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Job # 5

To Perform Torsion Test on


1. Mild steel specimen
2. Cast iron specimen.

Objective:
 To study the shear stress ~ shear strain behavior of the material.
 To study the failure pattern of these materials in torsion.
 To determine the mechanical properties, e.g. Modulus of elasticity, Modulus of
rigidity, Shear strength, shear strain and ductility in torsion.
Apparatus:
 10 Ton Buckton Universal Testing Machine
 Vernier caliper
 Steel measuring scale
Related Theory:
1. Torque:
Twisting effect of couple or force is called as torque. It is denoted by double
head arrow.
2. Torsion:
Torque applied in a plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of a member
is called as torsion.
3. Difference between Torque and Moment:

4. Twisting Moment:
It is the summation of torque either left or right of the section.
5. Bending Theory:

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6. Torsion Theory:
Assumptions:
i. Material is homogenous.
ii. Circular section remains circular and do not warp.
iii. A plane section of a material perpendicular to its longitudinal axis remain plane
and do not warp after the torque is applied.
iv. Shaft is loaded by a couple or torque in a plane perpendicular to the longitudinal
axis of the plane.
v. Shear stress is proportional to shear strain, it means that Hook’s Law is applicable.
vi. In circular shafts subjected to torque shearing strain varies linearly.

Where,
t: Shearing stress in MPa
r: Radius of the shaft in mm.
T: Twisting moment.
J: Polar moment of inertia.
G: Modulus of rigidity.
θ: Angle of twist.
L: Length of the specimen / Shaft
7. Polar moment of inertia:
The geometric rigidity of the X-sec is termed as polar moment of inertia. It is
the resistance against twisting, summation of 2 moment of area about x-axis.
Circular Section:

8. For Hollow Shaft:

 Torsional Rigidity / Modulus of Rigidity / Modulus of Elasticity in Shear:


"When material is subjected to pure twist loading, the slope of shear stress verses
shear strain curve is termed as modulus of rigidity (modulus of elasticity in shear,
torsional rigidity).
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9. Poison’s Ratio:
The ratio of lateral strain to longitudinal strain when material is subjected to
axial loading and always less than 1.

10. Relation between yield strength in tension to torsion for mild steel:
The relationship between yield stress in simple tension and that in pure shear
can be found from VON MISES for a yield criteria.

11. Torsional Strength:


 It is the ultimate strength of a material subjected to a torsional loading.
 It is maximum torsional stress that a material sustains before rupture.
 It is similar to the tensile strength.

12. Torsional Deformation:


Angular displacement of specimen
caused by specified torque in torsion
test. It is equal to angle of twist in radians divided by gauge length or effective
length.
13. Torsional Strain, y:
Strain corresponding to specified torque in torsion test. It is equal to torsional
deformation multiplied by the radius of the shaft. Its units are radians.

14. Torsional Stress, T:

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Shear stress developed in a material subjected to a specified torque in torsion
test for a circular shaft. It can be calculated using the expression.

15. Expected failure for Mild Steel and Cast-Iron Specimens and reasoning:
Fracture in torsion for ductile materials generally occur in the plane of
maximum shear stress perpendicular to the axis of bar where as for the brittle
material failure occurs along 45° Hilux to the axis of bar due to tensile stress
across that plane.

Mild Steel Cast Iron

Procedure:
 Note down the dimension of the specimen
o Total length of sample
o Effective length of sample
o Diameter of sample
o Shape of sample
 Fix the specimen in 10-Ton Buckton Universal testing machine
 Rotate the handle counter clock wise by desired number of degrees
 Complete cycle of the machine handle in counter clock wise direction will import 4o
rotation to sample
 Repeat the procedure at regular interval of twist till failure occurs

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 Examine the failure pattern of specimen and draw the sketches

Observations and Calculations:

Mild Cast
Sample Name Units
Steel Iron
Total Length cm 21.3 20.9
Effective Length cm 14.05 13.95
Dia. of Specimen mm 17.6 17.65
Lever arm mm 50.8 50.8

1. Table of calculations for Mild Steel:

Shear Shearing
Twisting
Sr Angle of twist Load Stress Strain Remarks
Moment
# t = 16T/πd3 ϒ = (θ/G.L)r
Degree Radian Ton N N-mm N/mm2 Radian
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2 1 0.017444 0.105 1030.05 52326.54 48.87624321 0.000720709
3 2 0.034889 0.17 1667.7 84719.16 79.1329652 0.001441419
4 3 0.052333 0.24 2354.4 119603.52 111.7171273 0.002162128
Linear
5 4 0.069778 0.31 3041.1 154487.88 144.3012895 0.002882838
Region
6 5 0.087222 0.395 3874.95 196847.46 183.8677721 0.003603547
7 6 0.104667 0.465 4561.65 231731.82 216.4519342 0.004324257
8 7 0.122111 0.545 5346.45 271599.66 253.6909767 0.005044966
9 8 0.139556 0.61 5984.1 303992.28 283.9476987 0.005765676
Proportional
10 9 0.157 0.67 6572.7 333893.16 311.8769805 0.006486385
Limit
11 10 0.174444 0.705 6916.05 351335.34 328.1690616 0.007207094
12 11 0.191889 0.735 7210.35 366285.78 342.1337025 0.007927804
13 12 0.209333 0.765 7504.65 381236.22 356.0983434 0.008648513
14 13 0.226778 0.78 7651.8 388711.44 363.0806639 0.009369223
Elastic
15 14 0.244222 0.8 7848 398678.4 372.3904245 0.010089932
Region
16 15 0.261667 0.825 8093.25 411137.1 384.0276253 0.010810642
17 16 0.279111 0.83 8142.3 413628.84 386.3550654 0.011531351
18 17 0.296556 0.85 8338.5 423595.8 395.664826 0.012252061
19 18 0.314 0.855 8387.55 426087.54 397.9922662 0.01297277
20 19 0.331444 0.87 8534.7 433562.76 404.9745866 0.013693479 Elastic limit
21 20 0.348889 0.89 8730.9 443529.72 414.2843472 0.014414189
22 21 0.366333 0.89 8730.9 443529.72 414.2843472 0.015134898
23 22 0.383778 0.89 8730.9 443529.72 414.2843472 0.015855608
Yielding
24 23 0.401222 0.89 8730.9 443529.72 414.2843472 0.016576317
25 24 0.418667 0.89 8730.9 443529.72 414.2843472 0.017297027
26 25 0.436111 0.89 8730.9 443529.72 414.2843472 0.018017736
27 26 0.453556 0.94 9221.4 468447.12 437.5587488 0.018738445 Plastic
5
28 30 0.523333 0.96 9417.6 478414.08 446.8685094 0.021621283 Zone
29 34 0.593111 0.98 9613.8 488381.04 456.17827 0.024504121

