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# Electromagnetics

Chapter 1 
Elements of Vector Calculus
U
n
and Static Fields 3.629

Chapter 2 
Maxwell Equations and
EM-Wave Propagation 3.641

## Chapter 4  Wave Guides 3.669

i
Chapter 5  Basics of Antennas 3.688

t
8
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M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH01.indd 628 03/05/2017 19:29:22
Chapter 1 Elements of Vector Calculus and
Static Fields
Exercises
Practice Problems 1 (C)
Directions for questions 1 to 20:  Select the correct alterna-
tive from the given choices.
V
1. If a vector field V is related to another vector field A
through V = ∇ × A , which of the following is true. c
and sc are any closed contour and any surface whose (D)
boundary is c V

∫ v .dl = ∫∫ A .ds
(A)
sc

∫ A .d  = ∫∫ v .ds
(B)
c sc 6. In an electrostatic field,
∇.E = 0 (B) ∇×E = 0
( ) ( )
(A)
∫ × V .dl = ∫∫ ∇ × A ..ds
(C) ∇
C Sc
(C) ∇.E = 0 (D) none of these
7. The electric field E1 in medium with ε1 = 3∈o is
(D) ∇ ( )
∫ × A .dl = ∫∫ v .ds Sc E1 = ax − 5a y + az V m , while medium 2 has e 2 = 5 ∈o
2. If n is the unit normal vector to any closed surface s, and x = 0 is boundary shown in the following figure.
then ∫∫∫ ∇.ndv y
v
s 1 2
(A) 0 (B) s (C) (D) 3s
3 3∈0
5∈0
x=0 x=0
3. The electric field strength at a distance p due to a
point charge +q located on the origin is 10 µv/m. If
the point charge now enclosed by a perfectly conduct-
x
ing metal sheet whose centre is at the origin, then the
electric field strength at the point p, outside the sphere,
becomes z
(A) 0 (B) 10 µ V m
Then, E 2 is equal to
(C) 100 µ V m (D) 50 µ V m (A)
1.2 ax − 5a y + az V m
4. The infinite plane sheet at z = 6 m, there exists a uni- (B)
0.6 ax − 5a y + az V m
1800
form surface charge density of nC m 2 . Then, (C) 2 ax – 5ay + az V m
p
associated electric field strength is (D)
ax − a y + 5a2 V m
(A) 30 V m (B) 32.4 V m
8. Which of the following are true?
(C) 32.4K V m (D) 324 V m (A) B = ∇.A (B) B = ∇×A
5. Electric field lines at the equipotential surface V are ∇.B = 0 (D)
(C) ∇ × B = mo J
shown in the following figure. Which of the following
9. Magnetic vector potential A = − r
2
is correct? a . Then, flux
4 z
(A) v through the surface shown in the following figure is
q
z
5
(B)
v

0
ρ=2 ρ=4y

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH01.indd 629 03/05/2017 19:29:26

3.630  |  Part III  •  Unit 8  •  Electromagnetics

(A) 3 T (B) 5 T ∧ ∧

(C) 15 T (D) 0 T 15. D = (4xy2z3 ax + 3x2zay + 2yaz ) nC/m2. Find the amount
of flux passing through the plane defined by x = 3;
10. If D = ( 2 y 2 + 2)ax + 4 xya y +xaz C /m 2 , then volume 0 ≤ y ≤ 2; 0 ≤ z ≤ 1 in a direction away from the origin.
charge density ρv at (−1, 0, 3) is (A) 4 nC (B) 3 nC (C) 2 nC (D) 8 nC

## zero C /m3 (B)

(A) 4 C /m 3 Common Data for Questions 16 and 17:
Select the value of K so that each of the fields satisfy
−4 C /m3 (D)
(C) 2 C /m 3 Maxwell’s equations.
∧ ∧ ∧
11. A finite length wire carrying current πA is placed along 16. Let D = (5xax − 2yay + Kzaz ) µC/m2 is defined in a
z-axis as shown in figure below. region with charge-free and perfect dielectric
z (A) −3 µC/m3 (B) 3 µC/m3
(C) −2 µC/m 3
(D) 2 µC/m3
∧ ∧
17. E = (Kx − 100t) ay V/m and H = (x + 20t)az A/m in a
region rv = 0, σ = 0, and µ = 0.25 H/m
45° (A) −5 V/m2 (B) +5 V/M2
πA p
y 1 1
(C) − V/m2 (D) V/m2
5 5
45° 18. The electric flux and field intensity inside a conducting
sphere is
x
(A) zero (B) uniform
The H at P(1, 1, 1) is (C) maximum (D) minimum
19. A point charge of Q Coulombs is located at the origin.
1 −1 Find expression for the electric field at any point in the
(A) ax A m (B) ax A m
2 2 free space in spherical coordinates.
1 1 Q ∧ Q ∧
(C) ( ax + a y ) A m (D) ( ax − a y ) A m E=
(A) E=
a (B)
2 r
a
2 j
2 2 4p ∈ r 4p ∈ r
12. In the field of a charge Q at the origin, the potentials Q ∧ Q ∧
E=
(C) E=
a (D) ( − ar )
( )
at A (4, 0, 0) and B 1 , 0, 0 are VA = 15 v, VB = 60 v,
2
4p ∈ r 2 q
4p ∈ r 2

respectively. Then, potential at C (2, 0, 0) is 20. Two infinitely parallel conductors are separated by
(A) 35 V (B) 45 V (C) 30 V (D) 40 V a distance 2r and they carry equal and identical cur-
13. Find the work done in moving a 5 µc charge from ori- rents, as shown in the figure. Find the magnitude of
gin to P(2, −1, 4)m via the straight line path x = −2y, magnetic field strength midway between these two
z = 2x through the field fields.
∧ ∧ ∧ I I
E = (yax + xay + xyaz )V/m.
(A) 22.2 µJ (B) 111.2 µJ r
(C) 22.2 mJ (D) 111.2 mJ r
∧ ∧ ∧
14. Given A = yz a x + xya y + xza z, ∇×A at the point 2r
P(0, 1, 2) is
(A) 0 (B) 2 H = 0
(A) (B) H = ∞
(C) 3 (D)
5 H = undefined
(C) (D) H = 1

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH01.indd 630 03/05/2017 19:29:31

Chapter 1  •  Elements of Vector Calculus and Static Fields  |  3.631

Practice Problems 2 The field due to each charge at point p in free space is
Directions for questions 1 to 15:  Select the correct alterna- ax + 2ay – 3az, ax + 3ay, and ax – 3ay + 3az. Then, total
tive from the given choices. field at P is due to all charges is
1. Which of the following is not the property of static (A) (ax + 2ay) N /C
magnetic fields?
(A) It is solenoid (B) (ax − 2ay) N /C
(B) It is conservative
(C) (ax + 2ay+ 3a2) N /C
(C) It has no sinks or sources
(D) Magnetic flux lines are always closed (D) (ax + 2ay + 3a2) N /C
2. Interface of two regions of two magnetic materials
is current free. Region 1 for which relative perme- 8. Two dielectric media with permittivity 2 and 2 are
ability mr1 = 2 is defined by z < 0 and region 2. z > 0 separated by a charge-free boundary, as shown in the
has mr2 = 1 figure. The E 1 in medium 1 at point P1 has magnitude
E1 and makes an angle α1 = 30° with normal. The direc-
If B 1 = 6ax + 0.4ay + 0.2az T, then H 2 ( A /m) = tion of E 2 at point P2 is α2=
 1  1
2 sin −1 
(A)  sin −1  
(B)
(A) [3ax + 0.2ay + 0.2az ]  6  3
mo
 1
1 tan −1 
(C)  (D) 45°
(B) [6ax + 0.4ay + 0.2az ]  6
mo
9. V = 4x + 2 v, then the electric field is
1
(C) [3ax + 0.2ay + 0.2az ] 4ax V /m (B)
(A) 2ax V /m
mo
−2ax V /m
−4ax V /m (D)
(C)
2
(D) [6ax + 0.4ay + 0.1az ]
mo 10. Current element is represented by 4 × 103 ay A/m and
3. A conductor carrying a current I with a constant cur- 10 −3
rent density across its cross section, the magnetic field it is placed in a magnetic field H = ax A/m. Then,
2m
strength H at any distance (r < R) from the centre of the
the force acting on the element is
conductor (radius R) is given by (r < R)
(A) 2az N (B) −2az N
Ir Ir 4
H=
(A) H=
(B) (C) 0 N (D) N
2p R 2p R2 2m
11. Two infinite long wires carrying current are placed
Ir Ir
H=
(C) H=
3 (D)
along z-axis and along a line parallel to z-axis, as shown
2p R 2p R 4 in the figure.
4. If V = coshx cosky.e2pz is a solution of Laplace equation,
z
then what is the value of K?
p2 +1
(A) 4 + p 2 (B)
4
(C) 1+ 4p2 (D) 0 P Q
y
5. If the magnetic flux density due to an infinite long wire
wb x
at 1 m distance is B = 2 m 2 aφ , then current =
m
(A) 1 A (B) 100 A (C) 1,000 A (D) 10 A
Find the component in the magnetic field H at Q on
6. For any closed surface s, encloses a volume V. Then
y-axis.
∫∫ (∇ × F ).nds =
s
(A) x and y components
(B) Only y components
(A) 0 (B) S (C) V (D) 3 V
(C) Only x components
7. There are three charges that are given by Q1 = 1 µc, (D) x and z components
Q2 = 4 µc, and Q3 = 8 µc

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH01.indd 631 03/05/2017 19:29:34

3.632  |  Part III  •  Unit 8  •  Electromagnetics

12. Two infinite plane sheets carry equal charge densities of (C) x
2 × 10 −9 C /m 2 and placed at x = 0 and x = 2 planes shown
in the figure. The electric displacement at the point
P(3, 0, 0) is shown in the following figure.
24 C /m 2 ax
(A) y

−24 C /m 2 ax
(B)
(C) 0
z
4 nC /m 2 ax
(D)
(D) x
13. Which of the following system does not form the right-
handed coordinate system?
x z
(A)

y
z
14. The line integral of the vector potential A around the
boundary of a surface s represents
y
(A) scalar potential of the surface
z (B) flux density in the surface
(B)
(C) flux through the surface
(D) current density
15. A metal sphere with 1 m radius and a surface charge
10
density of coulomb/m 2 is enclosed in a cube of 10 m
p
y side. The total outward electric displacement normal to
the surface of the cube is
(A) 0.4 C/m 2 (B) 4 C/m 2
x
40 C/m 2 (D)
(C) 400 C/m 2

Previous Years’ Questions An infinitely long uniform solid wire of radius a carries a
uniform DC current of density j
1. For static electric and magnetic fields in an inhomoge-
neous source-free medium, which of the following rep- 3. The magnetic field at a distance r from the centre of the
resents the correct form of two of Maxwell’s equations? wire is proportional to [2012]
[2008] (A) r for r < a and 1/r2 for r > a
(A) ∇. E = 0 (B) ∇. E = 0 (B) 0 for r < a and 1/r for r > a
∇× B = 0 ∇. B = 0 (C) r for r < a and 1/r for r > a
(C) ∇× E = 0 (D) ∇× E = 0 (D) 0 for r < a and 1/r2 for r > a
∇× B = 0 ∇. B = 0 4. A hole of radius b(b < a) is now drilled along the length
2. Consider a closed surface S surrounding a volume V. If of the wire at a distance d from the centre of the wire,
as shown in the following figure.
r is the position vector of a point inside S, with n̂the

## unit normal on S, the value of the integral ∫∫ 5r. n̂dS is

s
b
d
[2011]
(A) 3 V (B) 5 V (C) 10 V (D) 15 V
a

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH01.indd 632 03/05/2017 19:29:36

Chapter 1  •  Elements of Vector Calculus and Static Fields  |  3.633

The magnetic field inside the hole is  [2012] 11. Consider a straight, infinitely long, current carrying
(A) uniform and depends only on d conductor lying on the z-axis. Which one of the follow-
(B) uniform and depends only on b ing plots (in linear scale) qualitatively represents the
(C) uniform and depends on both b and d dependence of HF on r, where HF is the magnitude of
(D) non-uniform the azimuthal component of magnetic field outside the
5. The divergence of the vector field conductor and r is the radial distance from the conduc-
tor?  [2015]
A = x ax + y ay + z az is [2013]

(A) 0 (B) 1/3 (C) 1 (D) 3 (A)
6. The force on a point charge +q kept at a distance d
from the surface of an infinite grounded metal plate in
a medium of permittivity ∈ is [2014]
(A) 0 r
2 HΦ
q
(B) away from the plate (B)
16p ∈d 2

q2
(C) towards the plate
16p ∈d 2 r

q2 (C)
(D) towards the plate
4p ∈d 2

## 7. Given the vector A = (cosx)(siny) ax + (sinx) (cosx) ay

, where a , a denote unit vectors along x and y direc-
x y
r
tions, respectively. The magnitude of curl of A is _____ (D)  HΦ
 [2014]
8. The electric field (assumed to be one-dimensional)
between two points A and B is shown. Let ΨA and ΨB
be the electrostatic potentials at A and B, respectively. r
The value of ΨB – ΨA in volts is _____ [2014]
12. In a source-free region in vacuum, if the electrostatic
potential f = 2x2 + y2 + cz2, the value of constant c must
be _______.  [2015]
13. Concentric spherical shells of radii 2m, 3m and 8m
40 kV/cm carry uniform surface charge densities of 20nC/m2,
–4nC/m2 and ρs, respectively. The value of r (nC/m2)
20 kV/cm

required to ensure that the electric flux density D = 0
0 kV/cm at radius 10 m is __________ . [2016]
A B
5 µm 14. The current density in a medium is given
400 sin θ
by J = âr Am-2.
9. Given F = z ax + x ay + y az If S represents the portion (
2π r 2 + 4) )

The total current and the average current density flow-
of the sphere x2 + y2 + z2 = 1 for z ≥ 0, then ∫ ∇ × F.ds is
ing through the portion of a spherical surface r = 0.8 m,
s
__________ [2014] π π
≤ q ≤ , 0 ≤ f ≤ 2p are given respectively, by[2016]
→ ∧ ∧ ∧
12 4
10. If E = −( 2y 3 − 3yz 2 ) x − (6xy 2 − 3xz 2 ) y + (6 xyz ) z is
(A) 15.09A, 12.86Am-2
the electric field in a source-free region, a valid expres- (B) 8.73A, 13.65Am-2
sion for the electrostatic potential is [2014] (C) 12.86 A, 9.23Am-2
(A) xy3 – yz2 (B) 2xy3 – xyz2 (D) 10.28A, 7.56Am-2
(C) y3 + xyz2 (D) 2xy3 – 3xyz2

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH01.indd 633 03/05/2017 19:29:40

3.634  |  Part III  •  Unit 8  •  Electromagnetics

15. A uniform and constant magnetic field B = ẐB exists The charge is at rest at t = 0, when a voltage +V is applied
to the plate at -d and voltage -V is applied to the plate at
in the Ẑ direction in vacuum. A particle of mass m x = +d. Assume that the quantity of the charge q is
with a small charge q is introduced in to this region small enough that it does not perturb the field set up
ˆ x + ZV
ˆ z . Given that B, by the metal plates. The time that the charge q takes to
with an initial velocity V = XV
reach the right plate is proportional to:  [2016]
m, q, vx and vz are all non zero, which one of the fol- d d
(A) (B)
lowing describes the eventual trajectory of the particle? V V
 [2016] d d
(C) (D)

(A) Helical motion in the Z - direction V V
(B) Circular motion in the xy plane
∧ 18. Consider the charge profile shown in the figure. The
(C) Linear motion in the Z - direction resultant potential distribution is best described by
∧  [2016]
(D) Linear motion in the X - direction
16. The parallel plate capacitor shown in the figure has p(x)
movable plates. The capacitor is charged so that the
energy stored in it is E when the plate separation is d.
the capacitor is then isolated electrically and the plates p1
are moved such that the plate separation becomes 2d.
d

b 0
a
x

p2

## At this new plate separation, what is the energy stored

in the capacitor, neglecting fringing effects? [2016]
E (A) (B)
(A) 2E  (B) 2  E   (C) E  (D)  V(x)
2 V(x)
17. A positive charge q is placed at x = 0 between two infi-
nite metal plates placed at x = -d and at x = + d respec-
tively. The metal plates lie in the yz plane. b 0 b 0
a x a x

(C) (D)
+q V(x)
at x=-d

V(x)
at x=+d

x=0

b 0
b 0 a x
a x

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH01.indd 634 03/05/2017 19:29:42

Chapter 1  •  Elements of Vector Calculus and Static Fields  |  3.635

Hints/Solutions
Practice Problems 1 5. Electric field lines are always normal to the equipoten-
tial surface. Hence, the correct option is (D).
1. Applying the surface integral for the given expression
( )
∫∫ V .ds = ∫∫ ∇ × A .ds . Applying Stokes’ theorem to
sc sc
6. In an electrostatic field, the work done in moving a
closed path is zero.
∴ ∫ E .dl = 0
above ∫∫ (∇ × A ) ds = ∫ A .d
sc c
According to Stokes’ theorem, ∇ × E = 0
Hence, the correct option is (B).
∫ A dl = ∫∫ V ds
∴
c sc
7. Boundary conditions are:
Hence, the correct option is (B). Et1 = Et2
2. According to divergence theorem, Dn1 = Dn2
Since x = 0 is a boundary and y and z components are
∫∫∫ ∇.ndv = ∫∫ n.nds = ∫∫ ds = s
v s s
tangential components, they remain same.
Hence, the correct option is (B). ∴ E 2 = E n 2 ax − 5ay + az V /m
Dn1 = Dn2
3. +q
∈1 En1 = ∈2 En2
+ −+ + + p Gaussian
+ − −
− − q −r − + surface
En2 = 3 ∈o × En1
+ − − +
− −
+ −− − + 5 ∈o

− − Conducting
+− q − + sphere 3

+ −
+ − = ×1
− − + 5
+ −− −
− + En2 = 0.6
+ −−−−−−−+
+ + + ∴ E .2 = 0.6ax − 5ay + az V /m
Hence, the correct option is (B).
9. Flux y = ∫ B .ds
Applying gauss law, ∫ D.ds = Q enclosed
s
B = ∇×A
D( 4p r ) = + q − q + q = q.
2
ar rAφ a2
q 1 ∂ ∂ ∂
D r = 4p r 2 =
r ∂r ∂φ ∂z
q Ar Aφ Az
E = ar
4p ∈ r 2
Due to only point charge ar raφ az
q 1 ∂ ∂ ∂
E = ar =
4p ∈o r 2 r ∂r ∂φ ∂z
Therefore, E remains unchanged at p (external point). −r2
0 0
4
E = 10 µV /m
 −∂  − r 2  
Hence, the correct option is (B). B = a r (0 − 0) + r .aφ    − 0 + az ( 0 − 0 )
 ∂r  ∂r4  
rS 1800 × 10 −9
4. E = =  r
5 4
2 ∈O p × 2 ∈O B = aφ   , y = ∫ ∫ B .ds
 2 z =0 p =2
1800 × 10 −9
= 5 4
11
p ×2×
10 −9 y = ∫ ∫ 2
rd rd z
36p z =0 r =2
4
= 32,400 = 32.4 K V 1  r2 
m = 5
  [z ]0
Hence, the correct option is (C). 2  2 2

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH01.indd 635 03/05/2017 19:29:45

3.636  |  Part III  •  Unit 8  •  Electromagnetics

Ψ = 3 × 5 B

## Ψ = 15 tesla or wb/m 2 13. W = ∫ E .dl

A
Hence, the correct option is (C).
Hence, the correct option is (B).
10. According to Gauss law,
∇.D = rv ax ay az
∂ ∂ ∂
∂ ∂ ∂ 14. ∇ × A P(0, 1, 2) = = 2
∴rv = Dx + Dy + Dz ∂x ∂y ∂z
∂x ∂y ∂z
= 0 + 4x + 0 Ax Ay Az
rv = −4 C /m3 Hence, the correct option is (B).
Hence, the correct option is (C). 2 1
11. α2 = 45°; α1 = 135° 15. y = ∫ ∫ 12y z 3 dy dz = 8 nC
2

I y =0 z =0
H = (cos a 2 − cos a 1 )aφ Hence, the correct option is (D).
2p r
16. rv = 0; σ = 0
p  1 1  ∴∇·D = 0
=  +  aφ

