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Chapter 1

Elements of Vector Calculus

U

n

and Static Fields 3.629

Chapter 2

Maxwell Equations and

EM-Wave Propagation 3.641

i

Chapter 5 Basics of Antennas 3.688

t

8

M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH01.indd 627 05/05/2017 15:09:19

M06_GATE-ECE-GUIDE-00_SE_XXXX_CH01.indd 628 03/05/2017 19:29:22

Chapter 1 Elements of Vector Calculus and

Static Fields

Exercises

Practice Problems 1 (C)

Directions for questions 1 to 20: Select the correct alterna-

tive from the given choices.

V

1. If a vector field V is related to another vector field A

through V = ∇ × A , which of the following is true. c

and sc are any closed contour and any surface whose (D)

boundary is c V

∫ v .dl = ∫∫ A .ds

(A)

sc

∫ A .d = ∫∫ v .ds

(B)

c sc 6. In an electrostatic field,

∇.E = 0 (B) ∇×E = 0

( ) ( )

(A)

∫ × V .dl = ∫∫ ∇ × A ..ds

(C) ∇

C Sc

(C) ∇.E = 0 (D) none of these

7. The electric field E1 in medium with ε1 = 3∈o is

(D) ∇ ( )

∫ × A .dl = ∫∫ v .ds Sc E1 = ax − 5a y + az V m , while medium 2 has e 2 = 5 ∈o

2. If n is the unit normal vector to any closed surface s, and x = 0 is boundary shown in the following figure.

then ∫∫∫ ∇.ndv y

v

s 1 2

(A) 0 (B) s (C) (D) 3s

3 3∈0

5∈0

x=0 x=0

3. The electric field strength at a distance p due to a

point charge +q located on the origin is 10 µv/m. If

the point charge now enclosed by a perfectly conduct-

x

ing metal sheet whose centre is at the origin, then the

electric field strength at the point p, outside the sphere,

becomes z

(A) 0 (B) 10 µ V m

Then, E 2 is equal to

(C) 100 µ V m (D) 50 µ V m (A)

1.2 ax − 5a y + az V m

4. The infinite plane sheet at z = 6 m, there exists a uni- (B)

0.6 ax − 5a y + az V m

1800

form surface charge density of nC m 2 . Then, (C) 2 ax – 5ay + az V m

p

associated electric field strength is (D)

ax − a y + 5a2 V m

(A) 30 V m (B) 32.4 V m

8. Which of the following are true?

(C) 32.4K V m (D) 324 V m (A) B = ∇.A (B) B = ∇×A

5. Electric field lines at the equipotential surface V are ∇.B = 0 (D)

(C) ∇ × B = mo J

shown in the following figure. Which of the following

9. Magnetic vector potential A = − r

2

is correct? a . Then, flux

4 z

(A) v through the surface shown in the following figure is

q

z

5

(B)

v

0

ρ=2 ρ=4y

3.630 | Part III • Unit 8 • Electromagnetics

∧

(A) 3 T (B) 5 T ∧ ∧

(C) 15 T (D) 0 T 15. D = (4xy2z3 ax + 3x2zay + 2yaz ) nC/m2. Find the amount

of flux passing through the plane defined by x = 3;

10. If D = ( 2 y 2 + 2)ax + 4 xya y +xaz C /m 2 , then volume 0 ≤ y ≤ 2; 0 ≤ z ≤ 1 in a direction away from the origin.

charge density ρv at (−1, 0, 3) is (A) 4 nC (B) 3 nC (C) 2 nC (D) 8 nC

(A) 4 C /m 3 Common Data for Questions 16 and 17:

Select the value of K so that each of the fields satisfy

−4 C /m3 (D)

(C) 2 C /m 3 Maxwell’s equations.

∧ ∧ ∧

11. A finite length wire carrying current πA is placed along 16. Let D = (5xax − 2yay + Kzaz ) µC/m2 is defined in a

z-axis as shown in figure below. region with charge-free and perfect dielectric

z (A) −3 µC/m3 (B) 3 µC/m3

(C) −2 µC/m 3

(D) 2 µC/m3

∧ ∧

17. E = (Kx − 100t) ay V/m and H = (x + 20t)az A/m in a

region rv = 0, σ = 0, and µ = 0.25 H/m

45° (A) −5 V/m2 (B) +5 V/M2

πA p

y 1 1

(C) − V/m2 (D) V/m2

5 5

45° 18. The electric flux and field intensity inside a conducting

sphere is

x

(A) zero (B) uniform

The H at P(1, 1, 1) is (C) maximum (D) minimum

19. A point charge of Q Coulombs is located at the origin.

1 −1 Find expression for the electric field at any point in the

(A) ax A m (B) ax A m

2 2 free space in spherical coordinates.

1 1 Q ∧ Q ∧

(C) ( ax + a y ) A m (D) ( ax − a y ) A m E=

(A) E=

a (B)

2 r

a

2 j

2 2 4p ∈ r 4p ∈ r

12. In the field of a charge Q at the origin, the potentials Q ∧ Q ∧

E=

(C) E=

a (D) ( − ar )

( )

at A (4, 0, 0) and B 1 , 0, 0 are VA = 15 v, VB = 60 v,

2

4p ∈ r 2 q

4p ∈ r 2

respectively. Then, potential at C (2, 0, 0) is 20. Two infinitely parallel conductors are separated by

(A) 35 V (B) 45 V (C) 30 V (D) 40 V a distance 2r and they carry equal and identical cur-

13. Find the work done in moving a 5 µc charge from ori- rents, as shown in the figure. Find the magnitude of

gin to P(2, −1, 4)m via the straight line path x = −2y, magnetic field strength midway between these two

z = 2x through the field fields.

∧ ∧ ∧ I I

E = (yax + xay + xyaz )V/m.

(A) 22.2 µJ (B) 111.2 µJ r

(C) 22.2 mJ (D) 111.2 mJ r

∧ ∧ ∧

14. Given A = yz a x + xya y + xza z, ∇×A at the point 2r

P(0, 1, 2) is

(A) 0 (B) 2 H = 0

(A) (B) H = ∞

(C) 3 (D)

5 H = undefined

(C) (D) H = 1

Chapter 1 • Elements of Vector Calculus and Static Fields | 3.631

Practice Problems 2 The field due to each charge at point p in free space is

Directions for questions 1 to 15: Select the correct alterna- ax + 2ay – 3az, ax + 3ay, and ax – 3ay + 3az. Then, total

tive from the given choices. field at P is due to all charges is

1. Which of the following is not the property of static (A) (ax + 2ay) N /C

magnetic fields?

(A) It is solenoid (B) (ax − 2ay) N /C

(B) It is conservative

(C) (ax + 2ay+ 3a2) N /C

(C) It has no sinks or sources

(D) Magnetic flux lines are always closed (D) (ax + 2ay + 3a2) N /C

2. Interface of two regions of two magnetic materials

is current free. Region 1 for which relative perme- 8. Two dielectric media with permittivity 2 and 2 are

ability mr1 = 2 is defined by z < 0 and region 2. z > 0 separated by a charge-free boundary, as shown in the

has mr2 = 1 figure. The E 1 in medium 1 at point P1 has magnitude

E1 and makes an angle α1 = 30° with normal. The direc-

If B 1 = 6ax + 0.4ay + 0.2az T, then H 2 ( A /m) = tion of E 2 at point P2 is α2=

1 1

2 sin −1

(A) sin −1

(B)

(A) [3ax + 0.2ay + 0.2az ] 6 3

mo

1

1 tan −1

(C) (D) 45°

(B) [6ax + 0.4ay + 0.2az ] 6

mo

9. V = 4x + 2 v, then the electric field is

1

(C) [3ax + 0.2ay + 0.2az ] 4ax V /m (B)

(A) 2ax V /m

mo

−2ax V /m

−4ax V /m (D)

(C)

2

(D) [6ax + 0.4ay + 0.1az ]

mo 10. Current element is represented by 4 × 103 ay A/m and

3. A conductor carrying a current I with a constant cur- 10 −3

rent density across its cross section, the magnetic field it is placed in a magnetic field H = ax A/m. Then,

2m

strength H at any distance (r < R) from the centre of the

the force acting on the element is

conductor (radius R) is given by (r < R)

(A) 2az N (B) −2az N

Ir Ir 4

H=

(A) H=

(B) (C) 0 N (D) N

2p R 2p R2 2m

11. Two infinite long wires carrying current are placed

Ir Ir

H=

(C) H=

3 (D)

along z-axis and along a line parallel to z-axis, as shown

2p R 2p R 4 in the figure.

4. If V = coshx cosky.e2pz is a solution of Laplace equation,

z

then what is the value of K?

p2 +1

(A) 4 + p 2 (B)

4

(C) 1+ 4p2 (D) 0 P Q

y

5. If the magnetic flux density due to an infinite long wire

wb x

at 1 m distance is B = 2 m 2 aφ , then current =

m

(A) 1 A (B) 100 A (C) 1,000 A (D) 10 A

Find the component in the magnetic field H at Q on

6. For any closed surface s, encloses a volume V. Then

y-axis.

∫∫ (∇ × F ).nds =

s

(A) x and y components

(B) Only y components

(A) 0 (B) S (C) V (D) 3 V

(C) Only x components

7. There are three charges that are given by Q1 = 1 µc, (D) x and z components

Q2 = 4 µc, and Q3 = 8 µc

3.632 | Part III • Unit 8 • Electromagnetics

12. Two infinite plane sheets carry equal charge densities of (C) x

2 × 10 −9 C /m 2 and placed at x = 0 and x = 2 planes shown

in the figure. The electric displacement at the point

P(3, 0, 0) is shown in the following figure.

24 C /m 2 ax

(A) y

−24 C /m 2 ax

(B)

(C) 0

z

4 nC /m 2 ax

(D)

(D) x

13. Which of the following system does not form the right-

handed coordinate system?

x z

(A)

y

z

14. The line integral of the vector potential A around the

boundary of a surface s represents

y

(A) scalar potential of the surface

z (B) flux density in the surface

(B)

(C) flux through the surface

(D) current density

15. A metal sphere with 1 m radius and a surface charge

10

density of coulomb/m 2 is enclosed in a cube of 10 m

p

y side. The total outward electric displacement normal to

the surface of the cube is

(A) 0.4 C/m 2 (B) 4 C/m 2

x

40 C/m 2 (D)

(C) 400 C/m 2

Previous Years’ Questions An infinitely long uniform solid wire of radius a carries a

uniform DC current of density j

1. For static electric and magnetic fields in an inhomoge-

neous source-free medium, which of the following rep- 3. The magnetic field at a distance r from the centre of the

resents the correct form of two of Maxwell’s equations? wire is proportional to [2012]

[2008] (A) r for r < a and 1/r2 for r > a

(A) ∇. E = 0 (B) ∇. E = 0 (B) 0 for r < a and 1/r for r > a

∇× B = 0 ∇. B = 0 (C) r for r < a and 1/r for r > a

(C) ∇× E = 0 (D) ∇× E = 0 (D) 0 for r < a and 1/r2 for r > a

∇× B = 0 ∇. B = 0 4. A hole of radius b(b < a) is now drilled along the length

2. Consider a closed surface S surrounding a volume V. If of the wire at a distance d from the centre of the wire,

as shown in the following figure.

r is the position vector of a point inside S, with n̂the

s

b

d

[2011]

(A) 3 V (B) 5 V (C) 10 V (D) 15 V

a

Statement for Linked Answer Questions 3 and 4:

Chapter 1 • Elements of Vector Calculus and Static Fields | 3.633

The magnetic field inside the hole is [2012] 11. Consider a straight, infinitely long, current carrying

(A) uniform and depends only on d conductor lying on the z-axis. Which one of the follow-

(B) uniform and depends only on b ing plots (in linear scale) qualitatively represents the

(C) uniform and depends on both b and d dependence of HF on r, where HF is the magnitude of

(D) non-uniform the azimuthal component of magnetic field outside the

5. The divergence of the vector field conductor and r is the radial distance from the conduc-

tor? [2015]

A = x ax + y ay + z az is [2013]

HΦ

(A) 0 (B) 1/3 (C) 1 (D) 3 (A)

6. The force on a point charge +q kept at a distance d

from the surface of an infinite grounded metal plate in

a medium of permittivity ∈ is [2014]

(A) 0 r

2 HΦ

q

(B) away from the plate (B)

16p ∈d 2

q2

(C) towards the plate

16p ∈d 2 r

HΦ

q2 (C)

(D) towards the plate

4p ∈d 2

, where a , a denote unit vectors along x and y direc-

x y

r

tions, respectively. The magnitude of curl of A is _____ (D) HΦ

[2014]

8. The electric field (assumed to be one-dimensional)

between two points A and B is shown. Let ΨA and ΨB

be the electrostatic potentials at A and B, respectively. r

The value of ΨB – ΨA in volts is _____ [2014]

12. In a source-free region in vacuum, if the electrostatic

potential f = 2x2 + y2 + cz2, the value of constant c must

be _______. [2015]

13. Concentric spherical shells of radii 2m, 3m and 8m

40 kV/cm carry uniform surface charge densities of 20nC/m2,

–4nC/m2 and ρs, respectively. The value of r (nC/m2)

20 kV/cm

required to ensure that the electric flux density D = 0

0 kV/cm at radius 10 m is __________ . [2016]

A B

5 µm 14. The current density in a medium is given

400 sin θ

by J = âr Am-2.

9. Given F = z ax + x ay + y az If S represents the portion (

2π r 2 + 4) )

The total current and the average current density flow-

of the sphere x2 + y2 + z2 = 1 for z ≥ 0, then ∫ ∇ × F.ds is

ing through the portion of a spherical surface r = 0.8 m,

s

__________ [2014] π π

≤ q ≤ , 0 ≤ f ≤ 2p are given respectively, by[2016]

→ ∧ ∧ ∧

12 4

10. If E = −( 2y 3 − 3yz 2 ) x − (6xy 2 − 3xz 2 ) y + (6 xyz ) z is

(A) 15.09A, 12.86Am-2

the electric field in a source-free region, a valid expres- (B) 8.73A, 13.65Am-2

sion for the electrostatic potential is [2014] (C) 12.86 A, 9.23Am-2

(A) xy3 – yz2 (B) 2xy3 – xyz2 (D) 10.28A, 7.56Am-2

(C) y3 + xyz2 (D) 2xy3 – 3xyz2

3.634 | Part III • Unit 8 • Electromagnetics

15. A uniform and constant magnetic field B = ẐB exists The charge is at rest at t = 0, when a voltage +V is applied

to the plate at -d and voltage -V is applied to the plate at

in the Ẑ direction in vacuum. A particle of mass m x = +d. Assume that the quantity of the charge q is

with a small charge q is introduced in to this region small enough that it does not perturb the field set up

ˆ x + ZV

ˆ z . Given that B, by the metal plates. The time that the charge q takes to

with an initial velocity V = XV

reach the right plate is proportional to: [2016]

m, q, vx and vz are all non zero, which one of the fol- d d

(A) (B)

lowing describes the eventual trajectory of the particle? V V

[2016] d d

(C) (D)

∧

(A) Helical motion in the Z - direction V V

(B) Circular motion in the xy plane

∧ 18. Consider the charge profile shown in the figure. The

(C) Linear motion in the Z - direction resultant potential distribution is best described by

∧ [2016]

(D) Linear motion in the X - direction

16. The parallel plate capacitor shown in the figure has p(x)

movable plates. The capacitor is charged so that the

energy stored in it is E when the plate separation is d.

the capacitor is then isolated electrically and the plates p1

are moved such that the plate separation becomes 2d.

d

b 0

a

x

p2

in the capacitor, neglecting fringing effects? [2016]

E (A) (B)

(A) 2E (B) 2 E (C) E (D) V(x)

2 V(x)

17. A positive charge q is placed at x = 0 between two infi-

nite metal plates placed at x = -d and at x = + d respec-

tively. The metal plates lie in the yz plane. b 0 b 0

a x a x

(C) (D)

+q V(x)

at x=-d

V(x)

at x=+d

x=0

b 0

b 0 a x

a x

Chapter 1 • Elements of Vector Calculus and Static Fields | 3.635

Hints/Solutions

Practice Problems 1 5. Electric field lines are always normal to the equipoten-

tial surface. Hence, the correct option is (D).

1. Applying the surface integral for the given expression

( )

∫∫ V .ds = ∫∫ ∇ × A .ds . Applying Stokes’ theorem to

sc sc

6. In an electrostatic field, the work done in moving a

closed path is zero.

∴ ∫ E .dl = 0

above ∫∫ (∇ × A ) ds = ∫ A .d

sc c

According to Stokes’ theorem, ∇ × E = 0

Hence, the correct option is (B).

∫ A dl = ∫∫ V ds

∴

c sc

7. Boundary conditions are:

Hence, the correct option is (B). Et1 = Et2

2. According to divergence theorem, Dn1 = Dn2

Since x = 0 is a boundary and y and z components are

∫∫∫ ∇.ndv = ∫∫ n.nds = ∫∫ ds = s

v s s

tangential components, they remain same.

Hence, the correct option is (B). ∴ E 2 = E n 2 ax − 5ay + az V /m

Dn1 = Dn2

3. +q

∈1 En1 = ∈2 En2

+ −+ + + p Gaussian

+ − −

− − q −r − + surface

En2 = 3 ∈o × En1

+ − − +

− −

+ −− − + 5 ∈o

−

− − Conducting

+− q − + sphere 3

−

+ −

+ − = ×1

− − + 5

+ −− −

− + En2 = 0.6

+ −−−−−−−+

+ + + ∴ E .2 = 0.6ax − 5ay + az V /m

Hence, the correct option is (B).

9. Flux y = ∫ B .ds

Applying gauss law, ∫ D.ds = Q enclosed

s

B = ∇×A

D( 4p r ) = + q − q + q = q.

2

ar rAφ a2

q 1 ∂ ∂ ∂

D r = 4p r 2 =

r ∂r ∂φ ∂z

q Ar Aφ Az

E = ar

4p ∈ r 2

Due to only point charge ar raφ az

q 1 ∂ ∂ ∂

E = ar =

4p ∈o r 2 r ∂r ∂φ ∂z

Therefore, E remains unchanged at p (external point). −r2

0 0

4

E = 10 µV /m

−∂ − r 2

Hence, the correct option is (B). B = a r (0 − 0) + r .aφ − 0 + az ( 0 − 0 )

∂r ∂r4

rS 1800 × 10 −9

4. E = = r

5 4

2 ∈O p × 2 ∈O B = aφ , y = ∫ ∫ B .ds

2 z =0 p =2

1800 × 10 −9

= 5 4

11

p ×2×

10 −9 y = ∫ ∫ 2

rd rd z

36p z =0 r =2

4

= 32,400 = 32.4 K V 1 r2

m = 5

[z ]0

Hence, the correct option is (C). 2 2 2

3.636 | Part III • Unit 8 • Electromagnetics

Ψ = 3 × 5 B

A

Hence, the correct option is (C).

Hence, the correct option is (B).

10. According to Gauss law,

∇.D = rv ax ay az

∂ ∂ ∂

∂ ∂ ∂ 14. ∇ × A P(0, 1, 2) = = 2

∴rv = Dx + Dy + Dz ∂x ∂y ∂z

∂x ∂y ∂z

= 0 + 4x + 0 Ax Ay Az

rv = −4 C /m3 Hence, the correct option is (B).

