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2018 5th International Conference on Power and Energy Systems Engineering, CPESE 2018,
2018 5th International Conference on Power 2018,
19–21 September and Energy Systems
Nagoya, Japan Engineering, CPESE 2018,
19–21 September 2018, Nagoya, Japan
Recent Development in the Production of Third Generation
Recent The
Development
15th International inSymposium
the Productionon Districtof Third
Heating andGeneration
Cooling
Biodiesel from Microalgae
Biodiesel from Microalgae
Assessing the feasibility
M. Mofijur, M.G. Rasul*,of using
N. M. Sthe heatM.N.
Hassan, demand-outdoor
Nabi
M. Mofijur, M.G. Rasul*, N. M. S Hassan, M.N. Nabi
temperature function for&aTechnology,
School of Engineering long-term district
Central Queensland heat
University, demand forecast
Australia
School of Engineering & Technology, Central Queensland University, Australia
a,b,c a a b c c
Abstract I. Andrić *, A. Pina , P. Ferrão , J. Fournier ., B. Lacarrière , O. Le Corre
Abstract
a
IN+ Center for Innovation, Technology and Policy Research - Instituto Superior Técnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal
Increasing global energy demand b at a rate faster than the population growth has led the researcher to look for alternative fuel.
Veolia Recherche & Innovation, 291 Avenue Dreyfous Daniel, 78520 Limay, France
Amongst the
Increasing coptions,
global biodiesel
Département Systèmes at
energy demand is ana environmentally
rate faster
Énergétiques
sustainable
than the
et Environnement population substitute
growth of
- IMT Atlantique, has diesel fuelresearcher
ledAlfred
4 rue the being renewable,
Kastler, 44300 to look
Nantes,
biodegradable
for and
alternative fuel.
France
have similar
Amongst propertiesbiodiesel
the options, of fossilis diesel. Among the sustainable
an environmentally biodiesel sources, microalgae
substitute of diesel is a being
fuel potential third generation
renewable, biodiesel
biodegradable and
feedstock
have similar which can be produced
properties of fossil throughout
diesel. Amongthe yearthe and its oil yield
biodiesel sources,is higher than any
microalgae is aother crops. third
potential This paper reviews
generation recent
biodiesel
development
feedstock which in microalgae
can be producedbiodiesel in termsthe
throughout of its
yearoiland
extraction technics,
its oil yield challenges
is higher than any of other
oil extraction,
crops. This production of biodiesel
paper reviews recent
from microalgae
development
Abstract oil and its fuel
in microalgae properties.
biodiesel Finally,
in terms of itsthe
oilpaper discusses
extraction the performance
technics, challenges of andoilcombustion
extraction,analysis of diesel
production engine
of biodiesel
fuelled with microalgae
from microalgae biodiesel.
oil and its This paper
fuel properties. provides
Finally, a clear
the paper understanding
discusses of the potential
the performance use of microalgae
and combustion analysis of biodiesel as an
diesel engine
alternative
fuelled withsource to fossil
microalgae diesel forThis
biodiesel. diesel engines.
paper provides a clear understanding of the potential use of microalgae biodiesel as an
District heating networks are commonly addressed in the literature as one of the most effective solutions for decreasing the
alternative source to fossil diesel for diesel engines.
greenhouse gas emissions from the building sector. These systems require high investments which are returned through the heat
© 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
©sales.
This
© 2019
is an
2018
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open
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to the changed
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climate
article under by
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by Elsevier
Elsevier Ltd. and building
the CC BY-NC-ND
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renovation policies, heat demand in the future could decrease,
license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
prolonging
This is an openthe access
investment return
article under period.
the CC BY-NC-ND license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
Selection
This and peer-review
is an open access articleunderunder responsibility
the CC BY-NC-ND of thelicense
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5th International Conference on Power and Energy Systems
Selection
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peer-review 19–21
under September 2018,
responsibility ofNagoya,
the Japan.
2018 5th International Conference on Power and Energy Systems
forecast. The19–21 September
district of Alvalade,2018, located
Nagoya,in Japan.
Lisbon (Portugal), was used as a case study. The district is consisted of 665
Engineering, CPESE 2018, 19–21 September 2018, Nagoya, Japan.
buildings that vary in both construction period and typology. Three weather scenarios (low, medium, high) and three district
Keywords: Microalgae oil; Biodiesel Production; Characterization; Performance; Emission.
renovation scenarios were developed (shallow, intermediate, deep). To estimate the error, obtained heat demand values were
Keywords: Microalgae oil; Biodiesel Production; Characterization; Performance; Emission.
compared with results from a dynamic heat demand model, previously developed and validated by the authors.
1.TheIntroduction
results showed that when only weather change is considered, the margin of error could be acceptable for some applications
1.(theIntroduction
error in annual demand was lower than 20% for all weather scenarios considered). However, after introducing renovation
Over many
scenarios, decades,
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© 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Peer-review under responsibility of the Scientific Committee of The 15th International Symposium on District Heating and
Cooling.
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +61749309676.
E-mail address:
* Corresponding
Keywords: m.rasul@cqu.edu.au
author.
Heat demand; Tel.: +61749309676.
Forecast; Climate change
E-mail address: m.rasul@cqu.edu.au
1876-6102 © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
This is an open
1876-6102 access
© 2018 Thearticle under
Authors. the CC BY-NC-ND
Published license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
by Elsevier Ltd.
Selection
This is an and
openpeer-review under
access article responsibility
under of the 2018
the CC BY-NC-ND 5th International
license Conference on Power and Energy Systems Engineering, CPESE
(https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
2018, 19–21
1876-6102
Selection September
and© 2017 The2018,
peer-review Nagoya,
Authors.
under Japan.byofElsevier
Published
responsibility the 2018Ltd.
5th International Conference on Power and Energy Systems Engineering, CPESE
1876-6102 © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Peer-review
2018, 19–21 under responsibility
September of the Scientific Committee of The 15th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling.
This is an open access2018, Nagoya,
article under Japan.
the CC BY-NC-ND license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the 2018 5th International Conference on Power and Energy Systems Engineering,
CPESE 2018, 19–21 September 2018, Nagoya, Japan.
10.1016/j.egypro.2018.11.088
54 M. Mofijur et al. / Energy Procedia 156 (2019) 53–58
M. Mofijur et al. / Energy Procedia 00 (2018) 000–000