2p 1 2 2 K = −3 µc/m3
1 Hence, the correct option is (A).
H = aφ
2
−∂B ∂H
17. ∇ × E = = −µ
Since, f = 90°, af = −ax ∂t ∂t
−1 ∧
H= ax = −µ 20 az
2
⇒ ∴K = −5V/m2
Hence, the correct option is (B).
Hence, the correct option is (A).
12. Since the field is uniform, E = –∇V volt due to charge
18. Inside a conductor E = 0
Q at origin is
Hence, the correct option is (A).
Q k  Q 
V = = k =
4p ∈ r r  4p ∈  Q ∧
o o
19. E = a
2 r
K 4p ∈ r
VA = = 15V
4 H = 0
VA = 60 V
Hence, the correct option is (A).
K
VB = = 2k = 60V 20. At midpoint, two currents are added in and out of
1
2 phase.
K H = 0
VC = = 30V
2 Hence, the correct option is (A).
Hence, the correct option is (C).

z
Practice Problems 2 2.
1. Divergence of magnetic flux density is zero (solenoidal
properties). Z>0

- ∇ × B ≠ 0 (is non-conservative) m r2 = 1
2
- Unique magnetic charge does not exist. Therefore,
it always form a closed loop. y
mr1 = 2 Z<0
Hence, the correct option is (B). 1

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH01.indd 636 03/05/2017 19:29:48

Chapter 1  •  Elements of Vector Calculus and Static Fields  |  3.637

## B 1 = 6ax + 0.4ay + 0.2 az ∴K2 = 1 + 4p2

k = 1 + 4 r
2
B1
∴H1 =
m Hence, the correct option is (C).
B1 5. H due to infinite long wire.
=
mo m r1
I B
1 H = aφ =
∴H1 =
(6ax + 0.4ay + 0.2az) 2p r mo
2mo
According to boundary conditions, I 2m
∴ = ( r = 1m)
Ht1 = Ht2, Bn1 = Bn2 2p r mo
∴ Hx and Hy remain same in H 2 .
6a 0.4 2p × 1 × 2 × 10 −6
H2 = x + ay + H n 2 az I= =10 A
2 mo 2 mo 4p × 10 −7
But, Bn1 = Bn2 Hence, the correct option is (D).
µ1 Hn1 = µ2 Hn2 6. According to divergence theorem,
0.2 = µo1 × Hn2

Hn2 =
0.2 ∫∫ ∇ × F.nds = ∫∫∫ ∇(∇ × F )dv = 0
s V
mo
(divergence of curl of F = 0)
1
∴H 2 =
[3ax + 0.2ay + 0.2az ] Hence, the correct option is (A).
mo
7. According to superposition theorem,
Hence, the correct option is (C).
3. E T = E 1mC + E 4 mc + E mc

R
E T = ax + 2ay

## Hence, the correct option is (A).

8. Et1 = Et2 (Boundary conditions)
Dn1 = Dn2
According to Ampere’s law,
E1
∫ H .dl = I enc 30°

e r1 = 2
I
I enc1 = × p r2
p R2

I
∫ H .dl = H (2p r ) = p R 2 × p r
2
E2 α2
εr1 = 2
I .r
H = 2p R 2
∴ E1 sin 30° = E2 sin a 2

Hence, the correct option is (B). E1
4. ∇2V = 0 (Laplace equation) sin a 2 = sin 30°
E2
∂ 2V ∂ 2V ∂ 2V

+ + =0 Dn1 = Dn2
∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2
Coshx cosky.e2pz (1− K2 + 4p2) = 0 E1e1 cos 30 = E 2e 2 cos a 2

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH01.indd 637 03/05/2017 19:29:52

3.638  |  Part III  •  Unit 8  •  Electromagnetics

E cosa 2 1 x
12.
1 = × P(3, 0, 0)
E2 3 2
2 (2, 0, 0)

E 2
1 = cosa 2 ×
E2 3
rs
z

sinα2 = cosα2 2 1
.
3 2 rs x = 0

1 y
tan α2 =
6 D due to a sheet at ‘p’ is
rs r
 1  D 1 = ax , D 2 = s ax
α2 = tan  −1 2 2
 6 
D = D1 + D 2
Hence, the correct option is (C). = rs ax
nC
9. E = −∇V D =2 .ax
m2
 ∂  Hence, the correct option is (A).
= −  ( 4 x + 2)ax + 0.a y + 0 az V 
 ∂x m  1 3. According to the right-hand thumb rule, ‘c’ will not
form the right handed co-ordinate system.
E = −4 ax V Hence, the correct option is (C).
m
Hence, the correct option is (C). 14. ∫ A .dl = ∫ B .ds
C s

(
10. F = I dl × B B = m H ) ∴Flux through the surface ‘s’.
Hence, the correct option is (C).
10 −3 15. According to Gauss law,
= 4 × 103 × (ay × ax ) m
2m D ∫ .ds = Q encl
=−2az Newton Q enclosed = 4πr2 × ρs
10
Hence, the correct option is (B). = 4π × 1×
p
11. Since the point lies on y-axis, aφ = −ax = 40 Coulomb
Therefore, H contains only aφ components due to both 40
D = = 0.4 C / m 2
wires. H contains only x components. Hence, the cor- 100
rect option is (C). Hence, the correct option is (A).

## Previous Years’ Questions divr = ∇ r

 ∂ ∂ ∂
1. Maxwell equations for static electric and magnetic =  i + j + k  .( xi + yj + zk )
fields are given as:  ∂x ∂y ∂z 
=3
∇ × H = Jc 3

## ∇×E=0 5∫ di v r v = 5.3∫ 1dv

∇·D = ρn v v
= 15 V
∇·B = 0
Hence, the correct option is (D).
Hence, the correct option is (D).
3. Magnetic field inside the conductor is proportional to r
2. By Gauss theorem, 1
and outside the conductor, it is proportional to .
5∫ r .n ds = 5∫ div r dv r
v Hence, the correct option is (C).

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH01.indd 638 03/05/2017 19:29:55

Chapter 1  •  Elements of Vector Calculus and Static Fields  |  3.639

## 4. The magnetic field inside the hole is uniform and = -15 V

depends on both the radii of conductor and hole.
Hence, the correct option is (C).
9. By using Stokes’ theorem, ∫ ∇ × F.ds =
∫ F.dr
5. A = x ax + y ay + z az c

∂ ∂ ∂ x2 + y2 = 1, z = 0
Div A = ( x) + ( y) + ( z )
∂x ∂y ∂z ⇒ x = cos θ, y = sin θ, and ∈(0, 2 π)
= 1 + 1 + 1 = 3
Hence, the correct option is (D).
∫ zdx + xdy + ydz = ∫ xdy
Q2 p
2p
6. F = = ∫ cos 2 θdθ = = p = 3.14
4p ∈0 ( 2d ) 2 2
0
Q2
= towards grounded metal plate. 10. E = -∇V
16p ∈0 d 2
+Q V =− ∫ E .d
d From the option (D), we get

∂ ∂ 
 ∂x ( 2 xy − 3 xyz ) + ∂y ( 2 xy − 3 xyz ) + 
3 2 3 2

d
E=− 
−Q ∂ 
 ∂z ( 2 xy − 3 xyz )
2 2

Image

 ∧ ∧ ∧

Hence, the correct option is (C). = − ( 2 y 3 − 3 yz 2 ) ax + (6 xy 2 − 3 xz 2 ) a y − 6 xyz az 
 
 ax ay az 
  Hence, the correct option is (D).
∂ ∂ ∂
7. ∇ × A = 
 ∂x ∂y ∂z  11. Given that conductor is lying on z-axis
 
cos x sin y sin x cos y 0  → →
l dl × r
⇒ + az [-cosxcosy + cosxcosy] = 0 ⇒ |∇ × A| = 0 HΦ = ∫ →3
8. From the two points given in the question, write the
L
4p r
equation as
1
HΦ a
r2
40 kV/cm HΦ
20 kV/cm

−4
(0, 20 kV/cm) 5 × 10 cm (5 × 10−4, 40 kV/cm)

40 − 20 r
E − 20 = ( X − 0)
5 × 10 −4
Hence, the correct option is (C).
⇒ E = (4 × 104 x + 20) × 103 12. In source free region ∇.E = 0
B Where E = −∇.f
V AB = − ∫ E.dx
 ∂ ∂ 
A 2
( 2 2
)2 2 2
(
 ∂ x 2x + y + cz aˆ x + ∂ y 2x + y + cz aˆ y +  )
5 ×10 −4
E = − 
=− ∫ ( 4 × 10 4 X + 20)dx  ∂
(
 ∂ z 2x + y + cz aˆ z
2 2 2
) 

0
 
 x2  −4 E = −  4 xaˆ x + 2 yaˆ y + 2czaˆ z 
= −103  4 × 10 4 + 20 x I 50×10
 2 

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH01.indd 639 03/05/2017 19:30:00

3.640  |  Part III  •  Unit 8  •  Electromagnetics

Source free region ∇. E = 0 At a fixed point in the z direction the, the particle moves
⇒        –[4 + 2 + 2c] = 0 in the x - y plane.  Choice (A)
2c = −6 16.
c = −3
1
E= CV 2
Hence, the correct answer is –3.1 to –2.9. 2
13. The electric flux density D = 0 at r = 10m when the 1 Q2
E=
total charge enclosed by the sphere of radius 10m, is 2 C
equal to zero, i.e. 20 × 10-9 × 16p - 4 × 10-9 × 64p + ρs, Q = constant
× 256p = 0 ⇒ ρs, = – 0.25nC/m2 1
E α (1)

εA
400 sin θ C=
14. J = â r Am −2 d
2π ( r 2 + 4) ε, A are constant
Total current flowing through the given spherical sur- 1
Cα (2)
face, d
I = ∫∫ J ds From (1) and (2)
E1 d
2π π/ 4
400 sin θ = 1

= ∫ ∫
Q =0 θ= π / 2
2 π ( r 2
+ 4 )
a r r 2 sin θdθdφ a r E2 d 2
E d
r = 0.8 =
E 2 2d
= 15.09 A
E2 = 2E Choice (A)
Average current density through the surface,
17. Charge transit time
I 15.09
J av = = d
t=
∫∫ ds
2π π4

∫ ∫ r sin θdθdφ
2
s
V
Q =0 θ= π 2
Where the velocity
= 12.86 A/m2 Choice (A) Vα V
15. As per the right hand thumb rule, the motion of the
∴ t α d  Choice (C)
particle is in helical trajectory in the z direction when V
the field is directed in the ‘z’ direction.
18. Choice (D)

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH01.indd 640 03/05/2017 19:30:02

Chapter 2 Maxwell Equations and
Em-Wave Propagation
Exercises
Practice Problems 1
Directions for questions 1 to 24:  Select the correct alterna- (C) Z direction
tive from the given choices. (D) At angle depends on ‘c’ in the XY plane
1. A varying magnetic flux linking a coil is given by f = 9. The intrinsic impedance of Cu of 27 GHz m0 = 4 p ×
1 3 10-7 H/m
lt . If at time t = 2 sec the emf induced is 4 v, then the
3 10 −9
value of l is ∈= , s = 5.8 × 107  /m will be
36 p
(A) Zero (B) 1 wb/s2 jp jp
(C) -1 wb/s2 (D) 4 wb/s2 (A) 0.03e 4 (B) 0.036 e 2
2. A parallel plate air-filled capacitor has plate area of 10-4 m2 jp jp

and a plate separation of 10-2m. It is connected to a 1 v, 3.6 (C) 0.06e 2 (D) 0.06e 4
GHz source. Then the magnitude of displacement current is 10. If E = (ay + jaz) ejkx-wt,
(A) 20 mA (B) 200 mA
(C) 20 A (D) 2 A  k 
H=  ( az + ja y )ejkx-wt ,
3. A material has conductivity of 10-4 and a relative per-  wm 
mittivity of 4. The frequency at which the conduction then the time averaged poynting vector is
and displacement currents are equal k
(A) 0.45 MHz (B) 1.35 MHz (A) Null vector (B) ax
wm
(C) 0.9 MHz (D) 1 GHz
2k k
4. In free space, H = 0.1 cos (3 × 106t - bz) ax A/m. The (C) ax (D) ax
wm 2wm
expression for E(z, t) is 11. When a plane wave travelling in free space is incident
(A) 37.7 cos (3 × 106t - bz) az normally on a medium having er = 9, then the fraction
(B) -37.7 cos(3 × 106 t - bz)ay of power transmitted into the medium is given by
(C) 37.7 cos(3 ×106 t - bz)ay 1 1
(A) (B)
(D) 75.4 cos(3 × 106 t - bz)az 4 9
8 3
5. The electric field of wave propagating through a loss (C) (D)
less medium (m0, 4 ∈0) is E= 10 cos(9 p × 108 t - bx) ay. 9 4
Then, the phase constant b of the wave is 12. The instantaneous electric field of a plane wave propa-
(A) 18 p rad/m (B) 6 p rad/m gating in z direction is
p E (t ) = [ax E1 cos wt - ay E2 sin wt] e-jkz
3 Then, the wave is
6. A wave propagating through a medium [er = 8, mr = 2 (A) Linearly polarized
(B) Elliptically polarized
and s = 0] has its electric field given by E= 5 sin(106
(C) Right circularly polarized
t - b z) v/m. The wave impedance in ohms is
(D) Left circularly polarized
(A) 120 p (B) 30 p
(C) 60 p (D) 180 13. A plane EM wave with magnetic field intensity
H i = cos (108 t - bz) ax mA/m travels in air for z ≤ 0 and
7. The electric and magnetic fields for a TEM wave of
is incident normally on a loss less non-magnetic medium
frequency 14 GHz in a homogeneous medium of rela-
of relative permittivity 4 which occupy the region
tive permittivity ∈r and relative permeability mr = 1 are
z ≥ 0. Which one of the following is the expression for
given byE= EP e j(wt - 560p y)
az v/m H = 3 e j(wt - 560p y)
ax v/m
the reflected electric field in (mv/m) h0 = 120 p W
Assuming velocity of light in free space = 3 × 108 m/s,
(A) E r = - 40 p cos(108 t - 3z) ax
h0 = 120 p, then er and Ep are
z
(A) 0.6, 120 p (B) 0.6, 600 p (B) E r = - 40 p cos(108 t + ) ax
(C) 0.36, 600 p (D) 0.36, 120 p 3
2 (C) E r = - 80 p cos(108 t - 3z) ax
d Ey dE y
8. A plane EM wave satisfying the equation = c2 2 z
2 dz 2
(D)
dt E r = 80 p cos(108 t + ) ax
d Ey dE y 3
2
= c 2 2 , then the wave propagates in the 14. A plane wave from free space with E = 100 ej(0.866y+0.5z)
dz dt ax v/m is incident on a dielectric medium s = 0 ∈ = 4 e0,
(A) X direction
m = m0 and occupying z ≥ 0 then Brewster angle
(B) Y direction

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH02.indd 641 03/05/2017 19:30:18

3.642  |  Part III  •  Unit 8  •  Electromagnetics

## (A) 45° (B) 60° (A) The wave propagates along ay

(C) 27.57° (D) 63.43° (B) The wave length l = 94.2 m.
15. A plane wave of wavelength l is travelling in a direc- (C) The wave number K = 0.33 rad/m
tion making an angle 45° with positive x axis and 90° (D) The wave attenuates as it travels.

with positive y axis. Then, the Efield of plane wave can 20. A current sheet of K = 6.5 az A/m at x = 0 separates
be represented as (E0 - constant) ∧
region1 x < 0 where H1 = 10 a y A/m and region2 is char-
 2p 2p 
j  wt − x. − . z
(A)
ay E0 e  l l  acterized by x > 0 if mr1 = 3 and mr2 = 4 Find H 2
∧ ∧
 2p 
j  wt −
2p
x. + . z (A) 16.5 a y A/m (B) 16.5 (− a y ) A/m
 l l 
(B)
ay E0 e ∧ ∧

 2p 2p 
(C) 3.5 a y A/m (D) 3.5 (− a y ) A/m
j  wt + x. − . z
(C)
ay E0 e  l l  21. A plane slab of dielectric having dielectric constant 5,
placed normal to a uniform field with a flux density of
 2p 2p 
j  wt +
 l
x. +
l
. z

2 C/m2, is uniformly polarized. The polarization of the
(D) ay E0 e slab is
16. In a certain region, the current density is expressed as (A) 0.4 C/m2 (B) 1.6 C/m2
Jc = −105 ∇ V A/m2 where V = 10e−x siny volts. Find (C) 2.0 C/m
2
(D) 6.4 C/m2
s=?
22. A plane wave of 10 GHz is incident normally on a
(A) 105  /m (B) 10−5  /m dielectric plate of 3 mm thickness. If the phase shift on
(C) −10  /m
5
(D) −10−5  /m transmission through the sheet is 90°, then the dielectric
constant is
Common Data for Questions 17 and 18:
(A) 5.0 (B) 3.25 (C) 4.5 (D) 6.25
The magnetic field intensity of a uniform plane wave in air
∧ 23. Find the displacement current density with a parallel
is 20A/m in the a y direction. The wave is propagating in the
∧ plate capacitor where e0 = 10e, where A = 0.01 m2, d =
az direction at an angular frequency of 2 × 109 rad/s. 5 cm, and V = 100 sin 314t V
17. Find wave length. (A) Id = 5.25 × 10–3 cos (314t)
(A) 0.942 m (B) 1.8 m (B) Id = cos (314t)
(C) 1.942 m (D) 0.45 m (C) Id = 5.55 cos (314t)
(D) Id = 5.55 × 106 cos (314t)
18. What is the frequency
(A) 318 MHZ (B) 3.18 MHZ 24. Find the skin depth at a frequency of 2MHz is allowed
(C) 31.8 MHZ (D) 0.318 MHZ when s = 38.2 s/m and mr = 1
(A) d = 5.758 × 10 – 6 m
19. The electric field component of a wave in free space is
(B) d = 5.758 × 10– 5 m
given by E = 10
(C) d=0
cos(107t + kz)ay V/m. It implies that
(D) d = 5.758 m

Practice Problems 2
Directions for questions 1 to 21:  Select the correct alterna- 3. In a good conductor, the intrinsic impedance is
tive from the given choices. (A) Real
1. The E field of a uniform plane wave propagating in a (B) Imaginary
dielectric medium is given by E(t, z) = 2 cos(108 t - (C) Have both real and imaginary with phase angle 45°
z z (D) Null
) ax - 2 sin(108 t - ) ay. 4. A TEM wave impinges obliquely on a dielectric bound-
2 2
ary with ∈g1 = 2, ∈g2 = 1. The angle of incident of total
Then, the dielectric constant of the medium is reflection is
(A) 1.25 (B) 2.25 (C) 3.25 (D) 1.717 (A) 30° (B) 60° (C) 45° (D) 90°
2. The depth of penetration of EM wave in a medium 5. For an elliptically polarized wave incident on the sur-
having conductivity s at a frequency of 2 MHz is face of the interface of a dielectric at the Brewster
5 cm. Then, the depth of penetration at a frequency of angle, the reflected wave will be
32 MHz is (A) Elliptically polarized
(A) 0.25 cm (B) 4 cm (B) Linearly polarized
(C) 2 cm (D) 1.25 cm (C) Right circularly polarized
(D) Left circular polarized

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH02.indd 642 03/05/2017 19:30:20

