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Mobile & Ad Hoc Network

Chandra Prakash
Assistant Professor

Chandra Prakash, LPU 1

Objectives of the Chapter
 Introduction
 Fundamentals of Wireless Communication Technology
 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
 Radio Propagation Mechanisms
 Characteristics of the Wireless Channel
 Evolution of mobile Cellular Networks
 Generations of Cellular Mobile Communication
 Wireless LANs, Wi-Fi
 IEEE 802 Networking Standard

2 Chandra Prakash, LPU

Evolution of mobile
Cellular Networks
It all started like this
• First telephone (photophone) – Alexander Bell, 1880
• First radio communication system – G. Marconi(1897)

• The first car mounted radio telephone – 1921

Going further
• 1946 – First commercial mobile radio-telephone service by Bell and
AT&T in Saint Louis, USA. Half duplex (PTT)
– Push-to-talk cellular calls provide half-duplex communications
while one person transmits, the other(s) receive. This combines
the operational advantages of PTT with the interference
resistance and other virtues of mobile phones.

• 1973 – First handheld cellular phone – Motorola.

• First cellular net Bahrein 1978
Introduction to cellular network
 A cellular network
 Radio network distributed over land areas called cells,
 Each cell served by at least one fixed location transceiver known
as a cell site or Base Station(BS).
 When joined together these cells provide radio coverage over a
wide geographic area.

 Enables a large number of portable transceivers (e.g., mobile

phones, pagers, etc.) to communicate with each other and with fixed
transceivers and telephones anywhere in the network, via base
stations, even if some of the transceivers are moving through more
than one cell during transmission.
Cellular Network
Cellular Network
Some Cellular Terminology
 Cell- service area divided into small area known as cell
• Mobile station (MS) - Device used to communicate over the cellular
• Base station transceiver (BST) - Transmitter/ receiver used to transmit/
receive signals over the radio interface section of the network.
• Base station controller (BSC) - Controls communication between a
group of BST's and a single MSC.
• Mobile switching centre (MSC) - The heart of the network, sets up and
maintains calls made over the network.
• Public switched telephone network (PSTN) - The land based section of
the network.
• Handoff/Handover : handover or handoff refers to the process of
transferring an ongoing call or data session from one channel connected
to the core network to another. Handoff decision made based on signal
Why Cellular ?
Cellular networks offer a number of advantages over alternative
• Wireless access (very convenient)
• Access from anywhere within the coverage area.
• Reduced power use:
• Low power radio (hence better portability and more talk-time per battery
• ―Spectral efficiency‖ (more users in a limited frequency band) through
frequency reuse:
• increased capacity
• larger coverage area
• reduced interference from other signals
Cellular principles
 In a cellular radio system, a land area to be supplied with radio service is
divided into regular shaped cells, which can be hexagonal, square, circular
or some other irregular shapes, although hexagonal cells are conventional.
 Each of these cells is assigned multiple frequencies (f1 - f6) which have
corresponding radio base stations.

 Example of frequency reuse factor or pattern 1/4

 The group of frequencies can be reused in other cells, provided that the
same frequencies are not reused in adjacent neighbouring cells as that would
cause co-channel interference. This increased the capacity in a cellular
• In a standard FDMA system, there must be at least a one cell gap between
cells which reuse the same frequency.
• The frequency reuse factor is the rate at which the same frequency can be
used in the network.
• It is 1/K where K is the number of cells which cannot use the same
frequencies for transmission. Common values for the frequency reuse
factor are 1/3, 1/4, 1/7, 1/9 and 1/12 (or 3, 4, 7, 9 and 12 depending on
Generations of Cellular Mobile
Cellular mobile communication has generations:

– Generation (0)
– Generation # 1
– Generation #2
– Generation #2.5
– Generation #3
– Generation #4
Generation 0 (0g)
• Radio Telephone -1945

• Not officially categorized as mobile phones, since they did not

support the automatic change of channel frequency during calls,
which allows the user to move from one cell (the base station
coverage area) to another cell, a feature called "handover".
• Technologies used in pre cellular systems included the Push to
Talk (PTT or manual), Mobile Telephone System (MTS), Improved
Mobile Telephone Service (IMTS), and Advanced Mobile Telephone
System (AMTS) systems.
First generation (1G)

 Radio signals that 1G networks use are analog [routines for sending
voice] ,
 Mostly telephony only:
 Virtually no data capability other than special device with analog
 In 1G network, voice calls were simply modulated to a higher
frequency, typically to 150MHz and up.