through transesterification process in the presence of a catalyst. The common biodiesel feedstocks are: peanut oil,
soybean oil, sunflower oil, corn oil, rice bran oil, palm oil, coconut oil, olive oil, rapeseed oil, jatropha, karanja,
cotton seed oil, calophyllum, rubber seed oil, desert date, Jojoba, neem oil, moringa and croton [5]. Biodiesel can be
classified according to their source. Biodiesel that is produced from edible oil is known as first generation biodiesel,
and that comes from non-edible oil sources are termed as second generation biodiesel. Third generation biodiesel is
produced from microalgal biomass.
Nevertheless, the expansion of biodiesel production around the world has raised a major concern regarding the
sustainability of several first generation (1G) biodiesel (biodiesel from edible oil source) [6]. The displacement of
food-crops, effects on the environment and climate change by the first generation biodiesel has led to discovering
the potential of second generation and third generation biodiesel [7]. Although currently a small fraction of first and
second generation biodiesel is used, third generation biodiesel could be the potential as an alternative fuel and can
play important role to the nation’s energy infrastructure. Thus, recent development in third generation biodiesel
(microalgae biodiesel) is reviewed in this paper, in terms of microalgae oil extraction techniques, challenges of oil
extraction, production of biodiesel from microalgae oil, fuel properties of microalgae biodiesel and its performance
and combustion behaviour in diesel engines.

