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Engng, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 89-105, 1996 Coovrieht KJJ 1995 Elsevier Science Ltd Printed \A &a~Britain. All rights reserved 0029%8018196 $9.50 + .W
OF MOTIONS OF CATAMARANS REGULAR WAVES-I
and Ocean Engineering, U.K.
C. C. Fang, H. S. Chan and A. Incecik*
Department of Naval Architecture University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 SQQ,
25 April 1994; accepted 8 August 1994)
Abstract-In this paper an analytical technique based on the two-dimensional Green function method associated with a cross-flow approach for taking viscous effects into account to estimate the motion response of catamarans in the frequency domain is presented. In order to validate this method, the numerical results are compared with experimental values obtained for two different catamarans (ASR5061 [Wahab, R., Pritchett, C. and Ruth, L.C. 1971. On the behaviour of the ASR catamaran in waves. Marine Technology, 8, 334-3601 and Marintek [Faltinsen, O., Hoff, J.R., Kvalsvold, J. and Zhao, R. 1992. Global loads on high speed catamarans. 5th Int. Symp. on Practical Design of Ships and Mobile Units, University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1.360-1.3731). In the second part of the paper the tests carried out with a third catamaran configuration at the Hydrodynamics Laboratory of the University of Glasgow are presented to evaluate the non-linear effects. These test results cover different speeds and wave heights at a wide range of wave frequencies. The paper concludes that the two-dimensional method correlates very well with measurements of small amplitude motions. For large amplitude motion tests, the non-linear effects become significant when the model speed and wave amplitudes increase. The peak values of heave and pitch motions measured around the resonance frequency are smaller than those obtained from the linear theory.
1. INTRODUCTION Catamarans are the most accepted form of high speed craft for passenger/vehicle transportation. Compared with other high speed craft, they possess good transport efficiency at moderately high speeds. The large deck area is one of the desirable characteristics of catamarans and gives a small rate and angle of roll and, consequently, good stability. To assess the seakeeping performance of a catamaran design either results of experimental measurements or those obtained mainly from linear frequency domain methods are used [Incecik et d. (1991), Lee et al. (1973)]. Although a number of experimental and theoretical investigations of catamaran motions have been conducted in the past, there is a lack of understanding of the non-linearity of large amplitude motion. Furthermore, the frequency-domain method is restricted to the prediction of small amplitude motions because it is assumed not only that the free surface condition can be linearised, but also that the ship displacements are small relative to the ship dimensions [Salvesen et al. (1970)].
* Author to whom correspondence
should be addressed. 89
To investigate the large amplitude motions of catamarans travelling in waves. . the wave amplitudes and forward speeds were varied. Coordinate system of twin-hull ship. . heave. 2. 6 refer to surge. 6). C. roll. During the experiments. 2. Here j = 1. pitch. sway. The body is assumed rigid and oscillates in six degrees of freedom about its mean position with complex amplitudes I$ (j = 1.90 C. and yaw modes of motion respectively. Although the three-dimensional method is a more accurate technique than the two-dimensional technique for the calculation of the motions of twin hulls. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND A two-dimensional linearised method based on potential theory with a cross-flow approach for taking viscous effects into account is used to predict the motion performance of catamarans in waves. 3. the computation time for the three-dimensional method is significantly higher than for the two-dimensional method. Fang et al. . . For dynamic equilibrium the total wave-induced forces must be equal to the mass Fig. 2. 4. The x-axis is pointing upstream parallel to the longitudinal plane of the body and the z-axis is pointing vertically upward through the centre of gravity of the body with the origin in the plane of the mean free surface. 1. a series of experiments with a catamaran model was carried out in the Towing Tank of the Hydrodynamics Laboratory at the University of Glasgow. 5. Formulation of motion Figure 1 shows the right-hand coordinate system o-xyz which moves in the same direction and speed as the moving body.
