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Active Solar Heating

Author

Kashaf Nasir 16-ME-112

Submitted To

Dr. Abid Hussain

Assistant Professor

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

FACULTY OF MECHANICAL & AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING

UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY TAXILA

April,2019
Active solar heating

Author

Kashaf Nasir 16-ME-112

A semester project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the course of

Heat and Mass Transfer

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

FACULTY OF MECHANICAL & AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING

UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY TAXILA


April, 2019

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Abstract

Active solar heating consists of collector, pump, working fluid, back-up system and control

elements. Collector is used to captures the solar radiation, pumps are used to circulate the fluid

around the collectors, back-up system when the desired working fluid is not supplied to the

collector and the control elements are used to maintain the whole operation. The working fluid

could be used directly or indirectly in the active solar heating system. The amount of solar heat

produced in this system depends upon various factors such as the structure of collector or the type

of collector, area of the collector, type of working fluid and the site or location where the system

is being used. Also in summer the overheating could be occur so precautions must be stated early

before using the system. This chapter includes a detailed and explained overview of active solar

heating, its types, components and their applications.

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UNDERTAKING

I certify that project titled “Active Solar Heating” is my own work. The work has not been

presented elsewhere for assessment. Where material has been used from other sources it

has been properly acknowledged / referred.

Kashaf Nasir

16-ME-112

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

With the name of Allah, the Beneficial and Merciful. His prophet “MUHAMMAD” (peace be

upon him), the role model for all mankind.

First, I thank to Dr. Abid Hussain for his guidance and efforts which provided us a way to write

the ideas regarding Heat and Mass transfer. It will certainly help me. Also, I thanked to all my

seniors who helped me in my entire work.

I am thankful to the Allah who provides me a way to research new ideas, this will really help me

in many fields of my work. May He provide us more guidance and resources for the humanity.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Abstract.................................................................................................................ii

Acknowledgement ...............................................................................................iii

List of Figures ...................................................................................................... vi

List of Tables ..............................................................................................vii

Abbreviations.................................................................................................... viii

Chapter I: Introduction ......................................................................................... 9

1.1 Solar energy ...................................................................................... 1

1.2 Types of solar energy ............................................................................... 3

1.3 Overview of active solar water heating ............................................... 3

1.4 Direct open loop solar water heating …………………………………

1.5 Indirect loop solar water heating …………………………………

1.6 Drain back system…………………………………

1.7 Air system…………………………………

1.8 Pool heater…………………………………

1.9 Components…………………………………

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1.10 ..........................................................................................................Working………

…………………………

1.11 ..........................................................................................................Heat exchanger

1.12 ..........................................................................................................Heat transfer

fluid

1.13 ..........................................................................................................Solar storage

system

1.14 ..........................................................................................................Applications of

active solar heating

1.15 ..........................................................................................................Elemenmts of

active solar heating

1.16 ..........................................................................................................Types of solar

energy

1.17 ..........................................................................................................Goals of active

heating system

1.18 ..........................................................................................................Potential of

active heating system

.......................................................................................................................

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LIST OF FIGURES

Number Page

Fig 1.1 .......................................................................................................... 11

Fig 1.2 .......................................................................................................... 11

Fig 1.3 ........................................................................................................ 12

Fig1.4 ......................................................................................................... 13

Fig1.5 ......................................................................................................... 13

Fig1.6 ......................................................................................................... 14

Fig1.7 ......................................................................................................... 15

Fig1.8 ......................................................................................................... 17

Fig1.9 ......................................................................................................... 18

Fig1.10 ....................................................................................................... 18

Fig1.11 ....................................................................................................... 19

Fig1.12 ....................................................................................................... 19

Fig1.13 ....................................................................................................... 20

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Fig1.14 ....................................................................................................... 20

Fig1.15 ....................................................................................................... 21

Fig1.16 ....................................................................................................... 22

Fig1.17 ....................................................................................................... 23

Fig1.18 ....................................................................................................... 24

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LIST OF TABLES

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ABBREVIATIONS

HTF: heat transfer fluid

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION TO ACTIVE SOLAR HEATING

1. Introduction:

1.1Solar Energy:
Radiant energy that are coming from sun is known as solar energy. This energy travels in the
form of electromagnetic waves.

1.2 Types Of Solar Energy Heating:

 Passive solar heating


 Active solar heating

1.2.1 Passive Solar Heating:

Passive solar heating is the type of heating method which does not require some mechanical
power to circulate heat such as solar oven

1.2.2 Active Solar Heating:

Active solar heating is the type of heating method which requires some mechanical power to
circulate heat such as fans and pumps that require mechanical power to circulate heat from solar
collectors.

