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Current of Electricity

• Electric current

• Potential difference

• Resistance and resistivity

• Sources of electromotive force

Learning Outcomes

(a) show an understanding that electric current is the rate of flow of charged particles.

(b) define charge and the coulomb.

(c) recall and solve problems using the equation Q = It.

(d) define potential difference and the volt.

W

(e) recall and solve problems using V = .

Q

(f) recall and solve problems using P = VI, P = I2R.

(g) define resistance and the ohm.

(h) recall and solve problems using V = IR.

(i) sketch and explain the I-V characteristics of a metallic conductor at constant

temperature, a semiconductor diode and a filament lamp.

(j) sketch the temperature characteristic of a thermistor.

ρl

(k) recall and solve problems using R = .

A

(l) define e.m.f. in terms of the energy transferred by a source in driving unit charge round

a complete circuit.

(m) distinguish between e.m.f. and p.d. in terms of energy considerations.

(n) show an understanding of the effects of the internal resistance of a source of e.m.f. on

the terminal potential difference and output power.

JJ 2014 H2 PHYSICS (9646) Current of Electricity

Background

Types of electricity

Current Static

(Net flow of charges (No net flow of charges

in a certain direction) in a certain direction)

Conduct

Type of matter electricity? Reason Examples

carriers, mainly electrons and solutions

ions, which will drift to

constitute an electric current

under the effect of an applied

electric field.

Intrinsic Conductivity Number of mobile charge Gp IV elements of

Semiconductors depends on carriers (electrons and holes) the Periodic Table

temperature varies substantially with (eg. Silicon)

temperature.

Insulators No Minimal or no mobile charge Rubber, wood and

carriers that can drift under plastic

the effect of an applied

electric field.

(a) show an understanding that electric current is the rate of flow of charged

particles.

Q

Mathematically, I=

t

where:

Q is the electric charge, in coulomb (C); and

t is the time taken, in second (s), for the electric charge to flow past the section of the

circuit.

JJ 2014 H2 PHYSICS (9646) Current of Electricity

Worked Example 1

In a gas, conduction occurs as a result of negative particles flowing one way and positive

particles flowing in the opposite direction as shown.

Copper + Copper

conductor - conductor

Gas at low

pressure

The copper conductors carry a current of 0.28 mA. The number of negative particles passing

any point in the gas per unit time is 1.56 x 1015 s-1 and the charge on each negative particle

is -1.60 x 10-19 C. Calculate the current due to:

(i) the negative charge flowing past any point in the gas per second,

(ii) the positive charge flowing past any point in the gas per second

Solution

(i) Number of negative particles per unit time = 1.56 x 1015 s-1

Charge on each negative particle is -1.60 x 10-19 C.

Hence, current due to negative charges flow = (1.56 x 1015)(1.60 x 10-19)

= 0.250 mA

(ii) Since the flow of both positive and negative charges contribute to the current,

= Itotal – Inegative charge

= 0.28 – 0.25

= 0.03 mA

(c) recall and solve problems using the equation Q = It.

Q

From the definition of electric current I = ,

t

Q = It

Charge is the product of the electric current flowing through a cross section of a

circuit and the time for which it flows.

From Q = It ,

1 C = (1 A) (1 s) = 1 A s

One coulomb is the quantity of electric charge that passes through a cross section

of a circuit when a steady current of one ampere flows for one second.

© Physics Dept Page 3 of 18

JJ 2014 H2 PHYSICS (9646) Current of Electricity

Worked Example 2

Given that the electric current flowing through a circuit is 0.76 mA, calculate the electric

charge which passes each section of the circuit over a time of 60.0 s.

Solution

Q = It

Q = (0.76 ×10-3 )(60.0) = 0.0456 = 4.56 ×10-2 C

Worked Example 3

Over a time of 8.0 s, the electric current flowing through a circuit I / mA

component is reduced uniformly from 60 mA to 20 mA.

Calculate the charge that flows during this time. 60

Solution

= 21 (8.0)(60 + 20)(10 −3 ) = 0.32 C

20

t/s

0 8.0

Worked Example 4

A plastic disc of radius r rotates at frequency f.

Four small metal studs, each given a charge of Q,

are placed around its circumference, as shown.

electric current of the rotating charges?

Q 2Qf

(A) 4Qf (B) 4 (C) 8πrQf (D)

f πr

Solution

Q 4Q 1

I= = = 4Qf [since f = ]

t T T

(Ans: A)

JJ 2014 H2 PHYSICS (9646) Current of Electricity

When a bulb is connected to a battery, the bulb gets lit up. The battery converts

chemical energy into electrical energy and is therefore a source of electrical energy.

The bulb converts electrical energy into thermal energy and light (other forms of

energies) and therefore dissipates electrical energy.