Cj.6on&. The indices j and k indicate the direction of the fluid force and the mode of motion respectively. It is assumed that the catamaran has one longitudinal plane of symmetry.. A. = an and I + um I . the linearised free-surface condition (3) (iw + Udld~)~ +j + g 2 =0 j=l. zG) can be written as M I 0 0 M 0 0 0 -MzG MZG 0 0 0 -I46 0 0 I (2) 0 Mzc 0 0 0 0 -I64 I 55 0 0 0 0 I 66 I where M is the mass of the ship..O. F’ . is the cross-product of inertia about the origin. must satisfy the following linearised boundary conditions: Laplace’ equation in the fluid domain s v2+j=o. in the jth mode of motion.2. (5) (6) . diffracted and radiated wave systems. With the basic linear assumption.7atz=O.Catamaran motion in regular waves-1 91 inertia forces and the coupled linear equations written as of motion of the rigid body can be (1) where & and & are motion acceleration and velocity respectively.. Bjk is the damping. The symmetry of the hull with respect to the longitudinal centre-plane of the twin-hull ship leads to decoupling of the vertical plane modes from the horizontal plane modes. is the restoring coefficient. the diffraction wave potential & and the radiation wave potential +.. The generalised mass matrix [M] of the ship whose centre of gravity is at (O. Thus the equations of motion can be divided into surge-heave-pitch and sway-roll-yaw equations. A two-dimensional pulsating source potential technique is developed to solve the unsteady velocity potential due to the incident. is the added mass.2 j=1. . Zjjis the moment of inertia about the origin in the jth mode of motion and Zj. (4) the kinematic body boundary condition C!$! -iwn. .’ is the wave exciting force and Fy is the excitation force due to viscous effects. Mjk is the mass matrix.
92 C. which are used in the present study. 3.2. If the body is slender. nj is the generalised direction cosine with (nI.~5. 2. Fig.n. Segmentation of the ASR5061 catamaran the kinematic condition on the ocean floor a&_() an j= 1. (m1. Segmentation of the Marintek catamaran model.) = n and (n4. Then mj = 0 for j = 1. .. For the two-dimensional method.7atz+-m. 2.m3) = -(n * V)W and (wz4..V)(r x W).mz.m5. m5 = n3 and m6 = -nz. the steady perturbation potential due to forward motion is negligible in the unsteady flow.nz. 4. C. where g is acceleration due to gravity. 3. and W is a steady velocity field. n is a unit normal vector outward from the mean wetted body surface and r is a position vector of a point on the mean wetted body surface.. Fang et al.n6) = r x n. a high-frequency assumption is made that the frequency of oscillation w is much higher than the differential operator &Wax in the free surface boundary condition which reduces to (8) Fig.wz6)= -(n .
31. 4.5 - 2- ii + ASR5061 experiment ‘ Potential 2D 1. = 0..5 - 00 0 Fig. Heave motion response in 180” heading for the AX5061 catamaran at F. .5 2 > l- X 2D Potential+Viscous 0. A + ASR5061 experiment 2D Potential 2D Potential+Viscous 3- X G %. = 0. 5.Catamaran motion in regular waves-1 93 2. Pitch motion 54- 1 2 wa 3 4 response in 180” heading for the ASR5061 catamaran at F.31.z 2- l- 0 1 2 oa 3 4 5 Fig.
k is a wave number. and p is an angle of incidence with the x-axis (180” at head sea). 6. This is a very critical assumption and it makes the theory somewhat questionable in the low-frequency range since the forward speed effects on the free surface are not included. The incident wave potential of unit amplitude &. satisfies the Laplace’ equation. C.49.q) s is a source function at the field point p due to a .q) h(q) (10) i CO where the Green’ function G@. s the linearised free surface condition and the sea bottom condition can be represented & = -ig ekr+ik(x cosp + y sinp) WO (9) with w = Iwo . These potentials are obtained by means of a two-dimensional source distribution of the form 27~40) = u(q)W.Ukcospl where w. = 0. is a wave frequency. A + MARIN’ IEK experiment ZD Potential 2D Potential+Viscous X Fig. This free surface boundary condition (8) for the ship body oscillation at forward speed requires that the wave length is approximately of the same order as the ship beam.94 C. Pitch motion response in 135” heading for the Marintek catamaran at F. It is understood that the real part is to be taken in all expressions involving exp( -id). Fang et al.