Chapter 2  •  Maxwell Equations and Em-Wave Propagation  |  3.643

6. If H = 0.1 sin(106 p t + by) ax A/m for a plane wave 13. A plane wave propagating in air with E= (8 ax + 6 ay - 3
propagating in free space. Then the time average poynt-
az) ej(wt+3x-4y) v/m is incident on a perfectly conducting slab
ing vector is
(A) 0.6 p sin2(by) ay w/m2 positioned at x ≤ 0. The Eof the reflected wave is
(B) -0.6 p ay w/m2 (A) (-8ax -6ay -az) ej(wt+3x-4y) V/m
(C) 1.2 p ax /m2 (B) (-8ax +6ay -0.75 az) ej(wt+3x-4y) V/m
(D) -1.2 p ax w/m2 8a 3
(C) ( x + ay - 3 az) ej(wt-3x-4y) V/m
7. Which one of the following is not correct for a plane 3 2
wave with (D) (-8ax -6ay + 3az) ej(wt-3x-4y) V/m
H = 0.5 e-0.1x cos(108t - 3x) ay A/m 14. The electric field component of time harmonic plane
(A) Wave frequency is 108 r. p. s EM wave travelling in a non-magnetic loss less dielec-
(B) Phase constant is 3 rad/m tric medium has an amplitude of 1 V/m. If the relative
(C) Wave travels along +ve x direction permittivity of the medium is 4, the magnitude of the
(D) The wave is polarized in the z direction time average power density vector (in w/m2) is
1 1
8. If the Efield of a plane polarized EM wave travelling in (A) (B)
30p 60p
the z - direction is E= ax Ex + ay Ey, then its H field is
1 1
−Ey Ey (C) (D)
E E 120p 240p
(A) ax + x a y (B) ax + x a y
h0 h0 h0 h0 15. If electric field is given by
Ey Ey E= 2 cos(wt + bz) ax V/m then the wave travels in
E Ex
(C) x ax + a y (D) ax − ay (A) -ve y direction (B) +ve y direction
h0 h0 h0 h0 (C) -ve z direction (D) -ve x direction
9. Which one of the following statement is wrong about 16. The unit of ∇ × H is
the EM wave (A) Ampere (B) Ampere/meter
(A) Electric field is perpendicular to the direction of (C) Ampere/meter2 (D) Ampere - meter
propagation 17. The time-varying field is given by
(B) Magnetic field is perpendicular to the direction of ≈ ∧ ∧

## propagation E (0, t) = Acoswtax − Bsinwta y in which A and B are

(C) Transverse components only are absent positive real constants, the wave is said to be
(D) Poynting vector is along the direction of propaga- (A) Linearly polarized
tion (B) Circularly polarized
(C) Elliptically Polarized
10. According to poynting theorem, the vector product (D) Not polarized at all.
E × H is a measure of which of the following?
18. In a uniform plane wave, E and H are related by
(A) Stored energy density of electric field
E E ∈
(B) Stored energy density of magnetic field (A) = 1 (B) =
(C) Power dissipated per unit volume H H m
(D) Rate of energy flow per unit area E m E m
(C) = (D) =
11. An EM wave having frequency of gets attenuated by H ∈ H ∈
a factor of e-2 after propagation a distance d in a good 19. Maxwell’s equation in free space is
conductor. If the signal frequency is now reduced to (A) ∇.B = 0 (B) ∇.B = r
0.25 fo after travelling the same distance d in the same (C) ∇.B = J (D) ∇.B = sJ
conductor. The signal attenuated by a factor of 20. Identify the wave equation for free space conditions
(A) e-4 (B) e −2 2 (C) e− 2 (D) e-1 and charge free
12. The electric field of uniform plane wave in free space, ∂2 E ∂2 H
along the positive z direction, is given by E= 10(ax - ∇2E = m∈
(A) (B) ∇2E = m∈
∂t 2 ∂t 2
j ay) e-j 6.28z
∂2 E
The frequency and polarization of the wave is (C) ∇2E = ∇2H (D) ∇2H = m∈ 2
(A) 3 GHz, left circular ∂t
(B) 0.3 GHz, right circular 21. In a lossless medium the intrinsic impedance h = 60p
(C) 3 GHz, right circular and mr = 1. What is the value of the dielectric constant ∈r?
(D) 0.3 GHz, left circular (A) 2 (B) 1
(C) 4 (D) 8

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH02.indd 643 03/05/2017 19:30:23

3.644  |  Part III  •  Unit 8  •  Electromagnetics

## Previous Years’ Questions

( )
1. If E = aˆ x + jaˆ y e − jkz − jwt v/m and (A)
8
9
(B)
1
2
 K 
H =
 wm 
( )
aˆ y + jaˆ x e jkz − jwt A/m, time average point- 1
(C) (D)
5
ing vector is [2004] 3 6
 K 
(A) Null vector (B)  ˆ
a 6. If C is a closed curve enclosing a surface S, then the
 wm 
z
magnetic field intensity H , the current density J and
 2K   K 
the electric flux density Dare related by [2007]
(C)  wm  aˆ z (D)  2wm  aˆ z

2. Refractive index of glass is 1.5. Find the wave length     ∂D 
(A) ∫∫ H . ds =  ∫  J + ∂t  . dl
of a beam of light with a frequency of 1014 Hz in glass. S c 
Assume velocity of light is 3 × 108m/s in vacuum.
  ∂D 
[2005]

(A) 3 mm (B) 3 mm
(B) ∫c H . dl =
∫∫s  J + ∂t  .ds
(C) 2 mm (D) 1 mm
  ∂D 
3. The electric field of an electromagnetic wave propagat- (C) ∫∫s H . ds = ∫c  J + ∂t  . dl
ing in the positive Z – direction is given by

 p     ∂D 
E = aˆ x sin (wt − bz ) + aˆ y sin  wt − bz +  V/m. (D) ∫c H . dl = ∫∫s  J + ∂t  . ds
 2
The wave is [2006] 7. A plane wave of wavelength l is travelling in a direction
(A) linearly polarized in the z direction making an angle 30° with  positive x – axis and 90° with
(B) elliptically polarized positive y – axis. The E field of the plane wave can be
(C) left-hand circularly polarized represented as (E0 is constant)
(D) right-hand circularly polarized  [2007]
 3p p 
4. A medium is divided into regions I and II about x =  ∧ j  wt −
l
x − z
l 
0 plane, as shown in the figure below. An electromag- (A) E = y E0 e 
netic wave with electric field, E1 = 4 aˆ x + 3aˆ y + 5aˆ zV/m  p 3p 
∧ j  wt − x −
l l
z
is incident normally on the interface from region - I. E = y E0 e 
(B) 

## The electric field E2 in region – II at the interface is  3p p 

 [2006]  ∧ j  wt +
l
x + z
l 
Region I Region II E = y E0 e 
(C)
 3p p 
∧ j  wt −
l
x + z
l 
(D) E = y E0 e 
s1 = 0, m1 = m0, s2 = 0, m2 = m0,
er1 = 3 er2 = 4 8. The H field (in A/m) of a plane wave propagating in
free space is given by
E1 E2  ∧ 5 3 5  p
H =x cos (wt − bz ) + Yˆ sin  wt − bz +  A / m,
h0 h0  2
x<0 x=0 x>0 the time average power flow density in Watts is:[2007]
(A) E2 = E1 h 100
(B) 4 aˆ x + 0.75aˆ y − 1.25aˆ z (A) 0 (B)
100 h0
3aˆ x + 3aˆ y + 5aˆ z
(C) 50
(C) 50h02 (D)
(D) –3aˆ x + 3aˆ y + 5aˆ z h0
5. When a plane wave travelling in free space is incident 9. A right circularly polarized (RCP) plane wave is inci-
normally on a medium having er = 4.0, the fraction of dent at an angle of 60° to the normal, on an air dielec-
power transmitted into the medium is given by tric interface. If the reflected wave is linearly polarized,
 [2006] the relative dielectric constant er 2 is: [2007]

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH02.indd 644 03/05/2017 19:30:26

Chapter 2  •  Maxwell Equations and Em-Wave Propagation  |  3.645

## Linearly represent the electric and magnetic field components of

RCP polarized the EM wave at large distances r from a dipole antenna,
60° in free space. The average power (W) crossing the
60°
air εr2 = 1 hemispherical shell located at r = 1 km, 0 ≤ θ ≤ π/2 is
_________ [2014]
εr2
dielectric 21. To maximize power transfer, a lossless transmission line
θ1 is to be matched to resistive load impedance via a l/4
transformer as shown.
Lossless transmission line
(A) 2 (B) 3 (C) 2 (D) 3 λ/4 transformer
10. A uniform plane wave in the free space is normally ZL= 100Ω
Zin= 50Ω
incident on an infinitely thick dielectric slab (dielectric
constant er = 9). The magnitude of the reflection coef-
ficient is [2008]
(A) 0 (B) 0.3 The characteristic impedance (in Ω) of the l/4 trans-
(C) 0.5 (D) 0.8 former is ____________ [2014]
11. Two infinitely long wires carrying current are as shown 22. If the electric field of a plane wave is
in the figure below. One wire is in the y–z plane and
( )
→ ∧
parallel to the y-axis. The other wire is in the x–y plane E ( z , t ) = x 3x cos wt − kz + 30 o the polarization state
and parallel to the x-axis. Which components of the ∧
resulting magnetic field are non-zero at the origin? (
− y 4 sin wt − kz + 45o ( m V m ) , )
 [2009]
of the plane wave is [2014]
(A) left elliptical (B) left circular
18. The angle of incidence θt and the expression for Et are (C) right elliptical (D) right circular
 [2013]
E −j
p ×104 ( x + z ) 23. A region shown below contains perfect conducting
(A) 60 0 and 0 (aˆ x − aˆ z )e 3 2
V/m →
2 half-space and air. The surface current K s on the sur-
p ×104 z
E −j → ∧
(B) 450 and 0 (aˆ x − aˆ z )e 3
V/m face of the perfect conductor is K s = x 2 amperes per
2 →
p ×104 ( x + z )
E0 −j meter. The tangentialH field in the air just above the
(C) 0
45 and (aˆ x − aˆ z )e 3 2
V/m
2 perfect conductor is [2014]
p ×104
E −j y
(D) 60 0 and 0 (aˆ x − aˆ z )e 3
V/m
2
19. The expression for Er is [2013] Air
Ks
p ×10 4 x
Eo −j
Perfect conductor
(A)
0.23 (aˆ x − aˆ x )e 3
V/m
2
4
p ×10 z
E j
− o (aˆ x − aˆ x )e 3 V/m
(B)
2
p ×104 ( x − z )
Eo −j
 ∧ ∧
(C)
0.44 (aˆ x − aˆ x )e 3 2
V/m  x + z  2 amperes per meter
(A)
2
4
p ×10 ( x + z ) ∧
E −j
(B)
x 2 amperes per meter
(D) o (aˆ x − aˆ z )e 3
V/m
2 ∧

∧ ∧
(C)
- z 2 amperes per meter
20. In spherical coordinates, let aq , aj denote unit vec- ∧
(D) z 2 amperes per meter
100 ∧
tors along the θ, Φ directions. E = sin q cos (wt − br ) aq V /m →
r 24. Assume that a plane wave∧ in air with an electric field E
100 ∧ 0.265 ∧
E= sin q cos (wt − br ) aq V /m and H = sin q cos (wt − b r ) aj A m = 10 cos(wt – 3x – 3z)aY , V/m is incident on a non-
r r magnetic dielectric slab of relative permittivity 3 which

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH02.indd 645 03/05/2017 19:30:30

3.646  |  Part III  •  Unit 8  •  Electromagnetics

covers the region z > 0. The angle of transmission in the 29. Let the electric field vector of a plane electromag-
dielectric slab is _____ degrees. [2014] netic wave propagating in a homogeneous medium

25. For an antenna radiating in free space, the electric field be expressed as E = X E x e − j ( ωt −βwhere
z) the propaga-
at a distance of 1 km is found to be 12 mV/m. Given tion constant β is a function of the angular frequency
that intrinsic impedance of the free space is 120π Ω, the ω. Assume that β (ω) and Ex are known and are real.
magnitude of average power density due to this antenna From the information available, which one of the fol-
at a distance of 2 km from the antenna (in nW/m2) is lowing CANNOT be determined? [2016]
_____. [2014] (A) The type of polarization of the wave.
26. In the electric field component of a plane wave  travel- (B) The group velocity of the wave.
ling in a lossless dielectric medium is given by E (z, t) (C) The phase velocity of the wave.
⎛ z ⎞ (D) The power flux through the z = 0 plane.
= â y2cos ⎜108 t − ⎟ V/m. The wavelength (in m) for
⎝ 2⎠ 30. Light from free space is incident at an angle θi to the nor-
the wave is _______. [2015] mal of the facet of a step index large core optical fibre.
The core and cladding refractive indices are n1 = 1.5 and
27. The electric field of a uniform plane electromagnetic
n2 = 1.4 respectively. [2016]
wave is
→ ⎛→ → ⎞ Free n2 (Cladding)
E = ⎜ a x + j 4 a y ⎟ exp [j(2p × 107 t – 0.2z)] space
⎝ ⎠ n1 (core)
The polarization of the wave is  [2015] θi
(A) right-handed circular Light
(B) right-handed elliptical
(C) left-handed circular The maximum value of θI (in degrees) for which the
(D) left-handed elliptical incident light will be guided in the core of the fiber
is __________.
28. The electric field of a uniform plane wave travelling
along the negative z direction is given by the follow- 31. If a right-handed circularly polarized wave is inci-
ing equation: dent normally on a plane perfect conductor, then the
reflected wave will be  [2016]
EW ( 0 )
i = â X + jâ y E ejkz. (A) right-handed circularly polarized.
(B) left-handed circularly polarized.
This wave is incident upon a receiving antenna placed (C) elliptically polarized with a tilt angle of 45°.
at the origin and whose radiated electric field towards (D) horizontally polarized.
the incident wave is given by the following equation:
32. Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction is math-
1 -jkr
( )
Ea = â X + 2â y EI
r
e
ematically described by which one of the following
equations? [2016]

The polarization of the incident wave, the polarization (A) ∇• B = 0 (B) ∇• D = ρv
of the antenna and losses due to the polarization mis-

∂B   ∂ D
match are, respectively, [2016] (C) ∇× E = − (D) ∇ × H = σE +
∂t ∂t
(A) Linear, Circular (Clockwise), – 5dB
(B) Circular (clockwise), Linear, –5dB
(C) Circular (clockwise), Linear, –3dB
(D) Circular (anti clockwise), Linear, –3dB

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH02.indd 646 03/05/2017 19:30:32

Chapter 2  •  Maxwell Equations and Em-Wave Propagation  |  3.647

Hints/Solutions
Practice Problems 1
dy h = 60 p Ω
1. Emf indu = –N·
dt
Hence, the correct option is (C).
= -1
( )
d lt
3
w 2p × 14 × 10 9
7. V = =
dt 3 b 560 p
= -lt2 V = 5 × 10 m/s
8

At t = 2 s v0
= 5 × 108m/s
Emf = 4 v n
∴ l = –1 wb/s2 3 × 108
= 5 × 108
Hence, the correct option is (C). n
2. V = sin(2p × 3.6 × 109) t h = 0.6 (n = ∈r )
∂D ∂E ∈r = 0.36
Jd = =e. h
∂t ∂t h = 0 (mr = 1)
∈0 ∂ v 1 ∈r
|Jd| = . = −2 × 10 −9 × 2p × 3.6 × 10 9
d ∂ t 10 × 36 p 120 p
=
= 20 A 0.6
Hence, the correct option is (C). h = 200 p W
Ep
3. Jc = Jd =h
H0
|sE| = |jweE|
Ep = 600 p
s = w e Hence, the correct option is (C).
s
f= 8. Ey is a function of ‘z’ and ‘t’.
2p ∈
\ The wave propagation is in z-direction. Hence, the
10 −4 correct option is (C).
=
2p × 4 × ∈0
s 5.8 × 10 7 × 36p
= 4.511 × 10-7 × 1012 = 0.45 MHz 9. = >> 1
w ∈ 2p × 27 × 10 −9 × 10 9
Hence, the correct option is (C). Therefore, it is a good conductor.
4. E = (H × a p )hfree space wm
\h= 〈 45°
= -377 × 0.1 cos(3 × 106 t - bz) ay s
= -37.7 cos (3 × 106 t - bz) ay wm 2p × 27 × 10 9 × 4p × 10 −7
Hence, the correct option is (B). = = 0.06∠45°
s 5.8 × 10 7
v 3 × 108 3 Hence, the correct option is (D).
5. V = = = × 108
n er 2 1 ∗
10. Pavg = Re[E × H ]
3 w 9 p × 108 2
× 108 = =
2 b b 1  k 
= Re ( a y + jaz ) e jkx − w t × ( az − ja y )e jkx −w t 
b=6p 2  wm 
Hence, the correct option is (B). k
Pavg = [0] = 0
jwm 2wm
6. h = Hence, the correct option is (A).
r
11. Pt = Pi - Pr
g = jwm (s + jw ∈)
Pt = Pi (1 - |r|2)
g = j w m ∈ (s = 0) p
t = 1 − | r |2
m Pi
h= h0
∈ h 2 − h1 3 − h 0
m0 m r 2 |r| = =
h= = 120 p h 2 + h1 h 0
∈0 ∈r 8 + h0
3

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH02.indd 647 03/05/2017 19:30:35

3.648  |  Part III  •  Unit 8  •  Electromagnetics

2 1 2p 1
|r| = = bx = b cos45° = .
4 2 l 2
P 3 by = 0
t = 2p 1
Pi 4 bz = b cos 45° = .
Hence, the correct option is (D). l 2
12. Ex and Ey differ by phase angle (2 k + 1) p and j ( wt −
2p
.x −
2p
z)
2 E = a y E0 e l l
|Ex| ≠ |Ey|
Hence, the correct option is (A).
Therefore, it is elliptical polarization. Hence, the cor-
rect option is (B). 16. J = sE
1 J = s (-∇ V)
h 2 − h1 2 − 1 Hence, the correct option is (A).
13. r = =
h 2 + h1 1 17. l = c/f = c/(w/2p)
+1
2 Hence, the correct option is (A).
1
r=- 18. f = w/2p
3
Hence, the correct option is (A).
E −Ey ∧ ∧
x = =h 0 20. an12 = ax
Hy Hx

Eiy = -120 p cos(108t - bz) ay mV/m (H1 − H 2 ) × ax = K
in medium - 1
H 2 = 16.5 a y A/m
w 10 8
Hence, the correct option is (A).
b= =
v 3 × 108
 1
21. Polarization P= D 1 − 
1  ∈r 
b=
3
Reflected wave travels in opposite z–direction.  1
= 2 1 −  = 1.6 c/m2
1 1  5
Erx = -120 p × cos(108 t + z) ax mV/m
3 3 Hence, the correct option is (B).
1 22. f = 10 GHz; t = 3 mm; q = 90°
= -40p cos(108t + z) ax
3 2mt sinq = nl
Hence, the correct option is (B).
\m=5
 ∈r 2 
14. qB = tan-1  ∈  Hence, the correct option is (A).
 r1 
23. e = 10e0
= tan (2) = 63.43°
-1
A = 0.01 m2
Hence, the correct option is (D).
d = 5 cm
15. If a, b, and g are angles made by line with the respec-
tive co-ordinate axes x, y, and z, then cos2 a + cos2 b + V = 100 sin 314 t volts
cos2 g = 1. Displacement current density
1 ∂D ∂E
\ + 0 + cos 2g = 1 Jd = =e
2 ∂t ∂t
g = 45° V
E=
y d
e ∂V
Jd =
d ∂t
e ∂
x = (100 sin 314t)
45° d ∂t
45°
100e
z = cos (314t).314
d

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH02.indd 648 03/05/2017 19:30:38

Chapter 2  •  Maxwell Equations and Em-Wave Propagation  |  3.649

## 100 10 w = 2pf = 2p × 2 × 106

= −2
× × 314 cos (314)
5 × 10 36p × 10 9 For good conductor, the skin depth is
= 5.55 × 10 cos (314t) A/m
–5 2
2
d=
Displacement current density wms
Id = Jd·A
2
= 5.55 × 10–5 × 0.01 cos (314t) d=
2p × 2 × 10 × 1 × 4p × 10 −7 × 38.2 × 106
6

## = 5.55 × 10–3cos (314t)

d = 5.758 × 10– 5 m
Hence, the correct option is (A).
24. s = 38.2 × 106 s/m Hence, the correct option is (B).
mr = 1

Practice Problems 2
w v0
1. V = = 5. An elliptically polarized wave can be written as sum of
b mr ∈r two linearly polarized waves.
108 3 × 108 Therefore, at the Brewster angle, one becomes zero
= and the other gets reflected. Hence, the correct option
1 mr ∈r
is (B).
2
6. Poynting vector is along the direction of wave propaga-
3
∈r = tion. Hence, the correct option is (B).
2
7. The wave is polarized along –ve z-direction, that is, the
9
∈r == 2.25 direction of Edirection. Hence, the correct option is
4 (D).
Hence, the correct option is (B).
1 E −Ey
2. d a 8. x = =h 0
f Hy Hx
Ex
d f2 Hy =
1 = h0
d2 f1
−E y
f1 Hx =
d2 = ×d 1 h0
f2
−Ey Ex
2 \ H= ay ax +
= ×d h0 h0
32
Hence, the correct option is (A).
5
d2 = = 1.25cm 9. The longitudinal components are absent and transverse
4
Hence, the correct option is (D). components are present. Hence, the correct option is
(C).
wm
3. In a good conductor, h = ∠45°. 11. |E| = E0· e-ax
s
Hence, the correct option is (C). at x = d, f = f0, E = E0· e-2
4. n1 sinqi = n2 sinqt \ E0·e-ad = E0·e-2
2
qt = 90° \a=
d
n1 sinqi = n2 −2 x
n E = Eo· d
sinqi = 2
ni But, a depends on frequency.
 ∈r 2 
wm
qi = sin-1  ∈  a =
 r1  2s
 1  a1 f1
= sin-1   = 45° \ =
2 a2 f2
Hence, the correct option is (C).