 No International roaming
 All systems are incompatible
 Little capacity – cannot accommodate masses of subscribers
 This generation is now mostly obsolete.
First Generation Technology
• 1G system deployed in US and canada was known as AMPS.
• Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS)
– AMPS is an analog cellular phone system using FDMA.
– A total of 40MHz of spectrum was allocated from the 800MHz band by the Federal
Communications Commission (FCC) for AMPS.
– It was first deployed in Chicago, with a service area of 2100 square miles .
– AMPS offered 832 full duplex channels, with a data rate of 10 kbps.
– Although omnidirectional antennas were used in the earlier AMPS implementation, it was
realized that using directional antennas would yield better cell reuse.
– A 7-cell reuse pattern was adopted for AMPS.
– Designed for grade of service (GoS) of 2% blocking.

• In Europe, TACS (Total Access Communications System) was introduced

with 1000 channels and a data rate of 8 kbps.
• AMPS and TACS use the frequency modulation (FM) technique for radio
Second Generation (2G)
• A new design was introduced into the mobile switching center of second-
generation systems.
• The use of base station controllers (BSCs) lightens the load placed on the
MSC (mobile switching center) found in first-generation systems
• In addition to enhancements in MSC design, the mobile-assisted handoff
mechanism was introduced .
• In 2G, voice communications were digitally encrypted.
• Allowed enhanced data services
– The data capability includes Internet access and picture sharing.
• Support some limited data communications, such as Fax and short
messaging service (SMS)
Second Generation (2G)
• Increased capacity
• More security
• Compatibility

 Compared to first-generation systems, second-generation (2G) systems

use digital multiple access technology
 Multiple access technology,
 TDMA (time division multiple access) and
 CDMA (code division multiple access).

 Global System for Mobile Communications, or GSM , uses TDMA

technology to support multiple users
Examples of 2G
• A 2G system is called personal communications services (PCS) in
marketing literature.
• Global System for Mobile (GSM) used in Europe ,
• Cordless Telephone
• Personal Access Communications Systems (PACS),
• Digital European Cordless Telephone (DECT),
• IS-36 used in US.
• Personal Digital communication (PDC) in Japan.
Global System for Mobile (GSM)
What is GSM

Global System for Mobile (GSM) is a second generation

cellular standard developed to cater voice services and
data delivery using digital modulation

More than 800 million end users in 212 countries (Asia,

Africa, Europe, Australia, America, India etc..) and
representing over 70% of today's digital wireless market.
 source: GSM Association
GSM Since Beginning

• Developed by Group Spéciale Mobile in1982

Aim : to replace the incompatible analog system
• Presently the responsibility of GSM standardization resides with special mobile
group under ETSI ( European telecommunication Standards Institute )
• Under ETSI, GSM is named as ― Global System for Mobile communication‖
• Phase I of GSM specifications was published in 1990
• Commercial service started in mid-1991
• More than 1300 million subscribers in world and 45 million subscriber in India.
• GSM technology was the first one to help establish international roaming.
This enabled the mobile subscribers to use their mobile phone connections in
many different countries of the world’s is based on digital signals ,unlike 1G
technologies which were used to transfer analogue signals.

