You are on page 1of 113

Airman Knowledge Testing

Supplement for Sport Pilot,


Recreational Pilot, Remote
Pilot, and Private Pilot

2018

U.S. Department of Transportation


FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION
Flight Standards Service
ii
Preface
This testing supplement supersedes FAA-CT-8080-2G, Airman Knowledge Testing Supplement for Sport Pilot, Recreational
Pilot, and Private Pilot, dated 2016.

This Airman Knowledge Testing Supplement is designed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Flight Standards
Service. It is intended for use by Airman Knowledge Testing (AKT) Organization Designation Authorization (ODA)
Holders and other entities approved and/or authorized to administer airman knowledge tests on behalf of the FAA in the
following knowledge areas:

Sport Pilot–Airplane (ASEL and ASES)


Sport Pilot–Gyroplane
Sport Pilot–Glider
Sport Pilot–Airship (LTA)
Sport Pilot–Balloon (LTA)
Sport Pilot–Weight-Shift Control (WSCS and WSCL)
Sport Pilot–Powered Parachute (PPL and PPS)
Recreational Pilot–Airplane (RPA)
Recreational Pilot–Rotorcraft/Helicopter (RPH)
Recreational Pilot–Rotorcraft/Gyroplane (RPG)
Private Pilot–Airplane/Recreational Pilot–Transition (PAT)
Private Pilot–Helicopter/Recreational Pilot–Transition (PHT)
Private Pilot–Gyroplane/Recreational Pilot–Transition (POT)
Private Pilot–Airplane (PAR)
Private Pilot–Rotorcraft/Helicopter (PRH)
Private Pilot–Rotorcraft/Gyroplane (PRO)
Private Pilot–Glider (POL)
Private Pilot–Free Balloon–Hot Air (PBH)
Private Pilot–Free Balloon–Gas (PBG)
Private Pilot–Lighter-Than-Air–Airship (PLA)
Private Pilot–Powered-Parachute (PPP)
Private Pilot–Weight-shift Control (PWS)
Unmanned Aircraft General–Small (UAG)

Comments regarding this supplement, or any Airman Testing publication, should be emailed to AFS630comments@faa.gov.

iii
iv
Contents
Preface.............................................................................................................................................................. iii
Contents............................................................................................................................................................. v

Appendix 1
Legend 1. Sectional Aeronautical Chart..............................................................................................................................1-1
Legend 2. Chart Supplement..............................................................................................................................................1-2
Legend 3. Chart Supplement..............................................................................................................................................1-3
Legend 4. Chart Supplement..............................................................................................................................................1-4
Legend 5. Chart Supplement..............................................................................................................................................1-5
Legend 6. Chart Supplement..............................................................................................................................................1-6
Legend 7. Chart Supplement..............................................................................................................................................1-7
Legend 8. Chart Supplement..............................................................................................................................................1-8
Legend 9. Chart Supplement..............................................................................................................................................1-9
Legend 10. Chart Supplement..........................................................................................................................................1-10
Legend 11. Chart Supplement...........................................................................................................................................1-11
Legend 12. Chart Supplement..........................................................................................................................................1-12
Legend 13. Chart Supplement..........................................................................................................................................1-13
Legend 14. Chart Supplement..........................................................................................................................................1-14
Legend 15. Chart Supplement..........................................................................................................................................1-15
Legend 16. Chart Supplement..........................................................................................................................................1-16
Legend 17. Chart Supplement..........................................................................................................................................1-17
Legend 18. Chart Supplement..........................................................................................................................................1-18
Legend 19. Chart Supplement..........................................................................................................................................1-19

Appendix 2
Figure 1. Lift Vector.............................................................................................................................................................2-1
Figure 2. Load Factor Chart................................................................................................................................................2-2
Figure 3. Altimeter...............................................................................................................................................................2-3
Figure 4. Airspeed Indicator.................................................................................................................................................2-4
Figure 5. Turn Coordinator..................................................................................................................................................2-5
Figure 6. Heading Indicator.................................................................................................................................................2-6
Figure 7. Attitude Indicator...................................................................................................................................................2-7
Figure 8. Density Altitude Chart...........................................................................................................................................2-8
Figure 9. Control Position for Taxi.......................................................................................................................................2-9
Figure 10. Gyroplane Rotor Blade Position.......................................................................................................................2-10
Figure 11. Glider Yaw String..............................................................................................................................................2-11
Figure 12. Aviation Routine Weather Reports (METAR)...................................................................................................2-12
Figure 13. Telephone Weather Briefing.............................................................................................................................2-13
Figure 14. Pilot Weather Report........................................................................................................................................2-14
Figure 15. Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts (TAF)..............................................................................................................2-15
Figure 17. Winds and Temperatures Aloft Forecast..........................................................................................................2-16
Figure 18. Weather Depiction Chart..................................................................................................................................2-17
Figure 19. Low-Level Significant Weather (SIGWX) Prognostic Charts............................................................................2-18
Figure 20. Sectional Chart Excerpt. .................................................................................................................................2-19
Figure 21. Sectional Chart Excerpt. .................................................................................................................................2-20
Figure 22. Sectional Chart Excerpt. .................................................................................................................................2-21

v
Figure 23. Sectional Chart Excerpt. .................................................................................................................................2-22
Figure 24. Sectional Chart Excerpt. .................................................................................................................................2-23
Figure 25. Sectional Chart Excerpt. .................................................................................................................................2-24
Figure 26. Sectional Chart Excerpt. .................................................................................................................................2-25
Figure 27. Time Conversion Table.....................................................................................................................................2-26
Figure 28. VOR.................................................................................................................................................................2-27
Figure 31. Chart Supplement............................................................................................................................................2-28
Figure 32. Airplane Weight and Balance Tables................................................................................................................2-29
Figure 33. Airplane Weight and Balance Tables................................................................................................................2-30
Figure 34. Airplane Weight and Balance Graphs..............................................................................................................2-31
Figure 35. Airplane Power Setting Table...........................................................................................................................2-32
Figure 36. Crosswind Component Graph..........................................................................................................................2-33
Figure 37. Airplane Landing Distance Graph....................................................................................................................2-34
Figure 38. Airplane Landing Distance Table......................................................................................................................2-35
Figure 39. Gyroplane Takeoff and Landing Graphs...........................................................................................................2-36
Figure 40. Airplane Takeoff Distance Graph......................................................................................................................2-37
Figure 41. Helicopter Weight and Balance Graph.............................................................................................................2-38
Figure 42. Helicopter Weight and Balance Graphs...........................................................................................................2-39
Figure 43. Helicopter CG Envelopes.................................................................................................................................2-40
Figure 44. Gyroplane Weight and Balance Graph.............................................................................................................2-41
Figure 45. Gyroplane Weight and Balance Graph. ...........................................................................................................2-42
Figure 46. Helicopter Height Velocity Diagram..................................................................................................................2-43
Figure 47. VASI Illustrations..............................................................................................................................................2-44
Figure 48. Airport Diagram................................................................................................................................................2-45
Figure 49. Airport Diagram................................................................................................................................................2-46
Figure 50. Wind Sock Airport Landing Indicator................................................................................................................2-47
Figure 51. Flight Plan Form...............................................................................................................................................2-48
Figure 52. Chart Supplement............................................................................................................................................2-49
Figure 53. Glider Weight and Balance Diagram................................................................................................................2-50
Figure 54. Glider Performance Graph...............................................................................................................................2-51
Figure 56. Hot Air Balloon Performance Graph.................................................................................................................2-53
Figure 57. Hot Air Balloon Performance Graph.................................................................................................................2-54
Figure 58. Compass Card.................................................................................................................................................2-55
Figure 59. Sectional Chart Excerpt...................................................................................................................................2-56
Figure 60. Weight and Balance Diagram...........................................................................................................................2-57
Figure 61. Weight and Balance Diagram...........................................................................................................................2-58
Figure 62. Rectangular Course.........................................................................................................................................2-59
Figure 63. Chart Supplement............................................................................................................................................2-60
Figure 64. Airport Markings...............................................................................................................................................2-61
Figure 65. U.S. Airport Signs.............................................................................................................................................2-62
Figure 66. S-Turn Diagram................................................................................................................................................2-63
Figure 67. Weight and Balance Chart...............................................................................................................................2-64
Figure 68. Wind Triangle...................................................................................................................................................2-65
Figure 69. Sectional Chart Excerpt...................................................................................................................................2-66
Figure 70. Sectional Chart Excerpt...................................................................................................................................2-67
Figure 71. Sectional Chart Excerpt...................................................................................................................................2-68
Figure 72. Velocity vs. G-Loads........................................................................................................................................2-69
Figure 73. Glider Hand Signals.........................................................................................................................................2-70
Figure 74. Sectional Chart Excerpt...................................................................................................................................2-71
Figure 75. Sectional Chart Excerpt...................................................................................................................................2-72
Figure 76. Sectional Chart Excerpt...................................................................................................................................2-73

vi
Figure 77. Chart Supplement............................................................................................................................................2-74
Figure 78. Sectional Chart Excerpt...................................................................................................................................2-75
Figure 79. Chart Supplement............................................................................................................................................2-76
Figure 80. Sectional Chart Excerpt...................................................................................................................................2-77
Figure 81. Chart Supplement............................................................................................................................................2-78
Figure 82. Altimeter...........................................................................................................................................................2-79

vii
viii
Appendix 1
SECTIONAL AERONAUTICAL CHART
SCALE 1:500,000
LEGEND Airports having control towers are shown in blue, all others in magenta. Consult Chart Supplement for details involving airport lighting, navigation aids, and services. For additional symbol information refer to the Chart User’s Guide.

