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RIGID FRAME Rigid frame Rigid frame structures Advantages:
STRUCTURES structures can be provide more stability. -One of the best
defined as the This type of frame advantages of frame
structures in which structures resists the structures is their
beams & columns shear, moment and ease in construction.
are made torsion more effectively it is very east to teach
monolithically and than any other type of the labor at the
act collectively to frame structures. That’s construction site.
resist the moments why this frame system -Frame structures can
which are is used in world’s most be constructed
generating due to astonishing building rapidly.
applied load. Burj-Al-Arab -Economy is also very
important factor in
the design of building
Rigid Frames systems. Frame
structures have Burj Al Arab, Dubai
economical designs.
In frames structures,
span lengths are
usually restricted to
40 ft when normal
reinforced concrete.
Otherwise spans
greater than that, can
cause lateral
RIGID CORE The core structure This system is a useful Advantages:
STRUCTURES form is the form in method of creating -Effectively resists
which the gravity open floor plans in a lateral loads by
and horizontal very tall building, which producing interior
loading are carried might otherwise require shear core – exterior
by a single core and columns between the framed tube
in this form, the core and perimeter. interacting system.
slab are supported -Interior columns are
either at each level comparatively few
by cantilevers form and located at the
the core or core. The distance
between the core Lower Floors between the exterior
and perimeter and the core frames
columns. is spanned with
beams or trusses and
intentionally left
-Serves as the major
load taking element
and to provide Cheung Kong Center,
rigidity to resist Hong Kong
Upper Floors deflection caused by
lateral load (wind).
Arrangement of cores Disadvantages:
for the scheme design -Interior planning
of a 75-storey limitations due to
building. shear core.
-Outrigger structure
does not add shear
-As building height
increases, the core, if
kept consistent with
the elevator, stair
well and other
equipments does not
have sufficient
stiffness to keep wind
drift at acceptable
BRACED CORE Top Hat trusses are Hat trusses involve the Advantages:
WITH HAT used when a roof perimeter columns of -The interior framing
TRUSSES truss would be too the building in resisting is designed
STRUCTURE tall if made in one lateral loads, thus sufficiently strong to
piece. This can be improving the overall resist gravity and
due to a large span performance of the lateral load on the
or a steep pitch or a building. building, while the
combination of hat truss deflect wind
both. The system load.
employed is to -Serves as the major
make up Plan load taking element
truncated trusses of and to provide
a manageable rigidity to resist
height, and then a deflection caused by
secondary truss is Section lateral load especially
placed on top wind.
-Limited only for 60
storey, unless other
advance structural Shanghai World
systems are Financial Center,
incorporated in Shanghai, China
RIGID FRAME A construction -The tube system Advantages:
TUBE principle and concept is based on the -Exterior framing is
STRUCTURES method wherein idea that a building can designed sufficiently
the building is be designed to resist strong to resist all
designed in such a lateral loads by lateral loads on the
way like a hollow designing it as a hollow building, thereby
tube in order to cantilever perpendicular allowing the interior
help resist lateral to the ground. of the building to be
loads. -This assembly of simply framed for
columns and beams gravity loads.
forms a rigid frame that -Interior columns are
amounts to a dense and comparatively few
Central Core
strong structural wall and located at the
along the exterior of the core.
building. -The distance
-This exterior framing is between the exterior
designed sufficiently and the core frames
strong to resist all is spanned with
lateral loads on the beams or trusses and
building, thereby intentionally left
allowing the interior of column-free.
the building to be -Maximum efficiency
simply framed for for lateral strength Sears Tower, Chicago
gravity loads. Interior and stiffness.
columns are -Can be combined
comparatively few and with the rigid core
located at the core. framing concept.
-Prone to shear lag
-Additional braces
may alter window
Perforated Tube design complexity.
-Strict informality of
BRACED -A structural system -To resist lateral forces Advantages:
FRAME TUBE which is designed without sliding, -Maximum use of
STRUCTURES primarily to resist overturning, buckling, interior space.
wind and or collapsing using a -Fewer perimeter
earthquake forces. system of diagonal columns.
Members in a members. -Uses far less steel
braced frame are -Simple tube but with than the traditional
designed to work in comparatively fewer rigid steel frame
tension and and farther-spaced structure.
compression, exterior columns. Steel -More natural lighting
similar to a truss. bracings or concrete inside the building.
-It is a structural shear walls are -Provides maximum
frame of linear introduced along the lateral stability.
members made exterior walls to -Economic to
rigid by a system of compensate for the construct and simple
diagonal members fewer columns by tying to analyze.
and a central tube. them together. -Environmental
-Steel bracing may
affect the location of Alcoa Building,
windows Pittsburgh,
-Affect the exterior Pennsylvania
façade of the
-Adaptability is
RIGID FRAME The outrigger and The outrigger and belt Advantages:
TUBE WITH belt truss system is truss system is - The use of outrigger
BELT TRUSSES one of the lateral commonly used as one and belt truss system in
load resisting of the structural system high-rise buildings
increase the stiffness
system in which the to effectively control
and makes the
external columns the excessive drift due structural form efficient
are tied to the to lateral load, so that, under lateral load.
central core wall during small or medium - Exterior framing can
with very stiff lateral load due to consist of simple beam
outriggers and belt either wind or and column framing
truss at one or earthquake load, the without the need for
more levels. When risk of structural and rigid-frame-type
the lateral non-structural damage connection, thus
load acts on the can be minimized. reducing the overall
building, the For high-rise buildings,
bending of the core particularly in seismic - The space occupied by
rotates the stiff active zone or wind load the outrigger trusses
outrigger arms, dominant, this system places constraints on
which is can be chosen as an the use of floors at
connected to the appropriate structure. which the outriggers
core and induces are located. Even in
tension and mechanical equipment
compression in the floors, the presence of
columns outrigger truss
members can be a
major problem. Chifley Tower,
- Architectural and Sydney, Australia
functional constraints
may prevent placement
of large outrigger
columns where they
could mostly
conveniently be
engaged by outrigger
trusses extending out
from the core