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;;23 "J) JUN 16 1972
.L S 25 CENTS
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MAY 15-30, 1972

LIBERTY UNION
& VERMONT POLITICS
RALPH NADER:
Whose Law, Whose Order?

IN THE FACTORY
by Doris Lake
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plus! WHY YOUR PHONE BILLS WENT UP (AGAIN.> -~~ t ~
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Mov1!1111!nt. Published biweekly by the liberty Union, a political party 1n the state
of Vennont. Send remittances and correspondence to P.O. Box 431, Essex Junction,
Vermont 05452. Single issue, 25 cents. Yearly subscription, $5.00 (for 25 issues).
Copyright 1972 by Liberty Union.
~I Jt
Editor: Bemard Sanders; Assistant Editors: Harry Blumield, Ji111 Rader
-
I enclose SS. 00 for a one year"-
Send check to P.O. Box 431, Essex
~-,.
Page One

FIRST ISSUE
MA BELL:Show&Tel _ _ _ _ _ _ __

(OR, WHY YOUR PHONE BILL IS HIGHER).

MAY 15- 30, 1972


We expect that you've·noticed
that your t elephone bill, if you live
in Vermont , is higher than it used to As a result of the increase in Service Company and the Green Mount-
be. Despite all the government rhet- rates i t now costs, for example,
ain Power Company is owned by large
oric about "holding the line on in- station to station daytime direct corporate out of state interests
flation," and "keeping prices down," dialing (the cheapest rates), 70¢ to whose main connection with the state
the Vermont Public Service Board in call Burlington to Brattleboro, 60¢ is to take Vermonters' money back to
Novemeer , 1971, granted the New Eng- to call Burlington to Rutland, and New York or Boston to further their
land Telephone and Telegraph Company 60¢ to call Burlington to Newport. own private gain. Of the 30 major
a substant ial rate increase . Kosh- If you have the misfortune to be investors in N.E.T.&T., 24 of them
Glassman Associates. Inc .• the con- outside and have to call from a pay (including A.T.&T . ) are based in New
sulting firm retained by the Public phone it now costs, once more using York, 2 in Boston, 1 in Washington,
Service Board, concluded that "the Burlino,ton as a base, $1.15 to call 1 in Milwaukee, 1 in Rochester and 1
monetary return filed by the petit- Brattleboro, 95¢ to call Rutland and in Providence. None of the invest-
ioners proposed rate of return of 95¢ to call Newport. This is day ors are based in Vermont. These are
7. 93 percent are not unreasonable." time dialing for the first three the people who determine what the
The bulk of the rate increase af- minutes. If you need to converse rates are that Vermonters will have
fects toll calls which were increased for more than three minutes it will, to pay.
on the average by 20 percent. And, of course, cos t you substantially N.E . T.&T., like all telephone
in Vermont, which is primarily a rur- more . companies, is a monopoly. The nat-
al state, this means substantially The New England Telephone and ure of telephone service is such that
higher phone bills for people who Telegraph Company serves Maine, monopoly, and centralized control of
make calls outside of their districts . Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode service is inevitable if one is to
make calls outside of their district. Island and Vermont. (In Vermont have any kind of efficiency . But the
There was also a major increase in there are some small independent question arises--if we are to have a
rates for users of pay phones. Our phone companies but N.E . T.&T. hand- monopoly, who controls it and for
readers might be interested to know les about 85% of the business . ) Al- what purpose. I gather that we will
that, despite the fact that this in- though there are other large invest- shock few people by suggesting that
crease in phone rates affects tens of ment corporations which own stock in the function of the New England Tel-
thousands of Vermonters, there were it, such as Merrill, Lynch, Pierce, ephone and Telegraph Company is not
no consumers at the hearing which Fenner and Smith, Inc . , N.E.T . &T. is to provide as good a phone service as
granted the increase. Not one. The essentially a subsidiary of A.T.&T. possible at the lowest possible rates
telephone company was ably represent- which owns over 90% of the stock in but rather to make as large a profit
ed by John D. Carbine, the major the company. N.E.T.&T . , therefore, as possible for the people who own
lobbyist for big business in the like the other Vermont utilities the company. In other words, the
state. such as the Central Vermont Public function of this monopoly is not to
~