AIRPORTS AIRPORT DATA AIRPORT TRAFFIC SERVICE AND AIRSPACE INFORMATION TOPOGRAPHIC INFORMATION
Prohibited, Restricted,
and Warning Areas; 95
Box indicators FAR 93 Only the controlled and reserved airspace Roads &
Other than hard-surfaced runways Seaplane Base FAR 91 Canadian Advisory, 40
Special Air Traffic FSS Location effective below 18,000 ft. MSL are shown Road Markers
Rules & Airport NO SVFR identifier on this chart. All times are local. Danger, and Restricted
Hard-surfaced runways 1500 ft. to 8069 ft. in length Traffic Patterns Areas.
NAME (NAM)(PNAM) Alert Area and MOA - Railroad
Class B Airspace
CT – 118.3 C ATIS 123.8 Military Operations
Hard-surfaced runways greater than 8069 ft., or same 285 L 72 122.95
ICAO Class C Airspace (mode C Area
multiple runways less than 8069 ft. RP 23, 34 Power Transmission Lines
Runways with Location See FAR 91.215/AIM.) Special Airport Traffic
VFR Advsy 125.0
Right Traffic Patterns AOE indicator Area (See FAR Part 93
Open dot within hard-surfaced runway configuration UNICOM Class D Airspace Aerial Cable
(public use) shown for details)
indicates approxmate VOR, VOR-DME, or VORTAC
RP Special conditions outside Ceiling of Class D Airspace ADIZ - Air Defense
location. Landmark Feature - stadium, factory,
exist - see Chart Supplement Airport contiguous in hundreds of feet. (A minus Identification Zone
of Entry U.S. 40 ceiling value indicates surface school, golf course, etc.
All recognizable hard-surfaced runways, including those closed, are Mode C
up to but not including that (See FAR 91.215/AIM).
shown for visual identification. Airports may be public or private. Outdoor Theater
value).
National Security Area
Class E (sfc) Airspace Lookout Tower
ADDITIONAL AIRPORT INFORMATION FSS – Flight Service Station Terminal Radar Service
618 (Elevation Base of Tower)
NO SVFR – Fixed wing special VFR flight is prohibited. Area (TRSA)
Class E Airspace with floor
R Restricted or Private – (Soft surfaced runway, or hard surfaced CT– 118.3 – Control Tower (CT) primary frequency 700 ft. above surface. IR211 MTR - Military Training CG Coast Guard Station
runway less than 1500' in length.) Use only in – Star indicates operation part-time (see tower frequencies Route
Class E Airspace with floor Race Track
emergency, or by specific authorization. tabulation for hours of operation).
C – Indicates Common Traffic Advisory Frequencies (CTAF) 1200 ft. or greater above
Military – Other than hard-surfaced. All military airports are Tank-water, oil or gas
ATIS 123.8 – Automatic Terminal Information Service surface that abuts Class G MISCELLANEOUS
identified by abbreviations AFB, NAS, AAF, etc. Airspace.
ASOS/AWOS 135.42 – Automated Surface Weather Observing Oil Well Water Well
For complete airport information, consult DOD FLIP.
Systems (shown where full-time ATIS is not available). Differentiates floors of Isogonic Line (2010 VALUE)
2400 MSL 1° E
Some ASOS/AWOS facilities may not be located at airports. Class E Airspace greater Mine or Quarry
UNICOM – Aeronoutical advisory station than 700 ft. above surface.
H U F 4500 MSL Ultralight Mountain Pass
VFR Advsy – VFR Advisory Service shown where full-time ATIS Class E Airspace exists at 1200' AGL unless U Activity

1-1
Heliport Unverified not available and frequency is other than primary CT frequency. 11823 (Elevation of Pass)
Abandoned–paved, Ultralight otherwise designated as shown above.
Selected having landmark value, Flight Park Class E Airspace low altitude Federal
285 – Elevation in feet Hang Glider
3000 ft. or greater Selected Airways are indicated by center line. H
L – Lighting in operation sunset to sunrise Intersection - Arrows are directed towards Activity (Pass symbol does not indicate a
L – Lighting limitations exist, refer to Airport/Facility facilities which establish intersection. recommended route or direction of flight
Directory. and pass elevation does not indicate a
72 – Length of longest runway in hundreds of feet; 132° V 69 G Glider Operations recommended clearance altitude.
usable length may be less. Total mileage 169 Hazardous flight conditions may exist
Services–fuel available and field attended during normal working between NAVAID, on direct Airways within and near mountain passes).
hours depicted by use of ticks around basic airport symbol. (Normal When information is lacking, the respective charactor is UA
Class E Airspace low altitude RNAV routes Unmanned Aircraft Activity
working hours are Mon thru Fri 10:00 A.M. to 4:00 P.M. local time. replaced by a dash. Lighting codes refer to runway edge lights are indicated by center line.
Consult Chart Supplement for service availability at airports with and may not represent the longest runway or full length lighting. Perennial Lake
hard-surfaced runways greater than 8069 ft. TK313 RNAV Parachute Jumping Area
(See Chart Supplement.) Dams
T319 (helicopter only) waypoint
Rotating airport beacon in operation Sunset to Sunrise
Pier
Rocks
Marine Light

Legend 1. Sectional Aeronautical Chart.


RADIO AIDS TO NAVIGATION COMMUNICATION BOXES OBSTRUCTIONS
NAME
(VPXYZ) Non-Perennial Lake Bridges and Viaducts
VHF OMNI RANGE (VOR) 122.1R 122.6 123.6 122.1R
OAKDALE 1000 ft. and higher AGL
H CHICAGO CHI
VORTAC 382 116.8 OAK VFR Waypoints (See
below 1000 ft. AGL Chart Supplement
Heavy line box indicates Flight Service Station (FSS).
VOR-DME for latitude/longitude).
Underline indicates Frequencies 121.5, 122.2, 243.0 and 255.4
(Canada - 121.5, 126.7 and 243.0) are available at many or Group Obstruction
no voice on this frequency.
Crosshatch indicates FSSs and are not shown above boxes. All other
Shutdown Status frequencies are shown. Obstruction with high-intensity lights
Non-Directional
Radiobeacon (NDB) May operate part-time
Operates less than Certain FSSs provide Airport
continuous or On-Request. Advisory Service, see Chart Supplement.
ASOS/AWOS or Elevation of the top above
A
R - Receive Only. mean sea level
H HIWAS 122.1R
NDB-DME Frequencies above thin line box are remoted to 2049 Height above ground
NAVAID site. Other FSS frequencies providing voice (1149) Under construction or
MIAMI communication may be available as determined by reported; position and
UC
FSS radio altitude and terrain. Consult Chart Supplement elevation unverified.
Other facilities. i.e., FSS Outlet, providing voice for complete information.
RCO, etc. communication NOTICE: Guy wires may extend outward
from structures.
Appendix 1
Appendix 1

Legend 2. Chart Supplement.

1-2
Appendix 1

Legend 3. Chart Supplement.

1-3
Appendix 1

Legend 4. Chart Supplement.

1-4
Appendix 1

Legend 5. Chart Supplement.

1-5
Appendix 1

Legend 6. Chart Supplement.

1-6
Appendix 1

Legend 7. Chart Supplement.

1-7
Appendix 1

Legend 8. Chart Supplement.

1-8
Appendix 1

Legend 9. Chart Supplement.

1-9
Appendix 1

Legend 10. Chart Supplement.

1-10
Appendix 1

Legend 11. Chart Supplement.

1-11
Appendix 1

Legend 12. Chart Supplement.

1-12
Appendix 1

Legend 13. Chart Supplement.

1-13
Appendix 1

Legend 14. Chart Supplement.

1-14
Appendix 1

Legend 15. Chart Supplement.

1-15
Appendix 1

Legend 16. Chart Supplement.

1-16
Appendix 1

Legend 17. Chart Supplement.

1-17
Appendix 1

Legend 18. Chart Supplement.

1-18
Appendix 1

Legend 19. Chart Supplement.

1-19
Appendix 1

1-20
Appendix 2
Appendix 2

Lift

rc nt
Fo ulta
e
s
Ch

Re
ord
line

A
Drag
Relative wind

Center of pressure

Figure 1. Lift Vector.

2-1
Appendix 2

Angle of Load Load factor chart


bank factor
o n 9
0° 1.0 8

Load factor – G units


10° 1.015 7
30° 1.154 6
45° 1.414 5
4
60° 2.000
3
70° 2.923
2
80° 5.747
1
85° 11.473
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
90° ∞ Bank angle – in degrees

Figure 2. Load Factor Chart.

2-2
I00 FEET I00 FEET I00 FEET
0 0 0
9 I 9 I 9 I
00 FEET 00 FEET 00 FEET
10 0 FEE 10 0 FEE 10 0 FEE
00 T 00 T 00 T
8 1 2 8 1 2 8 1 2
29.4 29.4 29.4
29.5 29.5 29.5

2-3
29.6 29.6 29.6

7 3 7 3 7 3
6 6 6

Figure 3. Altimeter.
4 4 4
5 5 5

1 2 3
Appendix 2
Appendix 2

240 40
220
200 60
180 80
160
140 100

Figure 4. Airspeed Indicator.

2-4
Appendix 2

D.C.
ELEC.

TURN COORDINATOR

L R
2 MIN.
NO PITCH
INFORMATION

Figure 5. Turn Coordinator.