30 38 0.662889 0.99 9711.9 493364.52 460.8331503 0.027386959


31 42 0.732667 1 9810 498348 465.4880306 0.030269797
32 50 0.872222 1.03 10104.3 513298.44 479.4526715 0.036035472
33 60 1.046667 1.06 10398.6 528248.88 493.4173124 0.043242567
34 70 1.221111 1.06 10398.6 528248.88 493.4173124 0.050449661
35 80 1.395556 1.08 10594.8 538215.84 502.7270731 0.057656755 Plastic
36 100 1.744444 1.1 10791 548182.8 512.0368337 0.072070944 Zone
37 120 2.093333 1.125 11036.3 560641.5 523.6740344 0.086485133
38 160 2.791111 1.15 11281.5 573100.2 535.3112352 0.115313511
39 200 3.488889 1.16 11379.6 578083.68 539.9661155 0.144141888
40 240 4.186667 1.17 11477.7 583067.16 544.6209958 0.172970266
41 300 5.233333 1.19 11673.9 593034.12 553.9307564 0.216212833
42 317 5.529889 1.2 11772 598017.6 558.5856367 0.228464893 Failure

Shear stress ~ Shear Strain for mild steel


600

500

400
Shear Stress (MPa)

300

200

100

0
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25
6 Strain
Shear
2. Table of calculations for Cast Iron:

Shear Shearing
Twisting
Sr Angle of twist Load Stress Strain
Moment Remarks
# t = 16T/πd3 ϒ = (θ/G.L)r
Degree Radian Ton N N-mm N/mm2 Radian
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Proportional
2 1 0.017444 0.05 490.5 24917.4 23.07716189 0.00073659
Region
3 2 0.034889 0.1 981 49834.8 46.15432379 0.001473179
Proportional
4 3 0.052333 0.145 1422.45 72260.46 66.92376949 0.002209769
Limit
5 4 0.069778 0.21 2060.1 104653.08 96.92407995 0.002946358
6 5 0.087222 0.28 2746.8 139537.44 129.2321066 0.003682948
7 6 0.104667 0.335 3286.35 166946.58 154.6169847 0.004419537
8 7 0.122111 0.385 3776.85 191863.98 177.6941466 0.005156127
9 8 0.139556 0.42 4120.2 209306.16 193.8481599 0.005892717
Plastic zone
10 10 0.174444 0.47 4610.7 234223.56 216.9253218 0.007365896
11 12 0.209333 0.5 4905 249174 230.7716189 0.008839075
12 14 0.244222 0.53 5199.3 264124.44 244.6179161 0.010312254
13 16 0.279111 0.55 5395.5 274091.4 253.8487808 0.011785433
14 18 0.314 0.57 5591.7 284058.36 263.0796456 0.013258612
15 20 0.348889 0.6 5886 299008.8 276.9259427 0.014731792 Failure

Shear stress ~ Shear Strain for Cast Iron


300

250
Shear Stress (MPa)

200

150

100

50

0
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016
Shear Strain

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Comparison Table:
Material
Sr. Mild Steel Cast Iron
Properties Units
# Standard Standard
Exp. Value Exp. Value
Value Value
Torque at proportional 333893.2 72260.46
1 N-mm - -
limit
No. of complete degrees
2 Degree - 317 - 20
at failure
Shear Stress at 66.92376949
3 proportional MPa - 311.876981 -
limit
4 Shear Modulus GPa 75 67.817 41 30.390
0.75xUTS 558.585637 1.3xUTS
5 Shear Stress at rupture MPa 276.9259427
=450 =302

Stress ~ Strain Curve


80
70
y = 30390x + 0.4615
60
Shear Stress (MPa)

50 y = 67817x
Cast Iron
40
Mild Steel
30
Linear (Cast Iron)
20
Linear (Mild Steel)
10
0
0 0.0005 0.001 0.0015 0.002 0.0025
Shear Strain

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Shear stress ~ Shear Strain for mild steel
Mild Steel Cast Iron
600

500

400
Shear Stress (MPa)

300

200

100

0
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25
Shear Strain