ The gross re urbanisarioll th e ba lance r:l tio of 2.0 resi­ turn, use these to tals to esti­
density fcconuncnciccl for den ts per job to th l' gross m ate the total amount of
ate overall density
lll t:diuJ11 density corridors is rt:urban isa tion densities, we floorspace afte r re urbanisa­
level? 200 to 250 residents or jobs get all upper range of 167 tion. Assulll ing 50 sq . 11 1. pe r
per hectare . W e call IlIulti­ reside nts and 83 jobs per rcsidc nt, and 30 sq . lJ"l. per
ply these gross densiti es by hec tare. O ver a gro~s :"Ire;). of work er, would result in
the size of the rc urbani sation 20 hectares, J total resident rou ghly 165,000 sq. Ill. of
arca to get ;lll in dication of populatioll of 3,340 and a residcnti:d floorspace) and
the ovcr:-d l rC'iicicllt popub­ to tal of 1.660 jobs would about 50 ,000 sq . m. of
tion and total !l\lmber of eve ntually resu lt (these fig­ eill ploym eil t- rc la tcd
jobs chat w o ulc! be achieved ures would include existing floorsp:tce.
ove r th c lo ng te fm when the reside nt and jobs re ta ined in
area is r('urban ised . Applyin g th e corridor) . We can, in

The depth s of exis ti ng lots

Urban Design Plan peciestrian activity. institutional. retail, o ffi ce
alon g Lawren c e Av c nut: Connections to adjacent and res idential buildin gs . A
East le nd thern sc lvcs to neighhourhood stre ets arc verti ca l land lise distribu ­ ~
increased densitie s and the
tr:lIl sfo rm atioJ1 of thi s tr:lf­
fi c corri d o r into ;).n Imp or­
rninilllJI and only arterial
stree ts link areas north of
Lawre nce to areas south o f
tion which places COlllll1er­
ci ;d uses at grade or on the
lo we r leve ls of buildings

tant stret:t v./ith .1 mix of Lawren ce. an d resi de ntial above v.,:ould
resid e ntial Jnd comm erc ial, III its new in caTilation, work well. Sprea din g thi ..
pe destri an related uses. The Lawren c e Aven ue would mix over th e le ngt h of the
exi sti ng strip malls Jnd ;1 shed its illl age as a traffiC stree t would ensure a
fe w apart me nt bui ldings corridor fron ted by sin gle gre ;!tcr stre e t vitality.
gi ve little d e fin it ion to the usc build ings co bC COll lC a
strcd and discour:tge multi-usc street defined by
.~ App lying t ilt" (;lIIddll1l"S 59

The Public Realm The (;u idclim.'s suggl:st that

the publtc realm 111 corn­
dof'i wli' fall into a range of
between 30% and 40% of
the corndor's to[;\1 land
;uca. T he existing public
realm in the cornclar (011­
si\ts prilliarily of Lawrence f
Avenue itself. Thl' network
of S[ft~·C[S could be extended L -"
in order to (Qllllect the
neighbourhoods no rth Jnd hood streets. n lC re su lt of Lawre nce Ave ll lH':.
\outh of Lawrence. New wou ld be .111 urban envi­ A reinvigorated public
\[reet pCI1('trarions critical ronment dut w hi le still rea lm ofsl11a ll squ ares,
[0 Wl':lVlI1g thi.;; fabric arc II1Jlllt::l.Ini n g a strong system treed streets and existing
indicated. Lots adjacent to for the: automobi le, wou ld sc hoo ).. wou ld form an
these penetrations and slllali cate r to more walking on integral p:lrt of the re urban­
public open spaces locHed the pTllllary street, more Isat ion proc<.'')s. A new
ncar the intersecti o ns could active connections for urban park is <11\0 proposed
be redeveloped in a fir\t pedestrians from the neigh­ at the IIltCricctio n o f
phase. A generous tret: bourhoods and a sca le of Lawrence and the: h ydro
planting program would streetsca pe m pported by corridor allowi ng for o;hght­
bri ng o;hadc, definitio n and bUlldlllgs that will help Iy higher build ings of eight
beauty to rhcc;c nClghbour- reduct, tht, apparent Width or n in e storcY$, at ItS edge.