2-5
Appendix 2

30
24

33
2I
I5

3
I2 6

Figure 6. Heading Indicator.

2-6
Appendix 2

Figure 7. Attitude Indicator.

2-7
Appendix 2

DENSITY ALTITUDE CHART Altimeter setting Pressure altitude


15 ("Hg) conversion factor

000
14 14, 28.0 1,824
28.1 1,727
000
13, 28.2 1,630
13
28.3 1,533
0 00
12, 28.4 1,436
12
00 fe et) 28.5 1,340
0 (
11, de 28.6 1,244
11
lt itu
ea 28.7 1,148
000 s ur
10,
Approximate density altitude (thousand feet)

es 28.8 1,053
10 Pr
28.9 957
00
9,0 29.0 863
9
29.1 768
00
8,0 29.2 673
8
29.3 579
Sta

00
7,0
nda

29.4 485
7
rd t

29.5 392
00
6,0
em

29.6 298
6
per

29.7 205
00
5,0
atu

29.8 112
5
re

29.9 20
00
4,0 29.92 0
4
30.0 −73
00
3,0 30.1 −165
3
30.2 −257
2,000
30.3 −348
2
00 30.4 −440
1,0
el 30.5 −531
1 lev
S ea 30.6 −622
00
–1,0 30.7 −712
S.L.
30.8 −803
°C -18° -12° -7° -1° 4° 10° 16° 21° 27° 32° 38° 43°
°F 0° 10° 20° 30° 40° 50° 60° 70° 80° 90° 100° 110° 30.9 −893

Outside air temperature 31.0 −983

Figure 8. Density Altitude Chart.

2-8
Appendix 2

B
A

Figure 9. Control Position for Taxi.

2-9
Appendix 2

A C

Figure 10. Gyroplane Rotor Blade Position.

2-10
1 2 3

4 4 4
6 6 6
O O O
Accele 0 Accele 0 Accele 0
2 ration LT 10 2 ration LT 10 2 ration LT 10
SA SA SA

s
s
s

G UNITS G UNITS G UNITS


8 8 8

ot
ot
ot

4 6 4 6 4 6

kn
kn
kn

2 8 2 8 2 8
0 10 0 10 0 10
10 0 winter 40 60 10 0 winter 40 60 10 0 winter 40 60
knots 160 knots 160 knots 160
PU
-2 2 PU
-2 2 PU
-2 2

50
50
50

-4 -4 -4

90
90
90

SH knots SH knots SH knots


4 10 140 4 10 140 4 10 140
6 8 6 8 6 8
60 120 80 60 120 80 60 120 80
80 100 80 100 80 100
OFF 70 OFF 70 OFF 70
GO 20 GO 20 GO 20
NET NET NET
PULL AVG PULL AVG PULL AVG

L L L
DIST NAV DIST NAV DIST NAV
PUSH PUSH PUSH
ALT FNCN ALT FNCN ALT FNCN
HW + HW + HW +
VOL BATT VOL BATT VOL BATT
KNOTS PWR I00 KNOTS PWR I00 KNOTS PWR I00
FE ET FE ET FE ET
− 9 0 − 9 0 − 9 0
SEL N FOR
SEL N FOR
SEL N FOR
30 30 30
I 60
E
I 60
E
I 60
E
120 120 120
8 CALIBRAT
STEER 150
8 CALIBRAT
STEER 150
8 CALIBRAT
STEER 150
ED ED ED
TO ALT TO ALT TO ALT
20,000 20,000 20,000
FEET
2
29.8 FEET
2
29.8 FEET
2
29.8
PU 29.9 PU 29.9 PU 29.9
SH 7 SH 7 SH 7
4 30.0
5 30.0
6 30.0

6 3 6 3 6 3
S FOR S FOR S FOR
5 4 210 240 5 4 210 240 5 4 210 240
W 300 W 300 W 300
STEER 330 STEER 330 STEER 330

2-11
ON ON ON
ON ON ON
RADIO RADIO RADIO

Figure 11. Glider Yaw String.


4 4 4
6 6 6
O O O
Accele 0 Accele 0 Accele 0
2 ration LT 10 2 ration LT 10 2 ration LT 10
SA SA SA

s
s
s

G UNITS G UNITS G UNITS


8 8 8

ot
ot
ot

4 6 4 6 4 6

kn
kn
kn

2 8 2 8 2 8
0 10 0 10 0 10
10 0 winter 40 60 10 0 winter 40 60 10 0 winter 40 60
knots 160 knots 160 knots 160
PU
-2 2 PU
-2 2 PU
-2 2

50
50
50

-4 -4 -4

90
90
90

SH knots SH knots SH knots


4 10 140 4 10 140 4 10 140
6 8 6 8 6 8
60 120 80 60 120 80 60 120 80
80 100 80 100 80 100
OFF 70 OFF 70 OFF 70
GO 20 GO 20 GO 20
NET NET NET
PULL AVG PULL AVG PULL AVG

L L L
DIST NAV DIST NAV DIST NAV
PUSH PUSH PUSH
ALT FNCN ALT FNCN ALT FNCN
HW + HW + HW +
VOL BATT VOL BATT VOL BATT
KNOTS PWR I00 KNOTS PWR I00 KNOTS PWR I00
FE ET FE ET FE ET
− 9 0 − 9 0 − 9 0
SEL N FOR
SEL N FOR
SEL N FOR
30 30 30
I 60
E
I 60
E
I 60
E
120 120 120
8 CALIBRAT
STEER 150
8 CALIBRAT
STEER 150
8 CALIBRAT
STEER 150
ED ED ED
TO ALT TO ALT TO ALT
20,000 20,000 20,000
FEET
2
29.8 FEET
2
29.8 FEET
2
29.8
PU 29.9 PU 29.9 PU 29.9
SH 7 30.0 SH 7 30.0 SH 7 30.0

6 3 6 3 6 3
S FOR S FOR S FOR
5 4 210 240 5 4 210 240 5 4 210 240
W 300 W 300 W 300
STEER 330 STEER 330 STEER 330

ON ON ON
ON ON ON
RADIO RADIO RADIO
Appendix 2
Appendix 2

METAR KINK 121845Z 11012G18KT 15SM SKC 25/17 A3000

METAR KBOI 121854Z 13004KT 30SM SCT150 17/6 A3015

METAR KLAX 121852Z 25004KT 6SM BR SCT007 SCT250 16/15 A2991

SPECI KMDW 121856Z 32005KT 1 1/2SM RA OVC007 17/16 A2980 RMK RAB35

SPECI KJFK 121853Z 18004KT 1/2SM FG R04/2200 OVC005 20/18 A3006

Figure 12. Aviation Routine Weather Reports (METAR).

2-12
Appendix 2

This is a telephone weather briefing from the Dallas FSS for local operation
of gliders and lighter-than-air at Caddo Mills, Texas (about 30 miles east of
Dallas). The briefing is at 13Z.

“There are no adverse conditions reported or forecast for today.”


Caddo Mills
“A weak low pressure over the Texas Panhandle and eastern New Mexico is Dallas
causing a weak southerly flow over the area.”

“Current weather here at Dallas is wind south 5 knots, visibility 12 miles,


clear, temperature 21, dewpoint 9, altimeter 29 point 78.”

“By 15Z, we should have a few scattered cumuliform clouds at 5 thousand


AGL, with higher scattered cirrus at 25 thousand MSL. After 20Z, the wind
should pick up to about 15 knots from the south.”

“The winds aloft are: 3 thousand 170 at 7, temperature 20; 6 thousand 200
at 18, temperature 14; 9 thousand 210 at 22, temperature 8; 12 thousand
225 at 27, temperature 0; 18 thousand 240 at 30, temperature −7.”

Figure 13. Telephone Weather Briefing.

2-13
Appendix 2

UA/OV KOKC-KTUL/TM 1800/FL120/TP BE90/SK BKN018-TOP055/OVC072-


TOP089/CLR ABV/TA M7/WV 08021/TB LGT 055-072/IC LGT-MOD RIME 072-089

Figure 14. Pilot Weather Report.

2-14
Appendix 2

TAF

KMEM 121720Z 1218/1324 20012KT 5SM HZ BKN030 PROB40 1220/1222 1SM TSRA OVC008CB
FM122200 33015G20KT P6SM BKN015 OVC025 PROB40 1220/1222 3SM SHRA
FM120200 35012KT OVC008 PROB40 1202/1205 2SM-RASN BECMG 1306/1308 02008KT BKN012
BECMG 1310/1312 00000KT 3SM BR SKC TEMPO 1212/1214 1/2SM FG
FM131600 VRB06KT P6SM SKC=

KOKC 051130Z 0512/0618 14008KT 5SM BR BKN030 TEMPO 0513/0516 1 1/2SM BR


FM051600 18010KT P6SM SKC BECMG 0522/0524 20013G20KT 4SM SHRA OVC020
PROB40 0600/0606 2SM TSRA OVC008CB BECMG 0606/0608 21015KT P6SM SCT040=

Figure 15. Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts (TAF).

2-15
Appendix 2

FB WBC 151745
DATA BASED ON 151200Z
VALID 1600Z FOR USE 1800-0300Z. TEMPS NEG ABV 24000

FT 3000 6000 9000 12000 18000 24000 30000 34000 39000


ALS 2420 2635-08 2535-18 2444-30 245945 246755 246862
AMA 2714 2725+00 2625-04 2531-15 2542-27 265842 256352 256762
DEN 2321-04 2532-08 2434-19 2441-31 235347 236056 236262
HLC 1707-01 2113-03 2219-07 2330-17 2435-30 244145 244854 245561
MKC 0507 2006+03 2215-01 2322-06 2338-17 2348-29 236143 237252 238160
STL 2113 2325+07 2332+02 2339-04 2356-16 2373-27 239440 730649 731960

Figure 17. Winds and Temperatures Aloft Forecast.