Hence, the correct option is (C). 2 1

11. α2 = 45°; α1 = 135° 15. y = ∫ ∫ 12y z 3 dy dz = 8 nC

2

I y =0 z =0

H = (cos a 2 − cos a 1 )aφ Hence, the correct option is (D).

2p r

16. rv = 0; σ = 0

p 1 1 ∴∇·D = 0

= + aφ

2p 1 2 2 K = −3 µc/m3

1 Hence, the correct option is (A).

H = aφ

2

−∂B ∂H

17. ∇ × E = = −µ

Since, f = 90°, af = −ax ∂t ∂t

−1 ∧

H= ax = −µ 20 az

2

⇒ ∴K = −5V/m2

Hence, the correct option is (B).

Hence, the correct option is (A).

12. Since the field is uniform, E = –∇V volt due to charge

18. Inside a conductor E = 0

Q at origin is

Hence, the correct option is (A).

Q k Q

V = = k =

4p ∈ r r 4p ∈ Q ∧

o o

19. E = a

2 r

K 4p ∈ r

VA = = 15V

4 H = 0

VA = 60 V

Hence, the correct option is (A).

K

VB = = 2k = 60V 20. At midpoint, two currents are added in and out of

1

2 phase.

K H = 0

VC = = 30V

2 Hence, the correct option is (A).

Hence, the correct option is (C).

z

Practice Problems 2 2.

1. Divergence of magnetic flux density is zero (solenoidal

properties). Z>0

- ∇ × B ≠ 0 (is non-conservative) m r2 = 1

2

- Unique magnetic charge does not exist. Therefore,

it always form a closed loop. y

mr1 = 2 Z<0

Hence, the correct option is (B). 1

Chapter 1 • Elements of Vector Calculus and Static Fields | 3.637

k = 1 + 4 r

2

B1

∴H1 =

m Hence, the correct option is (C).

B1 5. H due to infinite long wire.

=

mo m r1

I B

1 H = aφ =

∴H1 =

(6ax + 0.4ay + 0.2az) 2p r mo

2mo

According to boundary conditions, I 2m

∴ = ( r = 1m)

Ht1 = Ht2, Bn1 = Bn2 2p r mo

∴ Hx and Hy remain same in H 2 .

6a 0.4 2p × 1 × 2 × 10 −6

H2 = x + ay + H n 2 az I= =10 A

2 mo 2 mo 4p × 10 −7

But, Bn1 = Bn2 Hence, the correct option is (D).

µ1 Hn1 = µ2 Hn2 6. According to divergence theorem,

0.2 = µo1 × Hn2

Hn2 =

0.2 ∫∫ ∇ × F.nds = ∫∫∫ ∇(∇ × F )dv = 0

s V

mo

(divergence of curl of F = 0)

1

∴H 2 =

[3ax + 0.2ay + 0.2az ] Hence, the correct option is (A).

mo

7. According to superposition theorem,

Hence, the correct option is (C).

3. E T = E 1mC + E 4 mc + E mc

R

E T = ax + 2ay

8. Et1 = Et2 (Boundary conditions)

Dn1 = Dn2

According to Ampere’s law,

E1

∫ H .dl = I enc 30°

e r1 = 2

I

I enc1 = × p r2

p R2

I

∫ H .dl = H (2p r ) = p R 2 × p r

2

E2 α2

εr1 = 2

I .r

H = 2p R 2

∴ E1 sin 30° = E2 sin a 2

Hence, the correct option is (B). E1

4. ∇2V = 0 (Laplace equation) sin a 2 = sin 30°

E2

∂ 2V ∂ 2V ∂ 2V

∴

+ + =0 Dn1 = Dn2

∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2

Coshx cosky.e2pz (1− K2 + 4p2) = 0 E1e1 cos 30 = E 2e 2 cos a 2

3.638 | Part III • Unit 8 • Electromagnetics

E cosa 2 1 x

12.

1 = × P(3, 0, 0)

E2 3 2

2 (2, 0, 0)

E 2

1 = cosa 2 ×

E2 3

rs

z

sinα2 = cosα2 2 1

.

3 2 rs x = 0

1 y

tan α2 =

6 D due to a sheet at ‘p’ is

rs r

1 D 1 = ax , D 2 = s ax

α2 = tan −1 2 2

6

D = D1 + D 2

Hence, the correct option is (C). = rs ax

nC

9. E = −∇V D =2 .ax

m2

∂ Hence, the correct option is (A).

= − ( 4 x + 2)ax + 0.a y + 0 az V

∂x m 1 3. According to the right-hand thumb rule, ‘c’ will not

form the right handed co-ordinate system.

E = −4 ax V Hence, the correct option is (C).

m

Hence, the correct option is (C). 14. ∫ A .dl = ∫ B .ds

C s

(

10. F = I dl × B B = m H ) ∴Flux through the surface ‘s’.

Hence, the correct option is (C).

10 −3 15. According to Gauss law,

= 4 × 103 × (ay × ax ) m

2m D ∫ .ds = Q encl

=−2az Newton Q enclosed = 4πr2 × ρs

10

Hence, the correct option is (B). = 4π × 1×

p

11. Since the point lies on y-axis, aφ = −ax = 40 Coulomb

Therefore, H contains only aφ components due to both 40

D = = 0.4 C / m 2

wires. H contains only x components. Hence, the cor- 100

rect option is (C). Hence, the correct option is (A).

∂ ∂ ∂

1. Maxwell equations for static electric and magnetic = i + j + k .( xi + yj + zk )

fields are given as: ∂x ∂y ∂z

=3

∇ × H = Jc 3

∇·D = ρn v v

= 15 V

∇·B = 0

Hence, the correct option is (D).

Hence, the correct option is (D).

3. Magnetic field inside the conductor is proportional to r

2. By Gauss theorem, 1

and outside the conductor, it is proportional to .

5∫ r .n ds = 5∫ div r dv r

v Hence, the correct option is (C).

Chapter 1 • Elements of Vector Calculus and Static Fields | 3.639

depends on both the radii of conductor and hole.

Hence, the correct option is (C).

9. By using Stokes’ theorem, ∫ ∇ × F.ds =

∫ F.dr

5. A = x ax + y ay + z az c

∂ ∂ ∂ x2 + y2 = 1, z = 0

Div A = ( x) + ( y) + ( z )

∂x ∂y ∂z ⇒ x = cos θ, y = sin θ, and ∈(0, 2 π)

= 1 + 1 + 1 = 3

Hence, the correct option is (D).

∫ zdx + xdy + ydz = ∫ xdy

Q2 p

2p

6. F = = ∫ cos 2 θdθ = = p = 3.14

4p ∈0 ( 2d ) 2 2

0

Q2

= towards grounded metal plate. 10. E = -∇V

16p ∈0 d 2

+Q V =− ∫ E .d

d From the option (D), we get

∂ ∂

∂x ( 2 xy − 3 xyz ) + ∂y ( 2 xy − 3 xyz ) +

3 2 3 2

d

E=−

−Q ∂

∂z ( 2 xy − 3 xyz )

2 2

Image

∧ ∧ ∧

Hence, the correct option is (C). = − ( 2 y 3 − 3 yz 2 ) ax + (6 xy 2 − 3 xz 2 ) a y − 6 xyz az

ax ay az

Hence, the correct option is (D).

∂ ∂ ∂

7. ∇ × A =

∂x ∂y ∂z 11. Given that conductor is lying on z-axis

cos x sin y sin x cos y 0 → →

l dl × r

⇒ + az [-cosxcosy + cosxcosy] = 0 ⇒ |∇ × A| = 0 HΦ = ∫ →3

8. From the two points given in the question, write the

L

4p r

equation as

1

HΦ a

r2

40 kV/cm HΦ

20 kV/cm

−4

(0, 20 kV/cm) 5 × 10 cm (5 × 10−4, 40 kV/cm)

40 − 20 r

E − 20 = ( X − 0)

5 × 10 −4

Hence, the correct option is (C).

⇒ E = (4 × 104 x + 20) × 103 12. In source free region ∇.E = 0

B Where E = −∇.f

V AB = − ∫ E.dx

∂ ∂

A 2

( 2 2

)2 2 2

(

∂ x 2x + y + cz aˆ x + ∂ y 2x + y + cz aˆ y + )

5 ×10 −4

E = −

=− ∫ ( 4 × 10 4 X + 20)dx ∂

(

∂ z 2x + y + cz aˆ z

2 2 2

)

0

x2 −4 E = − 4 xaˆ x + 2 yaˆ y + 2czaˆ z

= −103 4 × 10 4 + 20 x I 50×10

2

3.640 | Part III • Unit 8 • Electromagnetics

Source free region ∇. E = 0 At a fixed point in the z direction the, the particle moves

⇒ –[4 + 2 + 2c] = 0 in the x - y plane. Choice (A)

2c = −6 16.

c = −3

1

E= CV 2

Hence, the correct answer is –3.1 to –2.9. 2

13. The electric flux density D = 0 at r = 10m when the 1 Q2

E=

total charge enclosed by the sphere of radius 10m, is 2 C

equal to zero, i.e. 20 × 10-9 × 16p - 4 × 10-9 × 64p + ρs, Q = constant

× 256p = 0 ⇒ ρs, = – 0.25nC/m2 1

E α (1)

[Answer: – 0.25nC/m2] C

εA

400 sin θ C=

14. J = â r Am −2 d

2π ( r 2 + 4) ε, A are constant

Total current flowing through the given spherical sur- 1

Cα (2)

face, d

I = ∫∫ J ds From (1) and (2)

s Ead

E1 d

2π π/ 4

400 sin θ = 1

= ∫ ∫

Q =0 θ= π / 2

2 π ( r 2

+ 4 )

a r r 2 sin θdθdφ a r E2 d 2

E d

r = 0.8 =

E 2 2d

= 15.09 A

E2 = 2E Choice (A)

Average current density through the surface,

17. Charge transit time

I 15.09

J av = = d

t=

∫∫ ds

2π π4

∫ ∫ r sin θdθdφ

2

s

V

Q =0 θ= π 2

Where the velocity

= 12.86 A/m2 Choice (A) Vα V

15. As per the right hand thumb rule, the motion of the

∴ t α d Choice (C)

particle is in helical trajectory in the z direction when V

the field is directed in the ‘z’ direction.

18. Choice (D)

Chapter 2 Maxwell Equations and

Em-Wave Propagation

Exercises

Practice Problems 1

Directions for questions 1 to 24: Select the correct alterna- (C) Z direction

tive from the given choices. (D) At angle depends on ‘c’ in the XY plane

1. A varying magnetic flux linking a coil is given by f = 9. The intrinsic impedance of Cu of 27 GHz m0 = 4 p ×

1 3 10-7 H/m

lt . If at time t = 2 sec the emf induced is 4 v, then the

3 10 −9

value of l is ∈= , s = 5.8 × 107 /m will be

36 p

(A) Zero (B) 1 wb/s2 jp jp

(C) -1 wb/s2 (D) 4 wb/s2 (A) 0.03e 4 (B) 0.036 e 2

2. A parallel plate air-filled capacitor has plate area of 10-4 m2 jp jp

and a plate separation of 10-2m. It is connected to a 1 v, 3.6 (C) 0.06e 2 (D) 0.06e 4

GHz source. Then the magnitude of displacement current is 10. If E = (ay + jaz) ejkx-wt,

(A) 20 mA (B) 200 mA

(C) 20 A (D) 2 A k

H= ( az + ja y )ejkx-wt ,

3. A material has conductivity of 10-4 and a relative per- wm

mittivity of 4. The frequency at which the conduction then the time averaged poynting vector is

and displacement currents are equal k

(A) 0.45 MHz (B) 1.35 MHz (A) Null vector (B) ax

wm

(C) 0.9 MHz (D) 1 GHz

2k k

4. In free space, H = 0.1 cos (3 × 106t - bz) ax A/m. The (C) ax (D) ax

wm 2wm

expression for E(z, t) is 11. When a plane wave travelling in free space is incident

(A) 37.7 cos (3 × 106t - bz) az normally on a medium having er = 9, then the fraction

(B) -37.7 cos(3 × 106 t - bz)ay of power transmitted into the medium is given by

(C) 37.7 cos(3 ×106 t - bz)ay 1 1

(A) (B)

(D) 75.4 cos(3 × 106 t - bz)az 4 9

8 3

5. The electric field of wave propagating through a loss (C) (D)

less medium (m0, 4 ∈0) is E= 10 cos(9 p × 108 t - bx) ay. 9 4

Then, the phase constant b of the wave is 12. The instantaneous electric field of a plane wave propa-

(A) 18 p rad/m (B) 6 p rad/m gating in z direction is

p E (t ) = [ax E1 cos wt - ay E2 sin wt] e-jkz

(C) 3 p rad/m (D) rad/m

3 Then, the wave is

6. A wave propagating through a medium [er = 8, mr = 2 (A) Linearly polarized

(B) Elliptically polarized

and s = 0] has its electric field given by E= 5 sin(106

(C) Right circularly polarized

t - b z) v/m. The wave impedance in ohms is

(D) Left circularly polarized

(A) 120 p (B) 30 p

(C) 60 p (D) 180 13. A plane EM wave with magnetic field intensity

H i = cos (108 t - bz) ax mA/m travels in air for z ≤ 0 and

7. The electric and magnetic fields for a TEM wave of

is incident normally on a loss less non-magnetic medium

frequency 14 GHz in a homogeneous medium of rela-

of relative permittivity 4 which occupy the region

tive permittivity ∈r and relative permeability mr = 1 are

z ≥ 0. Which one of the following is the expression for

given byE= EP e j(wt - 560p y)

az v/m H = 3 e j(wt - 560p y)

ax v/m

the reflected electric field in (mv/m) h0 = 120 p W

Assuming velocity of light in free space = 3 × 108 m/s,

(A) E r = - 40 p cos(108 t - 3z) ax

h0 = 120 p, then er and Ep are

z

(A) 0.6, 120 p (B) 0.6, 600 p (B) E r = - 40 p cos(108 t + ) ax

(C) 0.36, 600 p (D) 0.36, 120 p 3

2 (C) E r = - 80 p cos(108 t - 3z) ax

d Ey dE y

8. A plane EM wave satisfying the equation = c2 2 z

2 dz 2

(D)

dt E r = 80 p cos(108 t + ) ax

d Ey dE y 3

2

= c 2 2 , then the wave propagates in the 14. A plane wave from free space with E = 100 ej(0.866y+0.5z)

dz dt ax v/m is incident on a dielectric medium s = 0 ∈ = 4 e0,

(A) X direction

m = m0 and occupying z ≥ 0 then Brewster angle

(B) Y direction

3.642 | Part III • Unit 8 • Electromagnetics

(C) 27.57° (D) 63.43° (B) The wave length l = 94.2 m.

15. A plane wave of wavelength l is travelling in a direc- (C) The wave number K = 0.33 rad/m

tion making an angle 45° with positive x axis and 90° (D) The wave attenuates as it travels.

∧

with positive y axis. Then, the Efield of plane wave can 20. A current sheet of K = 6.5 az A/m at x = 0 separates

be represented as (E0 - constant) ∧

region1 x < 0 where H1 = 10 a y A/m and region2 is char-

2p 2p

j wt − x. − . z

(A)

ay E0 e l l acterized by x > 0 if mr1 = 3 and mr2 = 4 Find H 2

∧ ∧

2p

j wt −

2p

x. + . z (A) 16.5 a y A/m (B) 16.5 (− a y ) A/m

l l

(B)

ay E0 e ∧ ∧

2p 2p

(C) 3.5 a y A/m (D) 3.5 (− a y ) A/m

j wt + x. − . z

(C)

ay E0 e l l 21. A plane slab of dielectric having dielectric constant 5,

placed normal to a uniform field with a flux density of

2p 2p

j wt +

l

x. +

l

. z

2 C/m2, is uniformly polarized. The polarization of the

(D) ay E0 e slab is

16. In a certain region, the current density is expressed as (A) 0.4 C/m2 (B) 1.6 C/m2

Jc = −105 ∇ V A/m2 where V = 10e−x siny volts. Find (C) 2.0 C/m

2

(D) 6.4 C/m2

s=?

22. A plane wave of 10 GHz is incident normally on a

(A) 105 /m (B) 10−5 /m dielectric plate of 3 mm thickness. If the phase shift on

(C) −10 /m

5

(D) −10−5 /m transmission through the sheet is 90°, then the dielectric

constant is

Common Data for Questions 17 and 18:

(A) 5.0 (B) 3.25 (C) 4.5 (D) 6.25

The magnetic field intensity of a uniform plane wave in air

∧ 23. Find the displacement current density with a parallel

is 20A/m in the a y direction. The wave is propagating in the

∧ plate capacitor where e0 = 10e, where A = 0.01 m2, d =

az direction at an angular frequency of 2 × 109 rad/s. 5 cm, and V = 100 sin 314t V

17. Find wave length. (A) Id = 5.25 × 10–3 cos (314t)

(A) 0.942 m (B) 1.8 m (B) Id = cos (314t)

(C) 1.942 m (D) 0.45 m (C) Id = 5.55 cos (314t)

(D) Id = 5.55 × 106 cos (314t)

18. What is the frequency

(A) 318 MHZ (B) 3.18 MHZ 24. Find the skin depth at a frequency of 2MHz is allowed

(C) 31.8 MHZ (D) 0.318 MHZ when s = 38.2 s/m and mr = 1

(A) d = 5.758 × 10 – 6 m

19. The electric field component of a wave in free space is

(B) d = 5.758 × 10– 5 m

given by E = 10

(C) d=0

cos(107t + kz)ay V/m. It implies that

(D) d = 5.758 m

Practice Problems 2

Directions for questions 1 to 21: Select the correct alterna- 3. In a good conductor, the intrinsic impedance is

tive from the given choices. (A) Real

1. The E field of a uniform plane wave propagating in a (B) Imaginary

dielectric medium is given by E(t, z) = 2 cos(108 t - (C) Have both real and imaginary with phase angle 45°

z z (D) Null

) ax - 2 sin(108 t - ) ay. 4. A TEM wave impinges obliquely on a dielectric bound-

2 2

ary with ∈g1 = 2, ∈g2 = 1. The angle of incident of total

Then, the dielectric constant of the medium is reflection is

(A) 1.25 (B) 2.25 (C) 3.25 (D) 1.717 (A) 30° (B) 60° (C) 45° (D) 90°

2. The depth of penetration of EM wave in a medium 5. For an elliptically polarized wave incident on the sur-

having conductivity s at a frequency of 2 MHz is face of the interface of a dielectric at the Brewster

5 cm. Then, the depth of penetration at a frequency of angle, the reflected wave will be

32 MHz is (A) Elliptically polarized

(A) 0.25 cm (B) 4 cm (B) Linearly polarized

(C) 2 cm (D) 1.25 cm (C) Right circularly polarized

(D) Left circular polarized

Chapter 2 • Maxwell Equations and Em-Wave Propagation | 3.643

6. If H = 0.1 sin(106 p t + by) ax A/m for a plane wave 13. A plane wave propagating in air with E= (8 ax + 6 ay - 3

propagating in free space. Then the time average poynt-

az) ej(wt+3x-4y) v/m is incident on a perfectly conducting slab

ing vector is

(A) 0.6 p sin2(by) ay w/m2 positioned at x ≤ 0. The Eof the reflected wave is

(B) -0.6 p ay w/m2 (A) (-8ax -6ay -az) ej(wt+3x-4y) V/m

(C) 1.2 p ax /m2 (B) (-8ax +6ay -0.75 az) ej(wt+3x-4y) V/m

(D) -1.2 p ax w/m2 8a 3

(C) ( x + ay - 3 az) ej(wt-3x-4y) V/m

7. Which one of the following is not correct for a plane 3 2

wave with (D) (-8ax -6ay + 3az) ej(wt-3x-4y) V/m

H = 0.5 e-0.1x cos(108t - 3x) ay A/m 14. The electric field component of time harmonic plane

(A) Wave frequency is 108 r. p. s EM wave travelling in a non-magnetic loss less dielec-

(B) Phase constant is 3 rad/m tric medium has an amplitude of 1 V/m. If the relative

(C) Wave travels along +ve x direction permittivity of the medium is 4, the magnitude of the

(D) The wave is polarized in the z direction time average power density vector (in w/m2) is

1 1

8. If the Efield of a plane polarized EM wave travelling in (A) (B)

30p 60p

the z - direction is E= ax Ex + ay Ey, then its H field is

1 1

−Ey Ey (C) (D)

E E 120p 240p

(A) ax + x a y (B) ax + x a y

h0 h0 h0 h0 15. If electric field is given by

Ey Ey E= 2 cos(wt + bz) ax V/m then the wave travels in

E Ex

(C) x ax + a y (D) ax − ay (A) -ve y direction (B) +ve y direction

h0 h0 h0 h0 (C) -ve z direction (D) -ve x direction

9. Which one of the following statement is wrong about 16. The unit of ∇ × H is

the EM wave (A) Ampere (B) Ampere/meter

(A) Electric field is perpendicular to the direction of (C) Ampere/meter2 (D) Ampere - meter

propagation 17. The time-varying field is given by

(B) Magnetic field is perpendicular to the direction of ≈ ∧ ∧

(C) Transverse components only are absent positive real constants, the wave is said to be

(D) Poynting vector is along the direction of propaga- (A) Linearly polarized

tion (B) Circularly polarized

(C) Elliptically Polarized

10. According to poynting theorem, the vector product (D) Not polarized at all.

E × H is a measure of which of the following?