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1.3 Overview Of Active Solar Heating:

Figure: 1.1

1.4 Direct Open Loop Solar Water Heating:


They use pumps to make the flow of water through collectors and operate at standard pressure.
Their construction is very easy and easy to operate as it requires no efficient labour work. They
do not work on acidic and heavy water also no heat exchanger is required which conversely
makes it an efficient system and low cost.

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Figure : 1.2

1.5 Indirect Closed Loop Solar Water Heating:

They consists of two loops, one is a closed collector loop while second one is the open storage
tank loop. They use heat exchangers for the operation and the working fluid could be air, water,
mixture of water or any refrigerants.

Figure : 1.3

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1.6 Drain Back Systems:

They should be fully non pressurized and for the process of circulation of pumps through the
collectors they use pumps. They should be properly designed in order to drain the water from
the collector when the pumps are not working. They use large pipes and use the process of
open direct loop system for the operation.

1.7 Air System:

In order to avoid the overheating the working fluid used could be air. The fan could also be
used to make the temperature stable and also a large area of heating transfer can reduce the
temperature many more times.

Figure : 1.4

1.8 Pool Heaters:


In order to heat the domestic waters pool heaters could be used conventionally and
economically. They use filters before circulating the water through collectors and are
exclusively used for swimming pool heating and in those climates where the zones are warm.

1.9. Components:

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Main components of active solar heating system are :
 Solar collectors
 Heat exchangers
 Solar storage system
 Auxiliary source of heat

1.9.1 Solar collectors:


1.9.1.1 Flat Plate Collectors:

Flat plate collector has a glass cover with black metal plate inside it. Black collector reduces
loss by reflection and absorb more solar radiations.
An other type is evacuated tube collector in which each tube along with absorbing fluid pass
through a larger tube.

Figure : 1.5

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1.9.1.2 Evacuated Tube Collectors:

They can be made to use as a glass tube around the


high vacuum as a high absorber and it effectively
resists the atmospheric pressure. It helps in reducing
the convection and radiation heat loss largely and thus
provides greater efficiency. They are usually made up
of flat or curved metal absorber sheets as that of the
flat tube collectors made of.

Figure : 1.6

1.9.1.3 Evacuated Flat Plate Collectors:

They are similar to evacuated tube collectors but provides larger area and inside a flat
envelope type of glass and metal. The absorber should be properly segmented, have holes in it
and properly sealed. They keep the pressure stable within the envelope through time.

1.9.1.4 Polymer Flat Plate Collector:

They may be made up of completely polymer or could also include some metals containing
silicon rubber. They could be much more efficient in the areas where the solar irradiance is
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low.

1.9.1.5 Bowl Collectors:

It works like a parabolic dis but it does not receive the signals like a tracking parabolic mirror
however it consists of a spherical mirror and thus it reduces its efficiency but it is cheaper to
construct and operate it.

Figure : 1.7

1.10. WORKING:

Collector’s tubes contain liquid which circulates in the building. Sunlight heats
the liquid in tubes, then this hot liquid moves through a water container which is called as heat
exchanger. Here heat is transferred from hot fluid to water . After that the cooler fluid is then
run towards reheater which reheat it and pass to different parts of building or area which needs
to be heated . Solar collectors are are mostly placed in areas of constant sunlight.

1.11. Heat Exchangers:

Active solar heating usually use heat exchangers to transfer solar energy which is absorbed in
solar collectors to the liquid/air which in turn used to heat water and space. There are different
types of heat exchangers used in active solar heating based upon our desires.

1.11.1 Types of Heat Exchangers:

 Liquid-liquid
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 Air-liquid

1.11.1.1Liquid to Liquid:
It uses a heat transfer fluid that circulates around the solar collector , absorbs heat and then it
flows through the heat exchangers to transfer heat to water which is in the storage tanks. Single
wall heat exchanger consists of a single fluid while double wall has two fluids and two walls.

1.11.1.2 Air To Liquid:

They usually do not required a heat exchanger as they have the air heater collectors that heat the
water use and is kind a similar to liquid to air heat exchangers.

1.11.2 Heat Exchanger Designs:


Heat exchanger can be of different designs and they are :
 Coil in tank
 Shell and tube
 Tube in tube

They can be of a coil tube in a storage tank may be comprising of a single or a double tube but
less efficient. They can be of two separated fluid loops where first loops contains the process of
fluid heating and the second loop consists of the process of heat transfer fluid flow. The last but
not the least they can be in a direct contact within the water tubes and heat transfer fluid and this
contact is a thermal contact.

