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_________________ - This is the meat of the negotiation process.

It is at this point the negotiation

process begins. This involves definition of issues, overcoming buyer’s resistance, fall and compromise.

_________________ - At this stage we can say that “mission is accomplished” and the best thing to do is
wrap it up and leave. In closing, it is very important that you understand the buyer’s needs and wants or
general problems and concern, answering them for long-term benefits rather than that of short term

_________________ – time constraint plays a big factor as it influences the negotiation process
particularly when the deadline set for the talks draws near. The fear of a deadlock is a strong stimulant to
granting concessions and reaching agreement.

_________________ - Once an order has been obtained, make sure that order is confirmed upon your
return to the office then deal with it quickly and efficiently. Buyer’s satisfaction with his first order may
mean more orders sooner that you think and may make the buyers a “regular customer”.

_________________ – this refers to constant scrambling for small concessions on a given subject. This
technique is resorted to when it is clear at the very beginning that there will be difficulty in getting the
whole order, thus, it is best to negotiate small items first one at a time and end up with the bulk of the
whole in the end.

_________________ – in this technique, the seller keeps quiet, paying much attention to the
presentation of the buyer. It is aimed at encouraging the buyer to go on with his presentation, unwillingly
revealing more information, thus enabling the seller to validate his perceptions and qualifications as he
given the opportunity to observe various reactions that may be manifested by the buyer

_________________ – this is the technique of introducing a subject, making a proposal or starting a

demand with words, “what if” the purpose of this exercise is to test the reactions of the other side and
his/her strength of conviction. Another advantage of this tactics is to prevent the negotiator from taking a
stand that may commit him to a point of view too early in the negotiation process.

_________________ - this involves two persons in a team wherein one behaves aggressively while the
other keeps a quieter profile

__% down payment | __% interest | __% payable in 7 years | __% equity

_________________ - From the discussion, the goals, interests and viewpoints of both sides of the
disagreement need to be clarified. It is helpful to list these factors in order of priority. Through this
clarification it is often possible to identify or establish some common ground.

_________________ - are complex processes, involving dozens or more players who may each represent
different interest. Business and their associations must learn how to influence such negotiations,
nationally and internationally, in order to best position themselves to benefit from the evolving global
trading environment

_________________ - can be achieved once understanding of both sides’ viewpoints and interests has
been considered. It is essential to for everybody involved to keep an open mind in order to achieve an
acceptable solution.
_________________ - There are times when there is a need to negotiate more informally. At such times,
when a difference of opinion arises, it might not be possible or appropriate to go through the stages set
out above in a formal manner. Nevertheless, remembering the key points in the stages of formal
negotiation may be very helpful in a variety of informal situations.

_________________ - the preparation involves finding out all you can about your prospect prior to
meeting him or her.

_________________ - This stage focuses on what is termed a 'win-win' outcome where both sides feel
they have gained something positive through the process of negotiation and both sides feel their point of
view has been taken into consideration.

_________________ - From the agreement, a course of action has to be implemented to carry through
the decision

_________________ - is also sometimes called positional or hard-bargaining negotiation and attempts to

distribute a "fixed pie" of benefits.

Distributive negotiation operates under zero-sum conditions and implies that any gain one party makes is
at the expense of the other and vice versa.

_________________ - is also called interest-based, merit-based, or principled negotiation. It is a set of

techniques that attempts to improve the quality and likelihood of negotiated agreement by taking
advantage of the fact that different parties often value various outcomes differently.

_________________ - negotiators need not sacrifice effective negotiation in favor of a positive

relationship between parties. Rather than conceding, each side can appreciate that the other has
emotions and motivations of their own and use this to their advantage in discussing the issue.

_________________ – People tend to search for information that confirms his or her own beliefs and
often ignore information that contradicts prior beliefs. In order to negotiate effectively, it is important to
empathize with the other party's point of view. One should be open to other views and attempt to
approach an issue from the perspective of the other.

_________________ – A more direct approach to understanding the other party is to explicitly discuss
each other's perceptions. Each individual should openly and honestly share his or her perceptions without
assigning blame or judgment to the other.

_________________ – It is possible that the other party has prior perceptions and expectations about the
other side. The other side can act in a way that directly contradicts those preconceptions, which can
effectively send a message that the party is interested in an integrative negotiation.

_________________ – This approach refers to justifying a stance based on one's previously expressed
principles and values in a negotiation. This approach to an issue is less arbitrary, and thus, it is more
understandable from the opposing party's perspective.[14]
_________________ – Listening is more than just hearing what the other side is saying. Active listening
involves paying close attention to what is being said verbally and nonverbally. It involves periodically
seeking further clarification from the person.


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- Commissions - Admin
- Human Resources

- Clerks

Superior to Low – _________________

Low to Superior – _________________

_________________ – Too much information can be as harmful as too little. Before stating an important
point, determine exactly what you wish you communicate to the other party. Determine the exact
purpose that this shared information will serve.

_________________ - In international business negotiations, there are cultural dimensions or cultural

differences among the players. A successful negotiator must have knowledge of human behavior and
awareness of cultural differences so as to be prepared at the negotiating table.

_________________ - All negotiation is strongly influenced by underlying attitudes to the process itself,
for example attitudes to the issues and personalities involved in the particular case or attitudes linked to
personal needs for recognition.

_________________ - The more knowledge you possess of the issues in question, the greater your
participation in the process of negotiation. In other words, good preparation is essential.

_________________ - Good interpersonal skills are essential for effective negotiations, both in formal
situations and in less formal or one-toone negotiations. (best: by group)
_________________ - When a party pretends to negotiate, but secretly has no intention of compromising,
the party is considered negotiating in bad faith. Bad faith is a concept in negotiation theory whereby
parties pretend to reason to reach settlement, but have no intention to do so.

_________________ – exclusive distributor; importer from other countries.

_________________ – not allowed to sell if you’re not an exclusive distributor so there will be no bidding.


_________________ – APPROVED

₱_________________ – PROPOSAL

The BUYER mostly pays for everything like bank charges.

_________________ - is a strategic approach to influence that maximizes value in any single negotiation
through the astute linking and sequencing of other negotiations and decisions related to one's operating