18. In a uniform plane wave, E and H are related by

(A) Stored energy density of electric field

E E ∈

(B) Stored energy density of magnetic field (A) = 1 (B) =

(C) Power dissipated per unit volume H H m

(D) Rate of energy flow per unit area E m E m

(C) = (D) =

11. An EM wave having frequency of gets attenuated by H ∈ H ∈

a factor of e-2 after propagation a distance d in a good 19. Maxwell’s equation in free space is

conductor. If the signal frequency is now reduced to (A) ∇.B = 0 (B) ∇.B = r

0.25 fo after travelling the same distance d in the same (C) ∇.B = J (D) ∇.B = sJ

conductor. The signal attenuated by a factor of 20. Identify the wave equation for free space conditions

(A) e-4 (B) e −2 2 (C) e− 2 (D) e-1 and charge free

12. The electric field of uniform plane wave in free space, ∂2 E ∂2 H

along the positive z direction, is given by E= 10(ax - ∇2E = m∈

(A) (B) ∇2E = m∈

∂t 2 ∂t 2

j ay) e-j 6.28z

∂2 E

The frequency and polarization of the wave is (C) ∇2E = ∇2H (D) ∇2H = m∈ 2

(A) 3 GHz, left circular ∂t

(B) 0.3 GHz, right circular 21. In a lossless medium the intrinsic impedance h = 60p

(C) 3 GHz, right circular and mr = 1. What is the value of the dielectric constant ∈r?

(D) 0.3 GHz, left circular (A) 2 (B) 1

(C) 4 (D) 8

3.644 | Part III • Unit 8 • Electromagnetics

( )

1. If E = aˆ x + jaˆ y e − jkz − jwt v/m and (A)

8

9

(B)

1

2

K

H =

wm

( )

aˆ y + jaˆ x e jkz − jwt A/m, time average point- 1

(C) (D)

5

ing vector is [2004] 3 6

K

(A) Null vector (B) ˆ

a 6. If C is a closed curve enclosing a surface S, then the

wm

z

magnetic field intensity H , the current density J and

2K K

the electric flux density Dare related by [2007]

(C) wm aˆ z (D) 2wm aˆ z

2. Refractive index of glass is 1.5. Find the wave length ∂D

(A) ∫∫ H . ds = ∫ J + ∂t . dl

of a beam of light with a frequency of 1014 Hz in glass. S c

Assume velocity of light is 3 × 108m/s in vacuum.

∂D

[2005]

(A) 3 mm (B) 3 mm

(B) ∫c H . dl =

∫∫s J + ∂t .ds

(C) 2 mm (D) 1 mm

∂D

3. The electric field of an electromagnetic wave propagat- (C) ∫∫s H . ds = ∫c J + ∂t . dl

ing in the positive Z – direction is given by

p ∂D

E = aˆ x sin (wt − bz ) + aˆ y sin wt − bz + V/m. (D) ∫c H . dl = ∫∫s J + ∂t . ds

2

The wave is [2006] 7. A plane wave of wavelength l is travelling in a direction

(A) linearly polarized in the z direction making an angle 30° with positive x – axis and 90° with

(B) elliptically polarized positive y – axis. The E field of the plane wave can be

(C) left-hand circularly polarized represented as (E0 is constant)

(D) right-hand circularly polarized [2007]

3p p

4. A medium is divided into regions I and II about x = ∧ j wt −

l

x − z

l

0 plane, as shown in the figure below. An electromag- (A) E = y E0 e

netic wave with electric field, E1 = 4 aˆ x + 3aˆ y + 5aˆ zV/m p 3p

∧ j wt − x −

l l

z

is incident normally on the interface from region - I. E = y E0 e

(B)

[2006] ∧ j wt +

l

x + z

l

Region I Region II E = y E0 e

(C)

3p p

∧ j wt −

l

x + z

l

(D) E = y E0 e

s1 = 0, m1 = m0, s2 = 0, m2 = m0,

er1 = 3 er2 = 4 8. The H field (in A/m) of a plane wave propagating in

free space is given by

E1 E2 ∧ 5 3 5 p

H =x cos (wt − bz ) + Yˆ sin wt − bz + A / m,

h0 h0 2

x<0 x=0 x>0 the time average power flow density in Watts is:[2007]

(A) E2 = E1 h 100

(B) 4 aˆ x + 0.75aˆ y − 1.25aˆ z (A) 0 (B)

100 h0

3aˆ x + 3aˆ y + 5aˆ z

(C) 50

(C) 50h02 (D)

(D) –3aˆ x + 3aˆ y + 5aˆ z h0

5. When a plane wave travelling in free space is incident 9. A right circularly polarized (RCP) plane wave is inci-

normally on a medium having er = 4.0, the fraction of dent at an angle of 60° to the normal, on an air dielec-

power transmitted into the medium is given by tric interface. If the reflected wave is linearly polarized,

[2006] the relative dielectric constant er 2 is: [2007]

Chapter 2 • Maxwell Equations and Em-Wave Propagation | 3.645

RCP polarized the EM wave at large distances r from a dipole antenna,

60° in free space. The average power (W) crossing the

60°

air εr2 = 1 hemispherical shell located at r = 1 km, 0 ≤ θ ≤ π/2 is

_________ [2014]

εr2

dielectric 21. To maximize power transfer, a lossless transmission line

θ1 is to be matched to resistive load impedance via a l/4

transformer as shown.

Lossless transmission line

(A) 2 (B) 3 (C) 2 (D) 3 λ/4 transformer

10. A uniform plane wave in the free space is normally ZL= 100Ω

Zin= 50Ω

incident on an infinitely thick dielectric slab (dielectric

constant er = 9). The magnitude of the reflection coef-

ficient is [2008]

(A) 0 (B) 0.3 The characteristic impedance (in Ω) of the l/4 trans-

(C) 0.5 (D) 0.8 former is ____________ [2014]

11. Two infinitely long wires carrying current are as shown 22. If the electric field of a plane wave is

in the figure below. One wire is in the y–z plane and

( )

→ ∧

parallel to the y-axis. The other wire is in the x–y plane E ( z , t ) = x 3x cos wt − kz + 30 o the polarization state

and parallel to the x-axis. Which components of the ∧

resulting magnetic field are non-zero at the origin? (

− y 4 sin wt − kz + 45o ( m V m ) , )

[2009]

of the plane wave is [2014]

(A) left elliptical (B) left circular

18. The angle of incidence θt and the expression for Et are (C) right elliptical (D) right circular

[2013]

E −j

p ×104 ( x + z ) 23. A region shown below contains perfect conducting

(A) 60 0 and 0 (aˆ x − aˆ z )e 3 2

V/m →

2 half-space and air. The surface current K s on the sur-

p ×104 z

E −j → ∧

(B) 450 and 0 (aˆ x − aˆ z )e 3

V/m face of the perfect conductor is K s = x 2 amperes per

2 →

p ×104 ( x + z )

E0 −j meter. The tangentialH field in the air just above the

(C) 0

45 and (aˆ x − aˆ z )e 3 2

V/m

2 perfect conductor is [2014]

p ×104

E −j y

(D) 60 0 and 0 (aˆ x − aˆ z )e 3

V/m

2

19. The expression for Er is [2013] Air

Ks

p ×10 4 x

Eo −j

Perfect conductor

(A)

0.23 (aˆ x − aˆ x )e 3

V/m

2

4

p ×10 z

E j

− o (aˆ x − aˆ x )e 3 V/m

(B)

2

p ×104 ( x − z )

Eo −j

∧ ∧

(C)

0.44 (aˆ x − aˆ x )e 3 2

V/m x + z 2 amperes per meter

(A)

2

4

p ×10 ( x + z ) ∧

E −j

(B)

x 2 amperes per meter

(D) o (aˆ x − aˆ z )e 3

V/m

2 ∧

∧ ∧

(C)

- z 2 amperes per meter

20. In spherical coordinates, let aq , aj denote unit vec- ∧

(D) z 2 amperes per meter

100 ∧

tors along the θ, Φ directions. E = sin q cos (wt − br ) aq V /m →

r 24. Assume that a plane wave∧ in air with an electric field E

100 ∧ 0.265 ∧

E= sin q cos (wt − br ) aq V /m and H = sin q cos (wt − b r ) aj A m = 10 cos(wt – 3x – 3z)aY , V/m is incident on a non-

r r magnetic dielectric slab of relative permittivity 3 which

3.646 | Part III • Unit 8 • Electromagnetics

covers the region z > 0. The angle of transmission in the 29. Let the electric field vector of a plane electromag-

dielectric slab is _____ degrees. [2014] netic wave propagating in a homogeneous medium

∧

25. For an antenna radiating in free space, the electric field be expressed as E = X E x e − j ( ωt −βwhere

z) the propaga-

at a distance of 1 km is found to be 12 mV/m. Given tion constant β is a function of the angular frequency

that intrinsic impedance of the free space is 120π Ω, the ω. Assume that β (ω) and Ex are known and are real.

magnitude of average power density due to this antenna From the information available, which one of the fol-

at a distance of 2 km from the antenna (in nW/m2) is lowing CANNOT be determined? [2016]

_____. [2014] (A) The type of polarization of the wave.

26. In the electric field component of a plane wave travel- (B) The group velocity of the wave.

ling in a lossless dielectric medium is given by E (z, t) (C) The phase velocity of the wave.

⎛ z ⎞ (D) The power flux through the z = 0 plane.

= â y2cos ⎜108 t − ⎟ V/m. The wavelength (in m) for

⎝ 2⎠ 30. Light from free space is incident at an angle θi to the nor-

the wave is _______. [2015] mal of the facet of a step index large core optical fibre.

The core and cladding refractive indices are n1 = 1.5 and

27. The electric field of a uniform plane electromagnetic

n2 = 1.4 respectively. [2016]

wave is

→ ⎛→ → ⎞ Free n2 (Cladding)

E = ⎜ a x + j 4 a y ⎟ exp [j(2p × 107 t – 0.2z)] space

⎝ ⎠ n1 (core)

The polarization of the wave is [2015] θi

(A) right-handed circular Light

(B) right-handed elliptical

(C) left-handed circular The maximum value of θI (in degrees) for which the

(D) left-handed elliptical incident light will be guided in the core of the fiber

is __________.

28. The electric field of a uniform plane wave travelling

along the negative z direction is given by the follow- 31. If a right-handed circularly polarized wave is inci-

ing equation: dent normally on a plane perfect conductor, then the

reflected wave will be [2016]

EW ( 0 )

i = â X + jâ y E ejkz. (A) right-handed circularly polarized.

(B) left-handed circularly polarized.

This wave is incident upon a receiving antenna placed (C) elliptically polarized with a tilt angle of 45°.

at the origin and whose radiated electric field towards (D) horizontally polarized.

the incident wave is given by the following equation:

32. Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction is math-

1 -jkr

( )

Ea = â X + 2â y EI

r

e

ematically described by which one of the following

equations? [2016]

The polarization of the incident wave, the polarization (A) ∇• B = 0 (B) ∇• D = ρv

of the antenna and losses due to the polarization mis-

∂B ∂ D

match are, respectively, [2016] (C) ∇× E = − (D) ∇ × H = σE +

∂t ∂t

(A) Linear, Circular (Clockwise), – 5dB

(B) Circular (clockwise), Linear, –5dB

(C) Circular (clockwise), Linear, –3dB

(D) Circular (anti clockwise), Linear, –3dB

Chapter 2 • Maxwell Equations and Em-Wave Propagation | 3.647

Hints/Solutions

Practice Problems 1

dy h = 60 p Ω

1. Emf indu = –N·

dt

Hence, the correct option is (C).

= -1

( )

d lt

3

w 2p × 14 × 10 9

7. V = =

dt 3 b 560 p

= -lt2 V = 5 × 10 m/s

8

At t = 2 s v0

= 5 × 108m/s

Emf = 4 v n

∴ l = –1 wb/s2 3 × 108

= 5 × 108

Hence, the correct option is (C). n

2. V = sin(2p × 3.6 × 109) t h = 0.6 (n = ∈r )

∂D ∂E ∈r = 0.36

Jd = =e. h

∂t ∂t h = 0 (mr = 1)

∈0 ∂ v 1 ∈r

|Jd| = . = −2 × 10 −9 × 2p × 3.6 × 10 9

d ∂ t 10 × 36 p 120 p

=

= 20 A 0.6

Hence, the correct option is (C). h = 200 p W

Ep

3. Jc = Jd =h

H0

|sE| = |jweE|

Ep = 600 p

s = w e Hence, the correct option is (C).

s

f= 8. Ey is a function of ‘z’ and ‘t’.

2p ∈

\ The wave propagation is in z-direction. Hence, the

10 −4 correct option is (C).

=

2p × 4 × ∈0

s 5.8 × 10 7 × 36p

= 4.511 × 10-7 × 1012 = 0.45 MHz 9. = >> 1

w ∈ 2p × 27 × 10 −9 × 10 9

Hence, the correct option is (C). Therefore, it is a good conductor.

4. E = (H × a p )hfree space wm

\h= 〈 45°

= -377 × 0.1 cos(3 × 106 t - bz) ay s

= -37.7 cos (3 × 106 t - bz) ay wm 2p × 27 × 10 9 × 4p × 10 −7

Hence, the correct option is (B). = = 0.06∠45°

s 5.8 × 10 7

v 3 × 108 3 Hence, the correct option is (D).

5. V = = = × 108

n er 2 1 ∗

10. Pavg = Re[E × H ]

3 w 9 p × 108 2

× 108 = =

2 b b 1 k

= Re ( a y + jaz ) e jkx − w t × ( az − ja y )e jkx −w t

b=6p 2 wm

Hence, the correct option is (B). k

Pavg = [0] = 0

jwm 2wm

6. h = Hence, the correct option is (A).

r

11. Pt = Pi - Pr

g = jwm (s + jw ∈)

Pt = Pi (1 - |r|2)

g = j w m ∈ (s = 0) p

t = 1 − | r |2

m Pi

h= h0

∈ h 2 − h1 3 − h 0

m0 m r 2 |r| = =

h= = 120 p h 2 + h1 h 0

∈0 ∈r 8 + h0

3

3.648 | Part III • Unit 8 • Electromagnetics

2 1 2p 1

|r| = = bx = b cos45° = .

4 2 l 2

P 3 by = 0

t = 2p 1

Pi 4 bz = b cos 45° = .

Hence, the correct option is (D). l 2

12. Ex and Ey differ by phase angle (2 k + 1) p and j ( wt −

2p

.x −

2p

z)

2 E = a y E0 e l l

|Ex| ≠ |Ey|

Hence, the correct option is (A).

Therefore, it is elliptical polarization. Hence, the cor-

rect option is (B). 16. J = sE

1 J = s (-∇ V)

h 2 − h1 2 − 1 Hence, the correct option is (A).

13. r = =

h 2 + h1 1 17. l = c/f = c/(w/2p)

+1

2 Hence, the correct option is (A).

1

r=- 18. f = w/2p

3

Hence, the correct option is (A).

E −Ey ∧ ∧

x = =h 0 20. an12 = ax

Hy Hx

∧

Eiy = -120 p cos(108t - bz) ay mV/m (H1 − H 2 ) × ax = K

in medium - 1

H 2 = 16.5 a y A/m

w 10 8

Hence, the correct option is (A).

b= =

v 3 × 108

1

21. Polarization P= D 1 −

1 ∈r

b=

3

Reflected wave travels in opposite z–direction. 1

= 2 1 − = 1.6 c/m2

1 1 5

Erx = -120 p × cos(108 t + z) ax mV/m

3 3 Hence, the correct option is (B).

1 22. f = 10 GHz; t = 3 mm; q = 90°

= -40p cos(108t + z) ax

3 2mt sinq = nl

Hence, the correct option is (B).

\m=5

∈r 2

14. qB = tan-1 ∈ Hence, the correct option is (A).

r1

23. e = 10e0

= tan (2) = 63.43°

-1

A = 0.01 m2

Hence, the correct option is (D).

d = 5 cm

15. If a, b, and g are angles made by line with the respec-

tive co-ordinate axes x, y, and z, then cos2 a + cos2 b + V = 100 sin 314 t volts

cos2 g = 1. Displacement current density

1 ∂D ∂E

\ + 0 + cos 2g = 1 Jd = =e

2 ∂t ∂t

g = 45° V

E=

y d

e ∂V

Jd =

d ∂t

e ∂

x = (100 sin 314t)

45° d ∂t

45°

100e

z = cos (314t).314

d

Chapter 2 • Maxwell Equations and Em-Wave Propagation | 3.649

= −2

× × 314 cos (314)

5 × 10 36p × 10 9 For good conductor, the skin depth is

= 5.55 × 10 cos (314t) A/m

–5 2

2

d=

Displacement current density wms

Id = Jd·A

2

= 5.55 × 10–5 × 0.01 cos (314t) d=

2p × 2 × 10 × 1 × 4p × 10 −7 × 38.2 × 106

6

d = 5.758 × 10– 5 m

Hence, the correct option is (A).

24. s = 38.2 × 106 s/m Hence, the correct option is (B).

mr = 1

Practice Problems 2

w v0

1. V = = 5. An elliptically polarized wave can be written as sum of

b mr ∈r two linearly polarized waves.

108 3 × 108 Therefore, at the Brewster angle, one becomes zero

= and the other gets reflected. Hence, the correct option

1 mr ∈r

is (B).

2

6. Poynting vector is along the direction of wave propaga-

3

∈r = tion. Hence, the correct option is (B).

2

7. The wave is polarized along –ve z-direction, that is, the

9

∈r == 2.25 direction of Edirection. Hence, the correct option is

4 (D).

Hence, the correct option is (B).