Defining potential difference (p.d.) in terms of:

energy power

The p.d. between two points in a circuit The p.d. between two points in a circuit

is defined as the energy converted is defined as the rate of conversion

from electrical to other forms of from electrical to other forms of

energy per unit charge passing from energy per unit current flowing from

one point to the other. one point to the other.

Mathematically,

p.d. = p.d. =

charge current

W P

V = V = or P = VI

Q I

where

W is the energy converted, in joules (J)

Q is the electric charge moved, in coulombs (C)

P is the power converted, in watts (W)

I is the electric current flowing, in amperes (A)

W

From V = , 1 V = 1 J C-1 From P = VI , 1 V = 1 W A-1

Q

One volt is the potential difference One volt is the potential difference

between two points in a circuit in which between two points in a circuit if one

one joule of electrical energy is watt of electrical power is converted to

converted to other forms when one other forms of power when a constant

coulomb of charge passes from one current of one ampere passes between

point to the other. the two points.

Note:

• Since the unit for p.d. is volt, p.d. is frequently called voltage.

• The term “p.d.” can only be used if the two points are stated clearly.

For a single circuit component, the two points are usually the two ends of the

component hence the p.d. across the component. The current through the

component results from the p.d. across that component.

JJ 2014 H2 PHYSICS (9646) Current of Electricity

• Sometimes the term “potential at a point” in a circuit is used. This has meaning

only if there is a defined reference point for zero potential. The electrical earth

has zero potential.

The circuit below shows the corresponding potential at each points of W, X, Y, and Z.

With point Y earthed, the potential of all other points in the circuits can be determined

as shown.

With point W earthed, the corresponding potentials at each point W, X, Y and Z can

be determined as shown below:

• If the circuit is not earthed then the potential at all points in the circuit is

indeterminate. Only the potential difference between points can be determined.

A battery of e.m.f. 12 V means the battery sets up a (+) potential higher than the

(-) potential by 12 V. The actual values of potential at the terminals can be any

arbitrary values but the difference must be 12 V.

JJ 2014 H2 PHYSICS (9646) Current of Electricity

W

(e) recall and solve problems using V = .

Q

Worked Example 5

An immersion heater is rated at 3000 W and is switched on for 2000 s. During this time a

charge of 25 kC is supplied to the heater.

Solution

W (3000 )(2000 )

V = = = 240 V

Q 25000

(h) recall and solve problems using V = IR.

power converted

From p.d. = (Found on page 5),

current

P

V =

I

Hence,

P = VI = (IR)I = I2R

Worked Example 6

A 12 V 24 W bulb is connected in series with a variable resistor and a 18 V battery of

negligible internal resistance. The variable resistor is adjusted until the bulb operates at its

normal rating.

Determine

(i) the current in the bulb;

(ii) the resistance of the bulb;

(iii) the p.d. across the variable resistor;

(iv) the power dissipation in the variable resistor.

Solution

(i) P = VI

24 = (12)I

I = 2.0 A

V2 V2 122

(ii) V = IR or P= →R = = =6Ω

R P 24

12 = (2.0)R

R = 6.0 Ω

(iv) P = VI = (6.0)(2.0) = 12 W

JJ 2014 H2 PHYSICS (9646) Current of Electricity

Ohm’s law states that the current flowing through a metallic conductor is directly

proportional to the potential difference between its ends provided that all other

physical conditions (such as temperature and stress) are kept constant.

Mathematically,

V

IαV => V = RI => R = = constant

I

device. It is constant for an ohmic conductor. Materials which obey Ohm’s law are

called ohmic conductors.

the resistor to the current flowing through it.

V

From R = ,

I

1 Ω = 1 V A-1

One ohm is the electric resistance of a resistor when a potential difference of one

volt across its terminal drives a current of one ampere through it.

(i) sketch and explain the I-V characteristics of a metallic conductor at constant

temperature, a semiconductor diode and a filament lamp.

(j) sketch the temperature characteristic of a thermistor.

carriers increase

current increases carriers and lattice ions increases

(dominant effect for semiconductors) charge carriers decreases

resistance increases

(dominant effect for metals)

© Physics Dept Page 8 of 18

JJ 2014 H2 PHYSICS (9646) Current of Electricity

I Low resistance

High resistance

I-V characteristics

Straight line, through the origin.

Significance

A metallic conductor at constant temperature is an ohmic conductor i.e. has

constant resistance (since straight line implies I being directly proportional to V).

Explanation

If the temperature of the conductor is kept constant, the number of mobile charge

carriers and vigour of lattice ion vibrations will remain the same. Hence its resistance

will remain constant.

2. Filament lamp

(contains a long thin wire made of metal with high melting point e.g.

tungsten.)

resistance increasing temperature

I-V characteristics

When the p.d. across the filament lamp is low, straight line through the origin.