II 7aBO• • • 'r
Site Specific Densities rhe Guidelines suggest J n et vcJopmcnt projl'cts sh o uld (k vclopll1 L'll t parcel'i th at
fsi of 3X for medium demit)1 occur at this demity. co uld bL' rellrba ni ~ •..'d .
corridors. Individual rede- The IilustrJtion shows

.~ 18."",. ........
.....:,~ - .J&.
I ... .I 1M

I. ....,.W.~
.....U l

Fit and Transition rile section shows tht: he:lght where adjace n t co 7011 e of to w llh o use\ alld
potential of deep 65 metre single family lots. The nar­ three sto rey blllldll1gc;.
lots to accommodate seven rower 45 metn.· lots nn between the st reet and the
,torey b u ildings at tht accom m odate a sevell exist in g 1H.·ig hbou rhoods
street (set back at the fifth storey building (set back at can create rC~ldentlal uses
storey) with a courtyard the fifth sto rey) tra llsit ion­ of freehold {en u re at a
arrangement of town hoU'l­ ing to thn:(: scoreys at the higher d emity than thl.' ~1I1 -
es f.llhng to three scoreys in rear. The intermediate gle family hous in g .

, • • ,
• • o:J
- -­ -• - - ­ .­ • -­

... • •• '.I • •



-'\ ..... ".a.

•• :'l "
, <I
• . ••

Pedestrian Impro vements to th e stn.:c[ Jeeess. al so enco ura ging while all ow in g for s::.fe r
netwo rk desc ribed :tbovc tr::l Ilsi t lI SC. pedestri an crossings. St ree t
w o uld drJ ln:ttic:lll y T h e introdu ctio n of an trec pl:lIlti ngs along b o th
illlPro ve pc.:dcstri:m access LRT alon g Ll\vn.'llcc <;id e walks and o n th e m ed i­
from th e n.: si(k nti al n eigh­ Ave nu e wou ld be a grc;n all wou ld gn..'ad y im pro ve
bo urh oods to LaWTe Il C\,; o pportu lli ty (0 u pgrade t he lh ~' pede stri a n e nvi ron m e n t
At present. resi­
AVl.:llw,,:. ph ys ical c hara cte r of thi s and p rovide imm ediate I,

d e nts in th ese areas mll st street. W hile Li t T se rvice definition for strip Ill a ll

take lon g ci rcu itou s pat hs \-"ould e nco ura ge pedes tri­ sites that relJla in.

in o rd er to reac h an traffi c , th e Llt T mL~d ian

Lawre nce . T h e improve­ cou ld give add ed d e fin it io n
111ents \vo llid provide direc t and c hara cter to t he StrCL·t

Parking The density of n:-urb:ll1is:l­ is prop osed as a m ca ll S of
tion :don g: th is strl:e t acc e<;<; to thest' und er­
implies that most parkin g gro und lots . Street parking
will be pbccd under­ :lio ng side stree ts should b<.:
ground. A system o f rear e nco u rage d.
lanes para ll el to Law rence



A Low

In what follows "':t' apply mixed. Retail ,mel scrviCl:' the trall1 tracks to the cast.
the ClildclillCS to J low uses can be located at grack Millwood run') diagonally
dcn:c;ity \oc:1I centre. for the :1S the markct dClnands. ,mel through the neighbour­
purposes of illustrating how rc~idential unit types can hood from Laird and has
the Cuidelines mig-he be fill a gap in the housing always acted as a local main
applieJ to a different COIl­ stock of the existing drea. strct:t and as a location for
text and type of fe-urbanisa­ The arC:l is ~itl1Jtcd h ighc r dcnsity rl,.. idcntial
tion arca. The schell1e is around the corner of within the brger plan of
shown for purposes of Millwood Avenue and Le;!sidc . J n fact, the proccs!'i
illustrating the- application I aird Drive. Llird Drive of reurbanisation began
of the- Guidcllllt:s only. In acts a transition zone several years ago with the
this location in Metro there between the low rise n..'si­ introduction of severa l
is an opportunity [0 create dentl,ll Lt.'J".idc 1H..'ighbour­ \l11all scale residential
a focllS for the COlllll1l1ll1ty hood to thL' wc".t . and an buildings on und('rurilized
when: the uses call be fully older IIldu ..trial an..'a ne<1r \itcs.