GSM in World GSM in India

Figures: March, 2005 Arab World Figures: March 2005

Asia Pacific Reliance

3% 3% 3%
MTNL Bharti
3% Africa Aircel Spice
3% (INDIA) 4% 2% BSNL
4% Bharti
East Central Asia 27% Hutch
4% Europe IDEA
37% 6%
Russia IDEA Aircel
4% India BSNL Spice
43% Hutch
1% 22% Reliance
North America 19%
South America
GSM in India
Advantages of GSM over Analog system
 Capacity increases
 Reduced RF transmission power and longer battery life.
 International roaming capability.
 Better security against fraud (through terminal validation and user
 Encryption capability for information security and privacy.
 Compatibility with ISDN,leading to wider range of services
 Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a set of
communications standards for simultaneous digital transmission of voice,
video, data, and other network services over the traditional circuits of
the public switched telephone network(PSTN).
 Uses radio frequency efficiently, Due to digital radio path it is more
tolerable to disturbance.
 Speech quality much better than analog system
 Data transmission is supported throughout the GSM system
 Speech is encrypted and subscriber information security is
 GSM uses TDMA technology to support multiple users.
GSM Services (3 Types)
 Tele-services :
 Telecommunication services that enable voice communication via mobile
 Offered services
 Mobile telephony
 Emergency calling
 Bearer or Data Services
 Include various data services for information transfer between GSM and
other networks like PSTN[Public switched telephone n/w.], ISDN
[Integrated services digital n/w] etc at rates from 300 to 9600 bps
 Short Message Service (SMS)
 up to 160 character alphanumeric data transmission to/from the mobile
 Voice mailbox
 Electronic mail
GSM Services
Call related services :
• Call Waiting- Notification of an incoming call while on the
• Call Hold- Put a caller on hold to take another call
• Call Barring- All calls, outgoing calls, or incoming calls
• Call Forwarding- Calls can be sent to various numbers defined
by the user
Architecture of GSM Network Structure
GSM System Architecture-I
Mobile Station (MS)
Mobile Equipment (ME)
Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)

Base Station Subsystem (BSS)

Base Transceiver Station (BTS)
Base Station Controller (BSC)
Network Switching Subsystem(NSS)
Mobile Switching Center (MSC)
Home Location Register (HLR)
Visitor Location Register (VLR)
Authentication Center (AUC)
Equipment Identity Register (EIR)
• PSTN: Public switched telephone
network (telephone lines, fiber optic
cables, microwave transmission links, cellular
networks, communications satellites)
• ISDN: Integrated Services Digital Network
(digital transmission of voice, video, data, and
other network services)
• BTS: Base Transceiver Stations (Cell Site)
• MSC: Mobile Switching Center
• HLR: Home Location Register
• VLR: Visiting Location Register
• EIR: Equipment Identity Register
• IMSI(International Mobile Subscriber Identity) -> stored in SIM
(Subscriber Identity Mobile)
• AUC: Authentication Centre
The Gateway Mobile Switching Centre (GMSC) is a special kind of MSC that is
used to route calls outside the mobile network. Whenever a call for a mobile
subscriber comes from outside the mobile network, or the subscriber wants to
make a call to somebody outside the mobile network the call is routed through the
GSM System Architecture-I
 1. Mobile Station (MS)
1.1 Mobile Equipment (ME)
1.2 Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)
 2. Base Station Subsystem (BSS)
2.1 Base Transceiver Station (BTS)
2.2 Base Station Controller (BSC)
 3. Network Switching Subsystem(NSS)
3.1 Mobile Switching Center (MSC)
3.2 Home Location Register (HLR)
3.3 Visitor Location Register (VLR)
3.4 Authentication Center (AUC)
3.5 Equipment Identity Register (EIR)
System Architecture
1. Mobile Station (MS)

1.1 Mobile Equipment (ME) 1.2 Subscriber Identity Module

 Portable, vehicle mounted,  Smart card contains the
hand held device International Mobile Subscriber
Identity (IMSI)
 Uniquely identified by an
IMEI (International Mobile  Allows user to send and receive
calls and receive other subscribed
Equipment Identity) services
 Voice and data transmission  Encoded network identification
 Monitoring power and signal details - Key Ki,Kc and A3,A5 and
quality of surrounding cells A8 algorithms
for optimum handover  Protected by a password or PIN
 Power level : 0.8W – 20 W  Can be moved from phone to
 160 character long SMS. phone – contains key information
to activate the phone
System Architecture
2. Base Station Subsystem (BSS)

