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5/29/2015

Transformer Protection

IEEE SF Power and Energy Society


May 29, 2015

Ali Kazemi, PE
Regional Technical Manger
Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories
Irvine, CA

Copyright © SEL 2015

Sources of Transformer Stresses

• Thermal cycling
• Vibration
• Local heating due to magnetic flux
• Impact due to through-fault current
• Heating due to overload or inadequate
cooling

Source: IEEE Std. C37.91-2008, IEEE Guide for


Protecting Power Transformers

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Transformer Failure Statistics


1983–1988
• Winding failures 37%

• Tap changer failures 22%

• Bushing failures 11%

• Terminal board failures 3%

• Core failures 1%

• Miscellaneous failures 26%

Source: IEEE Std. C37.91-2008, IEEE Guide for Protecting Power Transformers

Transformer Protection

• Differential Protection
• Current Transformer Performance
• Through Fault Protection
• Mechanical Protection

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Design Considerations for


Transformer Differential Protection
• CT ratio and CT • Differential pickup
voltage class selection settings
• CT connections • Zero-sequence
currents
• Current phase shifts
across transformer • Slope
• Inrush detection • High excitation currents

Design Considerations for


Transformer Backup Protection
• Overcurrent
• Directional overcurrent
• External faults
• Sudden pressure
• Hot spots
• Loss of coolers

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Differential Protection Overcurrent

Balanced CT Ratio

CT CT
Protected
Equipment

Normal Load

50 IOP = 0

Differential Protection

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Common Problems With


Differential Protection
CT CT
Protected
Equipment External
Fault

50 IOP ≠ 0

• False differential current can occur if CT saturates during


through fault
• Some measure of through current can be used to
desensitize relay when high currents are present

Differential Current and CT Saturation

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Possible Solution Percent


Slope Differential
ISP IRP
CTR CTR
Protected
Equipment

IS IR

Relay
(87)

IOP  IS  IR
Compares:
IS  IR
k • IRT  k •
2

Dual-Slope Differential Digital Relay

IOP
Unrestrained
Pickup, IHS
Operating Slope 2
Region

Slope 1 Restraining
Minimum Region
Pickup, IPU
IR1 IR2 IR3 IRT

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Adaptive Slope for Security

IOP
Operate

Slope 2
External Fault

Slope 1
Internal Fault
87P
Restrain
IRT

Differential Protection Summary

• Overcurrent differential scheme is simple


and economical but does not respond well
to unequal CT performance
• Percentage differential scheme responds
better to CT saturation
• Differential principle provides best protection
selectivity and speed

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Current Transformers

Current Transformer (CT) Principle

• CT isolates relay
from the HV system
• Drastically reduces
current
Ideally: is = ip / Ns

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Core and Secondary Winding


Example

The Current Transformer Equivalent


Circuit

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Induced Secondary Voltage

• Assuming the CT is not saturated, and magnetic flux


density (B) is sinusoidal:

B  Bmax sin   t     BA  ABmax sin   t 

• Induced secondary voltage is approximately:


2 f
Vs  N s ABmax  4.44 f N s ABmax
2
• Note: If Bmax, Ns, and f are fixed, the only way to obtain
larger induced voltages is to make A larger. This implies a
larger iron core.

Excitation Curve for a C400 Multiratio


CT

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Core-Balance
Current Transformer
Ia
a
Ib
b
Ic
c
IN
Shield

Is

Relay Relay

Core-Balance CT
Which Photo Shows Correct Installation?

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CT Burden Calculation

IP

IS + VS –
CT Terminal Voltage
VS  IS ZB  IS  ZLEADS  ZDEVICE 
ZLEADS

ZDEVICE

ANSI Standard Terminal Voltage Rating

• Defines minimum CT terminal voltage for


♦ 20 times nominal current
♦ Standard burden
♦ <10% ratio error
• Applies to full winding
• Using CT taps reduces accuracy

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C Class Terminal Voltage Rating

VSTD = 20 IS RATED ZB STD


For IS RATED = 5 A secondary

C Class ZB STD (Ω) VSTD (V)


C100 1 100
C200 2 200
C400 4 400
C800 8 800

Avoiding CT Saturation for


Asymmetrical Faults
2
 –Rt 
VS  2IF ZB  e L – cos t 
1.5  
 

0.5
vS

–0.5

–1
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1
Time (s)

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Avoiding CT Saturation for


Asymmetrical Faults

IF = per-unit fault current


ZB = per-unit burden

Predicting CT Saturation in
Asymmetrical Faults
• C400, 2000/5 CT with 1  burden
♦ ZB = 1 
♦ ZB STD = 4 
• Maximum asymmetrical fault current for
X/R = 12: IFmax = 20 / 0.25 • (12 + 1) =
6.15 pu = 12.3 kA

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IF ZB(1 + X/R) = 20

IF ZB(1 + X/R) = 50

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Common CT Connections
Wye Delta
Ia Ia

Ib Ib

Ic Ic

Ias Ibs Ics Ires Ias – Ics


Ics – Ibs

Ibs – Ias

Effective Burden Depends on CT


Connections and Fault Types

Effective Burden Impedance (ZB) for


Different Types of Faults
CT Connection
Three Phase or
Phase to Ground
Phase to Phase

Wye ZLEADS + ZDEVICE 2 ZLEADS + ZDEVICE

Delta 3 (ZLEADS + ZDEVICE) 2 (ZLEADS + ZDEVICE)

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Select CT That Will Not Saturate

