You are on page 1of 6

Available online at www.sciencedirect.

Available online at
Available ScienceDirect
Energy Procedia 00 (2018) 000–000
Energy Procedia 00 (2018) 000–000
Energy Procedia
Energy Procedia 00
2018 5th International Conference on Power and Energy Systems Engineering, CPESE 2018,
2018 5th International Conference on Power 2018,
19–21 September and Energy Systems
Nagoya, Japan Engineering, CPESE 2018,
19–21 September 2018, Nagoya, Japan
Recent Development in the Production of Third Generation
Recent The
15th International inSymposium
the Productionon Districtof Third
Heating andGeneration
Biodiesel from Microalgae
Biodiesel from Microalgae
Assessing the feasibility
M. Mofijur, M.G. Rasul*,of using
N. M. Sthe heatM.N.
Hassan, demand-outdoor
M. Mofijur, M.G. Rasul*, N. M. S Hassan, M.N. Nabi
temperature function for&aTechnology,
School of Engineering long-term district
Central Queensland heat
University, demand forecast
School of Engineering & Technology, Central Queensland University, Australia
a,b,c a a b c c
Abstract I. Andrić *, A. Pina , P. Ferrão , J. Fournier ., B. Lacarrière , O. Le Corre
IN+ Center for Innovation, Technology and Policy Research - Instituto Superior Técnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal
Increasing global energy demand b at a rate faster than the population growth has led the researcher to look for alternative fuel.
Veolia Recherche & Innovation, 291 Avenue Dreyfous Daniel, 78520 Limay, France
Amongst the
Increasing coptions,
global biodiesel
Département Systèmes at
energy demand is ana environmentally
rate faster
than the
et Environnement population substitute
growth of
- IMT Atlantique, has diesel fuelresearcher
4 rue the being renewable,
Kastler, 44300 to look
for and
alternative fuel.
have similar
Amongst propertiesbiodiesel
the options, of fossilis diesel. Among the sustainable
an environmentally biodiesel sources, microalgae
substitute of diesel is a being
fuel potential third generation
renewable, biodiesel
biodegradable and
have similar which can be produced
properties of fossil throughout
diesel. Amongthe yearthe and its oil yield
biodiesel sources,is higher than any
microalgae is aother crops. third
potential This paper reviews
generation recent
feedstock which in microalgae
can be producedbiodiesel in termsthe
throughout of its
extraction technics,
its oil yield challenges
is higher than any of other
oil extraction,
crops. This production of biodiesel
paper reviews recent
from microalgae
Abstract oil and its fuel
in microalgae properties.
biodiesel Finally,
in terms of itsthe
oilpaper discusses
extraction the performance
technics, challenges of andoilcombustion
extraction,analysis of diesel
production engine
of biodiesel
fuelled with microalgae
from microalgae biodiesel.
oil and its This paper
fuel properties. provides
Finally, a clear
the paper understanding
discusses of the potential
the performance use of microalgae
and combustion analysis of biodiesel as an
diesel engine
fuelled withsource to fossil
microalgae diesel forThis
biodiesel. diesel engines.
paper provides a clear understanding of the potential use of microalgae biodiesel as an
District heating networks are commonly addressed in the literature as one of the most effective solutions for decreasing the
alternative source to fossil diesel for diesel engines.
greenhouse gas emissions from the building sector. These systems require high investments which are returned through the heat
© 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
© 2019
is an
to the changed
Authors. Published
article under by
by Elsevier
Elsevier Ltd. and building
renovation policies, heat demand in the future could decrease,
license (
This is an openthe access
investment return
article under period.
the CC BY-NC-ND license (
This and peer-review
is an open access articleunderunder responsibility
the CC BY-NC-ND of thelicense
2018 (
5th International Conference on Power and Energy Systems
The mainand peer-review
scope underisresponsibility
of this paper to assess the of the 2018of5th
feasibility International
using Conference
the heat demand on Power
– outdoor and Energy
temperature Systems
function forEngineering,
heat demand
2018, CPESE 2018,
peer-review 19–21
under September 2018,
responsibility ofNagoya,
the Japan.
2018 5th International Conference on Power and Energy Systems
forecast. The19–21 September
district of Alvalade,2018, located
Nagoya,in Japan.
Lisbon (Portugal), was used as a case study. The district is consisted of 665
Engineering, CPESE 2018, 19–21 September 2018, Nagoya, Japan.
buildings that vary in both construction period and typology. Three weather scenarios (low, medium, high) and three district
Keywords: Microalgae oil; Biodiesel Production; Characterization; Performance; Emission.
renovation scenarios were developed (shallow, intermediate, deep). To estimate the error, obtained heat demand values were
Keywords: Microalgae oil; Biodiesel Production; Characterization; Performance; Emission.
compared with results from a dynamic heat demand model, previously developed and validated by the authors.
results showed that when only weather change is considered, the margin of error could be acceptable for some applications
error in annual demand was lower than 20% for all weather scenarios considered). However, after introducing renovation
Over many
scenarios, decades,
the error the primary
value increased up tosource
59.5%of global energy
(depending on the demand
weather andhasrenovation
been fossil fuels -combination
scenarios coal, petroleum, and
natural valuemany
gas. decades,
of Their
slope the primary
coefficient on the source
increased one of global
on average and energy
within the range demand
climate hasupbeen
of 3.8% fossil
toon8% the fuels
decade, -have
coal, petroleum,
that seen and
corresponds to the
exploration in the Their
for numberdepletion
several heatingon hours
ofalternative the
fuelsone sideasand
of such
22-139h adverse
during climate
the heating effects
season on theonetc.
(depending other
the [1-3].haveInseen
combination ofcontinuous
recent decades,
weather and
renovationhas forbeen
scenarios alternative
considered). asOna fuels suchhand,
the other as diesel,
alternative fuel methane,
that increased
intercept meets allfor ethanol,
per has In
decade recent
to be
onan the
alternative hasto been
coupled scenarios). fossilconsidered
The and to asreduce
a promising
suggested harmful
could alternative
be emission
used fuel
to modify meetscombustion
the function allparameters
the criteria for and
engines has
[4]. potential
the scenarios to be the
Fig. considered,
1 shows an
improve the
potential ofto accuracy
biodiesel of
fossil fuelasheat
aand demand
to fuel
diesel estimations.
reduce harmful[1].
substitute emission
Biodiesel from internal combustion
is produced from vegetable engines [4]. Fig.
oil, animal fat 1andshows
potential of biodiesel as a diesel fuel substitute [1]. Biodiesel is produced from vegetable oil, animal fat and biomass
© 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Peer-review under responsibility of the Scientific Committee of The 15th International Symposium on District Heating and
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +61749309676.
E-mail address:
* Corresponding
Heat demand; Tel.: +61749309676.
Forecast; Climate change
E-mail address:
1876-6102 © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
This is an open
1876-6102 access
© 2018 Thearticle under
Authors. the CC BY-NC-ND
Published license (
by Elsevier Ltd.
This is an and
openpeer-review under
access article responsibility
under of the 2018
the CC BY-NC-ND 5th International
license Conference on Power and Energy Systems Engineering, CPESE
2018, 19–21
Selection September
and© 2017 The2018,
peer-review Nagoya,
under Japan.byofElsevier
responsibility the 2018Ltd.
5th International Conference on Power and Energy Systems Engineering, CPESE
1876-6102 © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
2018, 19–21 under responsibility
September of the Scientific Committee of The 15th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling.
This is an open access2018, Nagoya,
article under Japan.
the CC BY-NC-ND license (
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the 2018 5th International Conference on Power and Energy Systems Engineering,
CPESE 2018, 19–21 September 2018, Nagoya, Japan.
54 M. Mofijur et al. / Energy Procedia 156 (2019) 53–58
M. Mofijur et al. / Energy Procedia 00 (2018) 000–000