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH02.indd 649 03/05/2017 19:30:40

3.650  |  Part III  •  Unit 8  •  Electromagnetics

f2 1 E0 2
a2 = .a 1 Pavg =
f1 2 h
1 1
0.25 f 0 = .
= .a 1 2 h0
f0
2
= 0.5 a1 1
Pavg =
2 1 2 120p
= . (a1 = )
d 2 d Hence, the correct option is (C).
1 15. The wave travels in −ve z-direction.
a2 =
d Hence, the correct option is (C).
−x
\ E = E0·e d ∂D
16. ∇ × H = J +
at x = d ∂t
Hence, the correct option is (C).
E = E0·e-1
∧ ∧ ∧
Hence, the correct option is (D). 17. E (0, t) = A coswtax − B sinwta y elliptically polarized
2p since A ≠ B and differ by 90°. Hence, the correct
12. V = l f = . f = 3 × 108
6.28 option is (C).
f = 0.3 GHz
3p E m
and Ey leads Ex by . 18. ∵ =
2 H ∈
Therefore, it is a right circular polarization. Hence, the
Hence, the correct option is (C).
correct option is (B).
19. ∇·B = 0
13. (a) Electric field inside a conductor = 0
Hence, the correct option is (A).
\ No. of transmitted component Et = 0 ∂2 E
20. Free space wave equation is ∇2E = m ∈ 2 .

(b) Ei + Er = 0 ∂t
Hence, the correct option is (A).
Er= -E
21. h = h
mr
\ Er = -(8ax + 6ay - 3az) ej(wt-3x-4y) V/m 0
∈r
Hence, the correct option is (D).
1
14. E0 = 1 160p = 120p
∈r
n n ⇒ ∈r = 4
h= 0 = 0
∈r 2 Hence, the correct option is (C).

## Previous Years’ Questions

1

Re  E × H 
1. Pavg = 3. Exo = Eyo = 1
2 So, it is circular polarization.
 

1
2 
( )
= Re  ax + ja y e − j (kz −wt ) ×
K
wm
( )
a y + jax e − j (kz −wt ) 

Y components lead X component by 90o. Therefore, it is
left circular polarized. Hence, the correct option is (C).
aˆ X aˆ y aˆ z  4. Given that E1 = 4 âx + 3 â y + 5 âz
*  
E ×H ⇒  1 j 0  = 1 – (+1) = 0
m1 = m0 m2 = m0
− j 1 0  e r1 = 3 e r2 = 4

E1
Pavg = 0
Hence, the correct option is (A). E2

## 2. Glass refractive index = 1.5 x<o

x=o
x>o
C 3 × 108
l= = = 2 × 10 −6 m = 2µm Et1 = Et 2 and Dn1 = Dn 2
hf 1.5 × 1014

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH02.indd 650 03/05/2017 19:30:44

Chapter 2  •  Maxwell Equations and Em-Wave Propagation  |  3.651

⇒ 3 × 4 = 4 × Et 2 10. e r 2 = 9
⇒ Et 2 = 3 ∈r1 − ∈r 2 1 − 3 −1
⇒ E = 3aˆ x + 3aˆ y + 5aˆ z = = =
∈r1 − ∈r 2 1+ 3 2
Hence, the correct option is (C).
1
5. Free space e r1 = 1, e r2 = 4 || =
2
e r1 − e r2 Hence, the correct option is (C).
1 − 2 −1
 = = = 11. For wire1, which is in y–z plane, the current flows in
e r1 + e r 2 1+ 2 3
+y-direction. By using right-hand rule, magnetic com-
Pt = (1 – 2) Pi ponent is in +x-direction. For wire2, which is in x–y
plane, the current flows in +x-direction, and by using
8 right-hand rule, magnetic component is in +z-direction.
= Pi
9 Hence, the correct option is (D).
Hence, the correct option is (A).
12. Given that E = 1
6. According to Stokes’ theorem,
er = 4
→ →

∂D Time average power density (P)
∫C H .dl = ∫∫S ∇ × H .ds = ∫∫C  ∂ t  ds
 J +
er
  E2
= =
Hence, the correct option is (D). 2h 2 × 120p
7. Electric field is propagating in y-direction. So, 1  120p 
= ∵h = 
→ ^
120p er 
E = y Eo e j (wt - bz ) 
From the given information, wave is travelling in Hence, the correct option is (C).
x 3 z 13. Given Ei = 24 cos(3 × 108t – βy) â 2V/m
y-direction = xcos30o + zsin 30o = +
2 2 for region m = mo, ε = 9εo, y ≥ o

→ ^
= E = y Eo exp  wt −

2p x 3 + Y

( ) b = w me =
3 × 108
=1
 l 2  3 × 108
1  1

j  ωt −
π 3 πz 
x−  Hi = (aˆ y × E1 ) − (aˆ y × aˆ z )24 cos(3 × 108 t − bY)
 λ λ 120p 120p
= ŷE0 e
Hence, the correct option is (A). 1
= cos(3 × 108 t − b y)aˆ x
1 h H2 5p
8. Pavg = EXH = 0
2 2 H e 2 − e1 9 −1
H is given as r = = = 1
Hi e 2 + e1 9 +1 2
Hˆ = xˆ
5 3
ho
5
ho
(
cos(w t − b z ) + yˆ sin w t − b z + p
2 ) Wave is reflected, so wave is travelling in –y direction.
1
25 × 3 25 10 ⇒ Hr = cos(3 × 108 t + y )aˆ x
H = + 2 = 10p
h o2 ho ho Hence, the correct option is (A).
h o 100 50
Pavg = × = 14. ∫∫
Re( P ).nds
ˆ . It gives the average power.
2 ho ho
s
Hence, the correct option is (D).
Power decreases with increasing radial distance from
9. Given that qi = 60°. the source. Hence, the correct option is (D).
e E m mr
tanqB = r 2 15. = n = = 120 p
e r1 H e er
dielectric wave εr1 = 1 Ep 1
= 120 P ,
tan60 = e r 2 3 er
⇒ e r2 = 3 Option ‘D’ satisfies this relation. Hence, the correct
Hence, the correct option is (D). option is (D).

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH02.indd 651 03/05/2017 19:30:49

3.652  |  Part III  •  Unit 8  •  Electromagnetics

## 16. H2 – H1 = J × an = −10uˆ z h 2 − h1 200

t= = = 0.361
H2 = 3uˆ x + 30uˆ y − 10uˆ z h 2 + h1 554
The maximum value of  is 0.361. If the E component
m1H1 = m2H2
of wave is parallel to and also perpendicular to the
m
H2 = 1 H 1 boundary, then the effective  < 0.361.
m2
1 Hence, the correct option is (A).
The component of H2 in x-direction = (3uˆ x )
2 20. Average power (W) = ∫ E .Hds
H 2 = 1.5uˆ x + 30uˆ y − 10uˆ z
Hemispherical shell f (0, p)
Hence, the correct option is (A). p
p
100 0.265 2
2

## 2p W =∫ ∫ ⋅ sin θ cos(wt – br)·r2 sinθdθdf

17. b = , given b = 25, r r
−l 0 0
p
2p 2
l= = 26.5 × p ∫ sin 3 q dq
25 c 3 × 103
Frequency f = = = 1.2 GHz 0

l 2p 2
26.5 × p × = 55.5 W
25 3
To know the polarization, we convert E into time Hence, the correct answer is 55.4 to 55.6.
domain using phasor diagram. 2p l p
21. b = × =
z l 4 2

10

ZO = 50 Ω ZL = 100 Ω
wt = p wt = 0
λ/4
x
y  Z L + jZ o tan p 
Zin = Z o  2
p  Z o + jZ L tan p 
wt =  2
2
Z o2
⇒ Zin =
E ( x1t ) = Re{E ( x ).e jwt ZL
= Re{10 ( aˆ y + jaˆ z )ej(wt – 25x)} ⇒ Z o = Zin Z L
= 10 cos(wt – 25x) aˆ y − 10 sin (ωt − 25x )aˆ z
⇒ 5000 = 70.7 Ω
E (0, t ) − (10 cos w t )a y − (10 sin w t )az
Hence, the correct answer is 70 to 72.
From the figure, we can conclude that it is left-circularly
polarized. Hence, the correct option is (A). 22. E(z, t) = 3 cos(w t – kz + 45°) âx + 4sin (w t – kz + 45°)
â y .mV/m
18. The wave is propagating in +x and +z directions. Thus,
the wave equation is in the form of e–b(x + z). |Ex| ≠ |Ey| and phase (Ex) ≠ phase (Ey). So, E is ellipti-
cally polarized.
Options (A) and (C) are probable answers.
sin q l ∈2 If w t – kz = 0,
According to Snell’s law, =
sin q t ∈1 ⇒ E= 3 cos(30o) âx – 4 sin45° â y
4.5 ^
\ sin qi = sin (19.2). = 0.7 ay
1
\ qi = 45°
Hence, the correct option is (C). ^
19. The reflected wave is travelling in +x and –z directions. ax

## The wave equation is in the form e–b(x-z). Option (A) or

(C) may be the answer. 1

m0
h1 = = 377 W If w t – kz = 60°
∈0
⇒ E= 0. âx - 4sin(115o) â y
m0
h2 = = 177.71 W → Wave is left elliptically polarized.
4.5 ∈0 Hence, the correct option is (A).

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH02.indd 652 03/05/2017 19:30:54

Chapter 2  •  Maxwell Equations and Em-Wave Propagation  |  3.653

## 23. aˆn = aˆ y 27. From the given equation,

H1 = 0 is in perfect conductor. |Ex| ≠ |Ey|
^
ay So it is elliptically polarized wave
Generalized expression for left
Medium 2 air
elliptically polarized electric field is

( )
E = E x aˆ x + E y aˆ y e j (w t − b z )
(H1 – H2) × an = kS Hence, the correct option is (D).
–H2 × aˆ y = 2aˆ x
28. Polarization of incident wave, Eiw = (ax + jay )E0 e jkz
⇒ H2 =2âz A/m
Direction of propagation ‘-z’
Hence, the correct option is (D).
E xo = E yo
24. E = 10 cos(w t – 3x − 3Z )
Z<0
Right (clock wise) circular polarization.
r =3 Polarization of antenna,
Z 1
Z>0
Ea = (ax + 2ay )EI e − jkr
r
E xo = E I
3 E yo = 3E
sinqi =
32 + ( 3 )
2
Ex and Ey are in phase
Linear polarization. The linearly polarized antenna
⇒ qi = 30°
simply picks up the in phase component of circu-
3 larly polarized wave which has two orthogonal lin-
cosq t =
12 early ­polarized waves 90° out of phase. As a result
LP antenna has a polarization mismatch loss of
3 0.5 (-3dB) PLF (linear to circular) = 0.5 = -3dB.
=
2  Choice (C)
qt = 30° 29. To find out the power through z = 0 plane, the plane
1
25. Electric field a
r  µ
area, medium intrinsic impedance η  = are
=
E1 r2
 ε 
E2 r1
required. Choice (D)
⇒ E2 = 6 mV/m

30.
1 E22
n1 − n 2
2 2
Pavg = sinθi =
2 h
1 36 × 10 −6
×
θi = sin-1 {( 1.5) − (1.4)
2 2
}
2 377 = sin {0.538} = 32.58°
–1

= 47.7 nW/m 2
 z  31. Perfect conducting surface causes 180° orientation
26. Given equation E (z, t) = ây 2cos 108 t −  V /m
1  2 change at either of two field vectors. Choice (B)
b=
2
32.
w = 108
2p 1 ∂B
b= = ∇xE = −
l 2 ∂t
⇒       l = 2 2p One of the Maxwell’s equations based on Faraday’s law
= 8.88m of electro-magnetic induction. Choice (C)
Hence, the correct answer is 8.85 to 8.92.

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH02.indd 653 03/05/2017 19:30:58

Chapter 3 Transmission Lines
Exercises
Practice Problem 1 4
Directions for questions 1 to 24:  Select the correct alterna-
tive from the given choices.
1. A coaxial cable has the inductance of 0.25 μH/m and 1
λ /2
capacitance of 2.5 nF/m, then the characteristic imped-
ance is
(A) 10 Ω (B) 50 Ω (C) 100 Ω (D) 75 Ω the load of the line is
(A) 75 Ω (B) 150 Ω (C) 300 Ω (D) 225 Ω
2. For a lossy transmission line, the characteristic imped-
ance does not depend on 9. In problem 8, the reflection co-efficient is
(A) frequency of operation on the line (A) 0.6 (B) −0.6 (C) 0.2 (D) −0.2
(B) load of the line 10. Consider the following diagram
(C) conductivity of the conductor
(D) inductance of the line λ/4
λ/4 200 Ω
3. Which of the following satisfies condition for the dis- A Z 0 line1
C
tortionless transmission line? Z0 Line3
(A) RL = GC (B) RC = LG D
B
(C) RG = LC (D) RC >> LG Z0 line2
4. In a transmission line, the reflection coefficient at a dis- λ/4
Z0 = 50 Ω Short
o
tance ‘d’ from the load is rd = 0.8e − j135 and the reflec- circuit
o
tion co-efficient at the load is ri = 0.8e − j45 , then the Zin looking at line 1 is
distance ‘d’ is (A) 12.5 (B) 25 Ω (C) 37.5 Ω (D) 0
l (B)
(A) l (C) 3l l
(D) 11. In problem 10, Zin looking at line 2 is
8 4 8 2
(A) zero (B) infinity (C) 50 Ω (D) 25 Ω
5. The three lossless lines are connected as in the follow- 12. In problem 10, Zin looking at line 3 is
ing figure. The input impedance is (A) zero (B) infinity (C) 100 Ω (D) 200Ω
13. In problem 10, the VSWR at CD is
← λ/4 → ←λ/2→ ←λ/2→ (A) 2 (B) 4 (C) 8 (D) 0
50 Ω 100 Ω 75 Ω ZL 14. A 500 m long transmission line is terminated by a load
Z in
that is located at P on the Smith chart. If λ = 150 m,
how many voltage maxima exist at on the line?
Where Z L = 100 Ω
90°

(A) 25 Ω (B) 50 Ω
180°
(C) 75 Ω (D) 100 Ω

6. Which of the following is not true about a lossless line? P
P
(A) Zin = j Zo for a short-circuited line with  = l
8 150°
(B) ZL = Zo for a matched line
(A) 4 (B) 5 (C) 6 (D) 7
(C) Zin = +jZo for open-circuited line with  = l
8 1 5. In problem 14, first minima occurs at what distance
(D) Zin = j∞ for a shorted line with  = l from the load?
4
(A) 6.25 m towards source
7. In an airline, the adjacent maxima are found at 10 cm (B) 12.5 m towards source
and 20 cm, then the operating frequency is (C) 6.25 m from source
(A) 2 GHz (B) 3 GHz (D) 12.5 m from source
(C) 1.5 GHz (D) 4 GHz 16. A uniform plane EM wave incident normally on a
8. VSWR pattern on a lossless line is shown in the follow- plane surface of a dielectric material is reflected with a
ing figure. If the characteristic impedance of the line is VSWR of 3. What is the percentage of incident power
75 Ω, then that is reflected?
(A) 10% (B) 25% (C) 50% (D) 75%

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH03.indd 654 03/05/2017 19:31:23

Chapter 3  •  Transmission Lines  |  3.655

17. Consider an impedance Z = R + jx marked with point (A) 0.25 m (B) 0.3 m
P in an impedance Smith chart as shown in the figure. (C) 0.075 m (D) 1.5 m
The movement from point P, along a constant resist- 2 0. A transmission line of Zo = 50 Ω is terminated by a
ance circle in the clockwise direction by an angle 45o 50 Ω load. When excited by a sinusoidal voltage source
equivalent to
at 10 GHz, the phase difference and phase velocity are
x=0
x=1 p
r = 0.5 circle
radian and 1.6 × 108 m/s, respectively. Then, mini-
P 4
mum spacing between the two point with the above-
x=0 mentioned phase difference.
(A) 2 mm (B) 4 mm
(C) 8 mm (D) 1.6 mm
2 1. The diameter of the inner conductor of a coaxial cable
x = − 0.5 x=−1
is 2 mm and that of the outer conductor is 6 mm and the
dielectric constant of the insulation is 1.60. Calculate
(A) adding an inductance in series with Z the characteristic capacitance is 60 pF/m. Find the
(B) adding a capacitance in series with Z value of inductance per meter at RF.
(C) adding an inductance in shunt across Z (A) 0.1625 mH/m (B) 0.1825 mH/m
(D) adding a capacitance in shunt across Z (C) 1.2 mH (D) 0.9256 mHm
1 8. A short-circuited stub is shunt connected to a trans- 22. A transmission line of characteristic impedance
mission line as shown in the figure. If Zo = 25 Ω, the ZO = 50 W phase velocity VP = 2 × 108m/s and length
admittance Y seen at the junction of the stub and the ℓ = 1 m is terminated by a load ZL = (30 – j40) Ω.
transmission line is The input impedance of the line for a frequency of
100 MHz will be
(A) (30 + j40) Ω (B) (30 – j40) Ω
λ/8
(C) (50 + j40) Ω (D) (50 – j40) Ω
23. An airline has characteristic impedance of 70 W and
Z L = 100 Ω
phase constant of 3 rad/m at 100 MHz. Calculate the
Z0 inductance per meter.
(A) 682 pF/m (B) 0.682 pF/m
(C) 68.2 pF/m (D) 6.82 pF/m
← λ/2 →
2 4. The VSWR on UHF transmission line, working at a
(A) (0.01 + j0.04)  (B) (0.01 – j0.04)  frequency of 300 MHz is found to be 2. If the distance
(C) (0.01 + j0.02)  (D) (0.01 – j0.02)  between load and voltage minimum is 0.8 m, find the
19. A transmission line with a Zo of 100 Ω is used to match value of load impedance.
a 50 Ω Ω section to a 200 Ω section. If the matching (A) 17∠–6.4° (B) 1.7∠–6.4°
is done both at 300 MHz and 1 GHz, the length of the (C) 1.7∠6.4° (D) 17∠6.4°
transmission line can be done approximately.

