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KUWAIT OIL COMPANY (K.S.C.

STANDARDS PUBLICATION

KOC RECOMMENDED PRACTICE

FOR

BLAST RESISTANT DESIGN

OF BUILDINGS

I STANDARDS TEAM I
KUWAIT OIL COMPANY (K.S.C.)

STANDARDS PUBLICATION

KOC RECOMMENDED PRACTICE

FOR

BLAST RESISTANT DESIGN OF BUILDINGS


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page No.

FOREWORD

SCOPE

APPLICATION

TERMINOLOGY
3.1 Definitions
3.2 Abbreviations

REFERENCE STANDARDS, CODES AND SPECIFICA'


4.1 Conflicts
4.2 List of Standards and Codes

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT

BASIC CONSIDERATIONS
7.1 General Objectives
7.2 Siting Requirements
7.3 Blast Protection Options
7.4 Blast Waves
7.5 Blast Wave Parameters

DETERMINATION OF DESIGN LOADS


8.1 Overpressures
8.2 Blast Loadings

GENERAL STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS


9.1 Technical Considerations
9.2 Common Systems Used
9.3 Resommended System

STRUCTURAL DESIGN
10.1 Basic Criteria
10.2 Dynamic Response
10.3 Dynamic Design Strength
10.4 Deformation Limits

METHODS OF DYNAMIC ANALYSIS


11.1 General Objectives
11.2 Calculation of Mass and Inertia
11.3 Basic Methods
DESIGN PROCEDURES
12.1 General Design Concepts
12.2 Basic Calculation Methods
12.3 Structural Applications

REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN


13.1 General
13.2 Design Principles
13.3 Materials t o be Used
13.4 Supplementary Requirements
13.5 Failure Mechanism

STEEL DESIGN
14.1 General
14.2 Design Principles
14.3 Materials to be Used
14.4 Supplementary Requirements
14.5 Failure Mechanism

FOU N DATlON DESIGN

ARCHITECTURAL CONSIDERATIONS
16.1 General Criteria
16.2 External Doors
16.3 Windows
16.4 Utility Openings
16.5 In~eriorDesign
16.6 Exterior Design
16.7 Services Connections
16.8 Staffing Levels

EVALU.ATION AND U PRGADING OF EXISTING BUILDINGS


17.1 General Evaluation Strategies
17.2 Upgrade Options

QUALITY ASSU RANCE

DOCUMENTATION
19.1 General
19.2 Deliverables

APPENDICES
Appendix
. . - I: Blast Wave Reflection Coefficient vs.
Angle of Incidence
Appendix - 11: General Blast Loading for A Rectangular Building 57
-
Appendix Ill: Typical Graphical Solution Chart for
Elasto-Plastic SDOF System 58
Appendix - IV: Nomenclatures Used 5S60

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 61
FOREWORD

This document "KOC Recommended Practice for Blast Resistant Design of


Buildings" (KOC-C-030) is intended t o address the basic technical requirements of
Control room b ~ i l d i n g s/ houses and other land based facility buildings subject t o
potential blast risks, where the consequences of accidental vapour cloud explosions
or sudden emissions due t o process upsets are already predicted and identified as
the probable source; and accordingly the building(s1 are sited at distance(s) t o
reduce the disastrous blast effects t o the minimum.

This Recommended Practice (RP) has been approved by Standards Team in


consultation with the Standards Technical Committee for consistent use throughout
the corporate engineering and operational functions of Kuwait Oil Company (K.S.C).

This RP sets out t o achieve the following objectives:

a. To recommend the general guidelines of blast resistant requirements for design,


and construction of buildings with a view to provide safe, reliable and economic
systems to minimize the detrimental btast effects on personnel and equipment.

b. To provide various design recommendations and suitable technical inputs in order


t o develop the intended blast resilient systems for new or existing buildings with
their inherent dynamic characteristics t o endure blast effects.

c. To establish relevant design concepts for forming the basis of a detailed design
package and project specifications t o be prepared prior t o construction tender.

d. To describe minimum design aspects and technical requirements in order t o


monitor compliance of material, construction and workmanship with a contract.

Feedback as well as any comments or suggestions from the application of this RP


derived at any stage of conceptual design, engineering, construction, and
maintenance are encouraged and should be directed to:

The Team Leader Standards


(Chairman, Standards Technical Committee)
Industrial Services Group, KOC
P.O. Box - 9758, Ahmadi 61 0 0 8
State of Kuwait

Task Force Responsible for this RP

The preparation of this RP has been entrusted by the Standards Technical


Committee (STC) t o the Task Force No. (TF-CI08) comprising of the following
members:

Mr. S. Kumar Standards Team TF Leader /Author Tel. No. 61407


Mrs. Sana'a Al-Talha Design Team Member Tel. No. 61352
Mr. Mubarak Al-khmed Major Proj. Team Ill Member TeI. No. 61 249
Mr. Rafiq Khan Gen. Projects Member Tel. No. 61 3 5 6
Mr. Barun Baruak Safety Team Member Tef. No. 71408
Mr. Meshlej Al-Khaldi Constr. Team Member Tel. No. 61 6 6 8
SCOPE

This Recommended Practice (RP) describes the general guidance on the


blast resistant design of Control room buildings 1 houses as well as other
facility buildings subject t o potential blast loading, and provides the
minimum technical requirements pertaining t o structural and architectural
aspects for the blast resilient buildings in KOC Pfants within Kuwait.