through transesterification process in the presence of a catalyst. The common biodiesel feedstocks are: peanut oil,
soybean oil, sunflower oil, corn oil, rice bran oil, palm oil, coconut oil, olive oil, rapeseed oil, jatropha, karanja,
cotton seed oil, calophyllum, rubber seed oil, desert date, Jojoba, neem oil, moringa and croton [5]. Biodiesel can be
classified according to their source. Biodiesel that is produced from edible oil is known as first generation biodiesel,
and that comes from non-edible oil sources are termed as second generation biodiesel. Third generation biodiesel is
produced from microalgal biomass.
Nevertheless, the expansion of biodiesel production around the world has raised a major concern regarding the
sustainability of several first generation (1G) biodiesel (biodiesel from edible oil source) [6]. The displacement of
food-crops, effects on the environment and climate change by the first generation biodiesel has led to discovering
the potential of second generation and third generation biodiesel [7]. Although currently a small fraction of first and
second generation biodiesel is used, third generation biodiesel could be the potential as an alternative fuel and can
play important role to the nation’s energy infrastructure. Thus, recent development in third generation biodiesel
(microalgae biodiesel) is reviewed in this paper, in terms of microalgae oil extraction techniques, challenges of oil
extraction, production of biodiesel from microalgae oil, fuel properties of microalgae biodiesel and its performance
and combustion behaviour in diesel engines.