2-16
16 250 250
50 250 COLD WK
70 45
35 220 15
25 3
65 15 14 84
240 95
17 220 23 8
3 5 5 220
48 100 260
14 18 250
10 220 25 48 17
2 250 200 85 95
21 H 78 100
30
45 10 80 1
19 20 50 6
3 2 70 68 260
55 15 45 15 12 250
55 24 44
250 48 200 150
14
30 2 26 65
70 16 7 2 1/2 110
15 44 42 130
12 16 150
36
50 65 2
60 40
4 12 9 36
20 15 200
50
5 25 55
40 55 23 40
14 12 200
30 4 22
29 180 65 25 2 36
43 60 4 17
65 30 250
80 2 29
250
1
70 100 16
39 C 25 42
20 150 15 19
32 3 25
60 26 8
200 B 70 17 16 13
COLD WK 7
15 3
40 30 9
TROF 250 2 11
23 13 60
37 3 3
15 19 11
60
70 14 14 12 72
30
29 2 4 8

2-17
250 9
15 5
US DEPT OF COMMERCE

250 TROF 10 3
14
NOAA/NWS/NMC WASHINGTON

250 9 1/2
F
0 9
110 200 12 15 12
150 2 1/2 5 3
A 2 1/2
D 23 5 2
3 10 8 13
200 13 13 10
5 11 2
8
16Z SAT 14 APR 20XX A6+41

6 7
10 10 3
10 10
E 9 3
8 5 9 STNY WK
12 11
5 10
16 11
6 18 5 24
TOTAL STATIONS 10 4

Figure 18. Weather Depiction Chart.


AVAILABLE FOR 12 10 14 25
ANALYSIS 16 33
11 20 5
12 10 5
1262 OUT OF 1462 18 12
26 17 3 55 23
22 21
120
1 1/2 15
IS AUTOMATIC WX DBS 25 TROF
12 G
32 SHADED AREAS...IFR WITH CIG LESS THAN
US DEPT OF COMMERCE 1000 FT AND/OR VSBY LESS THAN 3 MILES 16
NOAA/NWS/NMC WASHINGTON
CONTOURED WITHOUT SHADING...MVFR AREAS WITH
WEATHER DEPICTION CIG GREATER THAN OR EQUAL TO 1000 TO LESS THAN OR
2 5
16Z SAT 14 APR 20XX EQUAL TO 3000 FT AND/OR VSBY GREATER THAN OR EQUAL
NO91 0188 CMC. TO 3 TO LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO 5 MI NO CONTOURS...VFR
AREAS WITH CIG GREATER THAN 3000 FT AND VSBY GREATER THAN 5 MI
Appendix 2
Appendix 2
040

240 /

240 /
040
120 /

40N
70W
080

180 /

120 /
080

Flight planning only


120W see TAF for specific terminal forecast
120 Ceiling less than 1,000 feet and/or visibility
less than 3 miles 80W
Ceiling 1,000-3,000 feet inclusive and/or

VT 18Z
visibility 3-5 miles incl. 120
Moderate or greater turbulence
Sat Apr 14 2012 Freezing level at surface
12 HR SIG WX PROG Freezing level above mean sea level
LOW LVL SFC-400MB 100W
Moderate turbulence 90W
Severe turbulence
040
040 Extreme turbulence
040
Top (hundreds of feet MSL)
Base (hundreds of feet MSL)
100/070

240 / 180 / 070 /


040 080

120 /

080 / 40N
080 70W

240 /
120W 120 /

120

VT 06Z
Sun Apr 15 2012
24 HR SIG WX PROG
LOW LVL SFC-400MB 90W 80W

Figure 19. Low-Level Significant Weather (SIGWX) Prognostic Charts.

2-18
Appendix 2

Figure 20. Sectional Chart Excerpt.


NOTE: Chart is not to scale and should not be used for navigation. Use associated scale.

2-19
Appendix 2

Figure 21. Sectional Chart Excerpt.


NOTE: Chart is not to scale and should not be used for navigation. Use associated scale.

2-20
Appendix 2

Figure 22. Sectional Chart Excerpt.


NOTE: Chart is not to scale and should not be used for navigation. Use associated scale.

2-21
Appendix 2

Figure 23. Sectional Chart Excerpt.


NOTE: Chart is not to scale and should not be used for navigation. Use associated scale.

2-22
Appendix 2

Figure 24. Sectional Chart Excerpt.


NOTE: Chart is not to scale and should not be used for navigation. Use associated scale.

2-23
Appendix 2

Figure 25. Sectional Chart Excerpt.


NOTE: Chart is not to scale and should not be used for navigation. Use associated scale.

2-24
Appendix 2

Figure 26. Sectional Chart Excerpt.


NOTE: Chart is not to scale and should not be used for navigation. Use associated scale.

2-25
Appendix 2

20°E Easterly variation Westerly variation

15°E 20°W
WASHINGTON 10°E 15°W
5°E 0° 5°W 10°W
20°W
MAINE
20°E NORTH DAKOTA
M O N T A N A

VERMONT
O R E G O N I D A H O

NEW
HAMPSHIRE

MINNESOTA NEW
SOUTH YORK MASSACHUSETTS
DAKOTA WISCONSIN 15°W
CONNECTICUT RHODE ISLAND
MICHIGAN

WYOMING PENNSYLVANIA

NEBRASKA
NEW JERSEY
OHIO
I O W A ILLINOIS
INDIANA
N E V A D A DELAWARE
U T A H
Pacific standard time Mountain standard time Central standard time Eastern standard time MARYLAND 10°W
WEST
CALIFORNIA VIRGINIA
KANSAS
COLORADO VIRGINIA

2-26
MISSOURI
KENTUCKY
15°E
NORTH CAROLINA
TENNESSEE
A R I Z O N A ARKANSAS
N E W M E X I C O
OKLAHOMA SOUTH
CAROLINA
5°W
GEORGIA

MISSISSIPPI

Figure 27. Time Conversion Table.


ALABAMA

TEXAS
To convert from To coordinated universal time LOUISIANA

Eastern standard time add 5 hours


Eastern daylight time add 4 hours
Ag

10°E FLORIDA
o

Central standard time add 6 hours


5°E
nic

Central daylight time add 5 hours


Mountain standard time add 7 hours
line

Mountain daylight time add 6 hours


Pacific standard time add 8 hours

Pacific daylight time add 7 hours
Appendix 2

1 2 3
21 24 21 24 21 24
S S S

15

15

15
TO TO TO

W
12

12

12
30

30

30
E

E
FR FR FR

33

33

33
6 N 6 N 6 N
OBS 3 OBS 3 OBS 3

4 5 6
21 24 21 24 21 24
S S S
15

15

15
TO TO TO
W

W
12

12

12
30

30

30
E

E
FR FR FR
33

33

33
6 N 6 N 6 N
OBS 3 OBS 3 OBS 3

7 8 9
3 3 3
N 6 N 6 N 6
33

33

33
TO TO TO
E

E
30

30

30
12

12

12
W

FR FR
W FR
15

15

15
S S S
24 24 24
OBS 21 OBS 21 OBS 21

Figure 28. VOR.

2-27
Appendix 2

Figure 31. Chart Supplement.

2-28
Appendix 2

Useful load weights and moments

Baggage or 5th Occupants


seat occupant Front seats ARM 85 Rear seats ARM 121
ARM 140 Weight Moment Weight Moment
100 100
Weight Moment
100 120 102 120 145
10 14 130 110 130 157
20 28 140 119 140 169
30 42 150 128 150 182
40 56 160 136 160 194
50 70 170 144 170 206
60 84 180 153 180 218
70 98 190 162 190 230
80 112 200 170 200 242
90 126
Usable fuel
100 140
110 154 Main wing tanks ARM 75

120 168 Gallons Weight Moment


100
130 182
5 30 22
140 196
10 60 45
150 210
15 90 68
160 224
20 120 90
170 238
25 150 112
180 252
30 180 135
190 266
35 210 158
200 280
40 240 180
210 294
44 264 198
220 308
230 322 Auxiliary wing tanks ARM 94
240 336 Gallons Weight Moment
100
250 350
5 30 28
260 364
10 60 56
270 378
15 90 85
19 114 107
Empty weight~2,015
MOM/100~1,554 *Oil
Moment limits vs weight
Moment
Moment limits are based on the Quarts Weight
100
following weight and center of
gravity limit data (landing gear 10 19 5
down).
*Included in basic empty weight.

Weight Forward AFT


condition CG limit CG limit

2,950 lb (takeoff or landing) 82.1 84.7


2,525 lb 77.5 85.7
2,475 lb or less 77.0 85.7

Figure 32. Airplane Weight and Balance Tables.

