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Theories of Migration: ● Wave Theory of Migration

● To prove that Filipinos did not come from ○ Debunked by Bellwood and Solheim,
beasts or monkeys saying that there were no waves of
● Out-of-Taiwan Theory migration, only gradual movement
○ Proposed by Peter Bellwood in the ○ Adopted by H. Otley Beyer – Father
1980’s of Philippine Anthropology
○ Filipinos belonged to a race called ○ Migration to the PH came in waves
austronesians 1. Aeta or negrito people
■ Austros (south) and nexos 2. Inhabitants of the highlands
(islands) of the PH
■ People from the southern 3. Immigrants from SE Asia
islands ○ Waves of migration pushed earlier
○ Austronesians originated from migrants to the mountains and
southern China and northern interior of the PH
Vietnam ○ Ferdinand Blumentritt
○ They built massive rice terraces in ■ studying people of the PH;
Kunming and Lan Son, Vietnam considered Tagalogs,
○ They crossed the Taiwan Strait into Pampangos, Visayans,
Formosa, then moved southward Bicolanos, Pangasinenses,
towards PH, ID, and MY. and Cagayanonons as part
○ They became descendants of of the 3rd wave; inhabited
Filipinos, Indonesians, and plains and seashores; more
Malaysians culturally advanced and more
○ Some moved eastward to the mobile
Pacific; became Chamorros of ■ First systematic formulation
Mariana Islands, Carolinians and of the migration wave theory
Polynesians of Hawaii and in 1882 in a paper “An
Christmas Island, and Maori People Attempt at Writing a
of New Zealand Philippine Ethnography”
○ Moved westward towards ■ Filipinos - combination of 2
Madagascar, East Africa races (negroid and malay
○ Bellwood based migration patterns and other diverse cultural
on artifacts left by wandering groups)
Austronesians; age of artifacts >> ○ J. Montano
southward trend from Taiwan ■ Classified 3 Filipino races
towards SE Asia 1. Negritos – short,
● Nusantao Theory dark-skinned with
○ Challenged Bellwood’s Out-of- curly hair
Taiwan Theory 2. Indonesians – tall,
○ Proposed by Wilhelm Solheim fair-skinned with
○ Nusa (island) and tao (people); straight hair
Island people 3. Malay – darker and
○ Migration moved northward from heavy built
Java, Indonesia ■ Acc. to him, waves of
○ Also based his theory on the age of migration diffused through all
artifacts parts of SE Asia
○ Solheim said migration came both ● Central Origin Theory
ways after the first big northward ○ F. Landa Jocano
○ Filipinos came from one group of ● An Attempt at Writing a Philippine
immigrants Ethnography – provided a broad template in
● Philippine Asian Theory Ilustrados’ minds about precolonial past
○ E. Arsenio Manuel ● Blumentritt’s ordering/classifying of races
○ Origin of Filipinos can be explained (wave migration)
by the family of their languages and ○ Gave Rizal answers on his narrative
dialects self
★ Findings of scientific community in Europe ○ Rizal saw himself as part of the 3rd
during the 19th century fired up the minds of wave; those who built empires in Sri
the Filipino nationalists Vijaya and Madjapahit, traded in SE
★ They began to imagine the Philippines Asia, and became ancestors of
before colonization Filipino nobles
★ No uniform ideas; each had his own ● Blumentritt told Rizal about last copy of
approach in imagining Morga’s book, Sucesos delas Islas Filipinas
★ Knowledge of Filipino ancestry was impt. for in British Museum
their political agenda; prove that Filipinos ○ Ilustrados started to include
had a civilization before being colonized and themselves as descendants of those
reclaim their ancient birthright as civilized natives in Morga’s book
★ Isabelo de los Reyes Critics in The Approach:
○ Founded Iglesia Filipina
Independiente - Blumentritt’s approach to racial science received
○ Reconstructed past through new criticisms
science of folklore - Mosse, a critic, said that the search for a people’s
★ Lopez-Jaena roots through it is essential to the formation of
○ Expounded indigenous origins of nationalism and racism
Filipinos - He also said that the roots of the race were though
★ T.H. Pardo de Tavera to determine its future as well
○ Studied ancient Tagalog writings - Tom Nairn said racism is derived from nationalism
- Anderson, on the other hand, says that the
★ Pedro Paterno
creation of irredentist ideologies and a rediscovery
○ Studied precolonial Philippine
of self are distinct and separate in their origins,
aspirations and expressions
★ Jose Rizal
- According to him, the search for identity does not
○ Relied on science and scientific lead to racism and totalitarianism, but racism and
findings to reconstruct past nationalism are reciprocally determinative of each
○ Racial science other
■ Had flaws - Cultural minorities are formed when some people
■ Darwinian approach are marginalized if one race becomes dominant than
● White men as the them
final stage of human - In the case of the Philippines when the Spanish
evolution arrived, our ancestors were regressed
● White men had the - The precolonial society was divided into two types
right to colonize and of people
oppress those inferior o Civilized – the ones that embraced
★ The approach of Blumentritt and other Christianity and Spanish authorities
Europeans justified racism o Uncivilized/Uneducated – these are the
○ One race was superior to another people who opposed Spanish colonialism
- John Schumacher said that pagan Igorots and
Contribution of Blumentritt: Muslim Moros were considered and treated by
Christian Filipinos as outside the civilized Filipino
- Propagandists adopted national inclusiveness,
where they also advocate for elements that aren’t
theirs (example is including the era of the ancestors
as part of the heritage; Rizal believed that our
ancestors are more perfect and more civilized than
the Europeans)
- Filipinos became subjects of the King of Spain
when Spain colonized the country
- The Philippines was reared by Spain and is now
an independent nation
- Spain was considered to be the Madre España to
the Ilustrados but not to the revolutionaries like
- Rizal’s ideology is inclusive, but selective for he
refused to be included among the Negritos as his
- According to him, the Negritos are of a wild race
and that they have the incapacity to induce
civilization due to the fact that they are outside of the
ilustrados sphere of legitimate knowledge and
pursuit of justice
- But Rizal’s race still remained as indios though
they can still be called by their regional identities such
as Tagalogs, Visayans, and Ilocanos. Even if they
gain wealth, lived in lavish Spanish-style houses and
educated in Spanish institutions, they remain indios
- Rizal wish to uplift the status of the Filipinos
- However, the Spaniards rejected the efforts of
having equal status with the rising class of Chinese
mestizos and indios
- In fact, the Spaniards have a name for the rising
Middle Class – called Bestias Cargadas de Oro
(Beasts laden in gold)
- Juan Luna, who was Rizal’s friend and Felix
Resurreccion Hidalgo won top prizes in Madrid,
which brought indios to strive for excellence
- Rizal urged the indios not to imitate the Spaniards
but to be proud of their race and heritage
- He formed an organization called Indios Bravos
- A sub-organization was also established under
this called the RDLM – the Redencion de los
- RDLM aimed to free the Malay peoples under
foreign rule