2. Why microalgae?

Microalgae are the third generation (3G) biodiesel which has very distinctive yield compared to other biomass.
3G biofuel can be blended with most of the fuels such as diesel, petrol, and jet fuel and aviation
gasoline. Microalgae is a renewable feedstock, eco-friend and contains higher energy. List of spices with the lipid
contents that can be used to produce 3G biodiesel is given in Table 1 [8]. It has been reported that microalgae will
have more potential to produce more energy per hectare of land use compared to that of conventional crops. The
major benefits of using microalgae-derived biodiesel are; it can be produced throughout the year. As a result, oil
yield is higher than any other crops; it can be cultivated in the undeveloped land that's why it doesn't have any
environmental impacts; it has potential to be grown rapidly, and oil contents are 20-50% dry weight if biomass; and
cultivation of microalgae does not need any pesticide application.

Fig. 1: Potential of biodiesel as a diesel fuel substitute

3. Extraction of microalgae oil


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Oil/lipid from microalgae can be extracted in different ways. The conventional process of extracting oil is a
mechanical and chemical process. The mechanical method can be further classified into oil expeller; microwave
assisted extraction and ultrasonic assisted extraction process. Similarly, chemical extraction method can be
categorized into accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, and Soxhlet extraction process. The
advantages and disadvantages of both extraction process are given in Table 2 [9]. There are some challenges in
extracting oil from microalgae:
 The efficiency is lower compared to other sources
 Weak interaction of chemicals in wet biomass.
 Expensive drying cost
 Excessive chemical consumption
 The reaction of chemicals with other products.
 Separation of lipids from the liquid medium.
 Dependence on physical properties of the cells.

Table 1: List of the spices to produce 3G biodiesel


Name of microorganisms Oil content per ton of biomass Lipid content
(wt% dry mass) (%, w/wdw)
Microalgae
Schizochytriumsp. 50–77 35–55
Botryococcus braunii 64 25–75
Nitzschia laevis 69.1 –
Neochloris oleoabundans 35–65 29–65
Chlorella vulgaris 63.2 5–58
Parietochloris incise 62 –
Crypthecodium cohnii 56 20–51.1
S. obiquus 35–55 11–55
Nannochloris sp. – 20–56
Nannochloropsis oculata 50 22.7–29.7
Nitzschia sp. 45–47 16–47
Scenedesmus dimorphus 16–40
Monodus subterraneus 39.3 16
Phaeodactylum tricornutum 20–30 18–57
Haematococcus pluvialis 25 25
Dunaliella primolecta 23 23.1
Tetraselmis sueica 15–23 8.5–23
Chlorella sorokiana 22 19–22
Monallanthus salina >20 20–22
Dunaliella salina 14–20 6–25
Porphyridium cruentum 19.3 9–18.8

4. Biodiesel production from microalgae


The most common method that is used to convert crude oils into methyl ester is transesterification process. It is
some consecutive reaction between vegetable oils and alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. Through the reactions,
triglycerides are converted into monoglyceride. Details production process of microalgae biodiesel has been
described by Haik et al. [10]. First, the crude oil was preheated to 60 and then added to a mixture of methanol (20%
of total crude oil) and sodium hydroxide (3.5g) for 1 liter of oil. After the transesterification reaction in the reactor,
the mixture was kept for 8h to settle. Then glycerine was removed, and biodiesel was washed and filtered. The flow
chart of biodiesel production process is given in Fig. 2 [11]. It is crucial to check the properties of produced
biodiesel before using in the engine. The key fuel properties of produced biodiesel are given in Table 2 [12].
56 M. Mofijur et al. / Energy Procedia 156 (2019) 53–58
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Table 2: Advantages and disadvantages of oil extraction technics


Method Advantages Disadvantages
Oil expeller 1.Easy to use 1.Large amount of biomass require
2.No solvent required Slow process
Ultra-sonication assisted 1.Reduced extraction time 1.High power consumption, difficult to scale up
2.Reduced solvent consumption

Microwave assisted 1.More economical 1. Filtration or centrifugation is necessary to remove