2.1 Base Transceiver Station 2.2 Base Station Controller

(BTS): (BSC)
 Encodes,encrypts,multiplexes,  Manages Radio resources for
modulates and feeds the RF BTS
signals to the antenna.  Assigns Frequency and time
slots for all MS’s in its area
 Frequency hopping
 Handles call set up
 Communicates with Mobile
 Transcoding and rate
station and BSC adaptation functionality
 Consists of Transceivers (TRX)  Handover for each MS
units  Radio Power control
 It communicates with MSC
and BTS
System Architecture
3. Network Switching Subsystem(NSS)
3.1 Mobile Switching Center 3.2 Home Location
(MSC) Registers (HLR)
 Heart of the network  permanent database about
 Manages communication between GSM mobile subscribers in a large
and other networks service area(generally one per
 Call setup function and basic switching GSM network operator)
 Call routing  database contains
 Billing information and collection IMSI,MSISDN,prepaid/postp
Mobility management aid,roaming
- Registration
- Location Updating
- Inter BSS and inter MSC call handoff
 MSC does gateway function while its
customer roams to other network by
using HLR/VLR.
System Architecture
3.Network Switching Subsystem

3.3 Visitor Location Registers 3.4 Authentication Center


 Temporary database which  Protects against intruders in

updates whenever new MS air interface
enters its area, by HLR database  Maintains authentication keys
 Controls those mobiles roaming and algorithms and provides
in its area security triplets (
 Reduces number of queries to
HLR  Generally associated with
 Database contains
ation Area,authentication key
System Architecture
3.Network Switching Subsystem

3.5 Equipment Identity Register (EIR)

 Database that is used to track handsets using the IMEI (International
Mobile Equipment Identity)

 Only one EIR per PLMN (public land mobile network )

GSM Specifications-1
 GSM 900
Mobile to BTS (uplink): 890-915 MHz
BTS to Mobile(downlink):935-960 MHz
Bandwidth : 2* 25 MHz

 GSM 1800
Mobile to BTS (uplink): 1710-1785 MHz
BTS to Mobile(downlink) 1805-1880 Mhz
Bandwidth : 2* 75 MHz

 GSM 1900
 GSM450
Security in GSM
 On air interface, GSM uses encryption and TMSI instead of IMSI.
 SIM is provided 4-8 digit PIN to validate the ownership of SIM
 3 algorithms are specified :
- A3 algorithm for authentication
- A5 algorithm for encryption
- A8 algorithm for key generation
Personal Communication System
Cellular System vs. Personal Communication
System/Network (PCS/PCN)

Personal Communication Services [PCS] is a system, very similar to

Cellular Phone Service with great emphasis on personal services
(such as Paging, Caller ID, and E-mail) and mobility

PCS can be defined in a broader sense as a set of capabilities that

allows some combination of personal mobility and service

Originated in UK, to improve its competitiveness in the field

 PCS has smaller Cell size, therefore, requires more infra-structure
 PCS works in 1.85-1.99 GHz band
 PCS uses TDMA Technology but with 200 KHz Channel
Bandwidth with eight time-slots[as compared to 30 KHz and 3
time-slots used by Digital Cellular Phone System IS-54/IS-136]
Several PCS systems have been developed to meet rapid growth prompted
by market demand. Most of them are connected to Public Switched
Telephone Network (PSTN) to integrate with the wired service.
Two of the most popular PCS systems are:
 Cellular telephony
 Cordless and low-tier PCS telephony
Personal communications services (PCSs)
 PCS calls for more personalized services whereas PCN refers to
Wireless Networking Concept- any person, anywhere, anytime
can make a call using PC.
 PCS and PCN terms are sometime used interchangeably. In
Europe, the term "personal communication networks (PCNs)" is
used instead of PCS.

 Form objectives for third-generation wireless

 PCS handsets low power, small and light
 Provide a limited range & mobility within Urban Centers
Personal Communication System (PCS)
A system where wired and wireless networks are integrated for
establishing communication.


MS BS MS Wire le ss compone nt

PSTN: Public Switched Network.

