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1. Mild steel specimen

2. Cast iron specimen.

Objective:

To study the shear stress ~ shear strain behavior of the material.

To study the failure pattern of these materials in torsion.

To determine the mechanical properties, e.g. Modulus of elasticity, Modulus of

rigidity, Shear strength, shear strain and ductility in torsion.

Apparatus:

10 Ton Buckton Universal Testing Machine

Vernier caliper

Steel measuring scale

Related Theory:

1. Torque:

Twisting effect of couple or force is called as torque. It is denoted by double

head arrow.

2. Torsion:

Torque applied in a plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of a member

is called as torsion.

3. Difference between Torque and Moment:

4. Twisting Moment:

It is the summation of torque either left or right of the section.

5. Bending Theory:

1

6. Torsion Theory:

Assumptions:

i. Material is homogenous.

ii. Circular section remains circular and do not warp.

iii. A plane section of a material perpendicular to its longitudinal axis remain plane

and do not warp after the torque is applied.

iv. Shaft is loaded by a couple or torque in a plane perpendicular to the longitudinal

axis of the plane.

v. Shear stress is proportional to shear strain, it means that Hook’s Law is applicable.

vi. In circular shafts subjected to torque shearing strain varies linearly.

Where,

t: Shearing stress in MPa

r: Radius of the shaft in mm.

T: Twisting moment.

J: Polar moment of inertia.

G: Modulus of rigidity.

θ: Angle of twist.

L: Length of the specimen / Shaft

7. Polar moment of inertia:

The geometric rigidity of the X-sec is termed as polar moment of inertia. It is

the resistance against twisting, summation of 2 moment of area about x-axis.

Circular Section:

"When material is subjected to pure twist loading, the slope of shear stress verses

shear strain curve is termed as modulus of rigidity (modulus of elasticity in shear,

torsional rigidity).

2

9. Poison’s Ratio:

The ratio of lateral strain to longitudinal strain when material is subjected to

axial loading and always less than 1.

10. Relation between yield strength in tension to torsion for mild steel:

The relationship between yield stress in simple tension and that in pure shear

can be found from VON MISES for a yield criteria.

It is the ultimate strength of a material subjected to a torsional loading.

It is maximum torsional stress that a material sustains before rupture.

It is similar to the tensile strength.

Angular displacement of specimen

caused by specified torque in torsion

test. It is equal to angle of twist in radians divided by gauge length or effective

length.

13. Torsional Strain, y:

Strain corresponding to specified torque in torsion test. It is equal to torsional

deformation multiplied by the radius of the shaft. Its units are radians.

3

Shear stress developed in a material subjected to a specified torque in torsion

test for a circular shaft. It can be calculated using the expression.

15. Expected failure for Mild Steel and Cast-Iron Specimens and reasoning:

Fracture in torsion for ductile materials generally occur in the plane of

maximum shear stress perpendicular to the axis of bar where as for the brittle

material failure occurs along 45° Hilux to the axis of bar due to tensile stress

across that plane.

Procedure:

Note down the dimension of the specimen

o Total length of sample

o Effective length of sample

o Diameter of sample

o Shape of sample

Fix the specimen in 10-Ton Buckton Universal testing machine

Rotate the handle counter clock wise by desired number of degrees

Complete cycle of the machine handle in counter clock wise direction will import 4o