2-29
Appendix 2

Moment limits vs weight (continued)

Minimum Maximum Minimum Maximum


Weight Moment Moment Weight Moment Moment
100 100 100 100
2,100 1,617 1,800 2,500 1,932 2,143
2,110 1,625 1,808 2,510 1,942 2,151
2,120 1,632 1,817 2,520 1,953 2,160
2,130 1,640 1,825 2,530 1,963 2,168
2,140 1,648 1,834 2,540 1,974 2,176
2,150 1,656 1,843 2,550 1,984 2,184
2,160 1,663 1,851 2,560 1,995 2,192
2,170 1,671 1,860 2,570 2,005 2,200
2,180 1,679 1,868 2,580 2,016 2,208
2,190 1,686 1,877 2,590 2,026 2,216
2,200 1,694 1,885 2,600 2,037 2,224
2,210 1,702 1,894 2,610 2,048 2,232
2,220 1,709 1,903 2,620 2,058 2,239
2,230 1,717 1,911 2,630 2,069 2,247
2,240 1,725 1,920 2,640 2,080 2,255
2,250 1,733 1,928 2,650 2,090 2,263
2,260 1,740 1,937 2,660 2,101 2,271
2,270 1,748 1,945 2,670 2,112 2,279
2,280 1,756 1,954 2,680 2,123 2,287
2,290 1,763 1,963 2,690 2,133 2,295
2,300 1,771 1,971 2,700 2,144 2,303
2,310 1,779 1,980 2,710 2,155 2,311
2,320 1,786 1,988 2,720 2,166 2,319
2,330 1,794 1,997 2,730 2,177 2,326
2,340 1,802 2,005 2,740 2,188 2,334
2,350 1,810 2,014 2,750 2,199 2,342
2,360 1,817 2,023 2,760 2,210 2,350
2,370 1,825 2,031 2,770 2,221 2,358
2,380 1,833 2,040 2,780 2,232 2,366
2,390 1,840 2,048 2,790 2,243 2,374
2,400 1,848 2,057 2,800 2,254 2,381
2,410 1,856 2,065 2,810 2,265 2,389
2,420 1,863 2,074 2,820 2,276 2,397
2,430 1,871 2,083 2,830 2,287 2,405
2,440 1,879 2,091 2,840 2,298 2,413
2,450 1,887 2,100 2,850 2,309 2,421
2,460 1,894 2,108 2,860 2,320 2,428
2,470 1,902 2,117 2,870 2,332 2,436
2,480 1,911 2,125 2,880 2,343 2,444
2,490 1,921 2,134 2,890 2,354 2,452
2,900 2,365 2,460
2,910 2,377 2,468
2,920 2,388 2,475
2,930 2,399 2,483
2,940 2,411 2,491
2,950 2,422 2,499

Figure 33. Airplane Weight and Balance Tables.

2-30
Appendix 2

400
ers
eng
ss
350 pa
ar
Re

300
Load Weight (pounds)

r
ge

Loading Graph
48 gal**

en

)
al
ss

/g
250

lb
pa

(6
nt
38 gal*

el
fro

Fu
200

&
lot
30 gal
Pi
150

20 gal
100 Maximum Usable Fuel
Baggage or passenger on
child’s seat (120 lb max.) * Standard tanks
10 gal ** Long range tanks
50

0
5 10 15 20 25 30
Load Moment/1,000 (pounds-inches)

Notes: 1. Lines representing adjustable seats show the pilot or passenger center of gravity
on adjustable seats positioned for an average occupant. Refer to the Loading
Arrangements diagram for forward and aft limits of occupant CG range.

2. Engine Oil: 8 qt = 15 lb at −0.2 Moment/1,000

Note: The empty weight of this airplane does not include the weight of the oil.

2,300

Normal
Loaded Airplane Weight (pounds)

2,200 category

2,100

2,000

1,900
ry
go
te

1,800
ca
y
ilit
Ut

1,700

1,600

1,500
45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110

Loaded Aircraft Moment/1,000 (pounds-inches)

Figure 34. Airplane Weight and Balance Graphs.

2-31
Appendix 2

Cruise power settings


65% Maximum continuous power (or full throttle 2,800 pounds)

ISA −20 °C (−36 °F) Standard day (ISA) ISA +20 °C (+36 °F)
Press
ALT. Engine MAN. Fuel flow TAS Engine MAN. Fuel flow Engine MAN. Fuel flow
IOAT speed press per engine IOAT speed press per engine TAS IOAT speed press per engine TAS

Feet °F °C RPM IN HG PSI GPH KTS MPH °F °C RPM IN HG PSI GPH KTS MPH °F °C RPM IN HG PSI GPH KTS MPH
SL 27 −3 2,450 20.7 6.6 11.5 147 169 63 17 2,450 21.2 6.6 11.5 150 173 99 37 2,450 21.8 6.6 11.5 153 176
2,000 19 −7 2,450 20.4 6.6 11.5 149 171 55 13 2,450 21.0 6.6 11.5 153 176 91 33 2,450 21.5 6.6 11.5 156 180
4,000 12 −11 2,450 20.1 6.6 11.5 152 175 48 9 2,450 20.7 6.6 11.5 156 180 84 29 2,450 21.3 6.6 11.5 159 183

2-32
6,000 5 −15 2,450 19.8 6.6 11.5 155 178 41 5 2,450 20.4 6.6 11.5 158 182 79 26 2,450 21.0 6.6 11.5 161 185
8,000 −2 −19 2,450 19.5 6.6 11.5 157 181 36 2 2,450 20.2 6.6 11.5 161 185 72 22 2,450 20.8 6.6 11.5 164 189
10,000 −8 −22 2,450 19.2 6.6 11.5 160 184 28 −2 2,450 19.9 6.6 11.5 163 188 64 18 2,450 20.3 6.5 11.4 166 191
12,000 −15 −26 2,450 18.8 6.4 11.5 162 186 21 −6 2,450 18.8 6.1 10.9 163 188 57 14 2,450 18.8 5.9 10.6 163 188
14,000 −22 −30 2,450 17.4 5.8 10.5 159 183 14 −10 2,450 17.4 5.6 10.1 160 184 50 10 2,450 17.4 5.4 9.8 160 184
16,000 −29 −34 2,450 16.1 5.3 9.7 156 180 7 −14 2,450 16.1 5.1 9.4 156 180 43 6 2,450 16.1 4.9 9.1 155 178

Figure 35. Airplane Power Setting Table.


Note: 1. Full throttle manifold pressure settings are approximate.
2. Shaded area represents operation with full throttle.
Appendix 2


10°
20° Example:
A

30° 40 knots wind at 30° angle


60 A 30° angle between wind and runway
B 40 knots total wind velocity
Win 40° C 35 knots headwind component
dv
elo D 20 knots crosswind component
cit
50 y
50° Use plastic overlay

40
Headwind component

60°
C B

30

70°

20

80°
10

90°
0 D
10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Crosswind component

Figure 36. Crosswind Component Graph.

2-33
Appendix 2

Associated conditions: Example:


Weight Speed at 50 ft
Power Retarded to maintain 900/ft on final approach pounds OAT 25 °C (77 °F)
Flaps Down kts MPH Pressure altitude 3,965 feet
Landing gear Down 2,950 70 80 Weight 2,814 lb
Runway Paved, level, dry surface Wind component 9.0 knots
2,800 68 78
Approach speed IAS as tabulated (headwind)
Braking Maximum 2,600 65 75
2,400 63 72 Ground roll 1,080 feet
2,200 60 69 Total over 50 feet obstacle 1,700 feet
Approach speed 68 knots (78 mph) 3,500
e l
te ab
p

3,000
g hts edia plic

li
i
he rm a

ide
le nte not

Gu
s tac for I nes

2,500
Ob

win

2-34
Tail

Reference line
Reference line
Reference line

2,000
Distance (feet)

feet
altitude -
ssure 1,500
Pre He
ad
000 wi
10, ,000 nd
8 00
6,0 ,000 0

Figure 37. Airplane Landing Distance Graph.


4 ,00 .L.
2 S ISA 1,000

500
°C -40° -30° -20° -10° 0° 10° 20° 30° 40° 50° 2,800 2,600 2,400 2,200 0 10 20 30 0 50
Outside air temperature Weight (pounds) Wind component Obstacle
(knots) (feet)
°F -40° -20° 0° 20° 40° 60° 80° 100° 120°
Flaps lowered to 40° – Power off
Landing distance Hard surface runway – Zero wind

Approach At sea level & 59 °F At 2,500 feet & 50 °F At 5,000 feet & 41 °F At 7,500 feet & 32 °F
Gross weight
speed, IAS, Total to clear Total to clear Total to clear Total to clear
lb Ground roll Ground roll Ground roll Ground roll
MPH 50 feet OBS 50 feet OBS 50 feet OBS 50 feet OBS

2-35
1,600 60 445 1,075 470 1,135 495 1,195 520 1,255

1. Decrease the distances shown by 10% for each 4 knots of headwind.


2. Increase the distance by 10% for each 60 °F temperature increase above standard.

NOTE:
3. For operation on a dry, grass runway, increase distance (both “ground roll” and “total to clear 50 feet obstacle”) by 20% of the “total to clear 50 feet obstacle” figure.

Figure 38. Airplane Landing Distance Table.


Appendix 2
Appendix 2

Total landing distance to clear a 50 feet obstacle Total takeoff distance to clear a 50 feet obstacle
Weight 1,500 lb – Zero wind – Rotor pre-rotated to 450 rpm – Smooth hard surface runway
4,000

3,000

AT
OA
°

°
°

FO
°
F
0

°
°

°
80

°
°
60


40
10

20

20

60

40
80
100
2,000

2-36
1,000

Pressure
altitude

Figure 39. Gyroplane Takeoff and Landing Graphs.