Should this oreo Iffi Mixed use & higher ~ Industrial area
be reurbonised?
residential density
Valley system
o Pork & public use

Milhv ood Avenue is need for industrial lands . WI Single family

bo unded by a low-risc resi­ and a detcnnination of

de ntial neighbourh o od which lands should be
w h ich ~hould nOt fOfm p:trt made ,lVaibbk to other
of tht: fcurbanisation area . uscs .1Ild which should not.
By cllll1in:lting this area, In this t:xamplc. wc .1S".UIl1C
the extent of the rcurbani­ that such an exercise has
s3tlOlI'arC:l begins to be bcen ull(k~rtJkcl1, cnviron­
defined. menul l~SUe-S h:lVe be-e-n
Laird Avenue is flanked addrl'~scd, ,lIld [hat it has

by IIldustnal uses. Whether be-ell de-tcnnincd that the

these sites sho u ld be lands at the intl'fsection of
included in the fcurbanisa­ LaIrd and Millwood <:ould
tio n area for l1on-lI1dustrial be made available to other
uses should be decided i ll uses (by virtue of their
thc context of a Mctro­ proximity to :l proposed
wide an:llysls of the future CO station. for extll1lpk).
62 ApplYlIl1J; the GUldell1lc\

What type af a ])ut: to thl: rc btiv cly small

:tIllO\lnt o f la nd ;1vaibbk
for rC ll rbJni s;ltioll, irs lIodal
area is it? co nfigur:1.tion aroLlnd Jil
interse c ti o n, :1nd the ar c3'<;
position with rl'sp ccr to a
surro ulldin g l1 l: ighbo ur­
hood, this are a is li ke ly to
fulfil (h4,' ro k of a lo cal
centre. It is n ow se rv iced
by st: vc r:t1 bm rOllt es,
which c on Il Cct lhe an..';)
with th e Bloor-l).mfaTth
and Yon gc <;lIbway line<;.
We ha ve asslIllIcd th:n
according to a future tr:lll­
sit p bn, th e area wi ll con­
tilluL' to 1x served b y bus.
U nder th e G u ide lin es, t hl'
:l rC:l wo uld th erefore be

d es ignated ;1<; a low dn /Sity

Ct' lltre. T he cxtcnt of the
arC,l is abollt twelve
h ec tare s, an d is .. hawn
011 t h l' drawing.

Whot is the T he "targe t" babncc se t Bccause th i~ reu rbani sa­ (e.g. a po tential h igh densi­

o u t in th e Gu idl:l inc'\ is 1.5 tion a rca wi ll act as a local ty ce nt rc at a proposed

pe rso ns pe r job. Tilt.: ex ist­ or ne igh bo urh ood ce ntre. new GO station in the

mix of uses? in g mix of r cs i dc nt~ :lIld it is not n cces~ary (0 loo k ThoTllcJ ifTe Park area). thi s

jobs within an area of at the ex istin g mix of resi­ loca l cc nt re cou ld suppo rt a

rou gh ly o ne kiloll!et rc dents and jobs over it large r high reside ntial c ompo ­

r:tdiu s fro m the cc nt re wa ~ ba lan cc zon e as a bas is fo r n e nt , reprcse nt cd by the : .-,


1.2 rcside l1Cs per job.

determ ining the desi rable u ppe r L'nd o f the parallle ­

Comparing to the b alan ce balancc in th e reurbani sa­ ters, say 4 resident<; per job.