As p.d increases, current through the filament lamp also increases, with decreasing

I-V gradient.

Significance

The resistance of a metallic conductor increases with temperature.

Explanation

Left-hand side of dotted line: When the p.d. across the filament lamp is low, the

current flowing through it is also low. The resulting heating effect (temperature

increase) is insignificant and resistance remains fairly constant.

Right-hand side of dotted line: As p.d. across the filament lamp increases, current

increases. Heating effect is significant, resulting in temperature increase.

JJ 2014 H2 PHYSICS (9646) Current of Electricity

• When applied potential difference increases, current increases and

temperature of the filament increases.

• This causes the lattice ions in the metal to vibrate more vigorously, causing

an increased rate of collision with the moving electrons.

• The increased rate of collision reduces the rate of flow of electrons, hence,

lowering the current flow.

Example

Explain why filament lamps are more likely to fail when first turned on.

Answer

Since the filament lamp is colder (i.e. at room temperature), its resistance is initially

lower. When it is switched on, a large current flows through it, thus melting the

filament. Hence the filament lamp fails.

Comparatively, when the filament lamp has been switched on for a long time, its

temperature is high and hence its resistance is high, causing the current flowing

through the lamp to be lower.

I-V characteristics

When the p.d. across the thermistor is low, straight line through the origin.

As p.d increases, current through the thermistor also increases, with increasing I-V

gradient.

Significance

The resistance of a thermistor decreases with temperature.

Explanation

Left-hand side of dotted line: When the p.d. across the thermistor is low, the current

flowing through it is also low. The resulting heating effect (temperature increase) is

insignificant and resistance remains fairly constant.

Right-hand side of dotted line: As p.d. across the thermistor increases, current

increases. Heating effect is significant, resulting in temperature increase.

average drift velocity. However, the number of mobile charge carriers increases more

significantly.

© Physics Dept Page 10 of 18

JJ 2014 H2 PHYSICS (9646) Current of Electricity

4. Semiconductor Diode

I-V characteristics

The I-V characteristic of a forward-biased semiconductor diode is similar to that of a

thermistor, i.e. resistance decreases as p.d. increases.

reverse-biased p.d. is too high, the diode will break down and conduct electricity.

Significance

A diode has a low resistance in one direction (forward-biased direction) and a very

high resistance in the other direction (reverse-biased direction).

Explanation

For forward-biased, refer to explanation for thermistor.

For reverse-biased, it will be covered in greater details in the topic “Lasers and

Semiconductors” in J2.

ρl

(k) recall and solve problems using R = .

A

proportional to its cross-sectional area A.

l

Rα

A

The relationship could be expressed as an algebraic equation by introducing a

constant of proportionality as follows:

ρl

R =

A

R is the resistance of the sample, in ohms (Ω)

A is the cross-section area of the sample, in m2

l is the length of the sample, in metres (m)

© Physics Dept Page 11 of 18

JJ 2014 H2 PHYSICS (9646) Current of Electricity

Hence,

RA

ρ =

l

Resistivity is the proportionality constant relating the resistance of a circuit

component to its length and cross-sectional area. It is a property of the material and

is dependent on temperature.

electricity. A high resistivity means a sample of the material is a poor conductor. A

low resistivity means a sample of the material is a good conductor.

Worked Example 7

The resistivity of a material is 3.1 × 10-5 Ω m. Determine the resistance of a sample of the

material given that its length is 20 cm and its cross-section area is 2.0 mm2.

Solution

ρ l (3.1× 10−5 )(0.20)

R= = = 3.1 Ω

A (2.0)(0.001)2

(l) define e.m.f. in terms of the energy transferred by a source in driving unit charge

round a complete circuit.

Movement of charge carriers is possible only if they possess energy and are allowed

to dissipate their energy.

Sources like batteries and generators provide the energy to the charge carriers.

Available path(s) for charge carriers to dissipate their energy cause their movement.

Defining electromotive force (e.m.f.) in terms of:

energy power

source is defined as the energy source is defined as the rate of

converted from non-electrical to conversion of energy from non-

electrical per unit charge driven electrical to electrical per unit current

through the source. delivered by the source.

Mathematically,

e.m.f. = e.m.f. =

charge current

W P

E = E = or P = EI

Q I

where

W is the energy converted, in joules (J)

JJ 2014 H2 PHYSICS (9646) Current of Electricity

P is the power converted, in watts (W)

I is the electric current delivered, in amperes (A)

The e.m.f. of a source is defined using the energy converted from non-electrical to

electrical per unit charge driven through the source.

The p.d. between two points is defined using energy converted from electrical to non-

electrical per unit charge passing from one point to the other.

e.m.f. on the terminal potential difference and output power.

In practice, no energy source (battery or generator) is perfect i.e. not all its energy is

delivered and some energy is wasted within itself. Some of the electrical energy

delivered by a source is always dissipated within itself.