MSC: Mobile Switching Center. Also called MTSO
(Mobile Telephone Switching Office).
BS: Base Station.
MS: Mobile Station. Also called MU (Mobile Unit)
or Mobile Host (MH).
HLR: Home Location Register.
VLR: Visitor Location Register.
EIR: Equipment Identify Register.
AC: Access Chanel.
2.5 G Mobile Systems
• The move into the 2.5G world will begin with General Packet Radio
Service (GPRS).
GPRS is a radio technology for GSM networks that adds packet-
switching protocols with
– shorter setup time for ISP connections,
– and the possibility to charge by the amount of data sent, rather
than connection time.
• Packet switching is a technique whereby the information (voice or data) to
be sent is broken up into packets, of at most a few Kbytes each, which are then
routed by the network between different destinations based on addressing data
within each packet.
2.5 G
• The next generation of data heading towards third generation and personal
multimedia environments builds on GPRS and is known as Enhanced
Data rate for GSM Evolution (EDGE).
• 2.75G was the name given to the evolution of EDGE (Enhanced Data
rates for GSM Evolution) or Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS).
• EDGE allow GSM operators to use existing GSM radio bands to
offer wireless multimedia IP-based services and applications at
theoretical maximum speeds of 384 kbps with a bit-rate of 48 kbps per
timeslot and up to 69.2 kbps per timeslot in good radio conditions.
 Implementing EDGE will be relatively painless as it will require relatively
small changes to network hardware and software as it uses the same
TDMA frame structure, logic channel and 200 kHz carrier bandwidth as
today's GSM networks.
 As EDGE progresses to coexistence with 3G wideband -CDMA, data rates
of up to ATM like speeds of 2 Mbps could be available.
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)
Constraints with existing network… WHY
Data Rates too slow – about 9.6 kbps

Connection setup time too long

Inefficient resource utilization for bursty traffic

Proves expensive for bursty traffic utilization

No efficient method for packet transfers

 General Packet Radio Service:-Radio technology that adds
packet-switching protocols
 GPRS is a step towards 3G and is often referred to as 2.5G
 GPRS support flexible data transmission rates than GSM as well as
continuous connection to the network.
 It works on TDMA & CDMA technology, depending upon the
multiplexing used.
 Short for General Packet Radio Service, a standard for
wireless communications which runs at speeds up to 115 kilobits
per second, compared with current GSM (Global System for
Mobile Communications) systems’ 9.6 kilobits.
 GPRS, which supports a wide range of bandwidths, is an efficient
use of limited bandwidth and is particularly suited for sending and
receiving small bursts of data, such as e-mail and Web browsing, as
well as large volumes of data.

 It consists of a packet wireless access network and an IP-based

backbone. GPRS is designed to transmit small amounts of
frequently sent data or large amounts of infrequently sent data.

 GPRS has been seen as an evolution toward UMTS (Universal

Mobile Telecommunications Systems). Users can access IP services
via GPRS/GSM networks.
Comparison of GSM & GPRS

Data Rates 9.6 Kbps 14.4 to 115.2 Kbps

Modulation Technique GMSK GMSK

(Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying) (Gaussian Minimum Shift

Billing Duration of connection Amount of data


Type of Connection Circuit – Switched Technology Packet - Switched

Benefits of GPRS
 New Data Services

 High Speed (Data Rate 14.4 – 115 kbps)

 Efficient use of radio bandwidth

 Circuit switching & Packet Switching can be used in


 Constant connectivity
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)

SGSN: A Serving GPRS Support Node is responsible for the delivery of data packets from
and to the mobile stations within its geographical service area.
GGSN : Gateway GPRS Support Node is responsible for the interworking between the
GPRS network and external packet switched networks, like the Internet and X.25 networks.

GPRS services include both point-to-point and point-to-multipoint

GPRS Architecture is same as GSM except few hardware
modifications :
 GPRS includes GSNs
 SGSN : Serving GPRS Support Node
 GGSN : Gateway GPRS Support Node
 GPRS Register
SGSN(Serving GPRS Support Node)
 Delivers data packets to mobile stations & vice-versa

 Detect and Register new GPRS MS in its serving area

 Packet Routing, Transfer & Mobility Management

 Authentication, Maintaining user profiles

 Its location register stores location info. & user profiles

GGSN – Gateway GPRS Support Node
 Interfaces GPRS backbone network & external packet data networks.