A~RDof INTRODUCTION----------------------~

Hello. This is the first issue of Movement , a new We also consider that an important function of ours is
Vermont publication. Our function is to present t o you to do some basic reporting about the communes in the area,
radical ideas and alternatives to the status quo news the free health clinics, the wome n's movement, the food-
that isn I t printed by your local newspaper, information
'
a- coops, the welfare rights groups, the ecology groups,
bout the hundreds of life-supporting movements that are civil liberties groups, the labor movement, the free
taking place throughou t Vermont and New England, and an a- schools, the alternative economic undertakings, and what-
wareness of what the Liberty Union is about. ever else is going on. We consider this type of reporting
to be important because people in movement, people who ar~
We are politically radical. Therefore, it goes with- undertaking real activities, are a basic means by which
out saying that we oppose the Democratic and Republican other people can be inspired to get out and do it. Ideas,
parties because they both represent the interests of the and discussion are obviously essential - but no real
handful of people who own and control the wealth, power, change is ever going to take place in Vermont or America
and decision-making apparatus of this country and this unless people get off their collective asses, and do it .
state. In this issue, for example, there is an article on So we shall tell you about the people who are doing it.
the Vermont State Legislature and the degree to which it is
undemocratic, sexist , and completely unresponsive to the Movement, like all publications, needs money to keep
needs of the people of Vermont. There is also an article it alive . Printing, postage, and the need to keep a few
on.the New England Telephone Company, a mammouth organiz- of us going economically takes cash - so we'd appreciate
ation of extreme importance over which the oeoole have your subscribing . Subscriptions cost $5 a year (for 25
virtually no control - and which is clearly one of the issues) and a subscription blank can be found on the front
giant rip-offs in America. But even as we actively oppose page . Movement will also be found on most newstands
these people (and in Vermont the form of our political o- throughout the state . •
pposition is called the Liberty Union) we are concerned
about a myriad of things which often fall outside of what NADER: Whose Law, Whos e Orde r ? - - - •
is usually called "politics."
("Excerpted from a speech by Ralph Nader given at U. V.M.
In the weeks and months to come, therefore, we will on October 8, l97l) .
not only be writing about political and economic issuesbut
we will also attempt to delve into many aspects of our Why is it that it took 70 years for the Federal Gov-
culture and general way of life - and to present alter- ernment to discover the 1899 anti-water pollution provis-
natives. We shall be discussing, fo r example, hospitals ion? There wasn't a single enforcement by the Justice
and doctors - and why Western Medicine's approach to dis- Department although there were about 40,000 corporate
ease is often similar to the American government 's re- polluters dumping contaminants into navigable waterways
sponse to the Vietnamese revolution . We shall be discuss- in a direct violation of criminal statutes that a conser-
ing infants and children, and the need to abolish compul- vative Republican Congress passed in 1899. Why the dou-
sory education (and, perhaps, schools) so that kids can ble standare? For example, if it is a crime for an in-
grow up with a sense of independence and strength rather dividual to relieve himself in the Detroit River, why
than as cogs in this great bureaucratic, oppressive morass isn't it a crime for corporations to relieve themselves
which is called America. And more. in the Detroit River? ~
Page Two