Here c. 8. the unknown source strength u(q) can be determined. ..49. Thus TdP) + u(q) a+(P) aG(P.q) is given by Wehausen et al. an (11) I 2D=O.5 - 2- 0 1.5 - Of I I 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 I Fig. Using the body boundary conditions.Catamaran motion in regular waves-1 95 2. Body plan of the V-l catamaran model. (1960). 7.q) b(q) = 27r dn-.425m I I Fig. source of unknown strength u(q) at the source point q. Heave motion response in 135” heading for the Marintek catamaran at F. = 0.5 2 S l+ MARINTEK experiment 2D Potential 2D Potential+Viscous X 0. is the immersed contour of the body. The solution for G(p.
Then. The hydrodynamic coefficients in the equations of motion linear dependence of fluid forces due to non-lift potential flow such that: Bjk = bjk + 6jk ?jk 6jk. Fang et al. viscous restoring forces and viscous excitation forces in the form 6 4 = C (6jk & + tjk ek> . The hydrodynamic forces due to viscous effects can be separated into viscous damping forces. C. With one longitudinal plane of symmetry. the velocity potential +(p) can be solved by Equation (10). Once the source densities a(q) are known. (12) c35 = where A. The hydrodynamic force and moment can be obtained by substituting the known velocity potential into the linearised Bernoulli equation and integrating the resultant formulation over the mean wetted body contour. The values of the drag coefficient CD used in the cross-flow . Details can be found in Chan may be considered as and cross-flow effects where and are viscous damping and restoring coefficients on the cross-flow approach for taking viscous effects into account (1993). the hydrostatic coefficients cjk are given c33 = PgA&44 c53 = = ~gvGMT. are the area and the first moment of the waterplane area at z = 0 respectively. the sectional hydrodynamic coefficients and wave exciting force can be obtained by a strip approximation.cs -pgA. These quantities are integrated along the length of the ship to obtain the total hydrodynamic coefficients. = PgGML. cjk = cjk + tjk. 9.96 C. Correlation studies The validation of the mathematical analyses was carried out by comparing results obtained from the two-dimensional method with those obtained from experiments with two catamaran models.FT k=l (13) respectively. V is the volume displacement of the catamaran. GM. is the transverse metacentric height and GML is the longitudinal metacentric height above the origin. and A. Segmentation of the V-l catamaran model. Fig.
CG rise measurements of the V-l catamaran 21. 10.5 - 0 1 2 3 4 5 Model Speed (m/s) Fig.Catamaran motion in regular waves-l 91 Draft6. Trim change measurements of the V-l catamaran. .72cm (V-l Catmaran) 0 1 2 3 4 5 Model Wz0-d~) Fig. 11. 0 1 2 3 4 5 Model Speed(m/s) Fig. Resistance measurements of the V-l catamaran. 12.5l0.
Figures 2. The principal dimensions of the ASR5061. Motion response of the ASR5061 catamaran The most comprehensive sea load measurements were carried out in the Naval Ship Research and Development Centre by Wahab et al. 3 and 9 illustrate the segmentation of three catamaran models for the computation of the two-dimensional method. 2D FBtu~tial+Viscous 2D Potential 0. Fang et al.0. Marintek and V-l catamarans are given in Table 1.4 for the ASR5061 catamaran and 0. (= U/a) = 0. calculations were taken as 0. Heave motion response in 180” heading for the V-l catamaran at F. C. the experimental values of the ASR model with a hull separation/beam = 1. (1971) for the ASR5061 catamaran model advancing obliquely in deep water waves. 13.31 were compared with the results obtained from the twodimensional method. .98 C.01 for the models of Marintek and V-l catamarans. = 0.25- 0 1 2 3 4 Fig.58. In this correlation study. wave direction l3 = 180” and Froude number F.5- 0. The demi-hull was asymmetrical forward and symmetrical aft.
Catamaran motion in regular waves-1 99 Expuimentai Data Fig. The comparison shows that the two-dimensional potential theory gives good agreement both in heave and pitch motions except around the resonance regions. Motion response of the Marintek catamaran Tests with the Marintek catamaran model were carried out in the Ocean Environment Laboratory of Marintek [ Faltinsen et al. 14. (1992)]. After incorporating the effects of viscous damping. Figures 4 and 5 show the comparison of experimental data and the present theoretical results with and without viscous effects for the pitch and heave motions of the ASR5061 catamaran. symmetrical with respect to the longitudinal vertical plane and with a transom stern.. = 0. The demi-hull of this catamaran was round bottomed. The heave and pitch transfer functions in 135” oblique waves for the . A free running model was used and measurements were carried out at F. Pitch motion response in 180” heading for the V-l catamaran at F. the theoretical predictions correlate very well with the experimental data. = 0.49.0.