 The Gateway GPRS Support Node is the ―last port of call‖ in the GPRS

network before a connection between an ISP or corporate network’s

router occurs.

 The GGSN is basically a gateway, router and firewall rolled into one.
 BPL Mobile
 Bharti Cellular
 Hutchison Max
 Hutchison Essar
 Idea Cellular
GPRS characteristics
GPRS uses packet switched resource allocation
• resources allocated only when data is to be sent/received
• Flexible channel allocation
• one to eight time slots
• available resources shared by active users
• up and down link channels reserved separately
• GPRS and circuit switched GSM services can use same
time slots alternatively
Traffic characteristics suitable for GPRS
• Intermittent, bursty data transmissions
• Frequent transmissions of small volumes of data
• Infrequent transmission of larger volumes of data
Enhanced Data rates for GSM
Evolution (EDGE)
(Enhanced Data rates for GSM
Evolution )
 Referred as Enhanced GPRS or EGPRS
 Inherits all features from GSM and GPRS.
 Only difference is instead of binary (Gaussian minimum-shift keying)GMSK ,
it uses 8-PSK modulation (Phase-shift keying ) which triple the capacity
compared to GSM.
 EDGE is considered a pre-3G radio technology
 EDGE requires no hardware or software changes to be made in GSM core
networks. EDGE-compatible transceiver units must be installed and the base
station subsystem needs to be upgraded to support EDGE.

 8-PSK is more susceptible to errors than GMSK, thus have 9 different

modulation and coding schemes, each designed for different quality control.
Third Generation (3G)
3G or 3rd generation mobile telecommunications is a generation of
standards for mobile phones and mobile Telecommunication services
fulfilling the International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-
2000) specifications by the International Telecommunication Union .
 Application services include wide-area wireless voice telephone, mobile
Internet access, video calls and mobile TV, all in a mobile environment.
 3G: voice (circuit-switched) & data (packet-switched)
 Third generation offers multi-media communication capabilities, at
higher bit rates, with improved spectrum efficiency.
 The EDGE standard is the development of GSM towards 3G.
Third Generation Technology (3G)
 Digital system with multimedia services including video phone and
relatively higher speed (say up to 1 Mbps) Internet access.
 Permanent web connection upto 2Mbps
 Internet, phone and media: 3 in 1
 Wideband code division multiple access (W-CDMA) and UMTS are some
of 3G standard.
 The standard based on GSM is called UMTS.
 Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is a third
generation mobile cellular technology for networks based on
the GSM standard.
 3G has just been launched in India and is available on select mobile
operators for select cities. But to access these services, a 3G compatible
mobile phone is required.
3G used completely different radio frequencies from 2G,
so it required different equipment to achieve the new high data
transfer rates.
Enormous costs of additional spectrum licensing fees delayed the
introduction of 3G in many countries.
3G data transfer rates are 384kbits/s to 2Mbits/s, so it allows for
previously unavailable services like video calls, video
conferencing, online conference call, mobile TV, online gaming etc.
Universal Mobile Telecommunication
(Universal Mobile Telecommunication
 The Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS)
is commonly referred to as a third-generation system.
 It was targeted to be deployed in 2002.
 UMTS employs an ATM-based switching network
architecture and aims to provide services for both mobile and
fixed subscribers by common call-processing procedures.
 Full packet driven architecture
 For voice and for data transmissions.
 Packet based networks allow for an increased amount of traffic on a
Universal Mobile Telecommunication System
 The UMTS architecture is split into 3 networks :
1. Core (switching) networks:
o The core network is responsible for performing switching
and transmission functions
2. Control (service) networks:
o The control network supports roaming through the
presence of mobility management functions
3. Radio Access networks.
o provides channel access to mobile users and performs radio
resource management and signalling
UMTS will include both terrestrial and global satellite
(Universal Mobile Telecommunication System)