## Practice Problem 2 3. A 50 Ω coaxial cable feeds a 75 + j20Ω dipole antenna.

Directions for questions 1 to 24:  Select the correct alterna- Then, VSWR is
tive from the given choices. (A) 0.677 (B) 1.677 (C) 0.25 (D) 0.33
1. Which of the following statements are not true of the 4. The reflection co-efficient on a lossy line at the load
line parameters R, L, G, and C and at a distance ‘d’ from the load are
(A) R and L are series elements (A) same
(B) G and C are shunt elements (B) same in magnitude differ in phase
(C) The parameters are distributed not lumped (C) same in phase differ in magnitude
(D) G= 1 (D) different both in magnitude and phase
R
2. For a lossless transmission line with inductance 25 μH/m 5. The power reflected along a matched transmission line
and characteristic impedance 50 W, then capacitance is with characteristic impedance Zo is
(A) 250 nF/m (B) 125 nF/m (A) zero (B) infinity
(C) 0.5 μF/m (D) 0.25 μF/m (C) depends on Zo (D) None of these

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH03.indd 655 03/05/2017 19:31:23

3.656  |  Part III  •  Unit 8  •  Electromagnetics

6. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer short

using the code given below. λ/8 Z = 30 Ω
0

A
C
P.   short circuit 1.  1
3 Z 0 = 60 Ω ZL = 30 Ω
Q.  open circuit 2. 0 Z 0 = 30 2
R.  Zo 3. –1 B
B D ← λ/4 →
S.  2Zo 4. 1
(A) P – 1, Q – 2, R – 3, S – 4 (A) 1.00 (B) 1.64 (C) 2.5 (D) 3.00
(B) P – 4, Q – 3, R – 2, S – 1
(C) P – 3, Q – 4, R – 2, S – 1 13. In problem 12, if AC = l then ZAB =
(D) P – 3, Q – 4, R – 1, S – 2 2
7. A transmission line of length l , with characteristic (A) 60 + j30 (B) 60 – j30
8
impedance Zo, and load impedance ZL, then the magni- 3600 60 + 30
tude of sending-end impedance is (C) (D)
60 + j 30 3600
(A) Zo (B) 0 (C) ∞ (D) 2Zo
8. A quarter wave transformer is used for matching a load 14. A transmission line of Zo = 50 Ω is terminated in a
of 225 Ω connected to a transmission line of 256 Ω in line with load impedance ZL. The VSWR of the line
order to reduce VSWR along the line to 1. Then, Zo of is measured as 6 and the first of the voltage max-
transformer is ima is observed at a distance of l from the load.
4
(A) 225 (B) 240 (C) 256 (D) 273 Then, ZL is
9. Which of the following statement is not true regarding 25 Ω (B)
50 Ω (C) 25 Ω (D)
50 Ω
(A)
the Smith chart? 3 3 6 6
1. A normalized Smith chart apply to a line of any 15. A transmission line of characteristic impedance 400 W
characteristic resistance and serves as well for is to be matched to a load of 25 W through a quarter
normalized admittance. wavelength line. The quarter wave line characteristic
2. A polar co-ordinate Smith chart contains circles of impedance must be
constant |z| and circles of constant ∠z (A) 40 W (B) 100 W
3. In Smith chart, the distance towards the load is always (C) 400 W (D) 425 W
measured in clockwise direction. 16. A lossless transmission line having 50 W characteristic
4. Upper half of Smith chart is with inductive reactance. impedance and length l/4 is short-circuited at one end
(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4 and connected to an ideal voltage source of 1 V at the
other end. The current drawn from the voltage source is
1 0. In the following Smith chart
C
(A) zero (B) 0.02 A
(C) infinite (D) None of the above
17. An open voice line having characteristic impedance
692 ∠–12° W is terminated in 200 W resistor. The line
D B
A is 100 km long and is supplied power by a generator
of 1.0 V at 100 Hz. Determined the voltage reflection
coefficient
E (A) 0.56∠172.4° (B) 0.56∠163.9°
(C) 0.56∠–163.9° (D) 0.56∠–172.4°
The normalized impedance at D is
(A) 1 + j0 (B) 0 + j1 (C) 0 + j0 (D) ∞ + j∞ Common Data for Questions 18 and 19:
A 30 m long transmission line has no losses with ZO = 50 W
11. In problem 10, the impedance (normalized) at B is
operating at 2 MHz is terminated with a load ZL = 60 + j40 W.
(A) 1 + j0 (B) ∞ + j∞ (C) 0 + j1 (D) 1 + j1
18. Find reflection coefficient
12. In the circuit shown in the following figure, all the
(A) 0.3523 ∠56° (B) 0.323 ∠–56°
transmission line sections are lossless, the VSWR on
(C) 3.23 ∠56° (D) 3.23 ∠–56°
the 60 Ω line is

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH03.indd 656 03/05/2017 19:31:25

Chapter 3  •  Transmission Lines  |  3.657

## 19. Find standing wave ratio 2p d

(A) 2.888 (B) –2.888 L=
(C) log e H/m
m D
(C) 2.088 (D) 0.2088
20. The magnitude of the open circuit and short circuit 2p D
L=
(D) log e H/m
input impedances of a transmission line are 100 W and m d
25 W, respectively. The characteristic impedance of the 23. A 75 W transmission line is first short terminated and
line is the minima locations are noted. When the short is
(A) 25 W (B) 50 W (C) 75 W (D) 100 W replaced by a resistive load, RL, the minima locations
21. A transmission line is distortionless if are not altered and the VSWR is measured to be 3.
1 What is the value of RL?
RL =
(A) (B) RL = GC (A) 25 W (B) 50 W (C) 225 W (D) 250 W
GC
(C) LG = RC (D) RG = LC 24. A certain transmission line operating at w = 106rad/s
has a = 8 dB/m, b = 1 rad/m, and Zo = 60 + j40 W and
22. The inductance per unit length of a coaxial cable in is 2 m long. If the line is connected to source of 10 ∠
terms of conductor size and spacing is 0V, Zg = 40 W and terminated by a load of 20 + j50W,
m d determine input impedance Zin.
(A) L= log e H/m
2p D (A) 6.025 + j 38.79 W (B) 60.25 + j38.79 W
m D (C) 60.25 + j3.879 W (D) 60.25 + 0.3879 W
L=
(B) log e H/m
2p d

Previous Years’ Questions in Q88. The movement from point P along a constant
resistance circle in the clockwise direction by an angle
1. Consider a 300 W quarter wave long (at 1 GHz) trans-
45° is equivalent to [2004]
mission line, as shown in the figure. It is connected to a
10 V, 50 W sources at one end and is left open circuited
x = 0.5
at the other end. The magnitude of the voltage at the
open circuit end of the line is [2004]

x=0

Source x = −0.5
P
x = −1
λ/4

## 60 (A) adding an inductance in series with Z

(A) 10 V (B) 5 V (C) 60 V (D)
V (B) adding a capacitance in series with Z
7 (C) adding an inductance in shunt across Z
2. A plane electromagnetic wave propagating in free space (D) adding a capacitance in shunt across Z
is incident normally on a large slab of lossless, non-
magnetic dielectric material with e > e0. Maxima and 5. Many circles are drawn in a Smith chart used for trans-
minima are observed when the electric field is meas- mission line calculations. The circles shown in figure
ured in front of the slab. The maximum electric field represent [2005]
is found to be 5 times the minimum field. The intrinsic
impedance of the medium should be [2004]
(A) 120 pW (B) 60 pW (C) 600 pW (D) 24 pW
3. A lossless transmission line is terminated in a load
that reflects a part of the incident power. The meas-
ured VSWR is 2. The percentage of the power that is
reflected back is [2004]
(A) 57.73 (B) 33.33
(A) unit circles
(C) 0.11 (D) 11.11
(B) constant resistance circles
4. Consider an impedance Z = R + jX marked with point P (C) constant reactance circles
in an impedance Smith chart, as shown in Figure given (D) constant reflection coefficient circles.

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH03.indd 657 03/05/2017 19:31:26

3.658  |  Part III  •  Unit 8  •  Electromagnetics

## 6. Characteristic impedance of a transmission line is

50 W. Input impedance of the open-circuited line λ/4
is Zoc = 100 + j150 W. When the transmission line is λ/4 0Ω
100 Ω
short circuited, then value of the input impedance will =5
Z 0

be[2005] Z 0 = 50 Ω
(A) 50 W Z0
=5
(B) 100 + j150 W 0Ω
Γ 200 Ω
(C) 7.69 + j11.54 W
λ/4
(D) 7.69 – j11.54 W
[Vz] 7 −5 (C) 5 5
− j (B)
(A) j (D)
4 5 7 7 7
11. One of a lossless transmission line having the charac-
teristic impedance of 75 W and length of 1 cm is short
1
circuited. At 3 GHz, the input impedance at the other
end of the transmission line is [2008]
Z′ λ λ/2
(A) 0 (B) resistive
(C) capacitive (D) inductive
12. In the design of a single-mode step index optical fibre
Voltage standing wave pattern in a lossless transmission line close to upper cut-off, the single mode operations is not
with characteristic impedance 50 W and a resistive load is preserved if [2008]
shown in figure. (A) radius as well as operating wavelength are halved
7. The value of the load resistance is[2005] (B) radius as well as operating wavelength are doubled
(A) 50 W (B) 200 W (C) radius is halved and operating wavelength is dou-
(C) 12.5 W (D) 0 W bled
8. The reflection coefficient is given by [2005] (D)  radius is doubled and operating wavelength is
(A) −0.6 (B) –1 halved
(C) 0.6 (D) 0 13. A transmission line terminates in two branches, each of
9. A load of 50 W is connected in shunt in a two-wire length l/4, as shown. The branches are terminated by
transmission line of Z0 = 50 W, as shown in the figure. 50 W loads. The lines are lossless and have the charac-
The two-port scattering parameter matrix (S-matrix) of teristic impedances shown. Determine the impedance
the shunt element is [2007] Zi, as seen by the source [2009]

Z 0 = 50 Ω 50 Ω Z 0 = 50 Ω λ/4 Z L = 50 Ω

λ/4 00
=1
Z0
 1 1 Z 0 = 50 Ω
0 1 
− 2
(A) 2  (B)
1 0 Zi Z0
=1
    00

 1 −1
λ/4
 2 2  Z L = 50 Ω

 1 2   1 3
− 3 3   4 − 4 (A) 200 W (B) 100 W (C) 50 W (D) 25 W
(C)
  (D)
 
 2 − 1 − 3 1  14. A transmission line has a characteristic impedance of
 3 3   4 4  50 W and a resistance of 0.1 W/m. If the line is distor-
10. The parallel branches of a two-wire transmission line tionless, the attenuation constant (in Np/m) is [2010]
are terminated in 100 W and 200 W resistors, as shown (A) 500 (B) 5
in the figure. The characteristic impedance of the line (C) 0.014 (D) 0.002
l
is Z0 = 50 W and each section has a length of . The 15. In the circuit shown, all the transmission line sections
4
voltage reflection coefficient G at the input is [2007] are lossless. The voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR)
on the 60 W line is [2010]

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH03.indd 658 03/05/2017 19:31:27

Chapter 3  •  Transmission Lines  |  3.659

Short l
21. The input impedance of a section of a lossless trans-
λ/8 8
Z0= 30Ω
mission line of characteristic impedance 50 Ω is found
to be real when the other end is terminated by a load
Z 0 = 60 Z L = 30
ZL(= R + jX) Ω. If X is 30 Ω, the value of R(in Ω) is
Z 0 = 30 2Ω
__________. [2014]
2 2. In the following figure, the transmitter TX sends a wide-
λ/4 band modulated RF signal via a coaxial cable to the
(A) 1.00 (B) 1.64 (C) 2.50 (D) 3.00 receiver Rx. The output impedance ZT of TX, and the
characteristic impedance Z0 of the cable and the input
1 6. A transmission line of characteristic impedance 50 W
impedance ZR of RX are all real
is terminated by a 50 W load. When excited by a sinu-
soidal voltage source at 10 GHz, the phase difference Transmitter Characteristic Impedance = Z0 Receiver
between two points spaced 2 mm apart on the line is
ZT ZR
found to be p/4 radians. The phase velocity of the wave Rx
Tx
along the line is [2011]
(A) 0.8 × 108 m/s (B) 1.2 × 108 m/s
(C) 1.6 × 108 m/s (D) 3 × 108 m/s Which one of the following statements is true about the
distortion of the received signal due to impedance mis-
17. A transmission line of characteristic impedance 50 W match? [2014]
is terminated in a load impedance ZL. The VSWR of (A) The signal gets distorted if ZR ≠ Z0, irrespective of
the line is measured as 5 and the first of the voltage the value of ZT.
maxima in the line is observed at a distance of l/4 from (B) The signal gets distorted if ZT ≠ Z0, irrespective of
the load. The value of ZL is [2011] the value of ZR.
(A) 10 W (B) 250 W (C) Signal distortion implies impedance mismatch at
(C) (19.23 + j46.15) W (D) (19.23 - j46.15) W both ends: ZT ≠ Z0 and ZR ≠ Z0.
18. A coaxial cable with a diameter of 1 mm and outer (D)  Impedance mismatches do not result in sig-
diameter of 2.4 mm is filled with a dielectric of rela- nal distortion but reduce power transfer
tive permittivity 10.89. Given m0 = 4p × 10 −7 H /m, efficiency.
10 −9 23. A coaxial cable is made of two brass conductors. The
ε0 = F /m, the characteristic impedance of the
36p spacing between the conductors is filled with Teflon (er
cable is  [2012] = 2.1, tan d = 0). Which one of the following circuits
(A) 330 W (B) 100 W can represent the lumped element model of a small
(C) 143.3 W (D) 43.4 W piece of this cable having length ∆z?  [2015]
19. A transmission line with a characteristic impedance of
100 W is used to match a 50 W section to a 200 W sec- (a) R∆z / 2 L∆z / 2 R∆z / 2 L∆z / 2

## tion. If the matching is to be done both at 429 MHz

and 1 GHz, the length of the transmission line can be
approximately. [2012] G∆z C∆z
(A) 82.5 cm (B) 1.05 m
(C) 1.58 m (D) 1.75 m
∆z
20. For a parallel-plate transmission line, let v be the speed
of propagation and Z be the characteristic impedance.
(b) R∆z / 2 L∆z / 2 R∆z / 2 L∆z / 2
Neglecting fringe effects, a reduction of the spacing
between the plates by a factor of two results in [2014]
(A) halving of v and no change in Z
C∆z
(B) no changes in v and halving of Z
(C) no change in both v and Z
(D) halving of both v and Z
∆z

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH03.indd 659 03/05/2017 19:31:29

3.660  |  Part III  •  Unit 8  •  Electromagnetics
and z0, respectively.
(c) W = 0
L∆z / 2 L∆z / 2 ε = ε0

ε = ε 0ε r; ε r> 1 t
G∆z C∆z

## Which one of the following inequalities is always

∆z
satisfied?
(d) R∆z L∆z
Lt Lt
(A) Z0 > (B) Z0 <
ε0 ε r w ε0 ε r w
G∆z C∆z LW LW
(C) Z0 > (D) Z0 <
ε0 ε r t ε0 ε r t
∆z 26. A microwave circuit consisting of lossless transmission
lines T1 and T2 is shown in the figure. The plot shows
24. The propagation constant of a lossy transmission line the magnitude of the input reflection coefficient TL as a
is (2 + j5) m-1 and its characteristic impedance is (50 + function of frequency f. The phase velocity of the sig-
j0)W at w = 106 rad s-1. The values of the line constants nal in the transmission lines is 2 × 108 m/s. [2016]
L, C, R, G are respectively. [2016]
T1 Length = 1m T2 Length = L
(A) L = 200mH/m, C = 0.1mF/m, R = 50W/m, G = Input
Z0= 50Ω Z0= 50Ω
0.02S/m Open
(B)  L = 250mH/m, C = 0.1mF/m, R = 100W/m, G = 50Ω
0.04S/m
(C) L = 200mH/m, C = 0.2mF/m, R = 100W/m, G =
0.02S/m
1
(D) L = 250mH/m, C = 0.2mF/m, R = 50W/m,
(reflection coefficient)

G = 0.04S/m 0.8

## 25. A lossless micro strip transmission line consists of a trace 0.6

of width w. II is drawn over a practically infinite ground
0.4
plane and is separated by a dielectric slab of thickness t
and relative permittivity er > 1. The inductance per unit 0.2
length and the characteristic impedance of this line are L
and z0, respectively.  [2016] 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 f (in GHz)_

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH03.indd 660 03/05/2017 19:31:31

Chapter 3  •  Transmission Lines  |  3.661

Hints/Solutions
Practice Problems 1 If  = l ; Zoc = -j Zo
8
L Hence, the correct option is (C).
1. Z o =
C 7. Two consecutive maxima or minima are separated by a
distance of l .
0.25µ 2
= l
2.5 × 10 −9 ∴ = 10cm
2
0.5 × 10 −3 l = 20 cm
=
5 × 10 −5 C 3 × 108
f = =
Z0 = 0.1 × 100 = 10 Ω Hence, the correct option is (A). l 0.2 m
2. Z0 is of a lossy line. f = 1.5 GHz
R + jwL Hence, the correct option is (C).
Zo =
G + jwc v max 4
8. S = =
\ Z0 depends on the following:- Frequency of operation v min 1
- Inductance ZL
S= = 4, Zc = 300 Ω
- Conductive of line Zo
Z0 is independent on load of the line. Hence, the correct Hence, the correct option is (C).
option is (B).
S −1 4 −1 3
R G 9. r = = =
S +1 4 +1 5
3. = [Condition for distortionless transmission]
L C Hence, the correct option is (A).
RC = GL
Z o2
Hence, the correct option is (B). 10. Z in1 =
ZL
4. rd = r .e (
+ j q − 2bd )

2500

o
∴0.8e − j135 = 0.8e j ( −45
o
− 2bd ) Z in1 = = 12.5Ω
200
o Hence, the correct option is (A).
e-j2βd = e − j90
Z o2 Z o2
2bd = 90° 11. Z in2 == =∞
2p p ZL 0
2. .d = Hence, the correct option is (B).
l 2
d = l Z 02
8 12. Z in 3 =
( Z in1 )11( Z in 2 )
Hence, the correct option is (A).
5. Zin repeats for every half of wavelength. 50 × 50
=
\ For last two sections, ZL repeats. 25
2
\For l section, Zin3 = 200 Ω
4
Z 2
50 × 50 Hence, the correct option is (D).
Z in = o = = 25Ω Z L − Zo 12.5 − 50 −3
ZL 100 13. r = = =
Z L + Z o 12.5 + 50 5
Hence, the correct option is (A).
6. Zsc = j Z0 tan βl (lossless line) ZL = (Zin1) || (Zin2) = 12.5 Ω
\ If  = l ; Zsc = j Zo 1+ r 85
8 S = = =4
l 1− r 25
= ; Z = j∞
4 sc Hence, the correct option is (B).
\ Options (A) and (D) are correct.
14. First maxima located at 210°(degrees)
For a matched line, option (B) is correct.
Z10 from ‘P’
\ Option (C) is wrong.
\ 360° → l
Zoc = -j Zo cot bℓ 2

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH03.indd 661 03/05/2017 19:31:34

3.662  |  Part III  •  Unit 8  •  Electromagnetics

210° l1
210° → l × For f1 = 300 MHz, 1 =
2 360° 4
7l 7 × 150 3 × 108
= 1 = = 0.25m
24 248 4 × 3 × 108
175
1st max = = 43.75m l2
4 For f2 = 1 GHz  2 =
4
After that, for every l , one maxima occurs.
2
l 3 × 108
∴ = 75m  2 = = 0.075m
2 4 × 10 9
5 × 6 = 450 m
= LCM of ( 1 ,  2 ) = 0.075 m
\ Totally 7 maxima occurs
Hence, the correct option is (C).
Hence, the correct option is (D).
15. Moving towards the source in clockwise w 2p × 1010
20. V p ==
b 2p
\ 30° for first minima
l
l 150
\ 30° → = = 6.25m 1. 6 × 108 = 1010 × l
24 24
l = 1. 6 cm
Hence, the correct option is (A).
S −1 2 1 p → l
16. r = = = 2
S +1 4 2
Pref = |r| . Pinc
2 p →l
2 4
Pref
h= × 100 = 1 × 100 = 25% p →l
Pinc 4 4 8
Hence, the correct option is (B).
l
17. Moving along constant resistance circle from resistance ∴ = 0.2cm = 2 mm
8
remains same but addition of capacitance increases in
series with 2. Hence, the correct option is (B). Hence, the correct option is (A).
18. Zin1 – due to transmission line, it repeats for every l . 138 D
2 21. Zc of a coaxial cable = log10
\ Zin1 = ZL = 100 Ω ∈r d
Zin2 = Zsc = jZ0 tan b ℓ D - Diameter of outer conductor
= l d - Diameter of inner conductor
8
Zsc = jZ0
138 6
ZC = log10
1 1 1.6 1
y = +
Z in1 Z SC = 52.05 Ω
1 1 L
= + ZC = at RF
100 j Z o C
y = (0.01 – j0.04)  L
52.05 =
Hence, the correct option is (B). 60 × 10 −12
19. Z0 = 100 Ω L = (52.05)2 × 60 × 10–12
← → = 162552.15 × 10–12
= 0.1625522 mH/m
50 Ω 100 Ω 200 Ω
Hence, the correct option is (A).

Ζ L + jRC tan b
22. Ζ in = RC
RC + jZ L tan b
For matching should be done at odd multiples of l .
4 Hence, the correct option is (B).