2.Environmental friendly, the solid residue;
3.Reduced extraction time, 2. Efficiency of microwaves can be very poor when
4.Reduced solvent usage either the target compounds
5. Improved extraction yield.
Solvent extraction 1.Very simple and cheap 1.Extraction time is long;
2.Good for small scale 2.Large volume of solvent required, toxic and highly
3. High efficiency. flammable
3.Solvent recovery is energy intensive
Supercritical CO2 1.Reduced time, 1. High process cost associated with its infrastructure
2.Low toxicity solvents, and operation.
3.Favorable mass transfer equilibrium due to
intermediate diffusion/viscosity properties of the fluid,
4. Production of solvent-free extract.
Wet extraction 1.Saving in energy required for drying the biomass, 1. The quality of lipid extracted may not be as good
2. Reduced solvent usage. as lipid extracted from dried biomass.

Fig. 2: The flow chart of biodiesel production process


M. Mofijur et al. / Energy Procedia 156 (2019) 53–58 57
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Table 3: Properties of microalgae biodiesel


Fuel property Unit Microalgae Biodiesel Standard Diesel
biodiesel EN 14214
CN – 46.5 51 53.3
Kinematic Viscosity @40 °C mm2/s 5.06 3.5–5.0 2.64
Density @15 °C kg/L 0.912 0.86–0.90 0.84
HHV MJ/kg 39.86 –
LHV MJ/kg 37.42 44.0
Acid value mg KOH/g 0.14 0.5max 0.0
Flash point (closed cup) °C 95.0 – 71.0
Flash point °C – 120 –
Sulphur content mg/kg 7.5 10max 5.9
Cloud point °C 16.1 Report 4.0
Lubricity @°60 mm 0.136 – 0.406
Copper corrosion (3 h @50°C) 1a 1 max 1a

5. Performance of microalgae biodiesel in diesel engine


Islam et al. [12] studied the combustion behavior of B10, B20, and B50 of microalgae biodiesel in a single
cylinder engine at different load condition. The found that the use of microalgae biodiesel with diesel fuel in diesel
engine reduces the in-cylinder pressure and output torque, by a maximum of 4.5% at full throttle. Also, increases the
BSFC due to the lower calorific value which subsequently reduces the BTE by 4% at higher loads as shown in Fig. 3.
Microalgae biodiesel reduces the engine emission but increases the NOx emission slightly. Haik et al. [10] studied
the effect of engine speed and load on combustion of algae biodiesel in a diesel engine. They found that algae
biodiesel produces lower torque than diesel fuel but higher heat release rate than diesel fuel. They suggested that
power output could be improved by retarding the injection timing of algae biodiesel. Tuccar et al. [13] studied the
performance and emission of butanol added diesel-microalgae biodiesel blend in a diesel engine. They found that
the power and torque output of engine reduced slightly when butanol was added to the MB–diesel blends. Engine
emission results indicated that the exhaust emission tests revealed that CO and NOx emission and smoke opacity
values improved with butanol addition.

(a) (c)
58 M. Mofijur et al. / Energy Procedia 156 (2019) 53–58
M. Mofijur et al. / Energy Procedia 00 (2018) 000–000

(b) (d)
Fig. 3: Performance of Microalgae (a) Power (b) Efficiency

6. Conclusions
Microalgae represent the third generation feedstock for biodiesel, with much higher yields than other crops. In
recent year’s biodiesel production from microalgae have received much attention worldwide. Finding the most
efficient method and optimized conditions for the extraction of lipid are important for reducing the cost of biodiesel
production from microalgae. Making biodiesel from microalgae oil is similar to the process of making biodiesel oil
from any other oilseed, and thus can quite possibly use the same conversion processes to produce biodiesel. The use
of biodiesel in diesel engine reduces the engine power slightly but also reduces the engine emission except the NOx
emission. The engine outPUT response varies with the operation condition. Finally, more investment and more
research on microalgae biodiesel are needed to find out the new approaches which could lower the production cost
of biodiesel. Also, research on microalgae combustion in internal combustion engine should be done to improve the
engine performance and lower the emission.

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