rotation to sample

Repeat the procedure at regular interval of twist till failure occurs

4

Examine the failure pattern of specimen and draw the sketches

Mild Cast

Sample Name Units

Steel Iron

Total Length cm 21.3 20.9

Effective Length cm 14.05 13.95

Dia. of Specimen mm 17.6 17.65

Lever arm mm 50.8 50.8

Shear Shearing

Twisting

Sr Angle of twist Load Stress Strain Remarks

Moment

# t = 16T/πd3 ϒ = (θ/G.L)r

Degree Radian Ton N N-mm N/mm2 Radian

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

2 1 0.017444 0.105 1030.05 52326.54 48.87624321 0.000720709

3 2 0.034889 0.17 1667.7 84719.16 79.1329652 0.001441419

4 3 0.052333 0.24 2354.4 119603.52 111.7171273 0.002162128

Linear

5 4 0.069778 0.31 3041.1 154487.88 144.3012895 0.002882838

Region

6 5 0.087222 0.395 3874.95 196847.46 183.8677721 0.003603547

7 6 0.104667 0.465 4561.65 231731.82 216.4519342 0.004324257

8 7 0.122111 0.545 5346.45 271599.66 253.6909767 0.005044966

9 8 0.139556 0.61 5984.1 303992.28 283.9476987 0.005765676

Proportional

10 9 0.157 0.67 6572.7 333893.16 311.8769805 0.006486385

Limit

11 10 0.174444 0.705 6916.05 351335.34 328.1690616 0.007207094

12 11 0.191889 0.735 7210.35 366285.78 342.1337025 0.007927804

13 12 0.209333 0.765 7504.65 381236.22 356.0983434 0.008648513

14 13 0.226778 0.78 7651.8 388711.44 363.0806639 0.009369223

Elastic

15 14 0.244222 0.8 7848 398678.4 372.3904245 0.010089932

Region

16 15 0.261667 0.825 8093.25 411137.1 384.0276253 0.010810642

17 16 0.279111 0.83 8142.3 413628.84 386.3550654 0.011531351

18 17 0.296556 0.85 8338.5 423595.8 395.664826 0.012252061

19 18 0.314 0.855 8387.55 426087.54 397.9922662 0.01297277

20 19 0.331444 0.87 8534.7 433562.76 404.9745866 0.013693479 Elastic limit

21 20 0.348889 0.89 8730.9 443529.72 414.2843472 0.014414189

22 21 0.366333 0.89 8730.9 443529.72 414.2843472 0.015134898

23 22 0.383778 0.89 8730.9 443529.72 414.2843472 0.015855608

Yielding

24 23 0.401222 0.89 8730.9 443529.72 414.2843472 0.016576317

25 24 0.418667 0.89 8730.9 443529.72 414.2843472 0.017297027

26 25 0.436111 0.89 8730.9 443529.72 414.2843472 0.018017736

27 26 0.453556 0.94 9221.4 468447.12 437.5587488 0.018738445 Plastic

5

28 30 0.523333 0.96 9417.6 478414.08 446.8685094 0.021621283 Zone

29 34 0.593111 0.98 9613.8 488381.04 456.17827 0.024504121

31 42 0.732667 1 9810 498348 465.4880306 0.030269797

32 50 0.872222 1.03 10104.3 513298.44 479.4526715 0.036035472

33 60 1.046667 1.06 10398.6 528248.88 493.4173124 0.043242567

34 70 1.221111 1.06 10398.6 528248.88 493.4173124 0.050449661

35 80 1.395556 1.08 10594.8 538215.84 502.7270731 0.057656755 Plastic

36 100 1.744444 1.1 10791 548182.8 512.0368337 0.072070944 Zone

37 120 2.093333 1.125 11036.3 560641.5 523.6740344 0.086485133

38 160 2.791111 1.15 11281.5 573100.2 535.3112352 0.115313511

39 200 3.488889 1.16 11379.6 578083.68 539.9661155 0.144141888

40 240 4.186667 1.17 11477.7 583067.16 544.6209958 0.172970266

41 300 5.233333 1.19 11673.9 593034.12 553.9307564 0.216212833

42 317 5.529889 1.2 11772 598017.6 558.5856367 0.228464893 Failure

600

500

400

Shear Stress (MPa)

300

200

100

0

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25

6 Strain

Shear

2. Table of calculations for Cast Iron:

Shear Shearing

Twisting

Sr Angle of twist Load Stress Strain

Moment Remarks

# t = 16T/πd3 ϒ = (θ/G.L)r

Degree Radian Ton N N-mm N/mm2 Radian

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Proportional

2 1 0.017444 0.05 490.5 24917.4 23.07716189 0.00073659

Region

3 2 0.034889 0.1 981 49834.8 46.15432379 0.001473179

Proportional

4 3 0.052333 0.145 1422.45 72260.46 66.92376949 0.002209769

Limit

5 4 0.069778 0.21 2060.1 104653.08 96.92407995 0.002946358

6 5 0.087222 0.28 2746.8 139537.44 129.2321066 0.003682948

7 6 0.104667 0.335 3286.35 166946.58 154.6169847 0.004419537

8 7 0.122111 0.385 3776.85 191863.98 177.6941466 0.005156127

9 8 0.139556 0.42 4120.2 209306.16 193.8481599 0.005892717

Plastic zone

10 10 0.174444 0.47 4610.7 234223.56 216.9253218 0.007365896

11 12 0.209333 0.5 4905 249174 230.7716189 0.008839075

12 14 0.244222 0.53 5199.3 264124.44 244.6179161 0.010312254

13 16 0.279111 0.55 5395.5 274091.4 253.8487808 0.011785433

14 18 0.314 0.57 5591.7 284058.36 263.0796456 0.013258612

15 20 0.348889 0.6 5886 299008.8 276.9259427 0.014731792 Failure

300

250

Shear Stress (MPa)

200

150

100

50

0

0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016

Shear Strain

7

Comparison Table:

Material

Sr. Mild Steel Cast Iron

Properties Units

# Standard Standard

Exp. Value Exp. Value

Value Value

Torque at proportional 333893.2 72260.46

1 N-mm - -

limit

No. of complete degrees

2 Degree - 317 - 20

at failure

Shear Stress at 66.92376949

3 proportional MPa - 311.876981 -

limit

4 Shear Modulus GPa 75 67.817 41 30.390

0.75xUTS 558.585637 1.3xUTS

5 Shear Stress at rupture MPa 276.9259427

=450 =302

80

70

y = 30390x + 0.4615

60

Shear Stress (MPa)

50 y = 67817x

Cast Iron

40

Mild Steel

30

Linear (Cast Iron)

20

Linear (Mild Steel)

10

0

0 0.0005 0.001 0.0015 0.002 0.0025

Shear Strain

8

Shear stress ~ Shear Strain for mild steel

Mild Steel Cast Iron

600

500

400

Shear Stress (MPa)

300

200

100

0

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25

Shear Strain

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