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH03.indd 662 03/05/2017 19:31:37

Chapter 3  •  Transmission Lines  |  3.663

L \ f = 2.2p
23. b = w LC ; ZO = RC =
C Z R − ZO
K =
R 1 b Z R + ZO
O = ⇒C = = 68. 2 pF/m
b wC wRO ZR
−1
Hence, the correct option is (C). ZO
k e j φ =
s −1 1 ZR
24. k = = +1
s +1 3 ZO
Angle of reflection coefficient f
\ Zr = 1.7∠–6.4°
2b Ymin – f = p
2p Hence, the correct option is (B).
2 × 0.8 − φ = p
1

Z L − Zo
Practice Problems 2 6. ZL = 0 ⇒ r = = −1
ZL + Zo
1. Options (A), (B), and (C) are correct; option (D) is
ZL = Z0 ⇒ r = 0
wrong about the parameters of a line. Hence, the cor-
rect option is (D). ZL = ∞ r=1
L ZL = 2Z0 r = 1
2. Z o = (for a loss less transmission line) 3
C Hence, the correct option is (C).
L  Z + jZ o tan bl 
C= 7. Zin = Z s = Z o  L
Z o2 
 Z o + jZ L tan bl 
25 × 10 −6
= 2p l
2500  = l bl = . =p
8 l 8 4
C = 0.25 μF/m
C = 250 nF/m  Z + jZ o 
∴ Zs = Zo  L 
Hence, the correct option is (A).  Z o + jZ L 
|ZS| = Z0
1+ r
3. V SW R = Hence, the correct option is (A).
1− r
ZL
Z -Z 75 + j 20 - 50 8. VSWR = =1
P= L o = Zo
Z L + Z o 75 + j20 + 50
ZL = Z0
25 + j 20 (5 + 4 j )
= = ZL = 225 Ω
125 + j 20 25 + j 4
Hence, the correct option is (A).
u1 41
= = 9. In smith chart, moving in clockwise direction is mov-
641 641 ing towards the source. Hence, the correct option is
r = 0.2529 (C).
S = 1.677 10. In smith chart, point ‘D’ is intersection of r = 0, x = 0
Hence, the correct option is (B). circles. Hence, the correct option is (C).
4. r on a loss line is 11. ‘B’ is intersection of r = ∞.
rd = rℓ.e-2αd.ej(ql – 2βd) x = ∞ circles
Hence, the correct option is (D). Hence, the correct option is (B).

( )
2
5. On a matched transmission line Z 2 30 2
ZL = Z0 1 2. ( Z in1 ) = o =
ZL 30
\r=0
(Zin)1 = 60 Ω
\ rref = 0
Zin2 = Zsc = j30
Hence, the correct option is (A).

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH03.indd 663 03/05/2017 19:31:40

3.664  |  Part III  •  Unit 8  •  Electromagnetics

Zcd = 60 + j30
Z L − ZO
60 + j 30 − 60 j 30 18. Γ = = 0.3523∠56°
r = = Z L + ZO
60 + j30 + 60 120 + j 30
Hence, the correct option is (A).
i 1
r = = 1+ Γ
4+ j 17 19. S = = 2.088
1− Γ
1 Hence, the correct option is (C).
1+
17
V SW R = = 1.64 20. Z O = Z OC . Z SC = 50 W
1
1−
17 Hence, the correct option is (B).
Hence, the correct option is (B). 21. Distortionless condition
13. For every l length, impedance repeats. R G
=
2
\ ZCD = ZAB L C
Hence, the correct option is (C).
ZAB = ZCD = 60 + j30 W
m D
Hence, the correct option is (A). 22. L = log e H/m
2p d
14. Voltage maximum in the line is observed at l . Hence, the correct option is (B).
4
\ ZL is real. 23. Zo = 75 W
Zo Zo ZR = Z0
V SW R =
⇒ZL =
ZL V SW R
Vmin = VSWR = 3
Z o 50 25 2b ymin – f = (2n + 1)p
ZL = = =
6 6 3 V min = b {1 − K }
ZL = 8.33 Ω (voltage minimum at load)
Hence, the correct option is (A). 1+ K
S=
15. Z = Z C . Z L = 100Ω 1− K
Hence, the correct option is (B). Hence, the correct option is (C).
ΖO2
24. N = 8.686 dB
16. Ζ in = =∞
ΖL 8
a = = 0.921 Np/m
V 8.686
I= =0
Ζ in r = a + j b = 0.921 + j1 / m
Hence, the correct option is (A). rl = 2(0.921 + j1) = 1.84 + j2
17. Z0 = 692 ∠–12° ; ZR = 200 tan hrl = 1.033 – j0.03929
Z − ZO  Z + Z O tan hrl 
k = R = 0.56 ∠360° − 187.6 Z in = Z o  L
Z R + ZO 
 Z O + Z L tan hrl 
= 0.56 ∠172.4°
= 60.25 + j38.79 W
Hence, the correct option is (A).
Hence, the correct option is (B).

4 2 h 2 − h1
Previous Years’ Questions ⇒Γ= = = ⇒ h 2 = 600p
6 3 h 2 + h1
VS Z Hence, the correct option is (C).
1. = S
V L Z in 1+ Γ 1
10 50 3. V SW R = 2 = ⇒ Γ =
⇒ = ⇒ V L = 60 V 1− Γ 3
V L 300 Preflect = Γ
2
Pt
Hence, the correct option is (C).
1
V 1+ Γ =
Pt
2. max = V SW R = 5 = 9
V min 1− Γ Hence, the correct option is (D).

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH03.indd 664 03/05/2017 19:31:43

Chapter 3  •  Transmission Lines  |  3.665

## 4. At p, impedance is Z = R – j. 1 after 45° in clockwise 10.

direction, impedance will be Z = R – 0. 5 j. So, induct- λ/4 100Ω
ance is adding in series. λ/4
Z O = 50Ω
Hence, the correct option is (A). Z in1 Z in2
Z O = 50Ω
5. Given circles are constant resistance circles. Hence, the
correct option is (B).
200Ω
6. Given that z0 = 50 W λ /4
Open loop impendence zoc = 100 + j 150
zo2 = zoc zsc  Z + Z 0 tan b l 
Z in = Z 0  L 
2500 50  Z 0 − Z L tan b l 
= zsc = = 2p l p
50( 2 + j 3) ( 2 + j 3) bl = × =
l 4 2
50 100 150 Z 2 0 2500 25
( 2 − j 3) = −j Z in 1 = = =
4+9 13 13 ZL 100 2
= 7.69 – j11.54 Z 2 0 2500 25
Z in 2 = = =
ZL 200 2
Hence, the correct option is (D).
25
Z in = Z in 1 // Z in2 =
7. Characteristics impedance is 50 W. 3
ZL ZL − Z0
S= if Z L > Z0 but minimum is occurred at load. Γ=
Z0 ZL + Z0
Z0
So, Z L = 12.5Ω = ZL
S
ZO = 50Ω
V max 4 50
S = = ⇒ ZL = = 12.5Ω
V min 1 4 λ/4

Hence, the correct option is (C).  25 
 3 − 50  5
ZL − Z0 = =
8. Reflection coefficient Γ =  25 + 50  7
ZL − Z0  3 
12.5 − 50 Hence, the correct option is (D).
= = −0.6 11. Zo = 75, L = 1 cm
12.5 + 50
Hence, the correct option is (A). F = 3 × 109 Hz
9. Characteristic impedance is matched with load imped- 2p 2p 2p
b = = ×f = cm
ance, so no reflections. l C 10
S11 = S22 = 0 ZL = 0
 Z + jZ O tan b l 
Z in = Z O  L Z
 Z O + jZ O tan b l 
Z0 50 Ω Z0
= jZo tan b
= j75 tan 36° = j54.4906
So, input impedance is inductive. Hence, the correct
option is (D).
If any source is applied at Port 1, then total power is pd
12. Mode No. V = ( N.A )
transferred to Port 2 and vice versa. lO
S12 = S21 = 1 NA is Numerical aperture.
0 1  If wavelength is halved and radius is doubled, then V
⇒ S − matrix   1
1 0 becomes times of previous, and single mode opera-
4
Hence, the correct option is (B). tion is not preserved. Hence, the correct option is (D).

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH03.indd 665 03/05/2017 19:31:45

3.666  |  Part III  •  Unit 8  •  Electromagnetics

13.  Z + jZ O tan b l 
Z in = Z 0  L

Z L = 50
 Z O + jZ L tan b l 
λ/4
λ/4
Z o = 100Ω λ/4 4.7µF
Z o = 50Ω Z1 B C
β =100
Z2 Z L Z L = ZI//Z2 Ib
Zi
Z o = 100Ω Z 0 = 50
R S 1kΩ
λ/4
h ie ↓
Re 93kΩ 259Ω βIb R c 250Ω R 2 1kΩ
Z L = 50
+
VS
2p l p −
b l = × =
l 4 2

Z 20  0 + j 30   2p 1 
⇒ Z in = Z 1 = 30 
ZL  = j 30  ∵ b l = l × 3 
 30 + j 0   
10 4
Z 1 = = 200 Ω
50  30 
 + j 30 2 
10 4  tan p 
 2p l 
Z 2 = = 200 Ω Z 2 = 30 2  2 
∵ b l = l × 4 
50  30 2   
ZL = Z1//Z2 = 100 Ω  + j 30 
 tan p 
 2 
Z 2 0 2500
Zi = = = 25 = 60 W
ZL 100
Hence, the correct option is (D). Z1 + Z2 = Z2

ZL = j30 + 60
14. Given that line is distortionless, w = 0. So, b = 0.
ZL − ZO 60 + j 30 − 60 j 30 j
d = a + j b = ( R + jwL )(G + jw C)
Γ = = = =
ZL + ZO 60 + j 30 + 60 120 + j 30 4+ j

a = RG 1
=
17
( R + jw L ) R
and Z 0 = =
(G + jw C) G 1
1+
αZo = R 1+ Γ 17 17 + 1
V SW R = = = = 1.64
1− Γ 1 17 − 1
1−
R 0.1 17
⇒ a = = = 0.002 Hence, the correct option is (B).
Z 0 50
Hence, the correct option is (D). 16. Z0 = 50 W, ZL = 50 W
Sinusoidal voltage source, frequency f = 10 GHz
15. Phase difference between two points spaced 2 mm
Z0 = 30 λ/8 p
apart on the line is found to be .
Z1 4
So, the 2p, phase difference will be observed at 2 × 8 =
16 mm = (l)
Z2 w
Z0 = 60 Phase velocity Vp =
ZL = 30 b
2p f
= =
2p
λ/4
l

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH03.indd 666 03/05/2017 19:31:48

Chapter 3  •  Transmission Lines  |  3.667

## = f. l 20. Velocity of propagation for a parallel plate transmis-

= 16 × 10 × 10 × 10
–3 9 sion line is
1
V =
= 1. 6 × 108 m/s LC
Hence, the correct option is (C). but impedance depends on spacing between parallel
Z Z
17. VSWR = 0 0 plates.
ZL ZL
Z0 50 120 2D
⇒ ZL = = = 10 Ω Z0 = ln
V SW R 5 er W
Hence, the correct option is (A).
18. For coaxial cable, 120 D [∵ D → D /2]
Z 10 = ln 
m b m0  b  er W
Z0 = In   = In  
e  a e 0e r  a  → Velocity does not change but impedance will be
10 −9 half. Hence, the correct option is (B).
m0 = 4p × 10–7H/m, e0 = F/m, er = 10.89,
36p  Z + jZ 0 tan b l 
21. Z in = Z 0  L 
b = 2.4 mm, a = 1 mm
 Z 0 + jZ L tan b l 
So, Z0 = 100 W
2p l p
Hence, the correct option is (B). b = × =
l 8 4
19. Characteristic impedance = 100 W
 Z + jZ o 
Sections impedance = 50 W, 200 W Z in = Z o  L 
Frequency = 429 MHz 1 GHz  Z o + jZ L 
Matching section should have length Zo = 50 Ω and ZL = R + j X = R + j 30 and Zin is real, so
l
= (2n + 1) imaginary part of input impedance is zero.
4
l = operating wave length
λ  R + j 80 
Z in = 50   Zin
 20 + jR 
[( R + j 80)( 20 − jR )]
50Ω 100Ω 200Ω
= 50
400 + R 2

100 R − j (1600 − R 2 ) 
⇒ Z in = 50  
Matching  400 + R 2 
section

## Imaginary part is zero ⇒R2 = 1,600

l C
For 429 MHz, l1 = 1 = = 0.175m ⇒ R = 40 Ω
4 4f 1
Hence, the correct answer is 39 to 41.
l2 C
For 1 GHz; l 2 = = = 0.075m 22. Signal distortion occurs if any one of the impedances
4 4f 21
does not match with the characteristic impedance of the
l = multiple of LCM of l1 and l2 transmission line or impedance mismatch at the both
= multiple of 0.525 m ends.
Hence, 1.05 is appropriate solution. That is, ZT ≠ Z0 and ZR ≠ Z0
Hence, the correct option is (B). Hence, the correct option is (C).

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH03.indd 667 03/05/2017 19:31:51

3.668  |  Part III  •  Unit 8  •  Electromagnetics

s = 0.1 µF/m
23. Given that loss tangent tan d = 0 =
we Assuming the line to be a low loss distortionless line.
s
Loss tangent tan d = 0 = α = RG = 2 ⇒ RG = 4
we
⇒s=0 R G
= OR
So conductance G = 0 L C
Hence, the correct option is (B). R L
s = = 2500
24. Given that loss tangent tan d = 0 = G C
we
s R
Loss tangent tan d = 0 = ⇒ RG × = R 2 = 10 4
we G
⇒s=0
R = 100 Ω
So conductance G = 0 RG = 4
Hence, the correct option is (B). G = 4/100 = 0.04S/m Choice (B)
As Z is real, line is a lossless line, 25. Choice (B)
L 26. Zoc = jzo cot(b  )
⇒Z= = 50
C eff. Load impedance for 1 m long line is
β = ω LC ZL = 50 // [–jzo cotb  ]
for γ = 0, ZL = 50
5 = 106 × LC i.e. –jzo cot b  = ∞
⇒ LC = 5×10 −6 (or)
b  =π
L ω LC ×  = π
LC × = L = 250 µ H / m
C
1
⇒ LC = 5 × 10 −6 2π × 109 × ×=π
2 × 108
25 × 10 −12
⇒C= 1
25 × 10 −5 ⇒ = = 0.1 m  [Answer: 0.1]
10

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH03.indd 668 03/05/2017 19:31:53

Chapter 4 Wave Guides
Exercises
Practice Problems 1 (A) TE10, TE01, TM01, TM10, TE11
(B) TE10, TE01, TE11, TE11,
Directions for questions 1 to 19:  Select the correct alterna-
(C) TE10, TE20, TM11, TE11,
tive from the given choices.
(D) TE10, TE01, TE11, TE20
1. A particular mode is excited in a wave guide, there
10. In problem 9, the dominant mode frequency is
appears an extra electric field component in the
(A) 3.75 GHZ (B) 5 GHZ
direction of propagation In what mode is the wave
(C) 6.25 GHZ (D) 7.5 GHZ
propagating?
(A) Transverse electric 11. An air-filled rectangular wave guide has inner dimen-
(B) Transverse Magnetic sions of 8 cm × 6 cm. The wave impedance of TE11,
(C) Transverse electromagnetic TM11 modes of propagation at a frequency of 6.25 GHZ
(D) Longitudinal respectively in ohms are
2. Which of the following components exist for TE11 wave 60 p , 80 p
60 3p , 80 3p (B)
(A)
(Assume wave along z direction) 3 3
(A) All are present except Ez
(B) Ex, Ey, Hx, Hy (C) 80 p , 60 p
80 3p , 60 3p (D)
3 3
(C) Ex, Hy, Ez
(D) Ex, Hy, Hz 12. In problem 11, the degenerate modes are
3. If in a Rectangular wave guide for which a = 2b, the (A) TE11, TM11 (B) TE22, TM22
cut-off frequency for TE02 mode is 12GHz, the cut-off (C) both a and b (D) only (a)
frequency for TM11 mode is 13. A rectangular wave guide of dimensions a × b has E
(A) 3 GHz (B) 3 5GHz
= wm  p  sin  2p x  .e j (w t − b z ) a y The mode of operation
(C) 12 GHz (D) 6 5 GHz h2  a   a 
4. For TE or TM modes of propagation in bounded media, of the guide
the phase velocity (A) TM11 (B) TM10 (C) TE10 (D) TM20
(A) is independent of frequency 14. A wave guide has a separation of 6 cm for the broader
(B) is linear function of frequency dimension and carries the dominant mode at an
(C) is non-linear function of frequency unknown frequency if the wave impedance is 754 W
(D) can be frequency dependent or independent de- the unknown frequency is
pending on the source.
(A) 5 GHz (B) 5 3 GHz
5. The cut-off frequency of the dominant mode of a rec- 3
tangular wave guide having aspect ratio more than 4 is (C) 8.0 GHz (D) 0.29 GHz
5GHz. The inner broad wall dimension is given by
(A) 3 cm (B) 1.5 cm (C) 2 cm (D) 2.5 cm 15. Determine the phase velocity of the wave of rectangu-
lar wave guide of dimensions 7 cm × 3⋅5 cm operating
6. Which of the following is the second dominant mode if
in dominant shade at a frequency of 3⋅5GHz
b < a/2 in rectangular wave guide
(A) 3 ×108 m/s (B) 3.78 × 108 m/s
(A) TE10 (B) TE20 (C) TE01 (D) TE11
(C) 3.1 × 108 m/s (D) 3.6 × 108 m/s
7. A rectangular wave guide of internal dimensions a =
8 cm, b = 6 cm is to be operated in TE11 mode. The Statement for Linked Answer Questions 16 and 17:
minimum operating frequency is An air-filled rectangular wave guide of dimensions a =
(A) 3.125 GHz (B) 625 GHz 4 cm, b = 2 cm, transports energy in the dominant mode
(C) 9.375 GHz (D) 1.875 GHz at a rate of 2 mW. If the frequency of operation is 10 GHz.
8. A rectangular metal wave guide filled with a material of 16. Determine hTE?
mr = 4, ∈r = 9, has the internal dimensions of 2.0 cm × (A) 406.7 W (B) 40.67 W
1.2 cm the maximum frequency for which, no propaga- (C) 4.067 W (D) 0.4067 W
tion through wave guide. 17. Determine peak value of the electric field in the
(A) 2.5 GHz (B) 0.75 GHz guide
(C) 1.25 GHz (D) 7.5 GHz (A) 63.77 v/m
9. A rectangular wave guide has dimensions of a = 4 cm, b (B) 637.7 v/m
= 3 cm. The modes that propagate through wave guide (C) 6377 v/m
at a frequency of 6.5 GHz (D) 6.377 v/m

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH04.indd 669 03/05/2017 19:32:10

3.670  |  Part III  •  Unit 8  •  Electromagnetics

Common Data for Questions 18 and 19: (A) 31.31 (B) 0.3131 (C) 3.131 (D) 313.1
A certain microstrip line has fused Quartz (er = 3.8) as a sub- 1 9. Find the wave length of the line at 10 GHz
strate. The ratio of the line width to substrate thickness w = 4.5. (A) 169 mm (B) 1.69 mm
t (C) 0.169 mm (D) 16.9 mm
18. Determine effective relative permitivity of the substrate.