• Know maximum available symmetrical fault


current (use VS ≤ VSTD and IFZB ≤ 20 to
verify no saturation)
• Determine X/R ratio and worst-case
asymmetrical fault (use IFZB (X/R + 1) ≤ 20
to determine CT will not saturation under
asymmetrical fault conditions)

Determine Maximum Emergency


Rating of Transformer
• Calculate full load rating (FLA) of transformer

• Ensure CTR matches FLA as closely


as possible

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DABY or DY1 Transformer Connection

YDAC or YD1 Transformer Connection

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Traditional Compensation
I a 
– Ib N2 / N1  Ia

I b 
– Ic N2 / N1  Ib

I c 
– Ia N2 / N1  Ic

N2 1 1

N1 CTR1 CTR2

I
c 
– Ia N2 / N1  / CTR1 I c 
– Ia / CTR2

I 
– Ic N2 / N1  / CTR1
I
b 
– Ic / CTR2
b

I
a – I  N
b 2 / N1  / CTR1 I a 
– Ic / CTR2

Compensation With Digital Relays


Current Scaling and Phase-Shift
Compensation Are Internal
• Exact current scaling
• Phase-shift compensation for all transformer
connections
• Allowed wye-CT connection

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Current Scaling With Digital Relays

Digital relays can fully compensate for


current amplitude differences

Digital Relays Allow Connection of


CTs in Wye
Winding 1 Winding 2
H1 X1
A a
H2 X2
B b
H3 X3
C c

ICW1 ICW2
IBW1 IBW2
IAW1 IAW2

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Current Scaling and Phase-Shift


Compensation

1 1
TAP1 TAP2

Zero-Sequence
Current for an
External Fault
87

Delta compensation Positive


Sequence
removes ZS1 ZT1

zero-sequence
Negative
current Sequence ZS2 ZT2

Zero
ZS0 ZT0
Sequence

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Zero-Sequence Current Removal


Traditional Relays
Auxiliary CTs connected as
zero-sequence trap

87

Zero-Sequence Current Removal


Digital Relay

1 1
TAP1 TAP2

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Differential Current Caused by


Magnetizing Inrush, Overexcitation,
and CT Saturation

Magnetizing Inrush Current Obtained


From Transformer Testing

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Inrush Current Harmonic Content

Harmonic-Based Methods in a Relay


With Three Differential Elements
• Independent harmonic restraint
• Independent harmonic blocking
• Common harmonic blocking

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Harmonic-Based Method Comparison

Independent Even- Common Even-


Feature
Harmonic Restraint Harmonic Blocking

Security for
High High
external faults
Security for inrush High High
Dependability High High
Speed for internal faults Lower Higher

Speed for internal faults


Higher Lower
during energization

Adaptive Fixed
Slope characteristic
(harmonic dependent) (harmonic independent)

Combined Harmonic Blocking and


Restraint for Optimal Protection
• Faults during inrush conditions
• Faults during normal conditions

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Harmonic Restraint Mode

• Operation conditions
♦ IOP > IPU
♦ IOP > SLP IRT + K2I2 + K4I4
• Blocking condition (K5I5 > IOP)

Application Considerations

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Selection of Characteristic Settings

• Minimum pickup: constant differential current


• Slope 1: proportional differential current
• Slope 2: CT saturation

Constant and Proportional


Differential Currents
• Constant
♦ Exciting current (1 to 4% of rated current)
♦ Unmonitored load in protection zone
• Proportional
♦ Tap mismatch: 0% in digital relays
♦ Tap changers: NLTC ±5%; LTC ±10%
♦ Linear CT errors: ≤3%
♦ Relay errors: ±5%

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DO NOT DELETE

Combined
Transformer
Bus and
Feeder

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Results of Repeated Faults and


Mechanical Stresses

Transformer Overcurrent and


Mechanical Protection
• Apply overcurrent protection for
through-fault damage to transformers
• Review IEEE thermal model
• Understand how sudden pressure relays
provide sensitive protection for turn-to-turn
faults and how to apply them

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Overcurrent Protection

• Possible primary protection for small


transformers
• Backup of primary protection (87 and 63)
• Backup protection for faults in adjacent
protection zones (trip transformer before it
is damaged)

Transformer Damage Curves

• Infrequent fault incident curve (fewer than


5 faults in life of transformer)
• Use infrequent fault curve
♦ For faults in zones that are cleared by
high-speed protection
♦ For systems without overhead lines

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Category IV

Above 10,000 KVA –


single phase

Above 30,000 KVA –


three phase

Source: IEEE Std. C57.12.00-2010, IEEE Standard for


Standard General Requirements for Liquid-Immersed
Distribution, Power, and Regulating Transformers

IEEE Standard C57.91-2011


Guide for Loading Mineral
Oil-Immersed Transformers
• Top-oil temperature
• Hottest-spot temperature
• Loss of life

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Transformer Cooling System

• Contact inputs indicate active cooling


system status
• Thermal model selects constants for three
cooling systems
♦ Oil-air (OA)
♦ Forced-air cooled (FA)
♦ Forced oil-air (FOA)

Transformer Thermal Monitoring


Optimizes Operation
• Transformer protection
• System operation
• System planning
• Capital investment

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Mechanical Protection

Sudden Pressure Relay (ANSI 63)

• Gas space (sudden pressure)


• Under oil (fault pressure)

Qualitrol®
Rapid Pressure Rise Relay
(Under-Oil Type)

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Combine Relays for Best


Transformer Protection
• Differential relay is primary protection for
most faults in tank and bus work
• Sudden pressure relay is primary protection
for turn-to-turn faults and backup 87 for
large faults inside tank
• Overcurrent relays are primary protection
for through-fault damage and provide
backup for faults in tank and bus work

Questions?

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