"ta rget" , th e area ha<; too tion area. K eu rba nis;ttion shou ld
much em pl oyment and too The Gu id el in es fu rther also Jttel1lpt to improve
littl e res idc n tia l usc . T his sugge st that the ult imate up on th e existing mix and
h igh a mount of emp lo y­ ba la nce in loca l ce ntres typc., of hou.,ing units
m e n t reflects th e fac t the should be based o n loc al Jvailabh: wi thin thc local
industrial area Jlo ng Laird co nditions. ;wd will lik cl y ;lrea. At pr ese n t, th t.: \oc:l1 •
is includ e d in th c b;li:ln cc have th e le:lst em ph;lsis o n area of Leasid c is :I n inn e r
ZO Il (' for which exist in g cillploymellt of all n.: urban ­ M e tro suburb of sin gle
balallcc is lI1 casll rL'd. isatioll areas. fllnily , semi-detached and
In order to at least pre­ G iv en th e res ide nti;:d lo w- rise apart m e nr
se rve the existing level o f con tex t o f th e ce n tre, its dw ell in gs. R e u rba nisati on
balau cc J lld not ...,v arse n it, small sizL', tht.: existing reb­ cou ld div e rsify this inv ell­
the mix in th e re-urba nisation tiv e und crsupply of res i­ tory to in cl ude townhous­
area should at .1 minimulll denti al, and parti c ula rl y , es, stac ked lOW llh o ti scs,
n.:pre~en t th c existin g level the good supply of e xis ting and addi t iona l low- ri sc
ofbal:mcc. i. e. a minimum and futurc j obs in the a rca 3partl11 Cncs of variom sizcs
of 1.2 resi dent<; per job . and tellure.


App\YlIlg Ih(.· Clll dd Il H.'\ 63

What is the The gross fcurbanisation of the tot,d ll ullIber of re.. i­ id c ll l<; per worker , t hi ~
clt'mlry recommended fo r dents and jobs that th e ce ll ­ tramlates 111[0 1-10 re<;i dcllts
low density cel1tres is 125 tre wou ld event uall y Pl'T hectare alld 35 worke rs
density level? to 175 resIde n ts :lI1d work­ acco J1lm odat(' . Assu mi ng per hec ta re . Ova till' to tal
er., per hectare . We can the 11Igh c.:r end of the de n­ are a of the C('ntre. :,bom 12
multiply lh ese per hcctart' ~ity range. 175 reside ll ts h lTU rl''i. th iS f(' presents .1
dc nsltic~ by t he overa ll a rC:l and workers per hec tare, lotal reside nt popui:t tioll of
of the centre to gee an Idea and :l balall ce ratio of 4 res­ 1,6 HO per<;o ll s and 420 Jo b <;.

Urban Design plan T ilt.' intersection of Laird

:\Ild Millwood represents a
potential fou r corne r fe- ur­
banisation area th at could
add to the cx ]':>ting higher ,

density and mixed lise zo ne

th at already exists along
Mill wood Avenue. A sma ll
section of mixed lISC exists
cu rrentl y .llang the
M ill wood fro ntage at the
Wt'S[ c ll d of the arc.) .
T hc intersection of L:t.lrd Millwo orl ,,
and Millwo od i~ sh own Ave. for
With mi xed u<;c comrncr­ proj ect" with
ciallrcsidL'lltiaI build inb"'" gro u nd floor retai l
An officcli ndustrial project and rc~ i de nti :d :Ibove,
is ~ h own at the extreme or for sole ly n:.. idc lltla l
!lorth cast block of the site . b uil din gs. Th e ex isting
Sill:".! I site.. for individ ual Po<;( Office :l nd comm un ity
buildin g.:; cou ld be found ce nt re arc reta in ed :1nd throtl gh adaptati o ns to the
along the length of I na(h.~ mon.: proTllin en t public rca lm .