benefit the millions of peopl e who have no competition these people, who ines . I'm turning out between 10,000
use telephones -- but rather the rel- recently felt the necessity of rais- and 15,000 lenses with beveled edges
ative few who own the company. ing the phone rates, felt the need to a week, and I'm not making piece-work
Although we in Vermont (as well spend over half a million of your like most of the other workers. The
as the people in Maine,Massachusetts, dollars so as to make an even greater hourly wage is considered good for
New Hampshire and Rhode Island) Pho amount of profit. this area, and one may go to the
wish to use the telephone have no One last work about the phone bathroom at any time. There is a
choice but to use N.E.T . &T., we have company . Charity may be next to god- lunch room too with vending machines,
absolut ely no control over the comp- liness -- but most people prefer to but when you're trying to make piece-
any . (The function of the Public donate to the charity of their choice work, who takes time to eat? Besides
Service Board is a subject for anoth- and not have their money donated for I'm on the third shift, 11 p.m. to 7
er article.) All of the basic de- them. For the record,therefore, those a.m .. I never dreamed the world need-
cisions of the N.E.T.&T . Company are people who pay their phone bills to ed so many glasses.
made by a Board of Directors sitting N.E.T. &T. might be interested in Most of the people that I talk to
in Boston--and are completely out of learning that in 1971 some $368,000 have other work that they would rath-
the con trol of the people who use the er do, but the money is good. At
was donated for them by New England
Telephone and Telegraph to various least some people seem to think it is
service. We can take it or leave it good. At least half of the men that
but we have no say over what happens. charities. Among other charities,
I talked to feel that they need an
Vermonters who contr ibute to the N.E.T.&T . donated $10,000 to Harvard
additional job, especially the ones
guaranteed profits of N.E . T.&T. might University, $5,000 to Providence
who have families and whose wives
be interested in knowing how some of College, $5,000 to Smith College, aren't working. Some felt a little
their money is spent. For example, $23,000 to the New England College bad that they didn't see their child-
whereas the people of Vermont pay Fund, $157,000 to the Massachusetts
ren much. Others felt that the only
their Governor a salary of $30,000 a Bay United Fund, and $49,000 to the thin~ in life besides work was sleep.
year, the Board of Directors of N.E.T. United Fund of Southeastern New Eng- One youngish man who has been working
&T. have decided to pay the Chairman land. -Bernard Sanders for only seven months said that he
of the Board of their Company, Mr. was just working to pay for his
Allen C. Barry, $135,000 a year. The piano, but now other things have come
Director and President of the Company up. One middle-aged father of seven
Mr. William C. Mercer, also receives said that he was a farm machinery
$135,000 a year and the Vice-Presi- mechanic, but he has been turning
dent of the Company gets $75 ,000 a ---·DORIS LAKE: In stones in the factory that I'm work-
year. All told, according to a list
published in N.E.T.&T . 's Annual Re- The Factory------ ing in for four years. He never
smiled. The foreman didn't smile
port, 41 individuals receive a salary much either. He looks like he'd be
from N.E.T.&T. of at least $40,000 Doris Lake was Liberty Union 's can- happy in the woods, a forester maybe;
a year . Women might be interested to didate for Congress ~n the Special but he has made the compromise to
know that an examination of that list Election hel.d in Jan ., 1972. She re- work in a building built to hold
suggests that no ~'~en are on the ceived dose to 5% of the vote . She machines, with noise comparable to a
Board of Directors of N.E. T. &T. or is a memher of the L. U. Executive subway and pushing his body to the
are among the major office holders of Committ- pace ~f machines. I won't begin to
the company . tell you what the work is doing to
me, but after four weeks part of me
is dead or at least dying fast. But
Another interestinR facet of the The position in Washington was the house needs painting, and some of
workings of the telephone company is filled by Mr . Mallary, so now I'm the debts incurred during Peter's
that in 1971 these gentlemen spent working in a factory . At one of the campaign for Attorney General and
$540,455.67 of Hour mone~ for ad- best factory jobs in Brattleboro, I mine for Congress are still hanging
walk sideways for eight hours feeding around. Who would a guaranteed min-
vertising. Despite the fact that they lenses into fifty-eight edging mach- imum hurt? Or profit controls? •

What breeds disrespect for the law on the part of more - you felt an obligation to your shareholders. ~nd
many people is that it is so unevenly applied . It is the so you went to Washington and you went to the Executive
knowledge that if you are wealthy enough, or if you have Branch - never mind Congress, that might be too visible
enough lawyers, you can escape the impositions of the law and you persuaded, in 1959, the White House to issue an
almost invariably . It is the feeling that large corp-
orations are buffers which shield culpable employees from Executive Order which, in effect, limited oil imports.
the arm of the law whereas the same employees, if they It put a 12 percent ceiling. Th~t is, no more. than 12
act individually without this corporate buffer, could percent of the domestic oil consumption could be im~or~ed
never escape the law with such impunity. You can talk to from abroad. And with the elimination of cheap oil im-
many poor people and they have a distinct understandinq ports this Executive Order, in effect, artificia~ly
of what is going on at the top of that economic ladder - raised the price level of petroleum prodacts - gasoline
and this affects their attitude toward the law. They and home fue l in particular, to the tune of about 5 ~o 7
know what is being gotten away with at the top of the bil lion dollars a year . That is the cost to the American
economic ladder and they compare that to the situation consumer of the oil import quota imposed without a con-
that they are in. gressional hearing, and w~thout a congress~onal .law -only
by an Executive Order which came from a nice little get-
Let's take an illustration. Suppose a poor person together between the oil industry and a few government
didn't want to pay very much for gasoline for his car - a officials - some of whom were already on their way after
15 year old auto - and he doesn't like having to pay 35 their on-the-job training in the oil industry. Five to 7
cents for a gallon of gas. So one evening, when the gas billion dollars a year is not my figure. It is President
station is closed he goes - (and he knows how to unlock Nixon's Oil Import Task Force Study's conclusion which
the pump)- and he fi l 1 s his car with gas. That, of course reconmended the abolition of the oil import quota, a pro-
is a crime and is punishable by a significant jail sent- posal which was promptly overruled by the White House.
ence. If he is caught for committing this crime he is It disregarded its own task force .
very likely to be prosecuted. The station manager cert-
ainly has an interest in stopping such action . Now that is just one example that amounts to over a
nickle every time you go down and buy a gallon of gas-
Well, on the other hand , suppose you were an oil com- oline. Now why do they limit imports - particularly when
pany and you didn't 1i ke the low price +-hat you were get- they, in effect, produce the oil overseas that is going
ting for your gasoline from the consumer. It just w;isn't to be imported. They don't even want to have their CMn
enouqh. After all, how else could you make 50 or 100 oil i mportPd because it i s much more important to inflict
mil li on dollars and only pay 3 or 4 percent federal tax an artificial scarcity - which limiting imports does- and
because of all those depletion allowances. You wanted keep the domestic price leve l high. That is what the
critical thing is for them. •
I
I .