0
500 510 520 530 540 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 2,000 2,200 2,400 2,600 2,800 3,000
Total landing distance Total takeoff distance
Example: Associated conditions Takeoff speed
Weight
pounds Lift-off 50 ft
OAT 15 °C (59 °F) Power Full throttle 2,600 rpm
Pressure altitude 5,650 feet Mixture Lean to appropriate fuel
kts MPH kts MPH
Takeoff weight 2,950 lb pressure 2,950 66 76 72 83
Headwind comp. 9.0 knots
Flaps Up 2,800 64 74 70 81
Ground roll 1,375 feet Landing Retract after positive 2,600 63 72 68 78
Total distance over gear climb established 2,400 61 70 66 76 6,000
a 50 feet obstacle 2,300 feet Cowl Open 2,200 58 67 63 73
r

Takeoff speed at flaps


fo ot
e

Lift-off 66 knots (76 mph)


b le s n

50 feet 72 knots (83 mph) 5,000


ica in
e

pl e l
G
iat

ap uid
ed
rm

s
te

ht 4,000
In

ig
ind

he
ilw

e
cl
Ta

2-37
sta
b
O
3,000
feet He
de - ad
ltitu

Reference line
Reference line
Reference line

e a win
sur ISA d
Pres
2,000

000
10, 00
8,0 000 1,000

Figure 40. Airplane Takeoff Distance Graph.


6, 00
4,0 000 .
2, S.L

0
°C -40° -30° -20° -10° 0° 10° 20° 30° 40° 50° 2,800 2,600 2,400 2,200 0 10 20 30 0 50
Outside air temperature Weight (pounds) Wind component Obstacle height
(knots) (feet)
°F -40° -20° 0° 20° 40° 60° 80° 100° 120°
Appendix 2
Appendix 2

2,400
195 lb fuel
2,300
600 lb cabin load
Max. approved weight
2,200

40
ga
3 Passengers

llo
2,100
Weight (pounds)

ns
24
2,000

0
lb
Pilot and one passenger
1,900

1,800 Ze 1 Pilot
ro
fu
el
1,700

Note: Assumed 170 lb pilot & passengers


1,600

1,500
86 88 90 92 94 96 98 100
CG (inches aft of datum)
Figure 41. Helicopter Weight and Balance Graph.

2-38
Appendix 2

34 170 A

32 165 B

30 160

28 44 155
Main tank & auxilliary tank
Sta. 107.0
26 150
40

24 145 A Aft CG limit 100.0

Moment in thousands of pound (inches)


35
Moment in thousands of pound (inches)

22 140

20 135
30 B
Forward CG limit
fuel tank full 25 gal
18 130

16 25 125
Pilot and passenger
Sta. 83.90
14 120
Forward CG limit 95.0 0 fuel C
20
12 115

10 110
15
8 105

6 10 100

4 Denotes aux fuel range 95 Denotes aux fuel range

5
2
1,000 1,100 1,200 1,300 1,400 1,500 1,600 1,700
Aircraft weight (pounds)
0
0 100 200 300 400 CG chart

Load weight (pounds)


Loading chart

Figure 42. Helicopter Weight and Balance Graphs.

2-39
Appendix 2

Approved center of gravity envelopes


lateral and longitudinal

2,200
Gross weight (pounds)

2,000

Approved area
1,800

1,600
92 94 96 98 100
Longitudinal CG (inches aft of datum)

Lateral offset moment envelope


2,300

2,200
Gross weight (pounds)

2,100

2,000

1,900

1,800

1,700

1,600
−5,000

−4,000

−3,000

−2,000

−1,000

1,000

2,000

3,000

4,000

5,000

Left Lateral offset moment Right


Pound (inches)

Figure 43. Helicopter CG Envelopes.

2-40
Appendix 2

Center of gravity moment envelope


Normal category

1,500 Maximum takeoff weight

1,450

Example point
Total weight (pounds)

1,400

1,350
Fuel consumption

1,300

1,250 Minimum flying weight

92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106 108 110 112 114 116 118
Total aircraft moment X 1,000 (pound - inches)

Figure 44. Gyroplane Weight and Balance Graph.

2-41
Appendix 2

Loading chart

300

250
Seat FWD

Seat AFT

200
Weight (pounds)

150

Full

100
Max 15 gal

10 gal

50
5 gal
Code Configuration

Pilot/passenger
Baggage
Fuel

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22
Load moment x 1000 (pound – inches)

Figure 45. Gyroplane Weight and Balance Graph.

2-42
Appendix 2

Height velocity diagram for operation at sea level


(Tests conducted on prepared surfaces)
2,200 pounds gross weight

Avoid operation in this area


600

500

Safe operating area


Height above terrain (feet)

400

300
Recommended takeoff
profile

200
Best rate of climb speed
at sea level

100 Use caution in this area to


avoid contact of tail rotor
guard with ground 40

0
0 20 40 60 80 100
Indicated airspeed (mph)

Figure 46. Helicopter Height Velocity Diagram.

2-43
Appendix 2

A B

C D

Figure 47. VASI Illustrations.

2-44
Appendix 2

A R
12 17
B

Itinerant Rammp
L
17
Ramp

Tower

Air Carrier
Terminal

C
30

E
N

35
L 35
R

Figure 48. Airport Diagram.

2-45
Appendix 2

22
18

36
4

Figure 49. Airport Diagram.

2-46
Appendix 2

Wind cone

Figure 50. Wind Sock Airport Landing Indicator.

2-47
Appendix 2

Approved OMB No. 2120-0026


Exp. 5/31/2017

U S Department of Transportation
Federal Aviation Administration
International Flight Plan
PRIORITY ADDRESSEE(S)

<=FF
<=
FILING TIME ORIGINATOR
<=
SPECIFIC IDENTIFICATION OF ADDRESSEE(S) AND / OR ORIGINATOR

3 MESSAGE TYPE 7 AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICATION 8 FLIGHT RULES TYPE OF FLIGHT

<=(FPL <=
9 NUMBER TYPE OF AIRCRAFT WAKE TURBULENCE CAT. 10 EQUIPMENT
/ / <=
13 DEPARTURE AERODROME TIME
<=
15 CRUISING SPEED LEVEL ROUTE

<=
TOTAL EET
16 DESTINATION AERODROME HR MIN ALTN AERODROME 2ND ALTN AERODROME
<=
18 OTHER INFORMATION

<=
SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION (NOT TO BE TRANSMITTED IN FPL MESSAGES)
19 ENDURANCE EMERGENCY RADIO
HR MIN PERSONS ON BOARD UHF VHF ELT
E/ P/ R/ U V E
SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT JACKETS
POLAR DESERT MARITIME JUNGLE LIGHT FLUORES UHF VHF
/ P D M J / L F U V
DINGHIES
NUMBER CAPACITY COVER COLOR

D / C <=
AIRCRAFT COLOR AND MARKINGS
A/
REMARKS
N / <=
PILOT-IN-COMMAND
C/ )<=
FILED BY ACCEPTED BY ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

FAA Form 7233-4 (7/15)

Figure 51. Flight Plan Form.

2-48
Appendix 2

Figure 52. Chart Supplement.

2-49
Appendix 2

Stations diagram

Rear seat STA. 74.70


Front seat
STA. 43.80

STA. 0

Empty weight ............................................... 610 pounds


Empty weight station ................................. 96.47 inches
Maximum gross weight............................. 1,040 pounds
Center of gravity limits ...............Stations 78.20 to 86.10

Figure 53. Glider Weight and Balance Diagram.

2-50
Appendix 2

L/D max 30.9:1 at 53 mph – min sink 2.2 FPS at 44 mph

30 12

28 10
L/D glide angle
26 8

24 6

22 4
Vs
L/D
FPS
Vs sinking speed 2
20
30 34 38 42 46 50 54 58 62 66 70 74 78 82 86 90 94 94 98
V-MPH

Figure 54. Glider Performance Graph.

2-51
Appendix 2

1 2 3

Fans Rudder

5 6

ly
nt
ge
Pu

ll
ll

Pu
ge
7

n
tly

8 9
Roll

10

Fishtail

Roll

11 12 Fishtail
Roll
Move out

13

Waggle rudder

Figure 55. Standard Soaring Signals.

2-52
Appendix 2

°C
°F
+50
+120

+40

15

10

Se
5,0
+100

,0 0

a
,00

00

le
0f

0f

ve
fe

l
et
ee
ee

t
t
+30
+80

11 ,000
,00
12
+20

13 ,000

0
,00
14

0
+60

+10
Air temperature

+40

Free lift only


+20
Sample: computed maximum
−10
Envelope temperature 300 °F
Gross weight 1,663 lb Max gross weight
Typical free lift 150 lb
0 Ambient temperature 60 °F
Basket weight 130 lb
−20 Envelope weight 152 lb
Empty tanks 78 lb
Fuel 126 lb
Passenger weight 720 lb
Total weight 1,206 lb
−20
−30 At “gross weight” find 1,206 lb
proceed vertical to intersect 60 °F
horizontal line. Maximum height
with 1,206 total weight would be
11,000 feet MSL.
−40
−40
600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800

Gross Weight (pounds)

Figure 56. Hot Air Balloon Performance Graph.

2-53
Appendix 2

Maximum gross weight limits


Balloon volume = 56,400 cu ft
Balloon internal temp = 250°F
(Max. permissible for sustained operation
Approx. empty weight = 335 lb) (with two tanks)

1600

1400

1200
erature
rd temp
Standa Sea
-lev
1000

2-54
el –
pres
5,00 sure
0 fe altit
et ude
800 10,0
00 fe
et
600 15,00
0 feet

Gross weight (pounds)


400

Figure 57. Hot Air Balloon Performance Graph.