Some discrepancies were observed in the prediction of pitch motions at the smaller wave frequencies. The heave results indicate a good comparison between the numerically predicted and experimentally measured heave motion responses. . 8. (1992)]. C.25 Fig. featuring a V-type section and cut-off transom stern as shown in Fig. The demi-hull is of the planing type. Fang et al.loo C. catamaran model were compared with the numerical values obtained from the twodimensional method as shown in Figs 6 and 7. The turbulence simulation comprised studs of 3 mm diameter and 3 mm height at a spacing of 25 mm. For the autopilot system. (1991)] is a high speed catamaran hull form. Heave motion response in 180” heading for the V-l catamaran at F.226. EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP The V-l model [Incecik et al. 15. = 0. It was constructed of glass-reinforced plastic fibres. 2D PotentiabViscous 2D Potential 0. 3. experimental errors may have occurred because it was not possible to keep the heading constant during these tests as discussed by the authors [Faltinsen et al.
tests were carried out at three different model speeds of 0. In order to evaluate the non-linear motions of the V-l catamaran in regular waves. The studs were situated from 1. The . No other underwater appendages were attached to the V-l model during the tests. A measurement system [Fang (1994) and Stevens and Crago (1966)] was designed and tested to investigate the non-linear effects during large amplitude motions of a catamaran in head sea condition. = 0.0. Pitch motion response in 180” heading for the V-l catamaran at F. The model was towed by a vertical post which allowed freedom in pitch and heave motions with restraints in roll and yaw motions. three different wave amplitudes of 1.0 m forward of stern. The total resistance was measured by a force gauge transducer installed on the middle of the towing post frame. the accuracy of the measurement was within + 0. 1 and 3 m/s corresponding to the Froude numbers of 0. The towing point was positioned at the centre of gravity of the model.Catamaran motion in regular waves-1 101 -180 2 3 4 Experimental Data 0 0 lb b=lcm b=3cm (0 = 4Scm 0. 0.677.9 to 2. 16.226. 3 and 4.226 and 0.012 kg.5 cm and 14 different wave frequencies in the head sea condition.25 2 w% 3 4 Fig.
and approximately 5. the accuracy of the measurement was within ? 0. three resistance-type wave probes were located at B/2. where B is the tank width..01 cm for heave and f 0. = 0.5 1 2 3 4 2D F’ otcntial+Viious ?2D Potential Fig. Heave motion response in 180” heading for the V-l catamaran at F. 17. The phase difference between the wave excitation and the model motion responses was measured. One resistance-type wave probe whose measurement accuracy was within + 0.677.02” for pitch motion. . B/3 and B/4 from the tank side wall.5 cm forward of CG). Fang et al.102 180 C. -180 0 2.5 m in front of the wavemaker. heave and pitch oscillations of the model were measured with a pair of small lightemitting diodes (LED. A gravity-type accelerometer was used to measure the vertical bow acceleration at FP. C. The digital signals were then recorded by a Macintosh-IIci microcomputer and displayed graphically to ensure that the acquisition and measuring systems worked properly.02 cm was situated on the carriage and was parallel to the bow line (122. selspot system) positioned on the deck of the model. In order to measure the incident wave amplitude. All the analog signals passed through multi-channel amplifiers and filters before entering into the AMUX-64 system which is an analog-to-digital converter.
The heave and pitch motion results of the V-l catamaran based upon the theoretical method just described were computed and compared with experimental data.Catamaran motion in regular waves-1 103 180 -18C 3 4 EqerlmentalDaal 0 0 QJ=lcln (0 = 3cm & 0 503 4Scm b=2cm 0 1 oa 2 3 4 Fig. Figs 15 and 16 for F. = 0.677. the magnitude of the motion amplitude at the resonant encountering frequencies is overestimated by the two-dimensional potential method and increases with the forward speed. These results are presented in Figs 10-12.129 in the still water condition.. The total resistance. In general. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION CG rise and trim change of the V-l catamaran model were measured over a speed range up to F. = 1. Nondimensional amplitudes and phase angles are plotted as a function of non-dimensional wave frequency in Figs 13 and 14 for zero forward speed. = 0. Figs 17 and 18 for F. 4. 18. Pitch motion response in 180” heading for the V-l catamaran at F.677.226. = 0.. After incorporating the empirical method based on the steady .