Page Three

LIBERTY UNION & VERMONT P O L I T I C S - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

The Vermont State Legislature is composed of two bod- WHAT'S TO BE DONE?


ies- the Senate and the House. The Senate has 30 members The function of Liberty Union is to provide a radical
and the House has 150 members. Let's take a quick look alternative to the Democratic-Republican Party. Essen-
at the current State Legislature and the people who make tially, we see both of these parties as one, identical on
the decisions for the State of Vermont. almost all of the basic issues, both on a national and
statewide level. We believe that any real social chanqe,
The Vermont Legisla.tw>e is grossly sexist. Of the both nationally and in the state, is going to have to
150 members of the Vermont House only 19 are women - 131 come by working outside of establishment politics. In
are men. In the Senate there are 3 women and 27 men. the two elections in which Liberty Union has participated
(the election of 1970 and the Special Election of January
1972) it has served a vitally important function. Be-
The Vermont Legislature is, veritabl11 , an old aae cause of the efforts of Liberty Union tens of thousands
heme. The average age of the Vermont House is 57.4 years of Vermonters have been exposed to radical political and
of age . Some 75 menbers, a full 50% of that body, are 60 social alternatives. Our candidates have appeared on do-
years of age or older. In the House, the Vermont Legis- zens of radio and t.v. shows, have had widespread cov-
lative Directory mentions, under the heading of "occ- erage in newspapers and have spoken at many meetings. We
·upati on" that 41 of the 150 menbers are "retired." This have addressed labor qroups and high school and college
means that almost 30% of that body consider themselves students, and have debated the sandidates of the estab-
too old to do gainful employment - and yet they decide lishment parties throughout the state. And we have had
the future of the state. In the Senate over 25% of the an impact.
members are 70 years of age or older. Now comes 1972 - and a general election in November -
and Liberty Union is about to face its greatest chall -
enge. The main question facing Liberty Union now is
Economically, the Vermont Legislatw>e does not rep- whether we, as a party, can expand our base and become a
resent the econcmic condition of the people they are real qrassroots orqanization . In other words, can we put
supposed to be representing . Vermont is ( for reasons we together a ticket for the Novenber election which goes
hope to explore in this publication some day) a poor beyond a slate of candidates for state and national
state. There is high unemployment, the wage scale is office. Can we filter dC1Nn into the cities and towns of
low, and the small farmer, once the eco~omic backbone of the state, make face to face contact with the people, and
the state, has been almost completely driven out of bus - run candidates of the people for state legislatue and lo-
iness. Let's take a look at the occupational background cal office.
of the members of the State Senate and see who they rep-
resent. Of the 30 members listed in the Vel'mOnt Legisla- It strikes us that if Lieerty Union is going to grow
tive Directory 4 are listed as retired. Two members are we have got to talk the issues in the local communities
listed as housewives, and one is a registered nurse. Six by running local candidates. We have got to run working
are connected with the insurance indus try, three are people, and mothers, people on welfare and students,
listed as lawyers, four are in education, and one is in people who are unemployed and people who just consider
real estate, and three are in assorted professions. Six themselves the "average folk. " We have got to run people
members are listed as being farmers or as being in farm throughout the state and put the "powers that be " on the
related work - but a check of their biographies s uggests defensive from Bennington to Newport.
that they are rather unusual farmers. One of these
"farmers" (Janeway) happens to be the Director of the In those areas of the state in which there are coll-
Catamount National Bank and another (Hayes) is "retired eges and universities there is no con ceivable reason why
director, vice-president and Board-Chairman of the Enos- radi cal students should not run for legis lature from
berg Falls National Bank." Another "farmer" (Gibbs) was their districts. This is true for such areas as Johnson,
formerly in banking and investment counseling before he Lyndon, Castleton, Randolph, Plainfield, Marlboro, Wind-
took up farming, and another (Bradford) has an M.A. de- ham, Winooski and Burlington . In many of these areas the
gree and a law degree. It appears that these are not incumbents ran unopposed in the last election. The can-
your average Vermont farmers. didacy of a student running on a radical platform could
serve a valuable educational purpose in the surrounding
area, as well as help bring the students of the campus
into political activity. It is also not inconceivable
In the Vermont Senate there are no students or young that in a few of these areas, if voter registration is
working people. (This age discrimination is enforced by done well, we could win el ections. And in the cities and
law as the election statutes state that a State Senator towns throughout the state the situation is not dissimil-
must be at least 30 years old). There are no women of ar. It will be absolutely inexcusable if the Democratic
chil d bearing age (which should be recalled when we think machine of Burlington and Winooski goes unchal lenged as
about who makes the decisions regarding abortion); there it did in the last election - and we should be able to
are, apparently, no welfare recipients or recipients of run full slates in the other large cities as well.
food stamps, there are no manual laborers and there are
no unemployed workers. Who does the Senate represent?
WHAT ARE THE ISSUES?
With regard to the actual election process the Ver-
mont Legislature is extremely "interesting" (for want of
a better word) . Almost half of the seats won in the Without offering any kind of definitive platform at
House in the last election were uncontested. And, lest this time let us mention, in general terms, what some of
people think that this only happens in the hills where the central issues in a state-wide campaign for Liberty
Republicans are re-elected every year without opposition, Union would probably be.
they should bear the following in mind. In the Burling- 1- Revision of state election laws. We should abol-
ton-Winooski area of Chittenden County there were 15 ish laws which prevent any eligible voter from serving.in
seats up for election in 1970. Only 5 were contested as any elective office. We should lower the minimum vot1ng
the Democrats "won" 10 without opposition. In the Rut- age to 14 so that people of high school age can have the
land area there were 9 seats up for election in the legal power to protect their rights and gain control o~er
House. The Republicans "won" 5 and the Democrats "won" their lives. We have also qot to propose means by wh1ch
4. Of these 9 "races" only two were actually contested. average people can serve in government without having
In the St. Albans area there were 4 seats up for elect- their normal style of life disrupted. The reason why the
ion, all "won" by Democrats - without opposition. In present legislature is full of retired people and in-
Montpelier 2 out of 3 seats in the House were uncontested surance agents is that people holding down 9-5 jobs, mo-
on Election Day and in Brattleboro 3 out of 7 seats were thers, and young people cannot take two or three months a
uncontested. In Newport both seats were uncontested. year out from their normal schedules. ~
Page Four