200
Note: Propane pressure marginal below 0°F
0
-20° -10° 0° 10° 20° 30° 40° 50° 60° 70 °80° 90° 100° 110° 120°
Ambient temperature altitude (°F)
Appendix 2

For N 30 60 E 120 150


Steer 0 27 56 85 116 148
For S 210 240 W 300 330
Steer 181 214 244 274 303 332
Figure 58. Compass Card.

2-55
Appendix 2

Figure 59. Sectional Chart Excerpt.


Note: Chart is not to scale and should not be used for navigation. Use associated scale.

2-56
Appendix 2

15" 20"

CG
CG
500 LB 250 LB

15"
CG Plank weight 200 LB
45" 45"

Figure 60. Weight and Balance Diagram.

2-57
Appendix 2

Datum
50" 100"

25"

Y
X CG Z
CG CG

Fulcrum

Figure 61. Weight and Balance Diagram.

2-58
Appendix 2

Wind
2

Figure 62. Rectangular Course.

2-59
Appendix 2

Figure 63. Chart Supplement.

2-60
Appendix 2

19
A B C

Terminal

A
A
E F
D
4

Figure 64. Airport Markings.

2-61
Appendix 2

A 4 - 22 H

B
4 - APCH TERM I

C ILS 22 J

D
B K

E
B 4 L

F 22 HS-1 M

G N

Figure 65. U.S. Airport Signs.

2-62
Appendix 2

1 3

4 6

Wind

Figure 66. S-Turn Diagram.

2-63
Appendix 2

Occupants
Empty Weight Data Front seats Rear seats
Fwd Alt
*Oil is included in Empty Empty
Position Position
empty weight Weight Weight
ARM 85 inches ARM 111 ARM 136
(pountds) Moment
inches inches
(/100)
Weight Moment Weight Moment Moment
Certificated Weight 2,110 1,652 (pounds) (in-lb) (pounds) (in-lb) (in-lb)
120 102 120 133 163

Fuel 130 111 130 144 177

ARM 75 inches 140 119 140 155 190

Weight Moment Weight Moment 150 128 150 167 204


Gallons Gallons
(pounds) (in-ib) (pounds) (in-lb) 160 136 160 178 218
5 30 23 45 270 203 170 145 170 189 231
10 60 45 49 294 221 180 153 180 200 245
15 90 68 55 330 248 190 162 190 211 258
20 120 90 60 360 270 200 170 200 222 273
25 150 113 65 390 293
30 180 135 70 420 315 Baggage
35 210 158 75 450 338
ARM 150
40 240 180 80 480 360
Weight Moment
(pounds) (in-lb)
10 15

Gross Weight Moment Limits 20 30


30 45
40 60
2,80 2,90 3,00 50 75
0 0 0
2,70 3,600
60 90
0 70 105
2,60 3,500 80 120
0
3,400 90 135
2,50
0 100 150
3,300
2,40 110 165
Moment / 100 – inches pounds

0 3,200 120 180


2,30 130 195
0 3,100
140 210
2,20 3,000
0 150 225
Weight – pounds

2,10 2,900 160 240


0 170 255
2,800
2,00 180 270
0
2,700 190 285
1,90
0 2,600 200 300
210 315
1,80 2,500
0 220 330
1,70 2,400 230 345
0
240 360
2,300
1,60 250 375
0
2,200 260 390
1,50
0 2,100 270 405

2,000 NOTE: All moments are equal to


74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88
weight × arm
Center of gravity – inches aft of datum
100

Figure 67. Weight and Balance Chart.

2-64
Appendix 2

B
N

S
C

Figure 68. Wind Triangle.

2-65
Appendix 2

Figure 69. Sectional Chart Excerpt.


NOTE: Chart is not to scale and should not be used for navigation. Use associated scale.

2-66
Appendix 2

Figure 70. Sectional Chart Excerpt.


NOTE: Chart is not to scale and should not be used for navigation. Use associated scale.

2-67
Appendix 2

Figure 71. Sectional Chart Excerpt.


NOTE: Chart is not to scale and should not be used for navigation. Use associated scale.

2-68
5
Maximum structural cruise
4 C D E
Never exceed
3 +30 fps speed
B

Normal stall speed


2 +15 fps
A Normal Caution
1 operating range range Structural damage

Load factor

2-69
0 –15 fps

–1 –30 fps F

Figure 72. Velocity vs. G-Loads.


J
I H G
–2
20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220
Indicated airspeed (mph)
Appendix 2
Appendix 2

Check controls Open towhook Close towhook Raise wingtip to


level position
Thumb moves through circle

Figure 73. Glider Hand Signals.

2-70
Appendix 2

Figure 74. Sectional Chart Excerpt.


NOTE: Chart is not to scale and should not be used for navigation. Use associated scale.

2-71
Appendix 2

Figure 75. Sectional Chart Excerpt.


NOTE: Chart is not to scale and should not be used for navigation. Use associated scale.

2-72
Appendix 2

Figure 76. Sectional Chart Excerpt.


NOTE: Chart is not to scale and should not be used for navigation. Use associated scale.

2-73
Appendix 2

340 SOUTH DAKOTA


PIERRE RGNL (PIR) 3E UTC 6( 5DT) N44 °22.96 W100°17.16 OMAHA
1744 B S4 FUEL 100LL, JET A OX 1, 2, 3, 4 Class I, ARFF Index A NOTAM FILE PIR H–2I, L–12H
RWY 13–31: H6900X100 (ASPH–GRVD) S–91, D–108, 2S–137, 2D–168 HIRL IAP
RWY 13: REIL. PAPI(P4L)—GA 3.0 ° TCH 52 .
RWY 31: MALSR. PAPI(P4L)—GA 3.0 ° TCH 52 .
RWY 07–25: H6881X150 (ASPH–GRVD) S–91, D–114, 2S–145,
2D–180 HIRL 0.6% up W
RWY 07: REIL. PAPI(P4L)—GA 3.0 ° TCH 47 . Tank.
RWY 25: REIL. PAPI(P4L)—GA 3.0 ° TCH 54 .
RUNWAY DECLARED DISTANCE INFORMATION
RWY 07: TORA–6881 TODA–6881 ASDA–6830 LDA–6830
RWY 13: TORA–6900 TODA–6900 ASDA–6900 LDA–6900
RWY 25: TORA–6881 TODA–6881 ASDA–6881 LDA–6881
RWY 31: TORA–6900 TODA–6900 ASDA–6900 LDA–6900
AIRPORT REMARKS: Attended Mon–Fri 1100–0600Z‡, Sat–Sun
1100–0400Z‡. For attendant other times call
605–224–9000/8621. Arpt conditions unmonitored during
0530–1000Z‡. Numerous non–radio acft operating in area. Birds
on and invof arpt and within a 25 NM radius. No line of sight
between rwy ends of Rwy 07–25. ARFF provided for part 121 air
carrier ops only. 48 hr PPR for unscheduled acr ops involving acft
designed for 31 or more passenger seats call 605–773–7447 or
605–773–7405. Taxiway C is 50 wide and restricted to acft 75,000 pounds or less. ACTIVATE HIRL Rwy 13–31
and Rwy 07–25, MALSR Rwy 31, REIL Rwy 07, Rwy 13 and Rwy 25, PAPI Rwy 07, Rwy 25, Rwy 13 and Rwy
31—CTAF 122.7. NOTE: See Special Notices Section—
Aerobatic Practice Areas.
WEATHER DATA SOURCES: ASOS 119.025 (605) 224–6087. HIWAS 112.5 PIR.
COMMUNICATIONS: CTAF 122.7 UNICOM 122.95
RCO 122.2 (HURON RADIO)
R MINNEAPOLIS CENTER APP/DEP CON 125.1
RADIO AIDS TO NAVIGATION: NOTAM FILE PIR.
(L) VORTACW 112.5 PIR Chan 72 N44 °23.67 W100°09.77 251° 5.3 NM to fld. 1789/11E. HIWAS.
ILS/DME 111.9 I–PIR Chan 56 Rwy 31. Class IA ILS GS unusable for coupled apch blo 2,255 . GS
unusable blo 2135 .

PINE RIDGE (IEN) 2E UTC 7( 6DT) N43 °01.35 W102°30.66 CHEYENNE


3333 B NOTAM FILE IEN H–5B, L–12G
RWY 12–30: H5000X60 (ASPH) S–12 MIRL 0.7% up SE IAP
RWY 12: P–line.
RWY 30: PAPI(P2L)—GA 3.0 ° TCH 26 . Fence.
RWY 06–24: H3003X50 (ASPH) S–12 0.7% up NE
RWY 24: Fence.
AIRPORT REMARKS: Unattended. Rwy 06–24 CLOSED indef. MIRL Rwy
12–30 and PAPI Rwy 30 opr dusk–0530Z ‡, after 0530Z ‡
ACTIVATE—CTAF.
WEATHER DATA SOURCES: ASOS 126.775 (605) 867–1584.
COMMUNICATIONS: CTAF 122.9
DENVER CENTER APP/DEP CON 127.95
RADIO AIDS TO NAVIGATION: NOTAM FILE RAP.
RAPID CITY (H) VORTAC 112.3 RAP Chan 70 N43 °58.56
W103°00.74 146° 61.3 NM to fld. 3160/13E.

Figure 77. Chart Supplement.

2-74
Appendix 2

Figure 78. Sectional Chart Excerpt.


NOTE: Chart is not to scale and should not be used for navigation. Use associated scale.