. The prediction of pitch motions does show some disagreement with measurements in the low-frequency region. J. This means that pitch motions of the V-l catamaran at low wave frequencies are not equal to the wave slope. For the pitch motions. in obtaining financial support through the Overseas Research Student Postgraduate Scholarship from the University of Glasgow. = 0. Kvalsvold. The non-linear effects at high speeds can be examined in Figs 17 and 18 for F. = 0. Because of the linearised boundary value assumption. the theoretical results correlate very well with measurements for heave and pitch motions. The numerical results for heave are in good agreement with experimental measurements. Prediction of motion and wave loads of twin-hull ships. cross-flow assumption. In long waves. The two-dimensional method calculations can provide reasonable predictions of motion responses of catamarans at low forward speed. Compared with the experimental data. Acknowledgement-The first author acknowledges support received from Professor Department. There are some discrepancies observed in the prediction of pitch motions in the low wave frequency region. Marine Strucr. H. Figures 15 and 16 are the experimental motion response values and phase angles of the V-l catamaran model at F. C. and Zhao. Furthermore. Some conclusions may be drawn as follows: 1. Head of Awards scheme and a REFERENCES Chan.104 C. 5. the results show that the motion responses slightly decrease when the wave amplitude increases. CONCLUSIONS In this study. R. O. it can be confirmed by these test data that the non-linear effects are more significant when the forward speed and wave amplitudes increase around the resonance frequency. Through the experimental investigation of the V-l catamaran model with variable forward speeds and wave amplitudes.R. To investigate the nonlinear effects of large amplitude motions of catamarans in waves through numerical predictions.. the resonance point of the experimental measurements is slightly shifted towards the low wave frequency region. When the wave amplitudes increase. the numerical predictions slightly overestimate the heave motions at the resonance region. J. 75-102. At the resonance point. Fang et al. the two-dimensional potential theory associated with a cross-flow approach for taking viscous effects into account for estimating the small amplitude motions in the frequency domain has been validated by experimental results of three catamarans. the pitch motion responses measured from experiments do not approach 1. Faulkner. the motion responses at the resonance point decrease. 2. further studies backed-up by experiments are being carried out and will be reported as part II in the near future. it can be confirmed that the non-linear effects become significant when the model speed and wave amplitudes increase.0. Global loads on high-speed catamarans. Hoff.226. the theoretical predictions have been improved as shown in the comparison between theory and experiment. 1992. 1993. 6..677.S. The peak values of heave and pitch motions measured around the resonance are smaller than those obtained from the small amplitude motion predictions. D. 5% . Faltinsen. For the zero speed case. the frequency domain method will be restricted to the prediction of small amplitude motions.
Salvesen. W. 1973. Experimental investigation of resistance and seakeeping characteristics of a catamaran design.C. pp. Surface waves. Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering.. 0.V. Berlin. R. H. B. 1960. 1994. Pritchett. Wahab.K.M. ht. C. pp. 1971.Catamaran motion in regular waves-1 105 U. and Laitone. 446-478. C. 1st Int.J. Handbuch der Physik. Proc. A. J. 10. Ship motions and sea loads. Marine Tech. 8.J. Stevens. On the behaviour of the ASR catamaran in waves. E. Conf. 1991. Prediction of motion and hydrodynamic loads of catamarans. University of Glasgow. Towing Tank Conf.373. on Practical Design of Ships and Mobile Units. and Rodgers. Symp. Comparative tests in waves at three experimental establishments using the same model. Tuck. on Fast Sea Transportation. NAOE-94-15.. 11th Int. Lee.V. L.C. 250-287. 334-360.F. Marine Tech.A. Wehausen.O. IJniversity of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. and Fahinsen.D. Transactions SNAME 78.392-405. Springer. 1966. Experimental investigation of large amplitude motions of a catamaran in waves. and Ruth. Band IX. and Curphey. C. 332-342. pp. and Crago. E.360-1... 1. Tokyo. Incecik. 1970. R. M. A.M. 239-258. N.. Report No.. Morrison. Fang. . Jones. Norway.
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