 Offers voice and data services the same as EDGE
 Services offered will be classed into one of the following

Conversational Streaming Interactive Background

Real-Time Best-effort, guarantee of quality

Voice Streaming Web Pages MMS, SMS,
Video emails
(Universal Mobile Telecommunication System)
 3G is also known as UMTS (Universal Mobile
Telecommunication System)
 UMTS uses Wideband-Code Division Multiple Access (W-CDMA)
 Also known as “IMT-2000 Direct Spread”
 Modulation is done with Quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK)
 This encodes 2 bits with each change
 Supports two modes of operation
 Frequency Division Duplex (FDD)
 Time Division Duplex (TDD)
(Universal Mobile Telecommunication System)
 The UMTS network comprises:
(a) the mobile terminal,
(b) the base transceiver station (BTS),
(c) the cell site switch (CSS),
(d) mobile service control points (MSCP), and
(e) the UMTS mobility service (UMS).

UMTS employs a hierarchical cell structure, with macrocells

overlaying microcells and picocells.
Highly mobile traffic is operated on the macrocells to reduce the
number of handoffs required.
UMTS aims to support roaming across different networks.
 Types of Cells and Base station to use them
 Macro Cell
 These cover a large area and will give slow access
 144 Kbps – max speed of 500 Km/h
 Micro Cell
 These should cover a medium area
 384 Kbps max speed 120 Km/h
 Pico Cell
 Less than 100 metres
 2 Mbps – max speed of 10 Km/h
 Difficult to predict
 Actual distances and bandwidth depend on local conditions
Cell Splitting
 Types of Cells and Base station to use them
 Cells will operate in a hierarchy overlaying each other



Micro-Cell Pico-Cell
GSM Evolution to UMTS
Convergence of media, data & telecom

Internet • Video on-demand
• Interactive video services
• Internet access • Radio and television
• E-mail • Entertainment services
• Real-time images transfer • Location based services
• Multimedia documents transfer

• Mobility
• Circuit switching services
• Packet switching services
UMTS Basic Architecture Release 99
MS Circuit Domain

UTRAN Packet Domain

Radio Access Network Core Network

Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network,

Radio Network Controller
 UMTS is also designed to offer data rate on-demand.
 The network will react to a user's needs, based on his/her profile and
current resource availability in the network. UMTS supports the
virtual home environment (VHE) concept, where a personal
mobile user will continue to experience a consistent set of services even
if he/she roams from his/her home network to other UMTS operators.
 VHE supports a consistent working environment regardless of a user's
location or mode of access.
 UMTS will also support adaptation of requirements due to different data
rate availability under different environments, so that users can continue
to use their communication services.
Fourth Generation
 The next step in wireless communications.
 A 4G system will be able to provide a comprehensive IP solution
where voice, data and streamed multimedia can be given to users
on an "Anytime, Anywhere" basis, and at higher data rates than
previous generations.
 4G mobile phones are all set to provide data transfer rates of
100Mbit/s to 1Gbit/s,

Digital system with voice over-IP (VOIP) technology. That is, the services
are integrated into all IP network.
What is 4G?
• Fourth Generation Technology
– Faster and more reliable
– 100 Mb/s
– Lower cost than previous generations
– Multi-standard wireless system
– Bluetooth, Wired, Wireless
– Ad Hoc Networking
– IPv6 Core
– OFDM used instead of CDMA
– Potentially IEEE standard 802.11n
– Most information is proprietary
Fourth Generation Technology
One of the main ways in which 4G differed technologically from 3G was
in its elimination of circuit switching, instead employing an all-IP
4G ushered in a treatment of voice calls just like any other type of
streaming audio media, utilizing packet switching
over internet, LAN or WAN networks via VoIP.

Concept of Global Village

Generation Wireless Networks
Type of Networks
By Network Formation and Architecture
• Infrastructure-based network.
• Infrastructureless (ad hoc) network.

By Communication Coverage Area.