1 E −Ey

2. d a 8. x = =h 0

f Hy Hx

Ex

d f2 Hy =

1 = h0

d2 f1

−E y

f1 Hx =

d2 = ×d 1 h0

f2

−Ey Ex

2 \ H= ay ax +

= ×d h0 h0

32

Hence, the correct option is (A).

5

d2 = = 1.25cm 9. The longitudinal components are absent and transverse

4

Hence, the correct option is (D). components are present. Hence, the correct option is

(C).

wm

3. In a good conductor, h = ∠45°. 11. |E| = E0· e-ax

s

Hence, the correct option is (C). at x = d, f = f0, E = E0· e-2

4. n1 sinqi = n2 sinqt \ E0·e-ad = E0·e-2

2

qt = 90° \a=

d

n1 sinqi = n2 −2 x

n E = Eo· d

sinqi = 2

ni But, a depends on frequency.

∈r 2

wm

qi = sin-1 ∈ a =

r1 2s

1 a1 f1

= sin-1 = 45° \ =

2 a2 f2

Hence, the correct option is (C).

3.650 | Part III • Unit 8 • Electromagnetics

f2 1 E0 2

a2 = .a 1 Pavg =

f1 2 h

1 1

0.25 f 0 = .

= .a 1 2 h0

f0

2

= 0.5 a1 1

Pavg =

2 1 2 120p

= . (a1 = )

d 2 d Hence, the correct option is (C).

1 15. The wave travels in −ve z-direction.

a2 =

d Hence, the correct option is (C).

−x

\ E = E0·e d ∂D

16. ∇ × H = J +

at x = d ∂t

Hence, the correct option is (C).

E = E0·e-1

∧ ∧ ∧

Hence, the correct option is (D). 17. E (0, t) = A coswtax − B sinwta y elliptically polarized

2p since A ≠ B and differ by 90°. Hence, the correct

12. V = l f = . f = 3 × 108

6.28 option is (C).

f = 0.3 GHz

3p E m

and Ey leads Ex by . 18. ∵ =

2 H ∈

Therefore, it is a right circular polarization. Hence, the

Hence, the correct option is (C).

correct option is (B).

19. ∇·B = 0

13. (a) Electric field inside a conductor = 0

Hence, the correct option is (A).

\ No. of transmitted component Et = 0 ∂2 E

20. Free space wave equation is ∇2E = m ∈ 2 .

(b) Ei + Er = 0 ∂t

Hence, the correct option is (A).

Er= -E

21. h = h

mr

\ Er = -(8ax + 6ay - 3az) ej(wt-3x-4y) V/m 0

∈r

Hence, the correct option is (D).

1

14. E0 = 1 160p = 120p

∈r

n n ⇒ ∈r = 4

h= 0 = 0

∈r 2 Hence, the correct option is (C).

1

Re E × H

1. Pavg = 3. Exo = Eyo = 1

2 So, it is circular polarization.

1

2

( )

= Re ax + ja y e − j (kz −wt ) ×

K

wm

( )

a y + jax e − j (kz −wt )

Y components lead X component by 90o. Therefore, it is

left circular polarized. Hence, the correct option is (C).

aˆ X aˆ y aˆ z 4. Given that E1 = 4 âx + 3 â y + 5 âz

*

E ×H ⇒ 1 j 0 = 1 – (+1) = 0

m1 = m0 m2 = m0

− j 1 0 e r1 = 3 e r2 = 4

E1

Pavg = 0

Hence, the correct option is (A). E2

x=o

x>o

C 3 × 108

l= = = 2 × 10 −6 m = 2µm Et1 = Et 2 and Dn1 = Dn 2

hf 1.5 × 1014

Chapter 2 • Maxwell Equations and Em-Wave Propagation | 3.651

⇒ 3 × 4 = 4 × Et 2 10. e r 2 = 9

⇒ Et 2 = 3 ∈r1 − ∈r 2 1 − 3 −1

⇒ E = 3aˆ x + 3aˆ y + 5aˆ z = = =

∈r1 − ∈r 2 1+ 3 2

Hence, the correct option is (C).

1

5. Free space e r1 = 1, e r2 = 4 || =

2

e r1 − e r2 Hence, the correct option is (C).

1 − 2 −1

= = = 11. For wire1, which is in y–z plane, the current flows in

e r1 + e r 2 1+ 2 3

+y-direction. By using right-hand rule, magnetic com-

Pt = (1 – 2) Pi ponent is in +x-direction. For wire2, which is in x–y

plane, the current flows in +x-direction, and by using

8 right-hand rule, magnetic component is in +z-direction.

= Pi

9 Hence, the correct option is (D).

Hence, the correct option is (A).

12. Given that E = 1

6. According to Stokes’ theorem,

er = 4

→ →

∂D Time average power density (P)

∫C H .dl = ∫∫S ∇ × H .ds = ∫∫C ∂ t ds

J +

er

E2

= =

Hence, the correct option is (D). 2h 2 × 120p

7. Electric field is propagating in y-direction. So, 1 120p

= ∵h =

→ ^

120p er

E = y Eo e j (wt - bz )

From the given information, wave is travelling in Hence, the correct option is (C).

x 3 z 13. Given Ei = 24 cos(3 × 108t – βy) â 2V/m

y-direction = xcos30o + zsin 30o = +

2 2 for region m = mo, ε = 9εo, y ≥ o

→ ^

= E = y Eo exp wt −

2p x 3 + Y

( ) b = w me =

3 × 108

=1

l 2 3 × 108

1 1

j ωt −

π 3 πz

x− Hi = (aˆ y × E1 ) − (aˆ y × aˆ z )24 cos(3 × 108 t − bY)

λ λ 120p 120p

= ŷE0 e

Hence, the correct option is (A). 1

= cos(3 × 108 t − b y)aˆ x

1 h H2 5p

8. Pavg = EXH = 0

2 2 H e 2 − e1 9 −1

H is given as r = = = 1

Hi e 2 + e1 9 +1 2

Hˆ = xˆ

5 3

ho

5

ho

(

cos(w t − b z ) + yˆ sin w t − b z + p

2 ) Wave is reflected, so wave is travelling in –y direction.

1

25 × 3 25 10 ⇒ Hr = cos(3 × 108 t + y )aˆ x

H = + 2 = 10p

h o2 ho ho Hence, the correct option is (A).

h o 100 50

Pavg = × = 14. ∫∫

Re( P ).nds

ˆ . It gives the average power.

2 ho ho

s

Hence, the correct option is (D).

Power decreases with increasing radial distance from

9. Given that qi = 60°. the source. Hence, the correct option is (D).

e E m mr

tanqB = r 2 15. = n = = 120 p

e r1 H e er

dielectric wave εr1 = 1 Ep 1

= 120 P ,

tan60 = e r 2 3 er

⇒ e r2 = 3 Option ‘D’ satisfies this relation. Hence, the correct

Hence, the correct option is (D). option is (D).

3.652 | Part III • Unit 8 • Electromagnetics

t= = = 0.361

H2 = 3uˆ x + 30uˆ y − 10uˆ z h 2 + h1 554

The maximum value of is 0.361. If the E component

m1H1 = m2H2

of wave is parallel to and also perpendicular to the

m

H2 = 1 H 1 boundary, then the effective < 0.361.

m2

1 Hence, the correct option is (A).

The component of H2 in x-direction = (3uˆ x )

2 20. Average power (W) = ∫ E .Hds

H 2 = 1.5uˆ x + 30uˆ y − 10uˆ z

Hemispherical shell f (0, p)

Hence, the correct option is (A). p

p

100 0.265 2

2

17. b = , given b = 25, r r

−l 0 0

p

2p 2

l= = 26.5 × p ∫ sin 3 q dq

25 c 3 × 103

Frequency f = = = 1.2 GHz 0

l 2p 2

26.5 × p × = 55.5 W

25 3

To know the polarization, we convert E into time Hence, the correct answer is 55.4 to 55.6.

domain using phasor diagram. 2p l p

21. b = × =

z l 4 2

10

ZO = 50 Ω ZL = 100 Ω

wt = p wt = 0

λ/4

x

y Z L + jZ o tan p

Zin = Z o 2

p Z o + jZ L tan p

wt = 2

2

Z o2

⇒ Zin =

E ( x1t ) = Re{E ( x ).e jwt ZL

= Re{10 ( aˆ y + jaˆ z )ej(wt – 25x)} ⇒ Z o = Zin Z L

= 10 cos(wt – 25x) aˆ y − 10 sin (ωt − 25x )aˆ z

⇒ 5000 = 70.7 Ω

E (0, t ) − (10 cos w t )a y − (10 sin w t )az

Hence, the correct answer is 70 to 72.

From the figure, we can conclude that it is left-circularly

polarized. Hence, the correct option is (A). 22. E(z, t) = 3 cos(w t – kz + 45°) âx + 4sin (w t – kz + 45°)

â y .mV/m

18. The wave is propagating in +x and +z directions. Thus,

the wave equation is in the form of e–b(x + z). |Ex| ≠ |Ey| and phase (Ex) ≠ phase (Ey). So, E is ellipti-

cally polarized.

Options (A) and (C) are probable answers.

sin q l ∈2 If w t – kz = 0,

According to Snell’s law, =

sin q t ∈1 ⇒ E= 3 cos(30o) âx – 4 sin45° â y

4.5 ^

\ sin qi = sin (19.2). = 0.7 ay

1

\ qi = 45°

Hence, the correct option is (C). ^

19. The reflected wave is travelling in +x and –z directions. ax

(C) may be the answer. 1

m0

h1 = = 377 W If w t – kz = 60°

∈0

⇒ E= 0. âx - 4sin(115o) â y

m0

h2 = = 177.71 W → Wave is left elliptically polarized.

4.5 ∈0 Hence, the correct option is (A).

Chapter 2 • Maxwell Equations and Em-Wave Propagation | 3.653

H1 = 0 is in perfect conductor. |Ex| ≠ |Ey|

^

ay So it is elliptically polarized wave

Generalized expression for left

Medium 2 air

elliptically polarized electric field is

( )

E = E x aˆ x + E y aˆ y e j (w t − b z )

(H1 – H2) × an = kS Hence, the correct option is (D).

–H2 × aˆ y = 2aˆ x

28. Polarization of incident wave, Eiw = (ax + jay )E0 e jkz

⇒ H2 =2âz A/m

Direction of propagation ‘-z’

Hence, the correct option is (D).

E xo = E yo

24. E = 10 cos(w t – 3x − 3Z )

Ey leads Ex by 90°

Z<0

Right (clock wise) circular polarization.

r =3 Polarization of antenna,

Z 1

Z>0

Ea = (ax + 2ay )EI e − jkr

r

E xo = E I

3 E yo = 3E

sinqi =

32 + ( 3 )

2

Ex and Ey are in phase

Linear polarization. The linearly polarized antenna

⇒ qi = 30°

simply picks up the in phase component of circu-

3 larly polarized wave which has two orthogonal lin-

cosq t =

12 early polarized waves 90° out of phase. As a result

LP antenna has a polarization mismatch loss of

3 0.5 (-3dB) PLF (linear to circular) = 0.5 = -3dB.

=

2 Choice (C)

qt = 30° 29. To find out the power through z = 0 plane, the plane

1

25. Electric field a

r µ

area, medium intrinsic impedance η = are

=

E1 r2

ε

E2 r1

required. Choice (D)

⇒ E2 = 6 mV/m

30.

1 E22

n1 − n 2

2 2

Pavg = sinθi =

2 h

1 36 × 10 −6

×

θi = sin-1 {( 1.5) − (1.4)

2 2

}

2 377 = sin {0.538} = 32.58°

–1

= 47.7 nW/m 2

[Answer: 32 : 33]

z 31. Perfect conducting surface causes 180° orientation

26. Given equation E (z, t) = ây 2cos 108 t − V /m

1 2 change at either of two field vectors. Choice (B)

b=

2

32.

w = 108

2p 1 ∂B

b= = ∇xE = −

l 2 ∂t

⇒ l = 2 2p One of the Maxwell’s equations based on Faraday’s law

= 8.88m of electro-magnetic induction. Choice (C)

Hence, the correct answer is 8.85 to 8.92.

Chapter 3 Transmission Lines

Exercises

Practice Problem 1 4

Directions for questions 1 to 24: Select the correct alterna-

tive from the given choices.

1. A coaxial cable has the inductance of 0.25 μH/m and 1

λ /2

capacitance of 2.5 nF/m, then the characteristic imped-

ance is

(A) 10 Ω (B) 50 Ω (C) 100 Ω (D) 75 Ω the load of the line is

(A) 75 Ω (B) 150 Ω (C) 300 Ω (D) 225 Ω

2. For a lossy transmission line, the characteristic imped-

ance does not depend on 9. In problem 8, the reflection co-efficient is

(A) frequency of operation on the line (A) 0.6 (B) −0.6 (C) 0.2 (D) −0.2

(B) load of the line 10. Consider the following diagram

(C) conductivity of the conductor

(D) inductance of the line λ/4

λ/4 200 Ω

3. Which of the following satisfies condition for the dis- A Z 0 line1

C

tortionless transmission line? Z0 Line3

(A) RL = GC (B) RC = LG D

B

(C) RG = LC (D) RC >> LG Z0 line2

4. In a transmission line, the reflection coefficient at a dis- λ/4

Z0 = 50 Ω Short

o

tance ‘d’ from the load is rd = 0.8e − j135 and the reflec- circuit

o

tion co-efficient at the load is ri = 0.8e − j45 , then the Zin looking at line 1 is

distance ‘d’ is (A) 12.5 (B) 25 Ω (C) 37.5 Ω (D) 0

l (B)

(A) l (C) 3l l

(D) 11. In problem 10, Zin looking at line 2 is

8 4 8 2

(A) zero (B) infinity (C) 50 Ω (D) 25 Ω

5. The three lossless lines are connected as in the follow- 12. In problem 10, Zin looking at line 3 is

ing figure. The input impedance is (A) zero (B) infinity (C) 100 Ω (D) 200Ω

13. In problem 10, the VSWR at CD is

← λ/4 → ←λ/2→ ←λ/2→ (A) 2 (B) 4 (C) 8 (D) 0

50 Ω 100 Ω 75 Ω ZL 14. A 500 m long transmission line is terminated by a load

Z in

that is located at P on the Smith chart. If λ = 150 m,

how many voltage maxima exist at on the line?

Where Z L = 100 Ω

90°

(A) 25 Ω (B) 50 Ω

180°

(C) 75 Ω (D) 100 Ω

O°

6. Which of the following is not true about a lossless line? P

P

(A) Zin = j Zo for a short-circuited line with = l

8 150°

(B) ZL = Zo for a matched line

(A) 4 (B) 5 (C) 6 (D) 7

(C) Zin = +jZo for open-circuited line with = l

8 1 5. In problem 14, first minima occurs at what distance

(D) Zin = j∞ for a shorted line with = l from the load?

4

(A) 6.25 m towards source

7. In an airline, the adjacent maxima are found at 10 cm (B) 12.5 m towards source

and 20 cm, then the operating frequency is (C) 6.25 m from source

(A) 2 GHz (B) 3 GHz (D) 12.5 m from source

(C) 1.5 GHz (D) 4 GHz 16. A uniform plane EM wave incident normally on a

8. VSWR pattern on a lossless line is shown in the follow- plane surface of a dielectric material is reflected with a

ing figure. If the characteristic impedance of the line is VSWR of 3. What is the percentage of incident power

75 Ω, then that is reflected?

(A) 10% (B) 25% (C) 50% (D) 75%

Chapter 3 • Transmission Lines | 3.655

17. Consider an impedance Z = R + jx marked with point (A) 0.25 m (B) 0.3 m

P in an impedance Smith chart as shown in the figure. (C) 0.075 m (D) 1.5 m

The movement from point P, along a constant resist- 2 0. A transmission line of Zo = 50 Ω is terminated by a

ance circle in the clockwise direction by an angle 45o 50 Ω load. When excited by a sinusoidal voltage source

equivalent to

at 10 GHz, the phase difference and phase velocity are

x=0

x=1 p

r = 0.5 circle

radian and 1.6 × 108 m/s, respectively. Then, mini-

P 4

mum spacing between the two point with the above-

x=0 mentioned phase difference.

(A) 2 mm (B) 4 mm

(C) 8 mm (D) 1.6 mm

2 1. The diameter of the inner conductor of a coaxial cable

x = − 0.5 x=−1

is 2 mm and that of the outer conductor is 6 mm and the

dielectric constant of the insulation is 1.60. Calculate

(A) adding an inductance in series with Z the characteristic capacitance is 60 pF/m. Find the

(B) adding a capacitance in series with Z value of inductance per meter at RF.

(C) adding an inductance in shunt across Z (A) 0.1625 mH/m (B) 0.1825 mH/m

(D) adding a capacitance in shunt across Z (C) 1.2 mH (D) 0.9256 mHm

1 8. A short-circuited stub is shunt connected to a trans- 22. A transmission line of characteristic impedance

mission line as shown in the figure. If Zo = 25 Ω, the ZO = 50 W phase velocity VP = 2 × 108m/s and length

admittance Y seen at the junction of the stub and the ℓ = 1 m is terminated by a load ZL = (30 – j40) Ω.

transmission line is The input impedance of the line for a frequency of

100 MHz will be

(A) (30 + j40) Ω (B) (30 – j40) Ω

λ/8

(C) (50 + j40) Ω (D) (50 – j40) Ω

23. An airline has characteristic impedance of 70 W and

Z L = 100 Ω

phase constant of 3 rad/m at 100 MHz. Calculate the

Z0 inductance per meter.

(A) 682 pF/m (B) 0.682 pF/m

(C) 68.2 pF/m (D) 6.82 pF/m

← λ/2 →

2 4. The VSWR on UHF transmission line, working at a

(A) (0.01 + j0.04) (B) (0.01 – j0.04) frequency of 300 MHz is found to be 2. If the distance

(C) (0.01 + j0.02) (D) (0.01 – j0.02) between load and voltage minimum is 0.8 m, find the

19. A transmission line with a Zo of 100 Ω is used to match value of load impedance.

a 50 Ω Ω section to a 200 Ω section. If the matching (A) 17∠–6.4° (B) 1.7∠–6.4°

is done both at 300 MHz and 1 GHz, the length of the (C) 1.7∠6.4° (D) 17∠6.4°

transmission line can be done approximately.