## Practice Problems 2 (A) 1:1 (B) 1:2 (C) 2:1 (D) 1: 2

Directions for questions 1 to 15:  Select the correct alterna- 9. The guide wave length (lg) cut-off wavelength (lc) and
tive from the given choices. free-space wave length (lo) related as
1. When a particular mode is excited in a wave guide, there
(A) 1 1 1 (B) 1 1 1
appears an extra magnetic field component in the direc- = + = +
tion of propagation. In what is the wave propagating lo 2 l12 lg 2 lc 2 l0 2 lg 2
(A) Transverse magnetic
(C) 1 1 1 (D)
1 1 1
(B) Transverse electric = + = +
(C) Transverse electromagnetic lg 2 l0 2 lc 2 lo lg lc
(D) None of these
10. Which of the following have the least cut-off frequency
2. Which of the following is the dominant mode in rectan-
for a rectangular wave guide of a × b sides with  b ≤ a  ?
gular wave guides?  2
(A) TE10 (B) TE11 (C) TE01 (D) TE11 (A) TE11 (B) TE02 (C) TE20 (D) TE12
3. Which of the following components present in TE30
11. Relation that exists between guide wave length (lg)
(assume wave along z-direction)
free-space wave length (l0) and cut-off wave length (lc)
(A) Ey, Hx, Hz (B) Ex, Hy, Hz
a rectangular wave guide is
(C) Ex, Hy, Hz (D) Ex, Ey, Hx, Hy, Hz 2
l0 l 
4. For a wave propagating in an air-filled rectangular wave (A) lg = (B) lg = l0 1 −  o 
guide l 
2
 lc 
(A) Guide wavelength is never less than free-space 1−  o 
 lc 
wavelength
(B) Wave impedance is never less than free-space im- l0 l 
2

pedance lg =
(C) lg = l0 1 +  o 
(D)
(C) TEM mode is positive if the dimensions of the l 
2
 lc 
1+  o 
guide are properly chosen. l c
(D) Propagation constant is always a real quantity.
5. The cut-off wave length lc for TE20 mode for a rectan- 12. A wave guide has internal breadth of a = 3 cm and car-
gular wave guide is ries a dominant mode of signal unknown frequency. If
(A) a (B) 2a (C) 2 (D) 2a2 the characteristic wave impedance is 500 W, what is the
a
6. Which of the following is true about degenerate modes frequency?
(A) The modes having the same resonant frequency is (A) 7.621 GHz (B) 76.21 GHz
called degenerate modes. (C) 0.7621 GHz (D) 762.1 GHz
(B) The modes having the frequencies in integral mul-
13. An air dielectric L band wave guide has a = 2 and a
tiples of other. b
(C) The modes having the cut-off frequencies in mul- dominant-mode cut-off frequency of 0.908 GHz. If the
tiples of dominant mode frequency. measured guide wave length is 40 cm, find the operat-
(D) None of the above. ing frequency
7. A rectangular wave guide having a cut-off frequency of (A) 1.18 GHz (B) 2.18 GHz
9 GHz for TE03 mode and Then, the inner narrow wall (C) 3.18 GHz (D) 4.18 GHz
dimension of wave guide is 14. A TE10 rectangular wave guide is to be designed for
(A) 1.5 cm (B) 5 cm operation over 25–35 GHz and the band centre is 1.5
(C) 2.5 cm (D) 3.75 cm times the cut-off frequency, what should be the dimen-
8. An air-filled rectangular wave guide has dimension as sions of the broadside
4 cm × 4 cm. The ratio of dominant mode cut-off fre- (A) 15 mm (B) 10 mm
quencies in TE to TM mode is (C) 9 mm (D) 7.5 mm

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH04.indd 670 03/05/2017 19:32:11

Chapter 4  •  Wave Guides  |  3.671

15. A TE10 mode of propagation operating at 3 GHz is (A) 67.648 W (B) 676.48 W
impressed on a hollow rectangular wave guide of (C) 6.7648 W (D) 0.67648 W
dimensions 6 cm × 4 cm. Determine cut-off wave
length, find wave impedance?

Previous Years’ Questions the TE30 mode. The inner broad wall dimension of the
rectangular wave guide is: [2006]
1. In a microwave test bench, why is the microwave signal
5
amplitude modulated at 1 kHz. [2004] (A) cms (B) 5 cm
(A) To increase the sensitivity of measurement 3
(B) To transmit the signal to a far-off place 5
(C) cms (D) 10cms
(C) To study amplitude modulation 2
(D) Because crystal detector fails at microwave fre- 4. An air-filled rectangular wave guide has inner dimen-
quencies. sions of 3  × 2 cm. the wave impedance of the TE20
2. Which one of the following does represent the electric mode of propagation in the wave guide at a frequency
field lines for the TE02 mode in the cross-section of a of 30 GHz is (free space impedance h0 = 377 W)[2007]
hollow rectangular metallic wave guide? [2005] (A) 308 W (B) 355 W
(C) 400 W (D) 461 W
(A) y

5. The E field in a rectangular wave guide of inner dimen-
sions a × b is given by
2
wm  p   2px 
E = 2   H 0 sin  sin(w t − b z ) y V /m
h  a  a 

## x Where H0 is a constant, and a and b are the dimensions

along the x-axis and the y-axis, respectively. The mode
(B)
y of propagation in the wave guide is: [2007]
(A) TE20 (B) TM11 (C) TM20 (D) TE10
6. A rectangular wave guide of internal dimensions
(a = 4 cm and b = 3) is to be operated in TE11 mode. The
minimum operating frequency is [2008]
(A) 6.25 GHz (B) 6.0 GHz
x (C) 5.0 GHz (D) 3.75 GHz
7. Which of the following statements is true regarding the
(C)
y fundamental mode of the metallic wave guides shown?
 [2009]

P: Coaxial Q: Cylindrical

(D)
y

R: Rectangular

## (A) Only P has no cut-off-frequency

(B) Only Q has no cut-off-frequency
(C) Only R has no cut-off-frequency
(D) all three have cut-off-frequency
x
8. If the scattering matrix [S] of a two port network is
3. A rectangular wave guide having TE10 mode as domi-  0.2∠0° 0.9∠90°
nant mode is having a cut-off frequency of 18 GHz for
[S ] =   then the network is[2010]
0.9∠90° 0.1∠90° 

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH04.indd 671 03/05/2017 19:32:13

3.672  |  Part III  •  Unit 8  •  Electromagnetics

(A) lossless and reciprocal 13. Which one of the following field patterns represents
(B) lossless but not reciprocal a TEM wave travelling in the positive × direction?
(C) not lossless but reciprocal  [2014]
(D) neither lossless nor reciprocal (A) E = +8 ŷ , H = −4 ẑ
9. The modes in a rectangular wave guide are denoted by (B) E = −2 ŷ , H = −3 ẑ
TEmn/TMmn where m and n are the eigen numbers along (C) E = +2 ẑ , H = +2 ŷ
the larger and smaller dimensions of the wave guide
(B) E = −3 ŷ , H = +4 ẑ
respectively. Which one of the following statements is
TRUE? [2011] 14. In the transmission line shown, the impedance Zin (in
(A) The TM10 mode of the wave guide does not exist. ohms) between node A and the ground is ___________.
(B) The TE10 mode of the wave guide does not exist.  [2014]
(C) The TM10 and the TE10 modes both exist and have Α
the same cut-off frequencies.
(D) The TM10 and the TM01 modes both exist and have Z0 = 50Ω, L = 0.5λ
100Ω 50Ω
the same cut-off frequencies. Zin =?
10. The magnetic field along the propagation direction
inside a rectangular wave guide with the cross sec-
tion shown in the figure is Hz = 3 cos(2.094 × 102x) 15. For a rectangular wave guide of internal dimensions a
cos(2.618 × 102y) cos(6.283 × 1010t − bz) × b (a > b), the cut-off frequency for the TE11 mode is
the arithmetic mean of the cut-off frequencies for TE10
Y mode and TE20 mode. If a = 5 cm, the value of b (in
cm) is_______. [2014]
1.2 cm
16. Consider an air-filled rectangular wave guide with a
3 cm x cross-section of 5 cm × 3 cm. For this wave guide, the
cut-off frequency (in MHz) of TE21 mode is _________.
The phase velocity Vp of the wave inside the wave guide  [2014]
satisfies [2012]
17. Consider an air filled rectangular waveguide with
(A) Vp > c (B) Vp = c
dimensions a = 2.286 cm and b = 1.016 cm. At 10
(C) 0 < Vp , c (D) Vp = 0
GHz operating frequency, the value of the propagation
11. The return loss of a device is found to be 20 dB. The constant (per meter) of the corresponding propagating
voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) and magnitude of mode is __________. [2016]
reflection coefficient are, respectively [2013]
18.Consider an air filled rectangular waveguide with dimen-
(A) 1.22 and 0.1 (B) 0.81 and 0.1
sions a = 2.286 and b = 1.016 cm. The increasing order
(C) −1.22 and 0.1 (D) 2.44 and 0.2
of the cut off frequencies for different modes is [2016]
12. A two-port network has scattering parameters given by (A) TE01 < TE10 < TE11 < TE20
(B) TE20 < TE11 < TE10 < TE01
s s 
[S] =  11 12  . If the port-2 of the two port is short- (C) TE10 < TE20 < TE01 < TE11
 s21 s22  (D) TE10 ,< TE11 < TE20 < TE01
circuited, the s11 parameter for the resultant one-port
network is [2014]
s11 − s11 s22 + s12 s21 s11 + s11 s22 − s12 s21
(A) (B)
1 + s22 1 + s22
s11 + s11 s22 + s12 s21 s11 − s11 s22 + s12 s21
(C) (D)
1 − s22 1 − s22

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH04.indd 672 03/05/2017 19:32:14

Chapter 4  •  Wave Guides  |  3.673

Hints/Solutions
Practice Problems 1 8. The maximum frequency for which no propagation,
that is, the minimum frequency for which propagation
1. According to the given information, Ez ≠ 0 (if the wave occurs
is along z-direction). 1 1
\ TM wave f c TE10 = .
Hence, the correct option is (B). 2 m∈ a
2. In TEmn, if m > 0, n > 0, then Ez = 0, and remaining all 3 × 108 1
× =1.25 GHz
components are present. 2 × 2 × 3 2 × 10 −2
Hence, the correct option is (A). Hence, the correct option is (C).
2
C  0  2
2 9. TE10, is dominant mode
3. f c TE =   + 
02
2  a  b  3 × 108
f c = = 3.75GHz
2 × 4 × 10 −2
c
f c TE02
= = 12GHz f c = 6.25GHz
b TE11

2
C  1  1
2
f c TM11
= 6.25GH
f c TE =   + 
11
2  a  b  f c = 5GHz
TE 01
2
C 1  1 f c = 7.5GHz
= +  TE 20
2 4b 2  b 
f c TE 02
= 10GHz
C1 5
f c TM = . \ The modes which have cut-off frequency less than
11
2b 2 6.5 GHZ will propagate through waveguide.
f c TM = 3 5 GHz \ f TE10, TE01, TE11, TM11
11

Hence, the correct option is (B). Hence, the correct option is (B).
J 3 × 108 10
4. Vg = 11. f c TE11 = ×
2 2 8 × 6 × 10 −2
 fc 
1−   100
 f  = GHZ
J = F ( f ) = c = light velocity 32
Phase velocity is non-linearly related to frequency. 25
= GHZ
Hence, the correct option is (C). 8
c = 3.125 GHZ
5. f c =
2a f c TE11 = f c TM 11 = 3.125GHz
a − inner broad wall dimension
ho
3 × 1010 hTE =

a= 2
2 × 5 × 10 9  fc 
1−  
a = 3 cm  f 
Hence, the correct option is (C).
120p
6. If b < a/2, then the second dominant mode is TE20, as = (ho = 120p Ω)
( 2)
2
explained in theory part. Hence, the correct option is (B). 1− 1
1 a +b 2 2
7. f c = 240p
TE11
2 m∈ ab =
3
3 × 108 10
= × hTE = 80 3p

2 8 × 6 × 10 −2

( )
2

=
100
GHz hTM = h o 1 − fc
f
32
25 3
= GHz = 3.125 GHz = 120 p = 60 3p
8 2
Hence, the correct option is (A). Hence, the correct option is (C).

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH04.indd 673 03/05/2017 19:32:17

3.674  |  Part III  •  Unit 8  •  Electromagnetics

## 1 3. From the given expression of E, m = 2, n = 0 c

f c = = 3.75 GHz
\ TE20 and if n = 0 2a
TM20 does not exist. h
hΩ =
= 406.7 W
Hence, the correct option is (D). 2
 fc 
14. TE10 is dominant mode. 1−  
 f 
h Hence, the correct option is (A).
hTE =

2
 fc  b a
| E yx |2
1−  
 f  17. Pavg = ∫
y= 0

x= 0
2h
dxdy
3 × 108
f c = = 2.5GHz
E0 2 b a 2  p x 
2 × 6 × 10 −2
2h ∫0 ∫0
= dy sin   dz
377  a 
754 =
2
 fc  E0 2 ab
1−   =
f  4h
2 4hPavg
 fc  1 Hence, E02 =
1−   = .
ab
f  4
\ E0 = 63⋅77 V/m
fc 3 5
= =f= GHz Hence, the correct option is (A).
f 2 3
Hence, the correct option is (A).
18. e eff =
(e r +1 ) + (e r −1 )
= 3.131
C 2 t
15. Phase velocity, Vp = 2 1 + 12
2 w
f 
1−  c  Hence, the correct option is (C).
f 
Hence, the correct option is (B). 1 120p
19. ZO =
16. The dominant mode for a > b is TE10 mode. The field e eff  w w 
 t + 1.393 + 0.66 +  t + 1.444 
 px   
expressions Exs = 0; Eys = −jE0 sin   e − j bz m c
 a
and l = = = 16.9 mm
w ma f f e eff
where Eo = Ho
p Hence, the correct option is (D).

Practice Problems 2
2
1. Hz ≠ 0, Ez = 0 5. lc =
2 2
\TE wave  m  n
Hence, the correct option is (B).   +  
a b
2. The mode with the lowest frequency is the dominant 2
mode. lc = =a
2
\ TE10 a
Hence, the correct option is (A). Hence, the correct option is (A).
3. In TEmo, modes Ey, Hx, and Hz field components are pre- 6. The modes which have the same resonant frequency is
sent. Hence, the correct option is (A). called degenerate modes. Hence, the correct option is (A).
1 3
4. lg > l (always) 7. f c TE 03 = .
2 m∈ b
where as in option ‘B’
1 3
hTE > h > TM
9GHz = .
2 m∈ b
In option ‘C’, TEM is never possible in waveguide.
b = 0.05
For option (d), propagation constant is a complex quan-
b = 5 cm
tity. Hence, the correct option is (A).
Hence, the correct option is (B).

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH04.indd 674 03/05/2017 19:32:19

Chapter 4  •  Wave Guides  |  3.675

## 8. In TE → TE10 is dominant mode. C

f CTE10 = = 5 GHz
c 2a
f c TE10 =
2a \ f = 7.621 GHz
In TM, TM11 is dominant mode. Hence, the correct option is (A).
l0
C 2 13. lg =
f c TM = . 2
1
2 a l 
1−  0 
f c TE 1  lg 
\ 10
=
f c TE 2 c 3 × 1010
11
\ lc = = = 33.04cm
Hence, the correct option is (D). f c 0.908 × 10 9
10. For b ≤ a , the mode next to dominant mode is TE20. 1 1 1
2 2 = 2 − 2
Hence, the correct option is (C). lg l0 lc
11. Blg = 2p
\ λ0 = 25.45 cm
2
2p  fc 
lg = 1−  c 3 × 1010
w me  f 0  \f= = = 1.186 GHz
l0 25.45
We know
Hence, the correct option is (A).
c
lc =
fc
( )
2
C  m c
l0 = co/fo 14. f c T E 10 =   =
2 a 2a
l0
\ lg = c
2 Band centre = 1.5 × = 30 GHz
l  2a
1−  0  a = 7.5 mm
l  c
Hence, the correct option is (D).
Hence, the correct option is (A).
h0
12. Z TE10 = 500Ω 15. hTE = = 676.48Ω
2
l
h 1−  
= 500W  lc 
2
 f  Hence, the correct option is (B).
1−  c 
 f 

## Previous Years’ Questions 3. Cut-off frequency is 18 GHz.

3 × 1010 2a
1. In a microwave test bench, microwave signal is ampli- For T E30 , then lC = =
tude modulated at 1 kHz because crystal detector fails at 18 × 10 9 3
microwave frequencies. Hence, the correct option is (D). 5
⇒ a = cm
2. Electric field lines for TE02 mode for a hollow rectangu- 2
Hence, the correct option is (C).
lar metallic wave guide is
4. a = 3 cm, b = 2 cm
Y Operating frequency f = 30 GHz
ho = 377 Ω
→ lc = a = 3 cm
c
f C = = 10GHz
3
ho ho 9
Z TE = = = 377 = 400Ω
f 
2
 1
2 8
x 1−  C  1−  
 fo   3
Hence, the correct option is (D). Hence, the correct option is (C).

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH04.indd 675 03/05/2017 19:32:22

3.676  |  Part III  •  Unit 8  •  Electromagnetics

## 5. TE Wave equation 1+ Γ 1 + 0.1

VSWR = = = 1.222
− jw m p  mp   np  j(w t − b z) 1− Γ 1 − 0.1
E y = C sin   cos  e
h 2
a  a   b  Hence, the correct option is (A).
Mode of propagation of wave is TE 20. 12. S11 is input reflection (Γ in ) .
Hence, the correct option is (A). S 12S 21Γ L
= S 11 +
6. Minimum operating frequency 1 − S 22 Γ L
2 2 ZL − ZO
3 × 1010  1   1 Γ L = and second end is short circuited. So
f =   +   ZL + ZO
2 4 3
ZL = 0.
= 0.625 × 1010 Hz
ΓL = −1
= 6.25 GHz
Hence, the correct option is (A). S 12S 21 S 11 + S 11S 22 − S 12S 21
⇒ (Γ in ) = S 11 − =
7. The dominant mode of propagation in a coaxial line 1 + S 22 1 + S 22
is TEM wave. Coaxial waveguide has no cut-off Hence, the correct option is (B).
frequency.
Hence, the correct option is (A). 13. TEM wave is travelling in positive x-direction. So,
8. S12 = S21 = 0.9  90°. So, network is reciprocal. E × H = in x-direction
For lossless [S][S]* = I Hence, the correct option is (B).
2p l
 0.2 j 0.9   0.2 j 0.9  1 0  14. bl = × =p
 j 0.9 0.1∠90°  j 0.9 0.1∠90° ≠ 0 1  l 2
     
A
So, given matrix is not lossless but reciprocal. Hence, Z 0 = 50 Ω, L = λ/2
the correct option is (C). Z in
9. The TM10 mode does not exist. Hence, the correct 100 Ω 50 Ω
option is (A). Z in
10. bx = 2.094 × 102 rad/m, by = 2.618 × 102 rad/m

w2 Z 
bz = − ( b x2 + b y2 ) ⇒ Z 1in = Z O  L  = Z L = 50Ω
C2
ZO 
b z = w 2 mε − ( b x2 + b y2 ) ⇒ Z in = Z 1in //100Ω
= 33.3 Ω
2
 6.283 × 1010  Hence, the correct answer is 32.99 to 34.01.
=  − ( 209.4 2 + 261.82 )
 3 × 108  15. Cut-off frequency of
= j261.8 f CT + f CTE
T E11 =
E10 20

## bz is imaginary; this means that the mode is actually 2

non-propagating.
2ab
Vp = 0 lCT E11 =
Hence, the correct option is (D). a2 + b 2

Ei lCTE = 2a
11. Return loss (dB) = 10 log10
10

Er
lCTE = a
20
2
V
= 10 log10 S C C
Vr +
C a2 + b 2 2
⇒ = a a
20 = −20 log10 Γ ⇒ Γ = 0.1 2ab 2

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH04.indd 676 03/05/2017 19:32:25

Chapter 4  •  Wave Guides  |  3.677

## 3 Where γ = jω µ ∈ , intrinsic propagation constant

⇒ 5 + b2 = b [∵ a = 5 ]
2 2π
kc = , cutoff phase constant
From above equation, b = 2 λc
Hence, the correct option is 1.9 to 2.1. ⇒ γ g = γ 2 + k c2
16. Dimensions of rectangular wave guide is 5 × 3. = 157 m-1
lC = 18. Cut off frequency,
2 2
 m   n kc
  +   fc = c
a b 2π
2 Where
lCTE = kc = cut off phase constant
21 2 2
 2   1 c = speed of light
  +   π π
5 3 TE10 → k c = =
a 2.286
2×5×3
= = 3.84 cm 2π π
36 + 25 TE 20 → k c = =
a 1.143
C 3 × 1010 π π
f C = = = 7812.5 MHz TE 01 → k c = =
lC 3.84 b 1.016
2 2
Hence, the correct answer is 7810 to 7815.  π  π π
TE11 → k c =   +   =
17. 157m-1  a   b 0.862
Guide propagation constant, ∴fcTE10 < fcTE20 < fcTE01 < fcTE11
γ g2 = γ 2 + k c2  Choice (C)

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH04.indd 677 03/05/2017 19:32:26