The source is said to have internal resistance. When the external load is large, the

internal resistance has negligible effect. When the external load is not large, the

internal resistance can be depicted as a series resistor within the source as shown in

the diagram below.

The energy delivered by the source is then shared between its internal resistance

and external load, i.e.

EIt = I2Rt + I2rt

E = IR + Ir

E = I(R+r)

The terminal p.d. is the potential difference across the source. It is equal to the

potential difference across the external circuit.

where

E is the e.m.f. of the source, in volts (V)

JJ 2014 H2 PHYSICS (9646) Current of Electricity

R is the resistance of the external circuit, in ohms (Ω)

r is the internal resistance of the source, in ohms (Ω)

It can be deduced that when the source is connected to an external circuit, the

terminal p.d. of the source is reduced by the amount Ir.

When the current I through the source is zero (such as when the external circuit is

open) then terminal p.d. V will be equal to the e.m.f. E.

When the internal resistance is negligible, the terminal p.d. will be approximately

equal to the e.m.f. E.

Alternatively, in terms of power, the power delivered by the source is shared between

its internal resistance and external load, i.e.

PE = PR + Pr

EI = I2R + I2r

The power dissipated internally (Pr = I2r) is wasted in heating up the energy source.

Only the power that is dissipated externally (PR = I2R) is available to the external

circuit so the efficiency of the source is always below 100%.

useful power VI I 2R R

Efficiency η = = = 2 =

total power EI I (R + r ) R + r

As the external load (R) is varied, the efficiency η of the source and the power

dissipated externally (PR) vary as shown:

η PR

1

Pmax

0.5

0 R=r R 0 R=r R

Note:

• The efficiency of the source is 50% when the external load is equal to the internal

resistance of the source.

• The power dissipated externally (PR) is maximum when the external load is

equal to the internal resistance of the source (Maximum Power Theorem).

JJ 2014 H2 PHYSICS (9646) Current of Electricity

2 2 2

⎛ E ⎞ ⎛ E ⎞ ⎛E⎞ E2

Pmax = ⎜R +r ⎟ R = ⎜r +r ⎟ r = ⎜ ⎟ r =

⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2r ⎠ 4r

Current in circuit, I

Worked Example 8

A battery of e.m.f. 12 V and internal resistance 0.014 Ω delivers a 2.0 A current when first

connected to a motor. Calculate the resistance of the motor.

Solution

Summary of formulae

(c) Q = It

(e) W

V=

Q

(f) P = VI, P = I2R

(h) V = IR

(k) ρA

R=

A

(l) W

E=

Q

Summary of definitions/concepts

1 Electric current I: flow of charged particles per unit time (SI unit: A)

Q

I=

t

Potential difference (p.d.) V between two points: the energy converted from electrical to

2a

non-electrical per unit charge passing from one point to the other. (SI unit: V)

W

V=

Q

2b p.d between two points is also defined: power dissipated or rate of conversion of

electrical energy to other forms of energy per unit current between the points.

P

V=

I

JJ 2014 H2 PHYSICS (9646) Current of Electricity

decreases as its temperature increases.

T

Thermistor

3b Resistance R of a device: the ratio of the potential difference across it to the current

flowing through it. (SI unit: Ω)

V

R=

I

Ohm’s law: the current flowing in a metallic conductor is proportional to the p.d. across it,

provided that the physical conditions (i.e. temperature, stress) are constant.

I I

I

V V V

Metallic conductor at Filament bulb Thermistor

constant temperature

length l and inversely proportional to the conductor’s cross sectional area A.

l ρl

R∝ ⇒R=

A A

its length and cross-sectional area. It is a property of the material and is dependent on

temperature. (SI unit: Ω m)

JJ 2014 H2 PHYSICS (9646) Current of Electricity

4

per unit charge driven through the source. (SI unit: V)

W P

E= , E= s

Q I

e.m.f. E p.d. V

electrical energy per unit charge forms of energy per unit charge.

energy energy

Turbine: kinetic energy → electrical Light bulb: electrical energy → light &

energy heat energy

5 Internal resistance r: occurs when some of the electric power delivered by a source is

dissipated in the source itself.

measures p.d. across resistor R. i.e. r

V = IR

I

E = V + Ir

V = IR V

= E - Ir

R

6a Power dissipated in device, P : rate at which device converts electrical energy to other

forms of energy. (SI unit: W)

V2

P = VI = I 2 R =

R

JJ 2014 H2 PHYSICS (9646) Current of Electricity

6b Power supplied by source, PS : rate at which source converts other forms of energy to

electrical energy. (SI unit: W)

Ps = EI

Note: For power supplied by source, the emf E of the source is used instead, and the

equation Ps = EI is used for the calculation.

Acknowledgements

- Adapted from COE lecture notes 2011

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