1. Wireless Wide Area Networks (Wireless WANs)

• Infrastructure-based networks
• Connections can be made over large geographical areas, across cities or even
• Use of multiple antenna sites or satellite systems maintained by wireless service
• Examples :Cellular networks (like GSM networks or CDMA networks) and satellite

Chandra Prakash, LPU 87

Type of Networks
2. Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks (Wireless MANs).
– Referred as fixed wireless , infrastructure-based networks
– Enable users to establish broadband wireless connections among multiple locations ,for
example, among multiple office buildings in a city or on a university campus
– Serve as backups for wired networks
– Radio waves and infrared light can be used to transmit data.
3. Wireless Local Area Network (Wireless LANs)
– Enable users to establish wireless connections within a local area with in a 100 m range
– Provide flexible data communication systems that can be used in temporary offices or
other spaces that can operate in infrastructure-based or in ad hoc mode
– Include 802.11 (Wi-Fi) and Hiperlan2
4. Wireless Personal Area Networks (Wireless PANs).
– Enable users to establish ad hoc, wireless communication among personal wireless
devices such as PDAs, cellular phones, or laptops that are used within a personal
operating space, typically up to a 10 meter range.
– Two key Wireless PAN technologies are
• Bluetooth : is a cable-replacement technology that uses radio waves to transmit data
to a distance of up to 9–10 m,
Chandra Prakash, LPU 88
• Infrared: connect devices within a 1 m range.
IEEE 802 Networking Standard
IEEE 802 Networking Standard
• we need to have set of rules/standards for the data to travel
from one computer to other computer.
• Its developed by IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers, Inc.)
• The number 802 was simply the next free number IEEE could
assign, though ―802‖ is sometimes associated with the date the first
meeting was held — February 1980.
• The standards such as IEEE 802 helps industry provide advantages
such as, interoperability, low product cost, and easy to manage
• IEEE standards deal with only Local Area Networks (LAN) and
Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN).
IEEE 802 Networking Standard
IEEE 802.11
• IEEE 802.11 is a set of standards for implementing wireless local
area network (WLAN) computer communication in the 2.4, 3.6 and
5 GHz frequency bands. They are created and maintained by
the IEEE LAN/MAN Standards Committee (IEEE 802)

• 802.11 specifies an over-the-air interface between a wireless

client and a base station or between two wireless clients. The
IEEE accepted the specification in 1997.
IEEE 802.11
There are several specifications in the 802.11 family:
• 802.11 — applies to wireless LANs and provides 1 or 2 Mbps transmission in
the 2.4 GHz band using either frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) or
direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS).

• 802.11a — an extension to 802.11 that applies to wireless LANs and provides

up to 54-Mbps in the 5GHz band. 802.11a uses an orthogonal frequency
division multiplexing encoding scheme rather than FHSS or DSSS.

• 802.11b (also referred to as 802.11 High Rate or Wi-Fi) — created a standard

of wireless LAN operations in 2.4 GHz industrial, scientific and medical
(ISM) Band , which is freely available for use throughout the world. This
standard known as Wi-Fi (Wireless-Fidelity).It can offer data rates of up-to
11 MBPS.
• 802.11e — a wireless draft standard that defines
the Quality of Service (QoS) support for LANs, and is an enhancement to
the 802.11a and 802.11b wireless LAN (WLAN) specifications. 802.11e
adds QoS features and multimedia support to the existing IEEE 802.11b
and IEEE 802.11a wireless standards, while maintaining full backward
compatibility with these standards.
• 802.11g — applies to wireless LANs and is used for transmission over
short distances at up to 54-Mbps in the 2.4 GHz bands.
• 802.11n — 802.11n builds upon previous 802.11 standards by adding
multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO). The real speed would be 100
Mbit/s (even 250 Mbit/s in PHY level), and so up to 4-5 times faster than
• 802.1X — Not to be confused with 802.11x (which is the term used to
describe the family of 802.11 standards) 802.1X is an IEEE standard for
port-based Network Access Control that allows network administrators to
restricted use of IEEE 802 LAN service access points to secure
communication between authenticated and authorized devices.