Directions for questions 1 to 24: Select the correct alterna- Then, VSWR is

tive from the given choices. (A) 0.677 (B) 1.677 (C) 0.25 (D) 0.33

1. Which of the following statements are not true of the 4. The reflection co-efficient on a lossy line at the load

line parameters R, L, G, and C and at a distance ‘d’ from the load are

(A) R and L are series elements (A) same

(B) G and C are shunt elements (B) same in magnitude differ in phase

(C) The parameters are distributed not lumped (C) same in phase differ in magnitude

(D) G= 1 (D) different both in magnitude and phase

R

2. For a lossless transmission line with inductance 25 μH/m 5. The power reflected along a matched transmission line

and characteristic impedance 50 W, then capacitance is with characteristic impedance Zo is

(A) 250 nF/m (B) 125 nF/m (A) zero (B) infinity

(C) 0.5 μF/m (D) 0.25 μF/m (C) depends on Zo (D) None of these

3.656 | Part III • Unit 8 • Electromagnetics

6. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer short

←

using the code given below. λ/8 Z = 30 Ω

0

→

A

List-I (Load) Reflection co-efficient

C

P. short circuit 1. 1

3 Z 0 = 60 Ω ZL = 30 Ω

Q. open circuit 2. 0 Z 0 = 30 2

R. Zo 3. –1 B

B D ← λ/4 →

S. 2Zo 4. 1

(A) P – 1, Q – 2, R – 3, S – 4 (A) 1.00 (B) 1.64 (C) 2.5 (D) 3.00

(B) P – 4, Q – 3, R – 2, S – 1

(C) P – 3, Q – 4, R – 2, S – 1 13. In problem 12, if AC = l then ZAB =

(D) P – 3, Q – 4, R – 1, S – 2 2

7. A transmission line of length l , with characteristic (A) 60 + j30 (B) 60 – j30

8

impedance Zo, and load impedance ZL, then the magni- 3600 60 + 30

tude of sending-end impedance is (C) (D)

60 + j 30 3600

(A) Zo (B) 0 (C) ∞ (D) 2Zo

8. A quarter wave transformer is used for matching a load 14. A transmission line of Zo = 50 Ω is terminated in a

of 225 Ω connected to a transmission line of 256 Ω in line with load impedance ZL. The VSWR of the line

order to reduce VSWR along the line to 1. Then, Zo of is measured as 6 and the first of the voltage max-

transformer is ima is observed at a distance of l from the load.

4

(A) 225 (B) 240 (C) 256 (D) 273 Then, ZL is

9. Which of the following statement is not true regarding 25 Ω (B)

50 Ω (C) 25 Ω (D)

50 Ω

(A)

the Smith chart? 3 3 6 6

1. A normalized Smith chart apply to a line of any 15. A transmission line of characteristic impedance 400 W

characteristic resistance and serves as well for is to be matched to a load of 25 W through a quarter

normalized admittance. wavelength line. The quarter wave line characteristic

2. A polar co-ordinate Smith chart contains circles of impedance must be

constant |z| and circles of constant ∠z (A) 40 W (B) 100 W

3. In Smith chart, the distance towards the load is always (C) 400 W (D) 425 W

measured in clockwise direction. 16. A lossless transmission line having 50 W characteristic

4. Upper half of Smith chart is with inductive reactance. impedance and length l/4 is short-circuited at one end

(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4 and connected to an ideal voltage source of 1 V at the

other end. The current drawn from the voltage source is

1 0. In the following Smith chart

C

(A) zero (B) 0.02 A

(C) infinite (D) None of the above

17. An open voice line having characteristic impedance

692 ∠–12° W is terminated in 200 W resistor. The line

D B

A is 100 km long and is supplied power by a generator

of 1.0 V at 100 Hz. Determined the voltage reflection

coefficient

E (A) 0.56∠172.4° (B) 0.56∠163.9°

(C) 0.56∠–163.9° (D) 0.56∠–172.4°

The normalized impedance at D is

(A) 1 + j0 (B) 0 + j1 (C) 0 + j0 (D) ∞ + j∞ Common Data for Questions 18 and 19:

A 30 m long transmission line has no losses with ZO = 50 W

11. In problem 10, the impedance (normalized) at B is

operating at 2 MHz is terminated with a load ZL = 60 + j40 W.

(A) 1 + j0 (B) ∞ + j∞ (C) 0 + j1 (D) 1 + j1

18. Find reflection coefficient

12. In the circuit shown in the following figure, all the

(A) 0.3523 ∠56° (B) 0.323 ∠–56°

transmission line sections are lossless, the VSWR on

(C) 3.23 ∠56° (D) 3.23 ∠–56°

the 60 Ω line is

Chapter 3 • Transmission Lines | 3.657

(A) 2.888 (B) –2.888 L=

(C) log e H/m

m D

(C) 2.088 (D) 0.2088

20. The magnitude of the open circuit and short circuit 2p D

L=

(D) log e H/m

input impedances of a transmission line are 100 W and m d

25 W, respectively. The characteristic impedance of the 23. A 75 W transmission line is first short terminated and

line is the minima locations are noted. When the short is

(A) 25 W (B) 50 W (C) 75 W (D) 100 W replaced by a resistive load, RL, the minima locations

21. A transmission line is distortionless if are not altered and the VSWR is measured to be 3.

1 What is the value of RL?

RL =

(A) (B) RL = GC (A) 25 W (B) 50 W (C) 225 W (D) 250 W

GC

(C) LG = RC (D) RG = LC 24. A certain transmission line operating at w = 106rad/s

has a = 8 dB/m, b = 1 rad/m, and Zo = 60 + j40 W and

22. The inductance per unit length of a coaxial cable in is 2 m long. If the line is connected to source of 10 ∠

terms of conductor size and spacing is 0V, Zg = 40 W and terminated by a load of 20 + j50W,

m d determine input impedance Zin.

(A) L= log e H/m

2p D (A) 6.025 + j 38.79 W (B) 60.25 + j38.79 W

m D (C) 60.25 + j3.879 W (D) 60.25 + 0.3879 W

L=

(B) log e H/m

2p d

Previous Years’ Questions in Q88. The movement from point P along a constant

resistance circle in the clockwise direction by an angle

1. Consider a 300 W quarter wave long (at 1 GHz) trans-

45° is equivalent to [2004]

mission line, as shown in the figure. It is connected to a

10 V, 50 W sources at one end and is left open circuited

x = 0.5

at the other end. The magnitude of the voltage at the

open circuit end of the line is [2004]

x=0

Source x = −0.5

P

x = −1

λ/4

(A) 10 V (B) 5 V (C) 60 V (D)

V (B) adding a capacitance in series with Z

7 (C) adding an inductance in shunt across Z

2. A plane electromagnetic wave propagating in free space (D) adding a capacitance in shunt across Z

is incident normally on a large slab of lossless, non-

magnetic dielectric material with e > e0. Maxima and 5. Many circles are drawn in a Smith chart used for trans-

minima are observed when the electric field is meas- mission line calculations. The circles shown in figure

ured in front of the slab. The maximum electric field represent [2005]

is found to be 5 times the minimum field. The intrinsic

impedance of the medium should be [2004]

(A) 120 pW (B) 60 pW (C) 600 pW (D) 24 pW

3. A lossless transmission line is terminated in a load

that reflects a part of the incident power. The meas-

ured VSWR is 2. The percentage of the power that is

reflected back is [2004]

(A) 57.73 (B) 33.33

(A) unit circles

(C) 0.11 (D) 11.11

(B) constant resistance circles

4. Consider an impedance Z = R + jX marked with point P (C) constant reactance circles

in an impedance Smith chart, as shown in Figure given (D) constant reflection coefficient circles.

3.658 | Part III • Unit 8 • Electromagnetics

50 W. Input impedance of the open-circuited line λ/4

is Zoc = 100 + j150 W. When the transmission line is λ/4 0Ω

100 Ω

short circuited, then value of the input impedance will =5

Z 0

be[2005] Z 0 = 50 Ω

(A) 50 W Z0

=5

(B) 100 + j150 W 0Ω

Γ 200 Ω

(C) 7.69 + j11.54 W

λ/4

(D) 7.69 – j11.54 W

Statement for Linked Answer Questions 7 and 8:

[Vz] 7 −5 (C) 5 5

− j (B)

(A) j (D)

4 5 7 7 7

11. One of a lossless transmission line having the charac-

teristic impedance of 75 W and length of 1 cm is short

1

circuited. At 3 GHz, the input impedance at the other

end of the transmission line is [2008]

Z′ λ λ/2

(A) 0 (B) resistive

Load

(C) capacitive (D) inductive

12. In the design of a single-mode step index optical fibre

Voltage standing wave pattern in a lossless transmission line close to upper cut-off, the single mode operations is not

with characteristic impedance 50 W and a resistive load is preserved if [2008]

shown in figure. (A) radius as well as operating wavelength are halved

7. The value of the load resistance is[2005] (B) radius as well as operating wavelength are doubled

(A) 50 W (B) 200 W (C) radius is halved and operating wavelength is dou-

(C) 12.5 W (D) 0 W bled

8. The reflection coefficient is given by [2005] (D) radius is doubled and operating wavelength is

(A) −0.6 (B) –1 halved

(C) 0.6 (D) 0 13. A transmission line terminates in two branches, each of

9. A load of 50 W is connected in shunt in a two-wire length l/4, as shown. The branches are terminated by

transmission line of Z0 = 50 W, as shown in the figure. 50 W loads. The lines are lossless and have the charac-

The two-port scattering parameter matrix (S-matrix) of teristic impedances shown. Determine the impedance

the shunt element is [2007] Zi, as seen by the source [2009]

Z 0 = 50 Ω 50 Ω Z 0 = 50 Ω λ/4 Z L = 50 Ω

Ω

λ/4 00

=1

Z0

1 1 Z 0 = 50 Ω

0 1

− 2

(A) 2 (B)

1 0 Zi Z0

=1

00

Ω

1 −1

λ/4

2 2 Z L = 50 Ω

1 2 1 3

− 3 3 4 − 4 (A) 200 W (B) 100 W (C) 50 W (D) 25 W

(C)

(D)

2 − 1 − 3 1 14. A transmission line has a characteristic impedance of

3 3 4 4 50 W and a resistance of 0.1 W/m. If the line is distor-

10. The parallel branches of a two-wire transmission line tionless, the attenuation constant (in Np/m) is [2010]

are terminated in 100 W and 200 W resistors, as shown (A) 500 (B) 5

in the figure. The characteristic impedance of the line (C) 0.014 (D) 0.002

l

is Z0 = 50 W and each section has a length of . The 15. In the circuit shown, all the transmission line sections

4

voltage reflection coefficient G at the input is [2007] are lossless. The voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR)

on the 60 W line is [2010]

Chapter 3 • Transmission Lines | 3.659

Short l

21. The input impedance of a section of a lossless trans-

λ/8 8

Z0= 30Ω

mission line of characteristic impedance 50 Ω is found

to be real when the other end is terminated by a load

Z 0 = 60 Z L = 30

ZL(= R + jX) Ω. If X is 30 Ω, the value of R(in Ω) is

Z 0 = 30 2Ω

__________. [2014]

2 2. In the following figure, the transmitter TX sends a wide-

λ/4 band modulated RF signal via a coaxial cable to the

(A) 1.00 (B) 1.64 (C) 2.50 (D) 3.00 receiver Rx. The output impedance ZT of TX, and the

characteristic impedance Z0 of the cable and the input

1 6. A transmission line of characteristic impedance 50 W

impedance ZR of RX are all real

is terminated by a 50 W load. When excited by a sinu-

soidal voltage source at 10 GHz, the phase difference Transmitter Characteristic Impedance = Z0 Receiver

between two points spaced 2 mm apart on the line is

ZT ZR

found to be p/4 radians. The phase velocity of the wave Rx

Tx

along the line is [2011]

(A) 0.8 × 108 m/s (B) 1.2 × 108 m/s

(C) 1.6 × 108 m/s (D) 3 × 108 m/s Which one of the following statements is true about the

distortion of the received signal due to impedance mis-

17. A transmission line of characteristic impedance 50 W match? [2014]

is terminated in a load impedance ZL. The VSWR of (A) The signal gets distorted if ZR ≠ Z0, irrespective of

the line is measured as 5 and the first of the voltage the value of ZT.

maxima in the line is observed at a distance of l/4 from (B) The signal gets distorted if ZT ≠ Z0, irrespective of

the load. The value of ZL is [2011] the value of ZR.

(A) 10 W (B) 250 W (C) Signal distortion implies impedance mismatch at

(C) (19.23 + j46.15) W (D) (19.23 - j46.15) W both ends: ZT ≠ Z0 and ZR ≠ Z0.

18. A coaxial cable with a diameter of 1 mm and outer (D) Impedance mismatches do not result in sig-

diameter of 2.4 mm is filled with a dielectric of rela- nal distortion but reduce power transfer

tive permittivity 10.89. Given m0 = 4p × 10 −7 H /m, efficiency.

10 −9 23. A coaxial cable is made of two brass conductors. The

ε0 = F /m, the characteristic impedance of the

36p spacing between the conductors is filled with Teflon (er

cable is [2012] = 2.1, tan d = 0). Which one of the following circuits

(A) 330 W (B) 100 W can represent the lumped element model of a small

(C) 143.3 W (D) 43.4 W piece of this cable having length ∆z? [2015]

19. A transmission line with a characteristic impedance of

100 W is used to match a 50 W section to a 200 W sec- (a) R∆z / 2 L∆z / 2 R∆z / 2 L∆z / 2

and 1 GHz, the length of the transmission line can be

approximately. [2012] G∆z C∆z

(A) 82.5 cm (B) 1.05 m

(C) 1.58 m (D) 1.75 m

∆z

20. For a parallel-plate transmission line, let v be the speed

of propagation and Z be the characteristic impedance.

(b) R∆z / 2 L∆z / 2 R∆z / 2 L∆z / 2

Neglecting fringe effects, a reduction of the spacing

between the plates by a factor of two results in [2014]

(A) halving of v and no change in Z

C∆z

(B) no changes in v and halving of Z

(C) no change in both v and Z

(D) halving of both v and Z

∆z

3.660 | Part III • Unit 8 • Electromagnetics

and z0, respectively.

(c) W = 0

L∆z / 2 L∆z / 2 ε = ε0

ε = ε 0ε r; ε r> 1 t

G∆z C∆z

∆z

satisfied?

(d) R∆z L∆z

Lt Lt

(A) Z0 > (B) Z0 <

ε0 ε r w ε0 ε r w

G∆z C∆z LW LW

(C) Z0 > (D) Z0 <

ε0 ε r t ε0 ε r t

∆z 26. A microwave circuit consisting of lossless transmission

lines T1 and T2 is shown in the figure. The plot shows

24. The propagation constant of a lossy transmission line the magnitude of the input reflection coefficient TL as a

is (2 + j5) m-1 and its characteristic impedance is (50 + function of frequency f. The phase velocity of the sig-

j0)W at w = 106 rad s-1. The values of the line constants nal in the transmission lines is 2 × 108 m/s. [2016]

L, C, R, G are respectively. [2016]

T1 Length = 1m T2 Length = L

(A) L = 200mH/m, C = 0.1mF/m, R = 50W/m, G = Input

Z0= 50Ω Z0= 50Ω

0.02S/m Open

(B) L = 250mH/m, C = 0.1mF/m, R = 100W/m, G = 50Ω

0.04S/m

(C) L = 200mH/m, C = 0.2mF/m, R = 100W/m, G =

0.02S/m

1

(D) L = 250mH/m, C = 0.2mF/m, R = 50W/m,

(reflection coefficient)

G = 0.04S/m 0.8

of width w. II is drawn over a practically infinite ground

0.4

plane and is separated by a dielectric slab of thickness t

and relative permittivity er > 1. The inductance per unit 0.2

length and the characteristic impedance of this line are L

and z0, respectively. [2016] 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 f (in GHz)_

Chapter 3 • Transmission Lines | 3.661

Hints/Solutions

Practice Problems 1 If = l ; Zoc = -j Zo

8

L Hence, the correct option is (C).

1. Z o =

C 7. Two consecutive maxima or minima are separated by a

distance of l .

0.25µ 2

= l

2.5 × 10 −9 ∴ = 10cm

2

0.5 × 10 −3 l = 20 cm

=

5 × 10 −5 C 3 × 108

f = =

Z0 = 0.1 × 100 = 10 Ω Hence, the correct option is (A). l 0.2 m

2. Z0 is of a lossy line. f = 1.5 GHz

R + jwL Hence, the correct option is (C).

Zo =

G + jwc v max 4

8. S = =

\ Z0 depends on the following:- Frequency of operation v min 1

- Inductance ZL

S= = 4, Zc = 300 Ω

- Conductive of line Zo

Z0 is independent on load of the line. Hence, the correct Hence, the correct option is (C).

option is (B).

S −1 4 −1 3

R G 9. r = = =

S +1 4 +1 5

3. = [Condition for distortionless transmission]

L C Hence, the correct option is (A).

RC = GL

Z o2

Hence, the correct option is (B). 10. Z in1 =

ZL

4. rd = r .e (

+ j q − 2bd )

2500

o

∴0.8e − j135 = 0.8e j ( −45

o

− 2bd ) Z in1 = = 12.5Ω

200

o Hence, the correct option is (A).

e-j2βd = e − j90

Z o2 Z o2

2bd = 90° 11. Z in2 == =∞

2p p ZL 0

2. .d = Hence, the correct option is (B).

l 2

d = l Z 02

8 12. Z in 3 =

( Z in1 )11( Z in 2 )

Hence, the correct option is (A).

5. Zin repeats for every half of wavelength. 50 × 50

=

\ For last two sections, ZL repeats. 25

2

\For l section, Zin3 = 200 Ω

4

Z 2

50 × 50 Hence, the correct option is (D).

Z in = o = = 25Ω Z L − Zo 12.5 − 50 −3

ZL 100 13. r = = =

Z L + Z o 12.5 + 50 5

Hence, the correct option is (A).

6. Zsc = j Z0 tan βl (lossless line) ZL = (Zin1) || (Zin2) = 12.5 Ω

\ If = l ; Zsc = j Zo 1+ r 85

8 S = = =4

l 1− r 25

= ; Z = j∞

4 sc Hence, the correct option is (B).

\ Options (A) and (D) are correct.

14. First maxima located at 210°(degrees)

For a matched line, option (B) is correct.

Z10 from ‘P’

\ Option (C) is wrong.

\ 360° → l

Zoc = -j Zo cot bℓ 2

3.662 | Part III • Unit 8 • Electromagnetics

210° l1

210° → l × For f1 = 300 MHz, 1 =

2 360° 4

7l 7 × 150 3 × 108

= 1 = = 0.25m

24 248 4 × 3 × 108

175

1st max = = 43.75m l2

4 For f2 = 1 GHz 2 =

4

After that, for every l , one maxima occurs.

2

l 3 × 108

∴ = 75m 2 = = 0.075m

2 4 × 10 9

5 × 6 = 450 m

= LCM of ( 1 , 2 ) = 0.075 m

\ Totally 7 maxima occurs

Hence, the correct option is (C).

Hence, the correct option is (D).

15. Moving towards the source in clockwise w 2p × 1010

20. V p ==

b 2p

\ 30° for first minima

l

l 150

\ 30° → = = 6.25m 1. 6 × 108 = 1010 × l

24 24

l = 1. 6 cm

Hence, the correct option is (A).

S −1 2 1 p → l

16. r = = = 2

S +1 4 2

Pref = |r| . Pinc

2 p →l

2 4

Pref

h= × 100 = 1 × 100 = 25% p →l

Pinc 4 4 8

Hence, the correct option is (B).

l

17. Moving along constant resistance circle from resistance ∴ = 0.2cm = 2 mm

8

remains same but addition of capacitance increases in

series with 2. Hence, the correct option is (B). Hence, the correct option is (A).

18. Zin1 – due to transmission line, it repeats for every l . 138 D

2 21. Zc of a coaxial cable = log10

\ Zin1 = ZL = 100 Ω ∈r d

Zin2 = Zsc = jZ0 tan b ℓ D - Diameter of outer conductor

= l d - Diameter of inner conductor

8

Zsc = jZ0

138 6

ZC = log10

1 1 1.6 1

y = +

Z in1 Z SC = 52.05 Ω

1 1 L

= + ZC = at RF

100 j Z o C

y = (0.01 – j0.04) L

52.05 =

Hence, the correct option is (B). 60 × 10 −12

19. Z0 = 100 Ω L = (52.05)2 × 60 × 10–12

← → = 162552.15 × 10–12

= 0.1625522 mH/m

50 Ω 100 Ω 200 Ω

Hence, the correct option is (A).