2. Why microalgae?

Microalgae are the third generation (3G) biodiesel which has very distinctive yield compared to other biomass.
3G biofuel can be blended with most of the fuels such as diesel, petrol, and jet fuel and aviation
gasoline. Microalgae is a renewable feedstock, eco-friend and contains higher energy. List of spices with the lipid
contents that can be used to produce 3G biodiesel is given in Table 1 [8]. It has been reported that microalgae will
have more potential to produce more energy per hectare of land use compared to that of conventional crops. The
major benefits of using microalgae-derived biodiesel are; it can be produced throughout the year. As a result, oil
yield is higher than any other crops; it can be cultivated in the undeveloped land that's why it doesn't have any
environmental impacts; it has potential to be grown rapidly, and oil contents are 20-50% dry weight if biomass; and
cultivation of microalgae does not need any pesticide application.

Fig. 1: Potential of biodiesel as a diesel fuel substitute

3. Extraction of microalgae oil

M. Mofijur et al. / Energy Procedia 156 (2019) 53–58 55
M. Mofijur et al. / Energy Procedia 00 (2018) 000–000

Oil/lipid from microalgae can be extracted in different ways. The conventional process of extracting oil is a
mechanical and chemical process. The mechanical method can be further classified into oil expeller; microwave
assisted extraction and ultrasonic assisted extraction process. Similarly, chemical extraction method can be
categorized into accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, and Soxhlet extraction process. The
advantages and disadvantages of both extraction process are given in Table 2 [9]. There are some challenges in
extracting oil from microalgae:
 The efficiency is lower compared to other sources
 Weak interaction of chemicals in wet biomass.
 Expensive drying cost
 Excessive chemical consumption
 The reaction of chemicals with other products.
 Separation of lipids from the liquid medium.
 Dependence on physical properties of the cells.

Table 1: List of the spices to produce 3G biodiesel

Name of microorganisms Oil content per ton of biomass Lipid content
(wt% dry mass) (%, w/wdw)
Schizochytriumsp. 50–77 35–55
Botryococcus braunii 64 25–75
Nitzschia laevis 69.1 –
Neochloris oleoabundans 35–65 29–65
Chlorella vulgaris 63.2 5–58
Parietochloris incise 62 –
Crypthecodium cohnii 56 20–51.1
S. obiquus 35–55 11–55
Nannochloris sp. – 20–56
Nannochloropsis oculata 50 22.7–29.7
Nitzschia sp. 45–47 16–47
Scenedesmus dimorphus 16–40
Monodus subterraneus 39.3 16
Phaeodactylum tricornutum 20–30 18–57
Haematococcus pluvialis 25 25
Dunaliella primolecta 23 23.1
Tetraselmis sueica 15–23 8.5–23
Chlorella sorokiana 22 19–22
Monallanthus salina >20 20–22
Dunaliella salina 14–20 6–25
Porphyridium cruentum 19.3 9–18.8