1.11.3 Sizing Of Heat Exchangers:


They should be of good size to work efficiently and the factors can be varied :
 Types
 Characteristics
 Flow rate
 Inside and outside temperatures

1.11.4 Installation Of Heat Exchangers:


 Always choose a desirable heat exchanger.
 Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for installation.
 Handle with care.
 Use a compatible fluid for the heat exchanger.

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LIQUID BASED EXCHANGER AIR BASED EXCHANGER

Figure : 1.8

1.12. Heat Transfer Fluid:


They carries of very important usage in active solar heating and most spevcifically in closed
loop solar water heating. Their selection depends upon various factors:
 Thermodynamic properties
 Heat transfer properties
 Coefficient of expansion
 Viscosity
 Specific heat
 Boiling point
 Freezing point
 Flash point

1.13. Solar Storage System:


Solar systems usually use a specially designed and sized, super insulated tank though it may
also be an electric tank. They serve as a tank where the water is pre-heated. They are made up of
steel, plastics or concrete.

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Figure : 1.9

1.14. Applications Of Active Solar Heating:


They have a wide range of applications conventionally as well as economically and their usage
cannot be rejected or cannot be considered as lame. They also have much more importance as
condenser or heat exchanger or some cooling towers have in heat and mass transfer.

1.14.1 Domestic Hot Water:

Figure : 1.10

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1.14.2 Liquid Based Heating System:

Figure : 1.11

1.14.3 Air Based Heating System:

Figure : 1.12

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1.15. Elements of Active Heating Systems
 Heating Elements
 Exchanger Elements
 Heat Storage Elements
 Fluid and Air Control Elements
 Temperature Control Elements
 Safety Control Elements

1.15.1 Heating Elements:

LIQUID BASED HEATER


AUXILARY HEATER

Figure : 1.13

1.15.2 Exchanger Elements:

Figure 1.14

1.15.3 Heat Storage Elements:

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Figure : 1.15

1.15.4 Fluid And Air Control Elements:

They are mostly used in controlling and regulating the working medium where the
compressed air in pneumatic system and oil in hydraulic system. Valves are used for
different purposes such as to control the pressure, direction of flow and to start and
stop the pneumatic and hydraulic energy.

Figure : 1.16

1.15.5 Temperature Control Elements:

They are used because in summer when the system gets overheated then these
control units could be used in order to stable the temperature and also in winter to
avoid the excessive cooling of the system regardless of the temperature of the
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surroundings.

Figure: 1.17

1.15.6 Safety Control Elements:

They must be used and choose wisely in order to avoid any danger and malfunction
regarding the system of life of a person. There must be a guide to the worker.

Figure: 1.18

1.16. Types Of Solar Energy:


There are two different types of Solar Energy:

• Air Based:
It is mostly used in large buildings. Rubber tubes are placed on the roof. Air is pumped through
the tubes which is then heated. The heat is then taken to the house’s heating system and
released through the air ducts.

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• Fluid Based:
Flat plate solar collectors are placed in sunlight. Pipes connected to the plates take in water
which is connected to a water heater. The water is heated, then is then pumped through the
house heating the house.

1.17. Goals Of Active Solar Heating:

 It must be environment friendly.


 Cost effective
 Safe country’s resources
 Less wastage of energy

1.18. Overall Potential Of This Technology:

 Can reduce the usage of fossil fuels


 Little environment impacts as it takes the energy from the sun
 Efficient for long periods working
 Low cost
 Can work in different climate zones

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Conclusion:

It is now being used in many countries of the world estimated more than 30 years. In this
system heat is captured by the collectors and is fed into the heating network through pumps.
As they are the large scale systems so they could be used as in order to support the district
cooling. They are also could be used for economical purposes and different other types have
also been developed in order to enhance the efficiency and these named as space heating and
hot water. Seeing these conclusion I must say that the active solar heating would provide a
vast applications and potential in the coming world or future which will be more technically
advanced.

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References:

 https://www.iea-shc.org/Data/Sites/1/publications/IEA-SHC-Annual-Report-2017.pdf
 https://www.va-q-tec.com/en/
 https://www.instrumart.com/pages/283/temperature-controller-basics-handbook
 https://www.osha.gov/shpguidelines/hazard-prevention.html
 https://www.daikin.com/products/ac/lineup/ventilation/modals/technology/01_heat_exchanger/in
dex.html
 https://www.energy.gov/energysaver/heat-exchangers-solar-water-heating-systems
 https://learning.oreilly.com/library/view/solar-heating-
and/9780128116630/XHTML/cover.xhtml
 https://sciencing.com/difference-thermal-energy-solar-energy-8503416.html
 http://www.solarpanelsplus.com/residential/solar-space-heating/
 https://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-active-solar-heating.htm

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