2- Revision of the state tax structure. There back into the state treasur.v so as to reduce the tax
should be repeal of the sales tax, the poll tax and all load. But to continue a policy in which a profit is
regressive taxes. The whole issue of property tax has guaranteed to these huge private (out of state) monop-
got to be reexamined. In general, the regressive taxes olies is nothing but a giant rip-off of the people.
should be replaced by a heavy tax on big business, real
estate speculators, and people who have the money .
People who have the wealth should be taxed, not working 5- The abolition of welfare and its replacement by a
people who are increasinqly finding it hard to make ends minimum income which guarantees every citizen of the
meet. state a decent standard of living.

3- The involvement of the state, on a democratic and 6- A concerted effort to make "freedom" a reality
non-bureaucratic basis, into economic enterprise. With and not just an empty word. The repeal of all laws which
unemployment high and wages low, with an economy based to rel~te to victimless ~rimes such as abortion, drug poss-
a large degree on the production of junk whose sales are ession, and homosexuality. In a free society individuals
often stilll.llated by misleading advertising, there is no and not government have the right to decide what is best
reason why state money should not be used to produce use- for their own lives.
ful and ecologically sound products, which will provide
meaningful worK for Vennonters at good wages.
7- The abolition of compulsory education and the
creating of alternative ways for kids to grow up who do
4- Public ownership of monopoly utilities. Monop-
olies such as the telephone and electric companies should not feel comfortable in conventional type schools.
not be allowed to function, without competition, at a
guaranteed rate of profit. These utilities could be run
~by a public agency on a non-profit basis which would re-
sult in greatly reduced rates for the consumer. Or, they THE LIBERTY UNION EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE
could be run on a profit basis with the revenue going