4. Biodiesel production from microalgae

The most common method that is used to convert crude oils into methyl ester is transesterification process. It is
some consecutive reaction between vegetable oils and alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. Through the reactions,
triglycerides are converted into monoglyceride. Details production process of microalgae biodiesel has been
described by Haik et al. [10]. First, the crude oil was preheated to 60 and then added to a mixture of methanol (20%
of total crude oil) and sodium hydroxide (3.5g) for 1 liter of oil. After the transesterification reaction in the reactor,
the mixture was kept for 8h to settle. Then glycerine was removed, and biodiesel was washed and filtered. The flow
chart of biodiesel production process is given in Fig. 2 [11]. It is crucial to check the properties of produced
biodiesel before using in the engine. The key fuel properties of produced biodiesel are given in Table 2 [12].
56 M. Mofijur et al. / Energy Procedia 156 (2019) 53–58
M. Mofijur et al. / Energy Procedia 00 (2018) 000–000

Table 2: Advantages and disadvantages of oil extraction technics

Method Advantages Disadvantages
Oil expeller 1.Easy to use 1.Large amount of biomass require
2.No solvent required Slow process
Ultra-sonication assisted 1.Reduced extraction time 1.High power consumption, difficult to scale up
2.Reduced solvent consumption

Microwave assisted 1.More economical 1. Filtration or centrifugation is necessary to remove

2.Environmental friendly, the solid residue;
3.Reduced extraction time, 2. Efficiency of microwaves can be very poor when
4.Reduced solvent usage either the target compounds
5. Improved extraction yield.
Solvent extraction 1.Very simple and cheap 1.Extraction time is long;
2.Good for small scale 2.Large volume of solvent required, toxic and highly
3. High efficiency. flammable
3.Solvent recovery is energy intensive
Supercritical CO2 1.Reduced time, 1. High process cost associated with its infrastructure
2.Low toxicity solvents, and operation.
3.Favorable mass transfer equilibrium due to
intermediate diffusion/viscosity properties of the fluid,
4. Production of solvent-free extract.
Wet extraction 1.Saving in energy required for drying the biomass, 1. The quality of lipid extracted may not be as good
2. Reduced solvent usage. as lipid extracted from dried biomass.

Fig. 2: The flow chart of biodiesel production process

M. Mofijur et al. / Energy Procedia 156 (2019) 53–58 57
M. Mofijur et al. / Energy Procedia 00 (2018) 000–000

Table 3: Properties of microalgae biodiesel

Fuel property Unit Microalgae Biodiesel Standard Diesel
biodiesel EN 14214
CN – 46.5 51 53.3
Kinematic Viscosity @40 °C mm2/s 5.06 3.5–5.0 2.64
Density @15 °C kg/L 0.912 0.86–0.90 0.84
HHV MJ/kg 39.86 –
LHV MJ/kg 37.42 44.0
Acid value mg KOH/g 0.14 0.5max 0.0
Flash point (closed cup) °C 95.0 – 71.0
Flash point °C – 120 –
Sulphur content mg/kg 7.5 10max 5.9
Cloud point °C 16.1 Report 4.0
Lubricity @°60 mm 0.136 – 0.406
Copper corrosion (3 h @50°C) 1a 1 max 1a

5. Performance of microalgae biodiesel in diesel engine

Islam et al. [12] studied the combustion behavior of B10, B20, and B50 of microalgae biodiesel in a single
cylinder engine at different load condition. The found that the use of microalgae biodiesel with diesel fuel in diesel
engine reduces the in-cylinder pressure and output torque, by a maximum of 4.5% at full throttle. Also, increases the
BSFC due to the lower calorific value which subsequently reduces the BTE by 4% at higher loads as shown in Fig. 3.
Microalgae biodiesel reduces the engine emission but increases the NOx emission slightly. Haik et al. [10] studied
the effect of engine speed and load on combustion of algae biodiesel in a diesel engine. They found that algae
biodiesel produces lower torque than diesel fuel but higher heat release rate than diesel fuel. They suggested that
power output could be improved by retarding the injection timing of algae biodiesel. Tuccar et al. [13] studied the
performance and emission of butanol added diesel-microalgae biodiesel blend in a diesel engine. They found that
the power and torque output of engine reduced slightly when butanol was added to the MB–diesel blends. Engine
emission results indicated that the exhaust emission tests revealed that CO and NOx emission and smoke opacity
values improved with butanol addition.