Ζ L + jRC tan b

22. Ζ in = RC

RC + jZ L tan b

For matching should be done at odd multiples of l .

4 Hence, the correct option is (B).

Chapter 3 • Transmission Lines | 3.663

L \ f = 2.2p

23. b = w LC ; ZO = RC =

C Z R − ZO

K =

R 1 b Z R + ZO

O = ⇒C = = 68. 2 pF/m

b wC wRO ZR

−1

Hence, the correct option is (C). ZO

k e j φ =

s −1 1 ZR

24. k = = +1

s +1 3 ZO

Angle of reflection coefficient f

\ Zr = 1.7∠–6.4°

2b Ymin – f = p

2p Hence, the correct option is (B).

2 × 0.8 − φ = p

1

Z L − Zo

Practice Problems 2 6. ZL = 0 ⇒ r = = −1

ZL + Zo

1. Options (A), (B), and (C) are correct; option (D) is

ZL = Z0 ⇒ r = 0

wrong about the parameters of a line. Hence, the cor-

rect option is (D). ZL = ∞ r=1

L ZL = 2Z0 r = 1

2. Z o = (for a loss less transmission line) 3

C Hence, the correct option is (C).

L Z + jZ o tan bl

C= 7. Zin = Z s = Z o L

Z o2

Z o + jZ L tan bl

25 × 10 −6

= 2p l

2500 = l bl = . =p

8 l 8 4

C = 0.25 μF/m

C = 250 nF/m Z + jZ o

∴ Zs = Zo L

Hence, the correct option is (A). Z o + jZ L

|ZS| = Z0

1+ r

3. V SW R = Hence, the correct option is (A).

1− r

ZL

Z -Z 75 + j 20 - 50 8. VSWR = =1

P= L o = Zo

Z L + Z o 75 + j20 + 50

ZL = Z0

25 + j 20 (5 + 4 j )

= = ZL = 225 Ω

125 + j 20 25 + j 4

Hence, the correct option is (A).

u1 41

= = 9. In smith chart, moving in clockwise direction is mov-

641 641 ing towards the source. Hence, the correct option is

r = 0.2529 (C).

S = 1.677 10. In smith chart, point ‘D’ is intersection of r = 0, x = 0

Hence, the correct option is (B). circles. Hence, the correct option is (C).

4. r on a loss line is 11. ‘B’ is intersection of r = ∞.

rd = rℓ.e-2αd.ej(ql – 2βd) x = ∞ circles

Hence, the correct option is (D). Hence, the correct option is (B).

( )

2

5. On a matched transmission line Z 2 30 2

ZL = Z0 1 2. ( Z in1 ) = o =

ZL 30

\r=0

(Zin)1 = 60 Ω

\ rref = 0

Zin2 = Zsc = j30

Hence, the correct option is (A).

3.664 | Part III • Unit 8 • Electromagnetics

Zcd = 60 + j30

Z L − ZO

60 + j 30 − 60 j 30 18. Γ = = 0.3523∠56°

r = = Z L + ZO

60 + j30 + 60 120 + j 30

Hence, the correct option is (A).

i 1

r = = 1+ Γ

4+ j 17 19. S = = 2.088

1− Γ

1 Hence, the correct option is (C).

1+

17

V SW R = = 1.64 20. Z O = Z OC . Z SC = 50 W

1

1−

17 Hence, the correct option is (B).

Hence, the correct option is (B). 21. Distortionless condition

13. For every l length, impedance repeats. R G

=

2

\ ZCD = ZAB L C

Hence, the correct option is (C).

ZAB = ZCD = 60 + j30 W

m D

Hence, the correct option is (A). 22. L = log e H/m

2p d

14. Voltage maximum in the line is observed at l . Hence, the correct option is (B).

4

\ ZL is real. 23. Zo = 75 W

Zo Zo ZR = Z0

V SW R =

⇒ZL =

ZL V SW R

Vmin = VSWR = 3

Z o 50 25 2b ymin – f = (2n + 1)p

ZL = = =

6 6 3 V min = b {1 − K }

ZL = 8.33 Ω (voltage minimum at load)

Hence, the correct option is (A). 1+ K

S=

15. Z = Z C . Z L = 100Ω 1− K

Hence, the correct option is (B). Hence, the correct option is (C).

ΖO2

24. N = 8.686 dB

16. Ζ in = =∞

ΖL 8

a = = 0.921 Np/m

V 8.686

I= =0

Ζ in r = a + j b = 0.921 + j1 / m

Hence, the correct option is (A). rl = 2(0.921 + j1) = 1.84 + j2

17. Z0 = 692 ∠–12° ; ZR = 200 tan hrl = 1.033 – j0.03929

Z − ZO Z + Z O tan hrl

k = R = 0.56 ∠360° − 187.6 Z in = Z o L

Z R + ZO

Z O + Z L tan hrl

= 0.56 ∠172.4°

= 60.25 + j38.79 W

Hence, the correct option is (A).

Hence, the correct option is (B).

4 2 h 2 − h1

Previous Years’ Questions ⇒Γ= = = ⇒ h 2 = 600p

6 3 h 2 + h1

VS Z Hence, the correct option is (C).

1. = S

V L Z in 1+ Γ 1

10 50 3. V SW R = 2 = ⇒ Γ =

⇒ = ⇒ V L = 60 V 1− Γ 3

V L 300 Preflect = Γ

2

Pt

Hence, the correct option is (C).

1

V 1+ Γ =

Pt

2. max = V SW R = 5 = 9

V min 1− Γ Hence, the correct option is (D).

Chapter 3 • Transmission Lines | 3.665

direction, impedance will be Z = R – 0. 5 j. So, induct- λ/4 100Ω

ance is adding in series. λ/4

Z O = 50Ω

Hence, the correct option is (A). Z in1 Z in2

Z O = 50Ω

5. Given circles are constant resistance circles. Hence, the

correct option is (B).

200Ω

6. Given that z0 = 50 W λ /4

Open loop impendence zoc = 100 + j 150

zo2 = zoc zsc Z + Z 0 tan b l

Z in = Z 0 L

2500 50 Z 0 − Z L tan b l

= zsc = = 2p l p

50( 2 + j 3) ( 2 + j 3) bl = × =

l 4 2

50 100 150 Z 2 0 2500 25

( 2 − j 3) = −j Z in 1 = = =

4+9 13 13 ZL 100 2

= 7.69 – j11.54 Z 2 0 2500 25

Z in 2 = = =

ZL 200 2

Hence, the correct option is (D).

25

Z in = Z in 1 // Z in2 =

7. Characteristics impedance is 50 W. 3

ZL ZL − Z0

S= if Z L > Z0 but minimum is occurred at load. Γ=

Z0 ZL + Z0

Z0

So, Z L = 12.5Ω = ZL

S

ZO = 50Ω

V max 4 50

S = = ⇒ ZL = = 12.5Ω

V min 1 4 λ/4

Hence, the correct option is (C). 25

3 − 50 5

ZL − Z0 = =

8. Reflection coefficient Γ = 25 + 50 7

ZL − Z0 3

12.5 − 50 Hence, the correct option is (D).

= = −0.6 11. Zo = 75, L = 1 cm

12.5 + 50

Hence, the correct option is (A). F = 3 × 109 Hz

9. Characteristic impedance is matched with load imped- 2p 2p 2p

b = = ×f = cm

ance, so no reflections. l C 10

S11 = S22 = 0 ZL = 0

Z + jZ O tan b l

Z in = Z O L Z

Z O + jZ O tan b l

Z0 50 Ω Z0

= jZo tan b

= j75 tan 36° = j54.4906

So, input impedance is inductive. Hence, the correct

option is (D).

If any source is applied at Port 1, then total power is pd

12. Mode No. V = ( N.A )

transferred to Port 2 and vice versa. lO

S12 = S21 = 1 NA is Numerical aperture.

0 1 If wavelength is halved and radius is doubled, then V

⇒ S − matrix 1

1 0 becomes times of previous, and single mode opera-

4

Hence, the correct option is (B). tion is not preserved. Hence, the correct option is (D).

3.666 | Part III • Unit 8 • Electromagnetics

13. Z + jZ O tan b l

Z in = Z 0 L

Z L = 50

Z O + jZ L tan b l

λ/4

λ/4

Z o = 100Ω λ/4 4.7µF

Z o = 50Ω Z1 B C

β =100

Z2 Z L Z L = ZI//Z2 Ib

Zi

Z o = 100Ω Z 0 = 50

R S 1kΩ

λ/4

h ie ↓

Re 93kΩ 259Ω βIb R c 250Ω R 2 1kΩ

Z L = 50

+

VS

2p l p −

b l = × =

l 4 2

Z 20 0 + j 30 2p 1

⇒ Z in = Z 1 = 30

ZL = j 30 ∵ b l = l × 3

30 + j 0

10 4

Z 1 = = 200 Ω

50 30

+ j 30 2

10 4 tan p

2p l

Z 2 = = 200 Ω Z 2 = 30 2 2

∵ b l = l × 4

50 30 2

ZL = Z1//Z2 = 100 Ω + j 30

tan p

2

Z 2 0 2500

Zi = = = 25 = 60 W

ZL 100

Hence, the correct option is (D). Z1 + Z2 = Z2

ZL = j30 + 60

14. Given that line is distortionless, w = 0. So, b = 0.

ZL − ZO 60 + j 30 − 60 j 30 j

d = a + j b = ( R + jwL )(G + jw C)

Γ = = = =

ZL + ZO 60 + j 30 + 60 120 + j 30 4+ j

a = RG 1

=

17

( R + jw L ) R

and Z 0 = =

(G + jw C) G 1

1+

αZo = R 1+ Γ 17 17 + 1

V SW R = = = = 1.64

1− Γ 1 17 − 1

1−

R 0.1 17

⇒ a = = = 0.002 Hence, the correct option is (B).

Z 0 50

Hence, the correct option is (D). 16. Z0 = 50 W, ZL = 50 W

Sinusoidal voltage source, frequency f = 10 GHz

15. Phase difference between two points spaced 2 mm

Z0 = 30 λ/8 p

apart on the line is found to be .

Z1 4

So, the 2p, phase difference will be observed at 2 × 8 =

16 mm = (l)

Z2 w

Z0 = 60 Phase velocity Vp =

ZL = 30 b

2p f

= =

2p

λ/4

l

Chapter 3 • Transmission Lines | 3.667

= 16 × 10 × 10 × 10

–3 9 sion line is

1

V =

= 1. 6 × 108 m/s LC

Hence, the correct option is (C). but impedance depends on spacing between parallel

Z Z

17. VSWR = 0 0 plates.

ZL ZL

Z0 50 120 2D

⇒ ZL = = = 10 Ω Z0 = ln

V SW R 5 er W

Hence, the correct option is (A).

18. For coaxial cable, 120 D [∵ D → D /2]

Z 10 = ln

m b m0 b er W

Z0 = In = In

e a e 0e r a → Velocity does not change but impedance will be

10 −9 half. Hence, the correct option is (B).

m0 = 4p × 10–7H/m, e0 = F/m, er = 10.89,

36p Z + jZ 0 tan b l

21. Z in = Z 0 L

b = 2.4 mm, a = 1 mm

Z 0 + jZ L tan b l

So, Z0 = 100 W

2p l p

Hence, the correct option is (B). b = × =

l 8 4

19. Characteristic impedance = 100 W

Z + jZ o

Sections impedance = 50 W, 200 W Z in = Z o L

Frequency = 429 MHz 1 GHz Z o + jZ L

Matching section should have length Zo = 50 Ω and ZL = R + j X = R + j 30 and Zin is real, so

l

= (2n + 1) imaginary part of input impedance is zero.

4

l = operating wave length

λ R + j 80

Z in = 50 Zin

20 + jR

[( R + j 80)( 20 − jR )]

50Ω 100Ω 200Ω

= 50

400 + R 2

100 R − j (1600 − R 2 )

⇒ Z in = 50

Matching 400 + R 2

section

l C

For 429 MHz, l1 = 1 = = 0.175m ⇒ R = 40 Ω

4 4f 1

Hence, the correct answer is 39 to 41.

l2 C

For 1 GHz; l 2 = = = 0.075m 22. Signal distortion occurs if any one of the impedances

4 4f 21

does not match with the characteristic impedance of the

l = multiple of LCM of l1 and l2 transmission line or impedance mismatch at the both

= multiple of 0.525 m ends.

Hence, 1.05 is appropriate solution. That is, ZT ≠ Z0 and ZR ≠ Z0

Hence, the correct option is (B). Hence, the correct option is (C).

3.668 | Part III • Unit 8 • Electromagnetics

s = 0.1 µF/m

23. Given that loss tangent tan d = 0 =

we Assuming the line to be a low loss distortionless line.

s

Loss tangent tan d = 0 = α = RG = 2 ⇒ RG = 4

we

⇒s=0 R G

= OR

So conductance G = 0 L C

Hence, the correct option is (B). R L

s = = 2500

24. Given that loss tangent tan d = 0 = G C

we

s R

Loss tangent tan d = 0 = ⇒ RG × = R 2 = 10 4

we G

⇒s=0

R = 100 Ω

So conductance G = 0 RG = 4

Hence, the correct option is (B). G = 4/100 = 0.04S/m Choice (B)

As Z is real, line is a lossless line, 25. Choice (B)

L 26. Zoc = jzo cot(b )

⇒Z= = 50

C eff. Load impedance for 1 m long line is

β = ω LC ZL = 50 // [–jzo cotb ]

for γ = 0, ZL = 50

5 = 106 × LC i.e. –jzo cot b = ∞

⇒ LC = 5×10 −6 (or)

b =π

L ω LC × = π

LC × = L = 250 µ H / m

C

1

⇒ LC = 5 × 10 −6 2π × 109 × ×=π

2 × 108

25 × 10 −12

⇒C= 1

25 × 10 −5 ⇒ = = 0.1 m [Answer: 0.1]

10

Chapter 4 Wave Guides

Exercises

Practice Problems 1 (A) TE10, TE01, TM01, TM10, TE11

(B) TE10, TE01, TE11, TE11,

Directions for questions 1 to 19: Select the correct alterna-

(C) TE10, TE20, TM11, TE11,

tive from the given choices.

(D) TE10, TE01, TE11, TE20

1. A particular mode is excited in a wave guide, there

10. In problem 9, the dominant mode frequency is

appears an extra electric field component in the

(A) 3.75 GHZ (B) 5 GHZ

direction of propagation In what mode is the wave

(C) 6.25 GHZ (D) 7.5 GHZ

propagating?

(A) Transverse electric 11. An air-filled rectangular wave guide has inner dimen-

(B) Transverse Magnetic sions of 8 cm × 6 cm. The wave impedance of TE11,

(C) Transverse electromagnetic TM11 modes of propagation at a frequency of 6.25 GHZ

(D) Longitudinal respectively in ohms are

2. Which of the following components exist for TE11 wave 60 p , 80 p

60 3p , 80 3p (B)

(A)

(Assume wave along z direction) 3 3

(A) All are present except Ez

(B) Ex, Ey, Hx, Hy (C) 80 p , 60 p

80 3p , 60 3p (D)

3 3

(C) Ex, Hy, Ez

(D) Ex, Hy, Hz 12. In problem 11, the degenerate modes are

3. If in a Rectangular wave guide for which a = 2b, the (A) TE11, TM11 (B) TE22, TM22

cut-off frequency for TE02 mode is 12GHz, the cut-off (C) both a and b (D) only (a)

frequency for TM11 mode is 13. A rectangular wave guide of dimensions a × b has E

(A) 3 GHz (B) 3 5GHz

= wm p sin 2p x .e j (w t − b z ) a y The mode of operation

(C) 12 GHz (D) 6 5 GHz h2 a a

4. For TE or TM modes of propagation in bounded media, of the guide

the phase velocity (A) TM11 (B) TM10 (C) TE10 (D) TM20

(A) is independent of frequency 14. A wave guide has a separation of 6 cm for the broader

(B) is linear function of frequency dimension and carries the dominant mode at an

(C) is non-linear function of frequency unknown frequency if the wave impedance is 754 W

(D) can be frequency dependent or independent de- the unknown frequency is

pending on the source.

(A) 5 GHz (B) 5 3 GHz

5. The cut-off frequency of the dominant mode of a rec- 3

tangular wave guide having aspect ratio more than 4 is (C) 8.0 GHz (D) 0.29 GHz

5GHz. The inner broad wall dimension is given by

(A) 3 cm (B) 1.5 cm (C) 2 cm (D) 2.5 cm 15. Determine the phase velocity of the wave of rectangu-

lar wave guide of dimensions 7 cm × 3⋅5 cm operating

6. Which of the following is the second dominant mode if

in dominant shade at a frequency of 3⋅5GHz

b < a/2 in rectangular wave guide

(A) 3 ×108 m/s (B) 3.78 × 108 m/s

(A) TE10 (B) TE20 (C) TE01 (D) TE11

(C) 3.1 × 108 m/s (D) 3.6 × 108 m/s

7. A rectangular wave guide of internal dimensions a =

8 cm, b = 6 cm is to be operated in TE11 mode. The Statement for Linked Answer Questions 16 and 17:

minimum operating frequency is An air-filled rectangular wave guide of dimensions a =

(A) 3.125 GHz (B) 625 GHz 4 cm, b = 2 cm, transports energy in the dominant mode

(C) 9.375 GHz (D) 1.875 GHz at a rate of 2 mW. If the frequency of operation is 10 GHz.

8. A rectangular metal wave guide filled with a material of 16. Determine hTE?

mr = 4, ∈r = 9, has the internal dimensions of 2.0 cm × (A) 406.7 W (B) 40.67 W

1.2 cm the maximum frequency for which, no propaga- (C) 4.067 W (D) 0.4067 W

tion through wave guide. 17. Determine peak value of the electric field in the

(A) 2.5 GHz (B) 0.75 GHz guide

(C) 1.25 GHz (D) 7.5 GHz (A) 63.77 v/m

9. A rectangular wave guide has dimensions of a = 4 cm, b (B) 637.7 v/m

= 3 cm. The modes that propagate through wave guide (C) 6377 v/m

at a frequency of 6.5 GHz (D) 6.377 v/m

3.670 | Part III • Unit 8 • Electromagnetics

Common Data for Questions 18 and 19: (A) 31.31 (B) 0.3131 (C) 3.131 (D) 313.1

A certain microstrip line has fused Quartz (er = 3.8) as a sub- 1 9. Find the wave length of the line at 10 GHz

strate. The ratio of the line width to substrate thickness w = 4.5. (A) 169 mm (B) 1.69 mm

t (C) 0.169 mm (D) 16.9 mm

18. Determine effective relative permitivity of the substrate.

Directions for questions 1 to 15: Select the correct alterna- 9. The guide wave length (lg) cut-off wavelength (lc) and

tive from the given choices. free-space wave length (lo) related as

1. When a particular mode is excited in a wave guide, there

(A) 1 1 1 (B) 1 1 1

appears an extra magnetic field component in the direc- = + = +

tion of propagation. In what is the wave propagating lo 2 l12 lg 2 lc 2 l0 2 lg 2

(A) Transverse magnetic

(C) 1 1 1 (D)

1 1 1

(B) Transverse electric = + = +

(C) Transverse electromagnetic lg 2 l0 2 lc 2 lo lg lc

(D) None of these

10. Which of the following have the least cut-off frequency

2. Which of the following is the dominant mode in rectan-

for a rectangular wave guide of a × b sides with b ≤ a ?

gular wave guides? 2

(A) TE10 (B) TE11 (C) TE01 (D) TE11 (A) TE11 (B) TE02 (C) TE20 (D) TE12

3. Which of the following components present in TE30

11. Relation that exists between guide wave length (lg)

(assume wave along z-direction)

free-space wave length (l0) and cut-off wave length (lc)

(A) Ey, Hx, Hz (B) Ex, Hy, Hz

a rectangular wave guide is

(C) Ex, Hy, Hz (D) Ex, Ey, Hx, Hy, Hz 2

l0 l

4. For a wave propagating in an air-filled rectangular wave (A) lg = (B) lg = l0 1 − o

guide l

2

lc

(A) Guide wavelength is never less than free-space 1− o

lc

wavelength

(B) Wave impedance is never less than free-space im- l0 l

2

pedance lg =

(C) lg = l0 1 + o

(D)

(C) TEM mode is positive if the dimensions of the l

2

lc

1+ o

guide are properly chosen. l c

(D) Propagation constant is always a real quantity.