The Public Realm T ill.' Guidelines suggest that tion of park space bring dlC four corner oevclop ll H.: nt
at a nll1l1111Um, the public roral share of the area of thc sc heme. Additiona l ') In.:ets
reall1l III ce ntres should rep­ centre devoted to th e public we re ad ded 10 p rov Ide for
resent 3()o1o of the to[31 area realm li p to 35%. T hi s front d oo r ,,,Jdre'ls, an d
of the reurbanisati o l1 are,l . III :tdjU'itment IS more :l prod­ lan es we n: ;ld,kd to allow
the Mlllwoood/Laird local uct of tile speCIfic respO Tl <;c for ofT st reet <;erv lclIl g.
centre, there is a substantial than a req uirement for The existing pa rk ing lot .It
existing public re~d m of :lddi tl o ll:l1 public space III the ;lfel1<\ and (OIll IIlUlll ty
street... Some adjustments to thi<; area. An ope n grid centre wa<; rC lI'ied for .1
the street pattcrn and addl­ street syste m is currently in mixed m e b\l ild lll g .tnd J
place throughout th i') gree n pllbl i(; ope n <;1',I(C.
ne Ighbourhood. T he street
system is accessibk to
buses, which rlln through
the area to the St. Clai r,
Eglinton . Pape, Uro.llivie w
and Doniamh <;ubway sta­
" tIons. Some adjllstlllenc 1<;
required to make the inter­
Ijt' road system seCtio n more functio nal
.'t".j transit system ~nd to crcatc a new block
I system more suitable to th(.'


Site-Spedic Densities The Guidelines suggest that within lh(' centre. The arca te n t wi th till' llL'ighbour­ •
site specifi c densiti es in th e is gC l1er:tlly com posed of hood. At J lo c:l I level rile
cen tre sho uld ran ge fro III small !and holdi ngs. As a site must bl' rcv il'\~'l' d to
2X to 3X nct fsi. The f~i rcsult Illost of the exist ing cst:lbl i~h glliciclilll:S 011 till..'
densities arc applied to th e buildin gs arc sma ll scale . «ize of rcdc vclopnll.:ll t ~ i tes
net developlIlent parcels, Indeed som e o f the re ce nt alld th e Ili ax illlll lli sizl.: of
once the public rea lm has rcurbanisati on proj ects arc single b llildin gs inrrod\1 c\.'d
been deterlllined. T he rcspomt:s to small propcr­ in to till' nrighbollrhoo d.
drawing shows the devt:l­ ti t:s. This eyp t: of sillallcr
o large sites opml! nt parcch thJ.t would ~cJlc property owner ~ hip
o small single logica lly be avaibblc ove r will help to keep the scale
building sites
time for redeve lopmen t of redt:vclopmcllf con~is-
The Pedestrian The pedestrian environ­ rioll and Jloll g Millwood ellv irOIlIlll'tlt lIlore ill
Environment ment in the lo cal JfC;'\ i~ of Avenue would provide J k<,'cping with the hi g hly
a hi gh quality, with a com­ higher quality o f pcd es triall trn·d LeJ~id e CO llllllllllily.
pl ete ly int<.:rcollncctcd
street syste m :md full sidc­
w:dks. Gaps in rhe ground
floor retail cou ld be filled
in by new project'" Many
of rhe existing su rface
parking lots afC th e rede­
ve lopme nt sites and these
wi ll be removed in [he
future by new projL'ns.
improving animation at
strect level. Several new
rear lanes arc proposed to
o rganize access (0 under­
ground parking and snv ic­
in g. This ~ h ou ld help to
enhance the quality of the
pedeslrian l'llv ironrncnt.
Strect tree pbnting: alon g
the «ide walks :1 t th e
Millwood/Laird in tersec-

Fit and Transition Existing building heights the heads of the rcsidcT1ti:ti
, 'I
fall in a range from two to blocks. Thl..' ex istin g Pmt , '.
fiV l' storics. Thc rl'urbani­ O ffic e and (v.,tO to fiv e
satioll schelile works with storey stre et retail and ..
), ,
1 ' . l'

' " .. .
I I 'I

r', I

this range placing buildings residellti.ll buildin gs arc

in the 5 to 6 storey range left in pbcc..:.
at the intersection and at


Parking Dut.: to the reasonably high placed ullderground . St rl'et

densities and high parcel p:lrking :lIang Mil lwood
covnagt.: of thl' new build­ and the sid e strl'ets call aha
ings shown, parking is be cncollrJgcd.