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Function – Even & Odd functions, Domain of Definition and Continuity

𝑎𝑥 −1
Ex. Show that the function 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑥 ( ) is an even function.
𝑎𝑥 +1
Ex. Show that the function 𝑓(𝑥) = log(𝑥 + √𝑥 2 + 1) is an odd function.
Soln : 𝑓(−𝑥) + 𝑓(𝑥) = log(−𝑥 + √𝑥 2 + 1) + log(𝑥 + √𝑥 2 + 1) = log[(−𝑥 + √𝑥 2 + 1)(𝑥 +
√𝑥 2 + 1)] = log[−𝑥 2 + 𝑥 2 + 1] = log 1 = 0.

Ex. Give an example of a function which is neither even nor odd. [𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑒 𝑥 ].

Ex. Show that the product of two odd functions is an even function.
Soln : Let 𝑓1 (𝑥), 𝑓2 (𝑥) be two odd functions. Then 𝑓1 (−𝑥) = −𝑓1 (𝑥); 𝑓2 (−𝑥) = −𝑓2 (𝑥). Now, (−𝑥) =
𝑓1 (−𝑥). 𝑓2 (−𝑥) = [−𝑓1 (𝑥)][−𝑓2 (𝑥)] = 𝑓1 (𝑥)𝑓2 (𝑥) = 𝐹(𝑥) . Hence 𝐹(𝑥) is even.
Ex. Prove that any function can be expressed as the sum of an even & an odd function.
1 1 1 1
𝑓(𝑡) = [2 𝑓(𝑡) + 2 𝑓(−𝑡)] + [2 𝑓(𝑡) − 2 𝑓(−𝑡)] = 𝐹𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑛 (𝑡) + 𝐹𝑜𝑑𝑑 (𝑡) etc.
𝑥 𝑒 𝑥 −1
Ex. Show that 𝑓(𝑥) = 2 . 𝑒 𝑥 +1 is an even function.

1+𝑥 3𝑥+𝑥 3
Ex. If 𝑓(𝑥) = log (1−𝑥) , 𝑔(𝑥) = 1+3𝑥 2 then prove that 𝑓(𝑔(𝑥)) = 3𝑓(𝑥).
𝑏(𝑥−𝑎) 𝑎(𝑥−𝑏)
Ex. If 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑏−𝑎 + 𝑎−𝑏 then prove that 𝑓(𝑎 + 𝑏) = 𝑓(𝑎) + 𝑓(𝑏)
Ex. If 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑒 𝑝𝑥+𝑞 (p,q constants) then show that 𝑓(𝑎). 𝑓(𝑏). 𝑓(𝑐) = 𝑓(𝑎 + 𝑏 + 𝑐). 𝑒 2𝑞
|𝑥|
Ex. Let 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑥 and c be any real constant then prove that |𝑓(𝑐) − 𝑓(−𝑐)| = 2.

Domain of Definition
(𝑥−2)2
(i) Find the domain of definition of 𝑓(𝑥) = [−∞ < 𝑥 < 2, 2 < 𝑥 < +∞]
𝑥−2
(ii) 𝑓(𝑥) = √6 − 𝑥 [−∞ < 𝑥 ≤ 6]
𝑥 𝑥
(iii) 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑥 2 −3𝑥+2 [= (𝑥−1)(𝑥−2)] [−∞ < 𝑥 < 1, 1 < 𝑥 < 2, 2 < 𝑥 < +∞]

Ex. Find the domain of definition of 𝑓(𝑥) = √9 − 𝑥 2 = √(3 − 𝑥)(3 + 𝑥).


Either, (3 − 𝑥) ≥ 0 and (3 + 𝑥) ≥ 0 OR, 3 − 𝑥 ≤ 0 𝑎𝑛𝑑 3 + 𝑥 ≤ 0
which implies −3 ≤ 𝑥 ≤ 3 which is not possible.
1
Ex. Find the domain of definition of 𝑓(𝑥) = √9−𝑥 2. [−3 < 𝑥 < 3].

1−sin 𝑥 𝜋 𝜋 𝜋
Ex. Find ‘k’ if the function defined by 𝑓(𝑥) = (𝜋−2𝑥)2 , 𝑥 ≠ ; 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑘, 𝑥 = is continuous at 𝑥 = 2 .
2 2
𝜋 𝑦 𝑦 𝑦 𝑦 𝑦
1−sin 𝑥 1−sin( − ) 1−cos 1−cos 1+cos sin2( ) 1
2 2 2 2 2 2
Taking 𝜋 − 2𝑥 = 𝑦, lim𝜋 (𝜋−2𝑥)2 = lim (𝑦)2
= lim = lim . 𝑦 = lim 𝑦 = ×
𝑥→ 𝑦→0 𝑦→0 (𝑦)2 𝑦→0 (𝑦)2 1+cos
2 𝑦→0 𝑦 2 (1+cos2 ) 4
2
𝑦 2
sin 1 1 1 1
2
lim ( 𝑦/2 ) × lim 𝑦 = 4 × 12 × 1+1 = 8. Hence k=1/8.
𝑦→0 𝑦→0 (1+cos2 )
𝜋 𝜋 𝜋
Ex. Let 𝑓(𝑥) = 1 + sin 𝑥, 0 < 𝑥 < 2 ; 𝑓(𝑥) = 2 + (𝑥 − 2 ) , ≤ 𝑥 < ∞. Discuss the continuity of f(x) at
2
𝜋 𝜋 𝜋
𝑥 = 2 . [ lim
𝜋
𝑓(𝑥) = lim𝜋(1 + sin 𝑥) = 2; lim
𝜋
𝑓(𝑥) = lim𝜋 {2 + (𝑥 − 2 )} = 2; 𝑓 (2 ) = 2 +
𝑥→ −0 𝑥→ 𝑥→ +0 𝑥→
2 2 2 2
𝜋 𝜋
(2 − 2 ) = 2]
𝑥 2 −16
Ex. The function 𝑓(𝑥) = is undefined at x=4. What value must be assigned to f(x) so aas to make it
𝑥−4
continuous at x=4.