5. The cut-off wave length lc for TE20 mode for a rectan- 12. A wave guide has internal breadth of a = 3 cm and car-

gular wave guide is ries a dominant mode of signal unknown frequency. If

(A) a (B) 2a (C) 2 (D) 2a2 the characteristic wave impedance is 500 W, what is the

a

6. Which of the following is true about degenerate modes frequency?

(A) The modes having the same resonant frequency is (A) 7.621 GHz (B) 76.21 GHz

called degenerate modes. (C) 0.7621 GHz (D) 762.1 GHz

(B) The modes having the frequencies in integral mul-

13. An air dielectric L band wave guide has a = 2 and a

tiples of other. b

(C) The modes having the cut-off frequencies in mul- dominant-mode cut-off frequency of 0.908 GHz. If the

tiples of dominant mode frequency. measured guide wave length is 40 cm, find the operat-

(D) None of the above. ing frequency

7. A rectangular wave guide having a cut-off frequency of (A) 1.18 GHz (B) 2.18 GHz

9 GHz for TE03 mode and Then, the inner narrow wall (C) 3.18 GHz (D) 4.18 GHz

dimension of wave guide is 14. A TE10 rectangular wave guide is to be designed for

(A) 1.5 cm (B) 5 cm operation over 25–35 GHz and the band centre is 1.5

(C) 2.5 cm (D) 3.75 cm times the cut-off frequency, what should be the dimen-

8. An air-filled rectangular wave guide has dimension as sions of the broadside

4 cm × 4 cm. The ratio of dominant mode cut-off fre- (A) 15 mm (B) 10 mm

quencies in TE to TM mode is (C) 9 mm (D) 7.5 mm

Chapter 4 • Wave Guides | 3.671

15. A TE10 mode of propagation operating at 3 GHz is (A) 67.648 W (B) 676.48 W

impressed on a hollow rectangular wave guide of (C) 6.7648 W (D) 0.67648 W

dimensions 6 cm × 4 cm. Determine cut-off wave

length, find wave impedance?

Previous Years’ Questions the TE30 mode. The inner broad wall dimension of the

rectangular wave guide is: [2006]

1. In a microwave test bench, why is the microwave signal

5

amplitude modulated at 1 kHz. [2004] (A) cms (B) 5 cm

(A) To increase the sensitivity of measurement 3

(B) To transmit the signal to a far-off place 5

(C) cms (D) 10cms

(C) To study amplitude modulation 2

(D) Because crystal detector fails at microwave fre- 4. An air-filled rectangular wave guide has inner dimen-

quencies. sions of 3 × 2 cm. the wave impedance of the TE20

2. Which one of the following does represent the electric mode of propagation in the wave guide at a frequency

field lines for the TE02 mode in the cross-section of a of 30 GHz is (free space impedance h0 = 377 W)[2007]

hollow rectangular metallic wave guide? [2005] (A) 308 W (B) 355 W

(C) 400 W (D) 461 W

(A) y

5. The E field in a rectangular wave guide of inner dimen-

sions a × b is given by

2

wm p 2px

E = 2 H 0 sin sin(w t − b z ) y V /m

h a a

along the x-axis and the y-axis, respectively. The mode

(B)

y of propagation in the wave guide is: [2007]

(A) TE20 (B) TM11 (C) TM20 (D) TE10

6. A rectangular wave guide of internal dimensions

(a = 4 cm and b = 3) is to be operated in TE11 mode. The

minimum operating frequency is [2008]

(A) 6.25 GHz (B) 6.0 GHz

x (C) 5.0 GHz (D) 3.75 GHz

7. Which of the following statements is true regarding the

(C)

y fundamental mode of the metallic wave guides shown?

[2009]

P: Coaxial Q: Cylindrical

(D)

y

R: Rectangular

(B) Only Q has no cut-off-frequency

(C) Only R has no cut-off-frequency

(D) all three have cut-off-frequency

x

8. If the scattering matrix [S] of a two port network is

3. A rectangular wave guide having TE10 mode as domi- 0.2∠0° 0.9∠90°

nant mode is having a cut-off frequency of 18 GHz for

[S ] = then the network is[2010]

0.9∠90° 0.1∠90°

3.672 | Part III • Unit 8 • Electromagnetics

(A) lossless and reciprocal 13. Which one of the following field patterns represents

(B) lossless but not reciprocal a TEM wave travelling in the positive × direction?

(C) not lossless but reciprocal [2014]

(D) neither lossless nor reciprocal (A) E = +8 ŷ , H = −4 ẑ

9. The modes in a rectangular wave guide are denoted by (B) E = −2 ŷ , H = −3 ẑ

TEmn/TMmn where m and n are the eigen numbers along (C) E = +2 ẑ , H = +2 ŷ

the larger and smaller dimensions of the wave guide

(B) E = −3 ŷ , H = +4 ẑ

respectively. Which one of the following statements is

TRUE? [2011] 14. In the transmission line shown, the impedance Zin (in

(A) The TM10 mode of the wave guide does not exist. ohms) between node A and the ground is ___________.

(B) The TE10 mode of the wave guide does not exist. [2014]

(C) The TM10 and the TE10 modes both exist and have Α

the same cut-off frequencies.

(D) The TM10 and the TM01 modes both exist and have Z0 = 50Ω, L = 0.5λ

100Ω 50Ω

the same cut-off frequencies. Zin =?

10. The magnetic field along the propagation direction

inside a rectangular wave guide with the cross sec-

tion shown in the figure is Hz = 3 cos(2.094 × 102x) 15. For a rectangular wave guide of internal dimensions a

cos(2.618 × 102y) cos(6.283 × 1010t − bz) × b (a > b), the cut-off frequency for the TE11 mode is

the arithmetic mean of the cut-off frequencies for TE10

Y mode and TE20 mode. If a = 5 cm, the value of b (in

cm) is_______. [2014]

1.2 cm

16. Consider an air-filled rectangular wave guide with a

3 cm x cross-section of 5 cm × 3 cm. For this wave guide, the

cut-off frequency (in MHz) of TE21 mode is _________.

The phase velocity Vp of the wave inside the wave guide [2014]

satisfies [2012]

17. Consider an air filled rectangular waveguide with

(A) Vp > c (B) Vp = c

dimensions a = 2.286 cm and b = 1.016 cm. At 10

(C) 0 < Vp , c (D) Vp = 0

GHz operating frequency, the value of the propagation

11. The return loss of a device is found to be 20 dB. The constant (per meter) of the corresponding propagating

voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) and magnitude of mode is __________. [2016]

reflection coefficient are, respectively [2013]

18.Consider an air filled rectangular waveguide with dimen-

(A) 1.22 and 0.1 (B) 0.81 and 0.1

sions a = 2.286 and b = 1.016 cm. The increasing order

(C) −1.22 and 0.1 (D) 2.44 and 0.2

of the cut off frequencies for different modes is [2016]

12. A two-port network has scattering parameters given by (A) TE01 < TE10 < TE11 < TE20

(B) TE20 < TE11 < TE10 < TE01

s s

[S] = 11 12 . If the port-2 of the two port is short- (C) TE10 < TE20 < TE01 < TE11

s21 s22 (D) TE10 ,< TE11 < TE20 < TE01

circuited, the s11 parameter for the resultant one-port

network is [2014]

s11 − s11 s22 + s12 s21 s11 + s11 s22 − s12 s21

(A) (B)

1 + s22 1 + s22

s11 + s11 s22 + s12 s21 s11 − s11 s22 + s12 s21

(C) (D)

1 − s22 1 − s22

Chapter 4 • Wave Guides | 3.673

Hints/Solutions

Practice Problems 1 8. The maximum frequency for which no propagation,

that is, the minimum frequency for which propagation

1. According to the given information, Ez ≠ 0 (if the wave occurs

is along z-direction). 1 1

\ TM wave f c TE10 = .

Hence, the correct option is (B). 2 m∈ a

2. In TEmn, if m > 0, n > 0, then Ez = 0, and remaining all 3 × 108 1

× =1.25 GHz

components are present. 2 × 2 × 3 2 × 10 −2

Hence, the correct option is (A). Hence, the correct option is (C).

2

C 0 2

2 9. TE10, is dominant mode

3. f c TE = +

02

2 a b 3 × 108

f c = = 3.75GHz

2 × 4 × 10 −2

c

f c TE02

= = 12GHz f c = 6.25GHz

b TE11

2

C 1 1

2

f c TM11

= 6.25GH

f c TE = +

11

2 a b f c = 5GHz

TE 01

2

C 1 1 f c = 7.5GHz

= + TE 20

2 4b 2 b

f c TE 02

= 10GHz

C1 5

f c TM = . \ The modes which have cut-off frequency less than

11

2b 2 6.5 GHZ will propagate through waveguide.

f c TM = 3 5 GHz \ f TE10, TE01, TE11, TM11

11

Hence, the correct option is (B). Hence, the correct option is (B).

J 3 × 108 10

4. Vg = 11. f c TE11 = ×

2 2 8 × 6 × 10 −2

fc

1− 100

f = GHZ

J = F ( f ) = c = light velocity 32

Phase velocity is non-linearly related to frequency. 25

= GHZ

Hence, the correct option is (C). 8

c = 3.125 GHZ

5. f c =

2a f c TE11 = f c TM 11 = 3.125GHz

a − inner broad wall dimension

ho

3 × 1010 hTE =

a= 2

2 × 5 × 10 9 fc

1−

a = 3 cm f

Hence, the correct option is (C).

120p

6. If b < a/2, then the second dominant mode is TE20, as = (ho = 120p Ω)

( 2)

2

explained in theory part. Hence, the correct option is (B). 1− 1

1 a +b 2 2

7. f c = 240p

TE11

2 m∈ ab =

3

3 × 108 10

= × hTE = 80 3p

2 8 × 6 × 10 −2

( )

2

=

100

GHz hTM = h o 1 − fc

f

32

25 3

= GHz = 3.125 GHz = 120 p = 60 3p

8 2

Hence, the correct option is (A). Hence, the correct option is (C).

3.674 | Part III • Unit 8 • Electromagnetics

f c = = 3.75 GHz

\ TE20 and if n = 0 2a

TM20 does not exist. h

hΩ =

= 406.7 W

Hence, the correct option is (D). 2

fc

14. TE10 is dominant mode. 1−

f

h Hence, the correct option is (A).

hTE =

2

fc b a

| E yx |2

1−

f 17. Pavg = ∫

y= 0

∫

x= 0

2h

dxdy

3 × 108

f c = = 2.5GHz

E0 2 b a 2 p x

2 × 6 × 10 −2

2h ∫0 ∫0

= dy sin dz

377 a

754 =

2

fc E0 2 ab

1− =

f 4h

2 4hPavg

fc 1 Hence, E02 =

1− = .

ab

f 4

\ E0 = 63⋅77 V/m

fc 3 5

= =f= GHz Hence, the correct option is (A).

f 2 3

Hence, the correct option is (A).

18. e eff =

(e r +1 ) + (e r −1 )

= 3.131

C 2 t

15. Phase velocity, Vp = 2 1 + 12

2 w

f

1− c Hence, the correct option is (C).

f

Hence, the correct option is (B). 1 120p

19. ZO =

16. The dominant mode for a > b is TE10 mode. The field e eff w w

t + 1.393 + 0.66 + t + 1.444

px

expressions Exs = 0; Eys = −jE0 sin e − j bz m c

a

and l = = = 16.9 mm

w ma f f e eff

where Eo = Ho

p Hence, the correct option is (D).

Practice Problems 2

2

1. Hz ≠ 0, Ez = 0 5. lc =

2 2

\TE wave m n

Hence, the correct option is (B). +

a b

2. The mode with the lowest frequency is the dominant 2

mode. lc = =a

2

\ TE10 a

Hence, the correct option is (A). Hence, the correct option is (A).

3. In TEmo, modes Ey, Hx, and Hz field components are pre- 6. The modes which have the same resonant frequency is

sent. Hence, the correct option is (A). called degenerate modes. Hence, the correct option is (A).

1 3

4. lg > l (always) 7. f c TE 03 = .

2 m∈ b

where as in option ‘B’

1 3

hTE > h > TM

9GHz = .

2 m∈ b

In option ‘C’, TEM is never possible in waveguide.

b = 0.05

For option (d), propagation constant is a complex quan-

b = 5 cm

tity. Hence, the correct option is (A).

Hence, the correct option is (B).

Chapter 4 • Wave Guides | 3.675

f CTE10 = = 5 GHz

c 2a

f c TE10 =

2a \ f = 7.621 GHz

In TM, TM11 is dominant mode. Hence, the correct option is (A).

l0

C 2 13. lg =

f c TM = . 2

1

2 a l

1− 0

f c TE 1 lg

\ 10

=

f c TE 2 c 3 × 1010

11

\ lc = = = 33.04cm

Hence, the correct option is (D). f c 0.908 × 10 9

10. For b ≤ a , the mode next to dominant mode is TE20. 1 1 1

2 2 = 2 − 2

Hence, the correct option is (C). lg l0 lc

11. Blg = 2p

\ λ0 = 25.45 cm

2

2p fc

lg = 1− c 3 × 1010

w me f 0 \f= = = 1.186 GHz

l0 25.45

We know

Hence, the correct option is (A).

c

lc =

fc

( )

2

C m c

l0 = co/fo 14. f c T E 10 = =

2 a 2a

l0

\ lg = c

2 Band centre = 1.5 × = 30 GHz

l 2a

1− 0 a = 7.5 mm

l c

Hence, the correct option is (D).

Hence, the correct option is (A).

h0

12. Z TE10 = 500Ω 15. hTE = = 676.48Ω

2

l

h 1−

= 500W lc

2

f Hence, the correct option is (B).

1− c

f

3 × 1010 2a

1. In a microwave test bench, microwave signal is ampli- For T E30 , then lC = =

tude modulated at 1 kHz because crystal detector fails at 18 × 10 9 3

microwave frequencies. Hence, the correct option is (D). 5

⇒ a = cm

2. Electric field lines for TE02 mode for a hollow rectangu- 2

Hence, the correct option is (C).

lar metallic wave guide is

4. a = 3 cm, b = 2 cm

Y Operating frequency f = 30 GHz

ho = 377 Ω

→ lc = a = 3 cm

c

f C = = 10GHz

3

ho ho 9

Z TE = = = 377 = 400Ω

f

2

1

2 8

x 1− C 1−

fo 3

Hence, the correct option is (D). Hence, the correct option is (C).

3.676 | Part III • Unit 8 • Electromagnetics

VSWR = = = 1.222

− jw m p mp np j(w t − b z) 1− Γ 1 − 0.1

E y = C sin cos e

h 2

a a b Hence, the correct option is (A).

Mode of propagation of wave is TE 20. 12. S11 is input reflection (Γ in ) .

Hence, the correct option is (A). S 12S 21Γ L

= S 11 +

6. Minimum operating frequency 1 − S 22 Γ L

2 2 ZL − ZO

3 × 1010 1 1 Γ L = and second end is short circuited. So

f = + ZL + ZO

2 4 3

ZL = 0.

= 0.625 × 1010 Hz

ΓL = −1

= 6.25 GHz

Hence, the correct option is (A). S 12S 21 S 11 + S 11S 22 − S 12S 21

⇒ (Γ in ) = S 11 − =

7. The dominant mode of propagation in a coaxial line 1 + S 22 1 + S 22

is TEM wave. Coaxial waveguide has no cut-off Hence, the correct option is (B).

frequency.

Hence, the correct option is (A). 13. TEM wave is travelling in positive x-direction. So,

8. S12 = S21 = 0.9 90°. So, network is reciprocal. E × H = in x-direction

For lossless [S][S]* = I Hence, the correct option is (B).

2p l

0.2 j 0.9 0.2 j 0.9 1 0 14. bl = × =p

j 0.9 0.1∠90° j 0.9 0.1∠90° ≠ 0 1 l 2

A

So, given matrix is not lossless but reciprocal. Hence, Z 0 = 50 Ω, L = λ/2

the correct option is (C). Z in

9. The TM10 mode does not exist. Hence, the correct 100 Ω 50 Ω

option is (A). Z in

10. bx = 2.094 × 102 rad/m, by = 2.618 × 102 rad/m

w2 Z

bz = − ( b x2 + b y2 ) ⇒ Z 1in = Z O L = Z L = 50Ω

C2

ZO

b z = w 2 mε − ( b x2 + b y2 ) ⇒ Z in = Z 1in //100Ω

= 33.3 Ω

2

6.283 × 1010 Hence, the correct answer is 32.99 to 34.01.

= − ( 209.4 2 + 261.82 )

3 × 108 15. Cut-off frequency of

= j261.8 f CT + f CTE

T E11 =

E10 20

non-propagating.