Chapter 5  Basics of Antennas
Exercises
Practice Problems 1
Directions for questions 1 to 12:  Select the correct alterna- (C) 20 mW (D) 100 mW
tive from the given choices. 8. The radiation pattern of an antenna in spherical co-
1. An antenna having a gain of 10 dB radiates 3-W power ordinates is given by U (q) = cos4q ; 0 ≤ q ≤ p .
in free space. The electric field intensity at a distance of 2
Directivity of the antenna is
1 km from the antenna is given by (ho = 120p)
(A) 10 dB (B) 12.6 dB
(A) 30m V (B) 30 2m V (C) 11.5 dB (D) 18 dB
m m
9. A l dipole is kept horizontally at a height of l
(C) 15m V (D) 15 2m V 2 2
m m above a perfectly conducting infinite ground plane. The
2. The electric field intensity at a distance of 10 km from an
antenna having a directive gain of 10 dB and radiating a radiation pattern in the plane of the dipole is
total power of 60 kw is (A) y (B) y
(A) 0.6 V (B) 1.2 V
m m
(C) 0.36 V (D) 13.3 m w 2
m m Z
3. An antenna having a directivity of 2 at a frequency of Z
300 MHz will have a maximum effective aperture of (C) y (D) y
1 1 2
(A) m 2 (B) m
80p 4p
1 1 2
(C) m 2 (D) m Z
2p p Z
4. A mast antenna consisting of a 50-metre long vertical
conductor operates over a perfectly ground plane. It 10. The maximum effective area of a l wire dipole oper-
2
is base-fed at a frequency of 600 kHz. The radiation ating at 30 MHz and how much power is received with
resistance of the antenna is
p2 an incident wave of strength 2m V is, respectively
(A) 8p2 (B) m
5
(A) 6.525 m2, 70 nW (B) 13.05 m2, 35.8 nW
(C) 4 p 2
(D) 20p2 (C) 13.05 m2, 71.62 nW (D) 6.525 m2, 35.8 nW
5
5. A medium wave radio transmitter operating at a wave- Common Data for Questions 11 and 12:
length of 500 m and the height of tower antenna in 11. In the radiation pattern of the three element array of
125 m, then the radiation resistance of the antenna is l
(A) 73 W (B) 36.5 W isotropic radiators equally spaced at distance of ,
4
(C) 50 W (D) 25 W it is required to place a null at an angle of 33.56° of
6. In a uniform linear array four isotropic elements are placed the end-fire direction. Calculate the progressive phase
l apart. The progressive phase shift between the elements shifts to be applied to the elements.
2
required for forming the main beam at 60° off the end-fire is p p
(A) -p (B) −p 4 2
2 (C) 3p (D) p rad
(C) − p (D) −p 12. For the above Q. No. 11, calculate the angle at which
4 8
7. A transmitting antenna radiates 251 W isotropically, the main beam is placed for this phase distribution?
and a receiving antenna 100 m away from the transmit- (A) fmax = 120°
ting antenna has an effective aperture of 500 cm2. The (B) fmax = 60°
total received power by the antenna is (C) fmax = 30°
(A) 10 mW (B) 1 mW (D) fmax = 10°

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH05.indd 688 03/05/2017 19:32:44

Chapter 5  •  Basics of Antennas  |  3.689

Practice Problems 2
Directions for Questions 1 to 11:  Select the correct alter- (A) at perpendicular to the line of array
native from the given choices. (B) along the line of array
Common Data for Questions 1 and 2: (C) 45° to the line of array
p (D) in both perpendicular and along the axis of array
Strength of 5 mA/m is required at a point on q = , 1 km
2 7. For taking antenna far field pattern, what must be
from an antenna in air, neglecting ohmic losses.
the distance R between transmitting and receiving
1. If the antenna is half-wave dipole, then the radiated
antennas?
power is
(A) 36 mw (B) 144 mw 2d 2 4D2l 2
(A) R> (B) R>
(C) 72 mw (D) 108 mw l 3
2
D 2D 2
2. If the antenna is quarter-wave monopole, then the radi- (C) R> (D) R> 2
ated power is 2l 2
l
(A) 18.25 mw (B) 36.5 mw 8. A transmitting antenna has a gain of 10 dB. If it is fed
(C) 73 mw (D) 18 mw with a signal power of 10 W assuming free space prop-
3. The radiation intensity of a certain antenna is agation, what power would be captured by a receiving
antenna of effective area 1 m2 in the broadside direction
2 sin f 0 ≤ q ≤ p
u(q , f ) =  . Then the radiated power at a distance of 1 m?
0 0≤f ≤p (A) 0.8 W (B) 8 W
is (C) 0.2 W (D) 2 W
(A) 2 W (B) 4 W
l
(C) zero (D) 8 W 9. Which of the following is not a dipole antenna?
(A) Yagi-Uda antenna 2
4. The directivity of an antenna with normalized radiation
(B) Rhombic antenna
intensity is
(C) Parabolic antenna
 (D) Horn antenna
U(q, f) =  2 sinf 0 ≤ f ≤ p
 0 else 10. The gain G of an antenna of effective area A is given by
(A) 1.273 (B) 2.546 4pl 4p A
G=
(A) (B) G =
16
4 (D)
(C) A2 l
p p
4p 4p l 2
5. The electric field intensity at a distance of 10 km from G=
(C) A (D)
G =
l2 A
an antenna having a directive gain of 10 dB and radiat-
ing a total power of 80 kW is 11. An end-fire array consisting of several half-wavelength
(A) 1.08 v/n (B) 10.8 v/n long isotropic radiators has a directive gain of 30 dB.
(C) 1.04 (D) None of the above Beam Width between First null (BWFN) is given by
(A) 47.3° (B) 59.4°
6. The maximum radiation for an end-fire array occur
(C) 71.3° (D) 90°

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH05.indd 689 03/05/2017 19:32:45

3.690  |  Part III  •  Unit 8  •  Electromagnetics

## Previous Years’ Questions

1. Two identical and parallel dipole antennas are kept 2p 2 p2
l (A) (B)
apart by a distance of in the H-plane. They are fed 5 5
4
with equal currents but the right-most antenna has a 4p 2
(C) (D) 20p2
phase shift of +90°. The radiation pattern is given as 5
 [2005]
l l
(A) 4. A dipole is kept horizontally at a height of 0 above
2 2
a perfectly conducting infinite ground plane.
(
tion pattern in the plane of the dipole E plane looks
approximately as [2007]
)
(A) y

(B) z

(B) y

z
y
(C)

(C)
z

(D) y

z
5. For a Hertz dipole antenna, the half-power beam width
(D) (HPBW) in the E-plane is [2008]
(A) 360° (B) 180°
(C) 90° (D) 45°
6. At 20 GHz, the gain of a parabolic dish antenna of 1
metre diameter and 70% efficiency is [2008]
(A) 15 dB (B) 25 dB
(C) 35 dB (D) 45 dB
7. Match Column A with Column B. [2014]
2. A transmission line is feeding 1 watt of power to a horn
Column A Column B
antenna having a gain of 10 dB. The antenna is matched
1. Point  electromagnetic P. Highly directional
to the transmission line. The total power radiated by the
source
horn antenna into the free space is [2006]
2. Dish antenna Q. End fire
(A) 10 watts (B) 1 watt
(C) 0.1 watt (D) 0.01 watt 3. Yagi-Uda antenna R. Isotropic

## 3. A mast antenna consisting of a 50-metre long vertical (A) 1 → P, 2 → Q, 3 → R

conductor operates over a perfectly conducting ground (B) 1 → R, 2 → P, 3 → Q
plane. It is base fed at a frequency of 600 kHz. The (C) 1 → Q, 2 → P, 3 → R
radiation resistance of the antenna in Ohms is [2006] (D) 1 → R, 2 → Q, 3 → P

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH05.indd 690 03/05/2017 19:32:46

Chapter 5  •  Basics of Antennas  |  3.691

8. The directivity of an antenna array can be increased by respectively. Assuming that the input power in the loss-
adding more antenna elements, as a large number of less transmission line connected to the antenna is 2 W
and that the antennas are perfectly aligned and polari-
elements  [2015]
zation matched, the power (in mw) delivered to the load
the receiver is __________ . [2016]
(B) increases the effective area of the antenna
(C) results in a better impedance matching 11. The far zone power density radiated by a helical antenna
(D) allows more power to be transmitted by the antenna is approximated as
9. An antenna pointing in a certain direction has a noise

1
temperature of 50K. The ambient temperature is 290K. W rad = W average= ≈ â r C0 2 cos4q.
The antenna is connected to a pre-amplifier that has a r
noise figure of 2dB and an available gain of 40dB over The radiated power density is symmetrical with respect
an effective band width of 12MHz. The effective input π
to f and exists only in the upper hemisphere; 0 ≤ q ≤ ;
noise temperature Te for the amplifier and the noise 2
power Pa0 at the output of the preamplifier, respectively, 0 ≤ f ≤ 2p; C0, is a constant. The power radiated by the
antenna (in watts) and the maximum directivity of the
are  [2016]
(A) Te = 169.36K and Pa0 = 3.73 × 10-10W antenna, respectively are: [2016]
(B) Te = 170.8K and Pa0 = 4.56 × 10-10W (A) 1.5C0, 10dB (B) 1.256C0, 10dB
(C) Te = 182.5K and Pa0 = 3.85 × 10-10W (C) 1.256C0, 12dB (D) 1.5C0, 12dB
(D) Te = 160.62K and Pa0 = 4.6 × 10-10W 12. A radar operating at 5GHz uses a common antenna for
10. Two lossless X band horn antennas are separated by transmission and reception. The antenna has a gain of
a distance of 200l The amplitude reflection coeffi- 150 and is aligned for maximum directional radiation and
cients at the terminals of the transmitting and receiving reception to a target 1 km away having radar cross section
antennas are 0.15 and 0.18, respectively. The maximum of 3 m2. If it transmits 100kW, then the received power (in
directivities of the transmitting and receiving anten-
mW) is__________ . [2016]
nas (over the isotropic antenna) are 18dB and 22dB

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH05.indd 691 03/05/2017 19:32:47

3.692  |  Part III  •  Unit 8  •  Electromagnetics

Hints/Solutions
2
Practice Problems 1  dl 
4. Rrad = 80 p 2  
l
1. Gain = 10
dB = 10 log10G c 3 × 108
l= =
f 6 × 105
G = 10
300
Pavg =
( E s )2 =
6
= 500
2h 4pr 2
l
( s) =
E
2 10
2pr 2 1
120p × 10 × −3 100
=  = 0.8p2
2p .106
2

( Es ) = 18 × 10
2 −4 5
Hence, the correct option is (C).
Es = 3 2 × 10 −2 5. Length of the antenna () = 125 m
Es = 30 m V l = 500 m
m
= l
Es = 30 2 m V 4
m \ Quarter-wave monopole antenna
Hence, the correct option is (B).
2. G = 10 dB = 10log10G
Hence, the correct option is (B).
E 2 G.Prad 6. Phase shift = bd (cosf -1)
Pavg = s =
2h 4pr 2
=
2p l 1
.
l 2 2
(
−1 = −p
2 )
Es2 =
2pr 2 Hence, the correct option is (B).
P ×A
120p × 10 × 60 kw 7. Pr = t 2 e
= 4pr
2p . × 108
Isotropic antenna radiates same in all directions.
Es 2 = 36 × 10
6
= 36 × 10 −2 D = 1
108 251
Pr = × 5 × 10 −2 =100 mW
Es = 0.6 V 4p × 10 4
m
Hence, the correct option is (D).
Hence, the correct option is (A).
l2 U max
3. Ae = .Gd (q c , f ) 8. D =
4p U avg

## l2 U max = cos 4 q |max = 1

Aemax = .D
4p 2p
p
2
1
Uavg = ∫ ∫ cos q sin qdqdf
4
l 2
4p
Aemax = .2 0 0
4p 0
−2p  cos5 q 
l 2 2
=  
Aemax = m 4p  5 1
2p
−1

c 3 × 108
l= = = 1m Uavg =
10
[ −1]
f 3 × 108
Uavg = 1
10
Aemax = 1 .m 2
2p D = 10 D(dB) = 10 dB
Hence, the correct option is (C). Hence, the correct option is (A).

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH05.indd 692 03/05/2017 19:32:51

Chapter 5  •  Basics of Antennas  |  3.693

## 9. For horizontal dipole pattern, 100 × 1.64

Ae =
4p
λ = 13.05 m2
2 E2
Pr = Pavg. Ae = o . Ae
2h
−6
4 × 10 × 13.05
= = 71.624 nW
240p
Hence, the correct option is (C).
Perfectly λ
Conducting 2 3y
sin
11. Et = E1 2
y
Virtual dipole sin
2
Perfectly conducting ground makes a virtual dipole l and y = bd cosf + a
2
below to earth. Ny n
Nulls occur when = ± mp
\ Two l dipole placed at d = l apart, and hence, the 2
2 2p
resultant pattern will be y In =
3
2p
bd cosfIn + a =
3
2p l 2p
cos (33.56°) + a =
l 4 3
p
4
Unit pattern group Resultant Hence, the correct option is (A).
pattern pattern
12. bd cosfmax + a = 0
Hence, the correct option is (C). 2p l p
l 2G . cosfmax + = 0
10. Ae = l 4 4
4p −p 2 −1
3 × 108 cosfmax = × =
l= = 10 m 4 p 2
3 × 10 7 fmax = 120°
Gmax = D = 1.64 (for l dipole) Hence, the correct option is (A).
2

Practice Problems 2

1. 2. Rrad = 36.5 W
p 
I o cos  cos q  1
H fs = 2
2pr sin q Io= 10p mA (as in Example 1)
p  1
I o cos  .0 Prad = 100p 2 × 36.5 × 10 −6  18.25 mW
−6 2  2
5 × 10 =
2p × 1 × 10 +3 × 1 Hence, the correct option is (A).
2p p

5 × 10 −6
=
Io 3. Prad = ∫ ∫ U (q , f )d Ω
2p × 10 +3 f =0 q =0

p p
Io= 10p mA
1
= ∫ ∫ 2 sin f sin q dq df
2 p p

## 1 = 2∫ sin f .df ∫ sin qdq

= × 100p 2 × 10 −6 × 73  36 mW 0 0
2
Hence, the correct option is (A).
Hence, the correct option is (D).

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH05.indd 693 03/05/2017 19:32:54

3.694  |  Part III  •  Unit 8  •  Electromagnetics

U max Es =1.04 V
4. Direction D = m
U avg
Hence, the correct option is (C).
Umax = 1
6. The maximum radiation for an end fire array occurs
1
4p ∫
U avg = U (q , f )d Ω along the axis of the array.
Hence, the correct option is (B).
p 2p
1 8. Pr = Pavg. Aer
=
4p ∫ ∫
q =0 f =0
sin q sin q dq df

pt .Gdt
p Pavg =
1 2 2p 4pr 2
= ∫ sin qdq ∫ df
2

4p 10 × 10
0 0
Pavg = ≅ 8W
1 p 4p 2
= . .2p Hence, the correct option is (B).
4p 4
9. Horn antenna; hence, the correct option is (D).
8 l2
= = 2.546 10. Ae = G
p 4p
Hence, the correct option is (B). l2
5. Gd (dB)= 10 = 10 log10Gd
\Ae = G [∵D = eG]
4p
Es
2
Pavg = = \ G = 4p c2
2h 4pr 2 l
Hence, the correct option is (C).
Es = 11. Directivity D = = 30
2pr 2 l
L
120p × 10 × 180 × 103 \ = 7.5
= l
2 × p × (10 × 103 ) 2
115
\ BWFN = = 59.4°
12 × 2 × 106 × 9 L / 2l
=
2 × 108 Hence, the correct option is (B).
Es = 1.08 V
2
m

## Previous Years’ Questions

1. Distance between two parallel and ideal dipole antenna
is l phase shift a = 90° = p
4 2
Radiation pattern = (bdcosq + a)
 2p l 
= × cos q + p 
 l 4 2 
p
= [cos q + 1]
2
If q = 90° ⇒ radiation will be maximum at q = p
. Hence, the correct option is (A).
2
If q = 180° ⇒ radiation is minimum and this value
occurs at q = 180°. 2. Power radiated by horn antenna is 1 Watt because the
Thus, radiation pattern is like given gain is directive gain. It will not amplify the
power. Hence, the correct option is (B).

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH05.indd 694 03/05/2017 19:32:57

Chapter 5  •  Basics of Antennas  |  3.695

## 3. l = 50 m 9. Effective input noise temperature,

f = 600 × 103 = 6 × 105 Hz Te = To [ F – 1]
2 = 290 [1.58 – 1]
 dI  = 290 × 0.58
Rrad = 40 π2   Ω
l = 169.36° K
C 3 × 108 Output noise power,
l= = = 0.5 × 103 Pao = KATeB
f 6 × 10 5

## Pao = (50 + 169.36) × 1.38 × 10–23 × 104 × 12 × 106

2
 50  2p 2 = 3.63 × 10–10 W Choice (A)
Rrad = 40p 2  3
= 3.9478 =
 0.5 × 10  5 10.
Hence, the correct option is (A).
R = 200l Dot = 63.1
4. A l dipole radiation pattern where dipole kept hori-
2 D0r = 158.5
Γ t = 0.15
zontally above perfectly conducting ground at a height
of l is Γ r = 0.18
2
Pi = 2W
∴  D ( dB) = 10 log10 D 

Pt = Pi 1 − Γ t  = 1.955W
2

 
Friis transmission formula:
d=λ
2
2  λ 
Pr = Pt   DOt DOr
 4 πR 
d=l = 3.1mW
2
Hence, the correct option is (B). Power delivered to load,
5. Half-power beam width of hertz dipole is 90° PL = Pr 1 − Γ 2r  ≈ 3mW  [Answer: 3 mW]
Hence, the correct option is (C).
11. p rad = ∫∫ w .ds
C
6. f = 20 GHz ⇒ = l = 1.5cm 2 π π/ 2
f 1
η = 0.7; = C0 ∫ ∫a
φ=0 θ=0
r
r2
cos 4 θ.a r r 2 sin θdθdφ
D=1m
= 1.256Co
2
 D U
G = hp 2   D0 = 4 π max
 1 
2 C0
= 0.7p 2  = 30674.311 4π ∵ U = r 2 W, U max = C0 
 0.015  1.256C0 
= 44.86 dB Do = 10
= 45 dB Do(dB) = 10dB Choice (B)
Hence, the correct option is (D). 12. Received power,
7. Point electromagnetic source is isotropic p t G 2 λ 2S
pr =
Dish antenna is highly directional Antenna ( 4π )3 r 4
Hence, the correct option is (B). = 0.012mW
8.  c 
4p
∵ λ = f = 0.06 m 
D = 2 Ae  
D ∝ Ae
So directivity increases as the effective area of antenna
increases.
Hence, the correct option is (B).

## M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH05.indd 695 03/05/2017 19:33:00

Test
Hints/Solutions
∈2
5. tanq = ⇒ s = w∈
∈1
10–12 = 2pf × 3 × 8.85 × 10–12
Hence, the correct option is (D).
⇒ f = 60 MHz
s Hence, the correct option is (A).
6. Good conductor >>1
w∈
23. E = −∇V
2
\d = Hence, the correct option is (A).
2p f ms
Hence, the correct option is (A). 25. E = −∇V
9. Lorenz Force equation Hence, the correct option is (A).
F = Q(E + u × B)
27. Dielectric to air, that is, rv = 0. So, d normal is
Hence, the correct option is (A).
continuous.
12. ∴ y = ∫ D da ∈1 E1 = ∈2 E2
2p E1 = 4∈0
= ∫ ∫ 1.dz dφ
0 0
Hence, the correct option is (A).

= 2p C −Nd φ
28. E = = –100 × (3t2 – 2) at t = 2 s
Hence, the correct option is (B). dt
Q = –1 V
13. ∵ V =
4p ∈ r 2 Hence, the correct option is (B).
Hence, the correct option is (C). 108 1
15. W = 108 29. b = w m ∈= = rad/m
3 × 10 3
8

## b=3 Hence, the correct option is (A).

w 108
C= = ⇒ ∈r = 9 Ey
b 3 30. = −h
Thus, the type of medium is lossless dielectric. Hence, Hx
the correct option is (A).
−1
21. Conduction current (s ∈) = displacement current E y = H x
h
 ∂D 
(jw∈E)  = jw ∈ E  Hence, the correct option is (B).
 ∂t 