2-75
Appendix 2

64 IOWA

SIOUX CITY N42°20.67 W96°19.42 NOTAM FILE SUX OMAHA


(L) VORTAC 116.5 SUX Chan 112 313 ° 4.4 NM to Sioux Gateway/Col Bud Day Fld. 1087/9E. HIWAS. L–12I
VOR unusable:
280°–292° byd 25 NM 306°–350° byd 20 NM blo 3,000
293°–305° byd 20 NM blo 4,500 350°–280° byd 30 NM blo 3,000
293°–305° byd 35 NM
RCO 122.45 122.1R 116.5T (FORT DODGE RADIO)

SIOUX CITY
SIOUX GATEWAY/COL BUD DAY FLD (SUX) 6S UTC 6( 5DT) N42 °24.16 W96°23.06 OMAHA
1098 B S4 FUEL 100LL, 115, JET A OX 1, 2, 3, 4 Class I, ARFF Index—See Remarks H–5C, L–12I
NOTAM FILE SUX IAP, AD
RWY 13–31: H9002X150 (CONC–GRVD) S–100, D–120, 2S–152,
2D–220 HIRL
RWY 13: MALS. VASI(V4L)—GA 3.0 ° TCH 49 . Tree.
RWY 31: MALSR. VASI(V4L)—GA 3.0 ° TCH 50 .
RWY 17–35: H6600X150 (ASPH–PFC) S–65, D–80, 2S–102,
2D–130 MIRL
RWY 17: REIL. VASI(V4R)—GA 3.0 ° TCH 50 . Trees.
RWY 35: PAPI(P4L)—GA 3.0 ° TCH 54 . Pole.
LAND AND HOLD SHORT OPERATIONS
LANDING HOLD SHORT POINT DIST AVBL
RWY 13 17–35 5400
RWY 17 13–31 5650
ARRESTING GEAR/SYSTEM
RWY 13 ←BAK–14 BAK–12B(B) (1392 )
BAK–14 BAK–12B(B) (1492 ) →RWY 31
AIRPORT REMARKS: Attended continuously. PAEW 0330–1200Z ‡ during
inclement weather Nov–Apr. AER 31–BAK–12/14 located (1492 )
from thld. Airfield surface conditions not monitored by arpt
management between 0600–1000Z ‡ daily. Rwy 13–BAK–12/14
located (1392 ) from thld. All A–gear avbl only during ANG flying ops. Twr has limited visibility southeast of
ramp near ARFF bldg and northeast of Rwy 31 touchdown zone. Rwy 31 is calm wind rwy. Class I, ARFF Index
B. ARFF Index E fire fighting equipment avbl on request. Twy F unlit, retro–reflective markers in place. Portions
of Twy A SE of Twy B not visible by twr and is designated a non–movement area. Rwy 13–31 touchdown and
rollout rwy visual range avbl. When twr clsd, ACTIVATE HIRL Rwy 13–31; MIRL Rwy 17–35; MALS Rwy 13;
MALSR Rwy 31; and REIL Rwy 17—CTAF.
WEATHER DATA SOURCES: ASOS (712) 255–6474. HIWAS 116.5 SUX. LAWRS.
COMMUNICATIONS: CTAF 118.7 ATIS 119.45 UNICOM 122.95
SIOUX CITY RCO 122.45 122.1R 116.5T (FORT DODGE RADIO)
R SIOUX CITY APP/DEP CON 124.6 (1200–0330Z ‡)
R MINNEAPOLIS CENTER APP/DEP CON 124.1 (0330–1200Z ‡)
SIOUX CITY TOWER 118.7 (1200–0330Z ‡) GND CON 121.9
AIRSPACE: CLASS D svc 1200–0330Z ‡ other times CLASS E.
RADIO AIDS TO NAVIGATION: NOTAM FILE SUX.
SIOUX CITY (L) VORTAC 116.5 SUX Chan 112 N42 °20.67 W96°19.42 313° 4.4 NM to fld. 1087/9E.
HIWAS.
NDB (MHW) 233 GAK N42 °24.49 W96°23.16 at fld.
SALIX NDB (MHW/LOM) 414 SU N42 °19.65 W96°17.43 311° 6.1 NM to fld. Unmonitored.
TOMMI NDB (MHW/LOM) 305 OI N42 °27.61 W96°27.73 128° 4.9 NM to fld. Unmonitored.
ILS 109.3 I–SUX Rwy 31 Class IT. LOM SALIX NDB. ILS Unmonitored when twr clsd. Glide path
unusable coupled approach (CPD) blo 1805 .
ILS 111.3 I–OIQ Rwy 13 LOM TOMMI NDB. Localizer shutdown when twr clsd.
ASR (1200–0330Z‡)

SNORE N43°13.96 W95°19.66 NOTAM FILE SPW. OMAHA


NDB (LOM) 394 SP 121 ° 6.8 NM to Spencer Muni.

SOUTHEAST IOWA RGNL (See BURLINGTON)

Figure 79. Chart Supplement.

2-76
Appendix 2

Figure 80. Sectional Chart Excerpt.


NOTE: Chart is not to scale and should not be used for navigation. Use associated scale.

2-77
Appendix 2

216 COLORADO
CRAWFORD (99V) 2 W UTC 7( 6DT) N38 °42.25 W107°38.62 DENVER
6470 S2 OX 4 TPA—7470(1000) NOTAM FILE DEN L–9E
RWY 07–25: H4900X20 (ASPH) LIRL (NSTD)
RWY 07: VASI (NSTD). Trees. RWY 25: VASI (NSTD) Tank. Rgt tfc.
RWY E–W: 2500X125 (TURF)
RWY E: Rgt tfc. RWY W: Trees.
AIRPORT REMARKS: Attended continuously. Rwy 07–25 west 1300 only 25 wide. Heavy glider ops at arpt. Land to the
east tkf to the west winds permitting. 100LL fuel avbl for emergency use only. Pedestrians, motor vehicles, deer
and wildlife on and invof arpt. Unlimited vehicle use on arpt. Rwy West has +15 building 170 from thld 30 left,
+10 road 100 from thld centerline. +45 tree 100 L of Rwy 07 extended centerline 414 from rwy end. 8 to
20 terrain off both sides of first 674 of Rwy 25 end. E–W rwy occasionally has 6 inch diameter irrigation
pipes crossing rwy width in various places. Rwy 07 has 20 trees and –10 to 20 terrain 20 right of rwy first
150 . E–W rwy consists of +12 inch alfalfa vegetation during various times of the year. Arpt lgts opr
dusk–0800Z‡. Rwy 07 1 box VASI left side for local operators only or PPR call 970–921–7700 or
970–921–3018. Rwy 07–25 LIRL on N side from Rwy 25 end W 3800 . Rwy 07 1300 from end E 300 . No thld
lgts Rwy 07–25 3800 usable for ngt ops.
COMMUNICATIONS: CTAF/UNICOM 122.8
RADIO AIDS TO NAVIGATION: NOTAM FILE MTJ.
MONTROSE (H) VORW/DME 117.1 MTJ Chan 118 N38 °30.39 W107°53.96 033° 16.9 NM to fld. 5713/12E.

CREEDE
MINERAL CO MEM (C24) 2E UTC 7( 6DT) N37 °49.33 W106°55.79 DENVER
8680 NOTAM FILE DEN H–3E, L–9E
RWY 07–25: H6880X60 (ASPH) S–12.5, D–70, 2D–110
RWY 07: Thld dsplcd 188 . RWY 25: Road.
AIRPORT REMARKS: Unattended. Elk and deer on and invof arpt. Glider and hang glider activity on and in vicinity of
arpt. Mountains in all directions. Departure to NE avoid over flight of trailers and resident homes, climb to 200
above ground level on centerline extended prior to turn. Acft stay to right of valley on apch and/or departure
route. 2 cable fence around apron.
COMMUNICATIONS: CTAF 122.9
RADIO AIDS TO NAVIGATION: NOTAM FILE DEN.
BLUE MESA (H) VORW/DME 114.9 HBU Chan 96 N38 °27.13 W107°02.39 158° 38.1 NM to fld. 8730/14E.

CUCHARA VALLEY AT LA VETA (See LA VETA)

DEL NORTE
ASTRONAUT KENT ROMINGER (8V1) 3N UTC 7( 6DT) N37 °42.83 W106°21.11 DENVER
7949 NOTAM FILE DEN H–3E, L–9E
RWY 06–24: 6050X75 (ASPH) 1.1% up SW
RWY 03–21: 4670X60 (TURF–DIRT)
RWY 21: Mountain.
AIRPORT REMARKS: Unattended. Wildlife on and invof arpt. Unlimited vehicle access on arpt. Mountainous terrain
surrounds arpt in all directions.
COMMUNICATIONS: CTAF 122.9
RADIO AIDS TO NAVIGATION: NOTAM FILE ALS.
ALAMOSA (H) VORTACW 113.9 ALS Chan 86 N37 °20.95 W105°48.93 298° 33.7 NM to fld. 7535/13E.

Figure 81. Chart Supplement.

2-78
1 2 3

I00 FEET I00 FEET I00 FEET

9 0 I 9 0 I 9 0
CA
I
LIB
R
20 TO ATE
,00 D
8 CALIBRATED
ALT 2
29.4
8 CALIBRATE
TO
D ALT 2
29.4
8 0F
EE
2
29.4
TO T
29.5 20,000 FEET 29.5 29.5
AL
20,000 FEET T
29.6 29.6 29.6

2-79
7 3 7 3 7 3
6 6 6

Figure 82. Altimeter.


5 4 5 4 5 4
Appendix 2