2ab

Vp = 0 lCT E11 =

Hence, the correct option is (D). a2 + b 2

Ei lCTE = 2a

11. Return loss (dB) = 10 log10

10

Er

lCTE = a

20

2

V

= 10 log10 S C C

Vr +

C a2 + b 2 2

⇒ = a a

20 = −20 log10 Γ ⇒ Γ = 0.1 2ab 2

Chapter 4 • Wave Guides | 3.677

⇒ 5 + b2 = b [∵ a = 5 ]

2 2π

kc = , cutoff phase constant

From above equation, b = 2 λc

Hence, the correct option is 1.9 to 2.1. ⇒ γ g = γ 2 + k c2

16. Dimensions of rectangular wave guide is 5 × 3. = 157 m-1

2 [Answer: 157 m-1]

lC = 18. Cut off frequency,

2 2

m n kc

+ fc = c

a b 2π

2 Where

lCTE = kc = cut off phase constant

21 2 2

2 1 c = speed of light

+ π π

5 3 TE10 → k c = =

a 2.286

2×5×3

= = 3.84 cm 2π π

36 + 25 TE 20 → k c = =

a 1.143

C 3 × 1010 π π

f C = = = 7812.5 MHz TE 01 → k c = =

lC 3.84 b 1.016

2 2

Hence, the correct answer is 7810 to 7815. π π π

TE11 → k c = + =

17. 157m-1 a b 0.862

Guide propagation constant, ∴fcTE10 < fcTE20 < fcTE01 < fcTE11

γ g2 = γ 2 + k c2 Choice (C)

Chapter 5 Basics of Antennas

Exercises

Practice Problems 1

Directions for questions 1 to 12: Select the correct alterna- (C) 20 mW (D) 100 mW

tive from the given choices. 8. The radiation pattern of an antenna in spherical co-

1. An antenna having a gain of 10 dB radiates 3-W power ordinates is given by U (q) = cos4q ; 0 ≤ q ≤ p .

in free space. The electric field intensity at a distance of 2

Directivity of the antenna is

1 km from the antenna is given by (ho = 120p)

(A) 10 dB (B) 12.6 dB

(A) 30m V (B) 30 2m V (C) 11.5 dB (D) 18 dB

m m

9. A l dipole is kept horizontally at a height of l

(C) 15m V (D) 15 2m V 2 2

m m above a perfectly conducting infinite ground plane. The

2. The electric field intensity at a distance of 10 km from an

antenna having a directive gain of 10 dB and radiating a radiation pattern in the plane of the dipole is

total power of 60 kw is (A) y (B) y

(A) 0.6 V (B) 1.2 V

m m

(C) 0.36 V (D) 13.3 m w 2

m m Z

3. An antenna having a directivity of 2 at a frequency of Z

300 MHz will have a maximum effective aperture of (C) y (D) y

1 1 2

(A) m 2 (B) m

80p 4p

1 1 2

(C) m 2 (D) m Z

2p p Z

4. A mast antenna consisting of a 50-metre long vertical

conductor operates over a perfectly ground plane. It 10. The maximum effective area of a l wire dipole oper-

2

is base-fed at a frequency of 600 kHz. The radiation ating at 30 MHz and how much power is received with

resistance of the antenna is

p2 an incident wave of strength 2m V is, respectively

(A) 8p2 (B) m

5

(A) 6.525 m2, 70 nW (B) 13.05 m2, 35.8 nW

(C) 4 p 2

(D) 20p2 (C) 13.05 m2, 71.62 nW (D) 6.525 m2, 35.8 nW

5

5. A medium wave radio transmitter operating at a wave- Common Data for Questions 11 and 12:

length of 500 m and the height of tower antenna in 11. In the radiation pattern of the three element array of

125 m, then the radiation resistance of the antenna is l

(A) 73 W (B) 36.5 W isotropic radiators equally spaced at distance of ,

4

(C) 50 W (D) 25 W it is required to place a null at an angle of 33.56° of

6. In a uniform linear array four isotropic elements are placed the end-fire direction. Calculate the progressive phase

l apart. The progressive phase shift between the elements shifts to be applied to the elements.

2

required for forming the main beam at 60° off the end-fire is p p

(A) rad (B) rad

(A) -p (B) −p 4 2

2 (C) 3p (D) p rad

(C) − p (D) −p 12. For the above Q. No. 11, calculate the angle at which

4 8

7. A transmitting antenna radiates 251 W isotropically, the main beam is placed for this phase distribution?

and a receiving antenna 100 m away from the transmit- (A) fmax = 120°

ting antenna has an effective aperture of 500 cm2. The (B) fmax = 60°

total received power by the antenna is (C) fmax = 30°

(A) 10 mW (B) 1 mW (D) fmax = 10°

Chapter 5 • Basics of Antennas | 3.689

Practice Problems 2

Directions for Questions 1 to 11: Select the correct alter- (A) at perpendicular to the line of array

native from the given choices. (B) along the line of array

Common Data for Questions 1 and 2: (C) 45° to the line of array

p (D) in both perpendicular and along the axis of array

Strength of 5 mA/m is required at a point on q = , 1 km

2 7. For taking antenna far field pattern, what must be

from an antenna in air, neglecting ohmic losses.

the distance R between transmitting and receiving

1. If the antenna is half-wave dipole, then the radiated

antennas?

power is

(A) 36 mw (B) 144 mw 2d 2 4D2l 2

(A) R> (B) R>

(C) 72 mw (D) 108 mw l 3

2

D 2D 2

2. If the antenna is quarter-wave monopole, then the radi- (C) R> (D) R> 2

ated power is 2l 2

l

(A) 18.25 mw (B) 36.5 mw 8. A transmitting antenna has a gain of 10 dB. If it is fed

(C) 73 mw (D) 18 mw with a signal power of 10 W assuming free space prop-

3. The radiation intensity of a certain antenna is agation, what power would be captured by a receiving

antenna of effective area 1 m2 in the broadside direction

2 sin f 0 ≤ q ≤ p

u(q , f ) = . Then the radiated power at a distance of 1 m?

0 0≤f ≤p (A) 0.8 W (B) 8 W

is (C) 0.2 W (D) 2 W

(A) 2 W (B) 4 W

l

(C) zero (D) 8 W 9. Which of the following is not a dipole antenna?

(A) Yagi-Uda antenna 2

4. The directivity of an antenna with normalized radiation

(B) Rhombic antenna

intensity is

(C) Parabolic antenna

(D) Horn antenna

U(q, f) = 2 sinf 0 ≤ f ≤ p

0 else 10. The gain G of an antenna of effective area A is given by

(A) 1.273 (B) 2.546 4pl 4p A

G=

(A) (B) G =

16

4 (D)

(C) A2 l

p p

4p 4p l 2

5. The electric field intensity at a distance of 10 km from G=

(C) A (D)

G =

l2 A

an antenna having a directive gain of 10 dB and radiat-

ing a total power of 80 kW is 11. An end-fire array consisting of several half-wavelength

(A) 1.08 v/n (B) 10.8 v/n long isotropic radiators has a directive gain of 30 dB.

(C) 1.04 (D) None of the above Beam Width between First null (BWFN) is given by

(A) 47.3° (B) 59.4°

6. The maximum radiation for an end-fire array occur

(C) 71.3° (D) 90°

3.690 | Part III • Unit 8 • Electromagnetics

1. Two identical and parallel dipole antennas are kept 2p 2 p2

l (A) (B)

apart by a distance of in the H-plane. They are fed 5 5

4

with equal currents but the right-most antenna has a 4p 2

(C) (D) 20p2

phase shift of +90°. The radiation pattern is given as 5

[2005]

l l

(A) 4. A dipole is kept horizontally at a height of 0 above

2 2

a perfectly conducting infinite ground plane.

The radia-

(

tion pattern in the plane of the dipole E plane looks

approximately as [2007]

)

(A) y

(B) z

(B) y

z

y

(C)

(C)

z

(D) y

z

5. For a Hertz dipole antenna, the half-power beam width

(D) (HPBW) in the E-plane is [2008]

(A) 360° (B) 180°

(C) 90° (D) 45°

6. At 20 GHz, the gain of a parabolic dish antenna of 1

metre diameter and 70% efficiency is [2008]

(A) 15 dB (B) 25 dB

(C) 35 dB (D) 45 dB

7. Match Column A with Column B. [2014]

2. A transmission line is feeding 1 watt of power to a horn

Column A Column B

antenna having a gain of 10 dB. The antenna is matched

1. Point electromagnetic P. Highly directional

to the transmission line. The total power radiated by the

source

horn antenna into the free space is [2006]

2. Dish antenna Q. End fire

(A) 10 watts (B) 1 watt

(C) 0.1 watt (D) 0.01 watt 3. Yagi-Uda antenna R. Isotropic

conductor operates over a perfectly conducting ground (B) 1 → R, 2 → P, 3 → Q

plane. It is base fed at a frequency of 600 kHz. The (C) 1 → Q, 2 → P, 3 → R

radiation resistance of the antenna in Ohms is [2006] (D) 1 → R, 2 → Q, 3 → P

Chapter 5 • Basics of Antennas | 3.691

8. The directivity of an antenna array can be increased by respectively. Assuming that the input power in the loss-

adding more antenna elements, as a large number of less transmission line connected to the antenna is 2 W

and that the antennas are perfectly aligned and polari-

elements [2015]

zation matched, the power (in mw) delivered to the load

(A) improves the radiation efficiency

the receiver is __________ . [2016]

(B) increases the effective area of the antenna

(C) results in a better impedance matching 11. The far zone power density radiated by a helical antenna

(D) allows more power to be transmitted by the antenna is approximated as

9. An antenna pointing in a certain direction has a noise

1

temperature of 50K. The ambient temperature is 290K. W rad = W average= ≈ â r C0 2 cos4q.

The antenna is connected to a pre-amplifier that has a r

noise figure of 2dB and an available gain of 40dB over The radiated power density is symmetrical with respect

an effective band width of 12MHz. The effective input π

to f and exists only in the upper hemisphere; 0 ≤ q ≤ ;

noise temperature Te for the amplifier and the noise 2

power Pa0 at the output of the preamplifier, respectively, 0 ≤ f ≤ 2p; C0, is a constant. The power radiated by the

antenna (in watts) and the maximum directivity of the

are [2016]

(A) Te = 169.36K and Pa0 = 3.73 × 10-10W antenna, respectively are: [2016]

(B) Te = 170.8K and Pa0 = 4.56 × 10-10W (A) 1.5C0, 10dB (B) 1.256C0, 10dB

(C) Te = 182.5K and Pa0 = 3.85 × 10-10W (C) 1.256C0, 12dB (D) 1.5C0, 12dB

(D) Te = 160.62K and Pa0 = 4.6 × 10-10W 12. A radar operating at 5GHz uses a common antenna for

10. Two lossless X band horn antennas are separated by transmission and reception. The antenna has a gain of

a distance of 200l The amplitude reflection coeffi- 150 and is aligned for maximum directional radiation and

cients at the terminals of the transmitting and receiving reception to a target 1 km away having radar cross section

antennas are 0.15 and 0.18, respectively. The maximum of 3 m2. If it transmits 100kW, then the received power (in

directivities of the transmitting and receiving anten-

mW) is__________ . [2016]

nas (over the isotropic antenna) are 18dB and 22dB

3.692 | Part III • Unit 8 • Electromagnetics

Hints/Solutions

2

Practice Problems 1 dl

4. Rrad = 80 p 2

l

1. Gain = 10

dB = 10 log10G c 3 × 108

l= =

f 6 × 105

G = 10

300

Pavg =

( E s )2 =

G .Prad l=

6

= 500

2h 4pr 2

l

h .G .Prad d =

( s) =

E

2 10

2pr 2 1

\Rrad = 80p 2

120p × 10 × −3 100

= = 0.8p2

2p .106

Rrad = 4 p W

2

( Es ) = 18 × 10

2 −4 5

Hence, the correct option is (C).

Es = 3 2 × 10 −2 5. Length of the antenna () = 125 m

Es = 30 m V l = 500 m

m

= l

Es = 30 2 m V 4

m \ Quarter-wave monopole antenna

Hence, the correct option is (B).

\ Rrad = 36.5 W

2. G = 10 dB = 10log10G

Hence, the correct option is (B).

E 2 G.Prad 6. Phase shift = bd (cosf -1)

Pavg = s =

2h 4pr 2

h .G.Prad

=

2p l 1

.

l 2 2

(

−1 = −p

2 )

Es2 =

2pr 2 Hence, the correct option is (B).

P ×A

120p × 10 × 60 kw 7. Pr = t 2 e

= 4pr

2p . × 108

Isotropic antenna radiates same in all directions.

Es 2 = 36 × 10

6

= 36 × 10 −2 D = 1

108 251

Pr = × 5 × 10 −2 =100 mW

Es = 0.6 V 4p × 10 4

m

Hence, the correct option is (D).

Hence, the correct option is (A).

l2 U max

3. Ae = .Gd (q c , f ) 8. D =

4p U avg

Aemax = .D

4p 2p

p

2

1

Uavg = ∫ ∫ cos q sin qdqdf

4

l 2

4p

Aemax = .2 0 0

4p 0

−2p cos5 q

l 2 2

=

Aemax = m 4p 5 1

2p

−1

c 3 × 108

l= = = 1m Uavg =

10

[ −1]

f 3 × 108

Uavg = 1

10

Aemax = 1 .m 2

2p D = 10 D(dB) = 10 dB

Hence, the correct option is (C). Hence, the correct option is (A).

Chapter 5 • Basics of Antennas | 3.693

Ae =

4p

λ = 13.05 m2

2 E2

Pr = Pavg. Ae = o . Ae

2h

−6

4 × 10 × 13.05

= = 71.624 nW

240p

Hence, the correct option is (C).

Perfectly λ

Conducting 2 3y

sin

11. Et = E1 2

y

Virtual dipole sin

2

Perfectly conducting ground makes a virtual dipole l and y = bd cosf + a

2

below to earth. Ny n

Nulls occur when = ± mp

\ Two l dipole placed at d = l apart, and hence, the 2

2 2p

resultant pattern will be y In =

3

2p

bd cosfIn + a =

3

2p l 2p

cos (33.56°) + a =

l 4 3

p

a = rad

4

Unit pattern group Resultant Hence, the correct option is (A).

pattern pattern

12. bd cosfmax + a = 0

Hence, the correct option is (C). 2p l p

l 2G . cosfmax + = 0

10. Ae = l 4 4

4p −p 2 −1

3 × 108 cosfmax = × =

l= = 10 m 4 p 2

3 × 10 7 fmax = 120°

Gmax = D = 1.64 (for l dipole) Hence, the correct option is (A).

2

Practice Problems 2

1. 2. Rrad = 36.5 W

p

I o cos cos q 1

2 Prad = I o2 Rrad

H fs = 2

2pr sin q Io= 10p mA (as in Example 1)

p 1

I o cos .0 Prad = 100p 2 × 36.5 × 10 −6 18.25 mW

−6 2 2

5 × 10 =

2p × 1 × 10 +3 × 1 Hence, the correct option is (A).

2p p

5 × 10 −6

=

Io 3. Prad = ∫ ∫ U (q , f )d Ω

2p × 10 +3 f =0 q =0

p p

Io= 10p mA

1

= ∫ ∫ 2 sin f sin q dq df

Prad = I o 2 Rrad f =0 q =0

2 p p

= × 100p 2 × 10 −6 × 73 36 mW 0 0

2

Prad= 2.2.2 = 8 W

Hence, the correct option is (A).

Hence, the correct option is (D).

3.694 | Part III • Unit 8 • Electromagnetics

U max Es =1.04 V

4. Direction D = m

U avg

Hence, the correct option is (C).

Umax = 1

6. The maximum radiation for an end fire array occurs

1

4p ∫

U avg = U (q , f )d Ω along the axis of the array.

Hence, the correct option is (B).

p 2p

1 8. Pr = Pavg. Aer

=

4p ∫ ∫

q =0 f =0

sin q sin q dq df

pt .Gdt

p Pavg =

1 2 2p 4pr 2

= ∫ sin qdq ∫ df

2

4p 10 × 10

0 0

Pavg = ≅ 8W

1 p 4p 2

= . .2p Hence, the correct option is (B).

4p 4

9. Horn antenna; hence, the correct option is (D).

8 l2

= = 2.546 10. Ae = G

p 4p

Hence, the correct option is (B). l2

5. Gd (dB)= 10 = 10 log10Gd

\Ae = G [∵D = eG]

4p

Es

2

Gd .Prad A

Pavg = = \ G = 4p c2

2h 4pr 2 l

Hence, the correct option is (C).

2 hGd .Prad 4L

Es = 11. Directivity D = = 30

2pr 2 l

L

120p × 10 × 180 × 103 \ = 7.5

= l

2 × p × (10 × 103 ) 2

115

\ BWFN = = 59.4°

12 × 2 × 106 × 9 L / 2l

=

2 × 108 Hence, the correct option is (B).

Es = 1.08 V

2

m

1. Distance between two parallel and ideal dipole antenna

is l phase shift a = 90° = p

4 2

Radiation pattern = (bdcosq + a)

2p l

= × cos q + p

l 4 2

p

= [cos q + 1]

2

If q = 90° ⇒ radiation will be maximum at q = p

. Hence, the correct option is (A).

2

If q = 180° ⇒ radiation is minimum and this value

occurs at q = 180°. 2. Power radiated by horn antenna is 1 Watt because the

Thus, radiation pattern is like given gain is directive gain. It will not amplify the

power. Hence, the correct option is (B).

Chapter 5 • Basics of Antennas | 3.695

f = 600 × 103 = 6 × 105 Hz Te = To [ F – 1]

2 = 290 [1.58 – 1]

dI = 290 × 0.58

Rrad = 40 π2 Ω

l = 169.36° K

C 3 × 108 Output noise power,

l= = = 0.5 × 103 Pao = KATeB

f 6 × 10 5

2

50 2p 2 = 3.63 × 10–10 W Choice (A)

Rrad = 40p 2 3

= 3.9478 =

0.5 × 10 5 10.

Hence, the correct option is (A).

R = 200l Dot = 63.1

4. A l dipole radiation pattern where dipole kept hori-

2 D0r = 158.5

Γ t = 0.15

zontally above perfectly conducting ground at a height

of l is Γ r = 0.18

2

Pi = 2W

∴ D ( dB) = 10 log10 D

Pt = Pi 1 − Γ t = 1.955W

2

Friis transmission formula:

d=λ

2

2 λ

Pr = Pt DOt DOr

4 πR

d=l = 3.1mW

2

Hence, the correct option is (B). Power delivered to load,

5. Half-power beam width of hertz dipole is 90° PL = Pr 1 − Γ 2r ≈ 3mW [Answer: 3 mW]

Hence, the correct option is (C).

11. p rad = ∫∫ w .ds

rad

C

6. f = 20 GHz ⇒ = l = 1.5cm 2 π π/ 2

f 1

η = 0.7; = C0 ∫ ∫a

φ=0 θ=0

r

r2

cos 4 θ.a r r 2 sin θdθdφ

D=1m

= 1.256Co

2

D U

G = hp 2 D0 = 4 π max

l Prad

1

2 C0

= 0.7p 2 = 30674.311 4π ∵ U = r 2 W, U max = C0

0.015 1.256C0

= 44.86 dB Do = 10

= 45 dB Do(dB) = 10dB Choice (B)

Hence, the correct option is (D). 12. Received power,

7. Point electromagnetic source is isotropic p t G 2 λ 2S

pr =

Dish antenna is highly directional Antenna ( 4π )3 r 4

Hence, the correct option is (B). = 0.012mW

8. c

4p

∵ λ = f = 0.06 m

D = 2 Ae

l [Answer: 0.06m]

D ∝ Ae

So directivity increases as the effective area of antenna

increases.

Hence, the correct option is (B).

Test

Hints/Solutions

∈2

5. tanq = ⇒ s = w∈

∈1

10–12 = 2pf × 3 × 8.85 × 10–12

Hence, the correct option is (D).

⇒ f = 60 MHz

s Hence, the correct option is (A).

6. Good conductor >>1

w∈

23. E = −∇V

2

\d = Hence, the correct option is (A).

2p f ms

Hence, the correct option is (A). 25. E = −∇V

9. Lorenz Force equation Hence, the correct option is (A).

F = Q(E + u × B)

27. Dielectric to air, that is, rv = 0. So, d normal is

Hence, the correct option is (A).

continuous.

12. ∴ y = ∫ D da ∈1 E1 = ∈2 E2

2p E1 = 4∈0

= ∫ ∫ 1.dz dφ

0 0

Hence, the correct option is (A).

= 2p C −Nd φ

28. E = = –100 × (3t2 – 2) at t = 2 s

Hence, the correct option is (B). dt

Q = –1 V

13. ∵ V =

4p ∈ r 2 Hence, the correct option is (B).

Hence, the correct option is (C). 108 1

15. W = 108 29. b = w m ∈= = rad/m

3 × 10 3

8

w 108

C= = ⇒ ∈r = 9 Ey

b 3 30. = −h

Thus, the type of medium is lossless dielectric. Hence, Hx

the correct option is (A).

−1

21. Conduction current (s ∈) = displacement current E y = H x

h

∂D

(jw∈E) = jw ∈ E Hence, the correct option is (B).

∂t

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