(a) (c)
58 M. Mofijur et al. / Energy Procedia 156 (2019) 53–58
M. Mofijur et al. / Energy Procedia 00 (2018) 000–000

(b) (d)
Fig. 3: Performance of Microalgae (a) Power (b) Efficiency

6. Conclusions
Microalgae represent the third generation feedstock for biodiesel, with much higher yields than other crops. In
recent year’s biodiesel production from microalgae have received much attention worldwide. Finding the most
efficient method and optimized conditions for the extraction of lipid are important for reducing the cost of biodiesel
production from microalgae. Making biodiesel from microalgae oil is similar to the process of making biodiesel oil
from any other oilseed, and thus can quite possibly use the same conversion processes to produce biodiesel. The use
of biodiesel in diesel engine reduces the engine power slightly but also reduces the engine emission except the NOx
emission. The engine outPUT response varies with the operation condition. Finally, more investment and more
research on microalgae biodiesel are needed to find out the new approaches which could lower the production cost
of biodiesel. Also, research on microalgae combustion in internal combustion engine should be done to improve the
engine performance and lower the emission.


[1].Mahmudul HM, Hagos FY, Mamat R et al. Production, characterization and performance of biodiesel as an alternative fuel in diesel engines
– A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2017; 72: 497-509.
[2]. Srithar K, Arun Balasubramanian K, Pavendan V, Ashok Kumar B. Experimental investigations on mixing of two biodiesels blended with
diesel as alternative fuel for diesel engines. Journal of King Saud University - Engineering Sciences 2017; 29: 50-6.
[3]. Rahman MM, Rasul MG, Hassan NMS et al. Effect of small proportion of butanol additive on the performance, emission, and combustion of
Australian native first- and second-generation biodiesel in a diesel engine. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 2017; 24: 22402-
[4]. Mofijur M, Masjuki HH, Kalam MA et al. Properties and use of Moringa oleifera biodiesel and diesel fuel blends in a multi-cylinder diesel
engine. Energy Conversion and Management 2014; 82: 169-76.
[5]. Imdadul HK, Zulkifli NWM, Masjuki HH et al. Experimental assessment of non-edible candlenut biodiesel and its blend characteristics as
diesel engine fuel. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 2017; 24: 2350-63.
[6]. Bhuiya MMK, Rasul MG, Khan MMK et al. Prospects of 2nd generation biodiesel as a sustainable fuel – Part 2: Properties, performance and
emission characteristics. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2016; 55: 1129-46.
[7].Eisentraut A. Sustainable Production of Second-Generation Biofuels. Potential and perspectives in major economies and developing countries.
Internation Energy Agency 2010.
[8]. Rashid N, Ur Rehman MS, Sadiq M et al. Current status, issues and developments in microalgae derived biodiesel production. Renewable and
Sustainable Energy Reviews 2014; 40: 760-78.
[9]. Mubarak M, Shaija A, Suchithra TV. A review on the extraction of lipid from microalgae for biodiesel production. Algal Research 2015; 7:
[10].Haik Y, Selim MYE, Abdulrehman T. Combustion of algae oil methyl ester in an indirect injection diesel engine. Energy 2011; 36: 1827-35.
[11].Galadima A, Muraza O. Biodiesel production from algae by using heterogeneous catalysts: A critical review. Energy 2014; 78: 72-83.
[12].Islam MA, Rahman MM, Heimann K et al. Combustion analysis of microalgae methyl ester in a common rail direct injection diesel engine.
Fuel 2015; 143: 351-60.
[13].Tüccar G, Aydın K. Evaluation of methyl ester of microalgae oil as fuel in a diesel engine. Fuel 2013; 112: 203-7.