However, the facility buildings such as Pump houses, Compressor house,


MCCs, Substations and other structures, should be designed to be blast
resistant only, when decided by KOC as special cases, on recommendations
from th.2 Quantitative Risk Assessment studies.

This RP covers the basic aspects of structural design of any new buildings
in reinforced concrete for blast resistance; and necessary upgrading and
strengthening of existing buildings exposed to blast loading, in case of any
accidental vapour cloud explosions or sudden emissions due to process
upsets with a view to minimize its detrimental effects on equipment and
personnel.

The content of this RP is intended to be adopted as a design guide to meet


the minimum KOC requirements; and should form the basis of a detailed
design specification to be prepared prior to construction tender.

APPLICATION

The design, materials and construction of the blast resistant buildings


should conform to the minimum requirements of this RP and the reference
standards and codes mentioned herein.

Any exceptions or deviations from this RP, along with their merits and
justifications, shall be brought to the attention of KOC Controlling Team for
their review, consideration and amendment by Standards Team (if required).

Compliance with this RP does not of itself confer immunity from legal or
statutory obligations.

TERMINOLOGY

For the purposes of this RP, the following definitions shall apply.

3.1 . I Angle O F Incidence (a)

The angle between the direction of the blast wave movement and a flat
surface.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-030 Page 7 of 62

Blast Load

A dynamic load generated by violent transient high-energy waveform out of


explosion of flammable material (liquids or gases) at suitable conditions of
pressure or temperature.

Blast wave

A transient change in the gas density, pressure, and velocity of the air
surrounding an explosion.

Blast Resistant Buildings

Buildings or other structures capable of withstanding the effects of an


accidental plant explosion t o the minimum damages in their resistance,
provided that this does not result in collapse, danger t o personnel or render
control equipment inoperable.

Conventional Loads

Loads normally considered in structural design such as Dead Loads (DL),


Live Loads (LL) and Wind Loads (WL).

Designer

Person 3r persons from Contractor or from any Consulting firm approved by


KOC, vvho are undertaking the responsibilities of the actual design and
detailed specifications, related t o the blast resistant buildings.

Ductility Ratio (p)

A measure of the energy absorbing capacity of a structural element; and


computed by dividing the element's maximum deformation Idisplacement
by the vield deformation Idisplacement at the elastic limit.

Dynamic Increase Factor (DIF)

The ratio of dynamic t o static strength which is used t o compute the effect
of a rapidly applied load t o the strength of a structural element.

Impulse

The integrated area under the overpressure time curve.


Incident Side-On Overpressure

Initial peak pressure rise, above ambient (atmospheric pressure), produced


by a shock wave or pressure wave as felt by a flat surface oriented parallel
to the direction of wave propagation.

Incipient Failure

The level of deformation where collapse can be expected t o occur.

Overpressure

Pressure rise above ambient (atmospheric pressure) produced by a shock


wave or pressure wave.

Passive Fire Protection

Any fire protection measures such as structural barriers or fixed systems or


special coatings/coverings that do not require manual or actuation for them
to function to their design intent.

Positive Phase

The portion of the pressure time history where the pressure is above the
ambient pressure.

Pressurs Wave

A blast wave that produces a gradual rise in pressure.

Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA)

A set of methods used in process plants for identifying the potential


hazards, assessing the probability of risks involved and consequences of
incidents which can cause adverse effects on plant, production, critical
equipment and human lives by fire, explosion, damages or deaths; and
establishing a road map t o eliminate such risks with a view t o avoid any
possible recurrence.

Reflected Overpressure

The rise in pressure produced by a shock wave or pressure wave as felt by


a flat surface oriented perpendicular t o the direction of wave propagation.

Shockwave

A blast wave that produces a near instantaneous rise in pressure.


DOC. NO. KOC-C-030 REV.l
-

3.1.19 Strain Hardening

The observed increase in strength as a material is deformed well into the


plastic range.

3.1.20 Ultimate Capacity

The load applied to a structural element as the final plastic hinge, or


collapse mechanism, is formed.

Abbreviations

AlSC American Institute of Steel Construction


ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers
FEM Finite Element Method
HSE Health, Safety and Environment
KOC Kuwait Oil Company (K.S.C)
MDOF Multi Degree of Freedom
PFP Passive Fire Protection
QRA Quantitative Risk Assessment
SDOF Single Degree of Freedom
VCE Vapour Cloud Explosion

REFERENCE STANDARDS. CODES AND SPEClFlCATlONS

Conflicts

In the event of conflicts between this RP and the standards / codes


referenced herein, or other contractual requirements, the most stringent
requirement shall apply. In case further clarifications are required, the
subject shall be brought to the attention of KOC Controlling Team.

List of Standards and Codes

The latest edition of the following standards, codes and specifications shall
apply:

Nationa / International Standards

ACI 3 1 8 M l Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete


ACI 318RM

ACI SP 66 Details and Detailing of Concrete Reinforcement

AlSC Specification for Structural Steel Buildings - Allowable


Stress Design and Plastic Design

AlSC Manual of Steel Construction - Working Stress Design


DOC. NO. KOC-C-030 Page 10 of 62

AlSC Manual of Steel Construction - Load and Resistance


Factor Design (Vol. I)

AlSC Manual of Steel Construction (Vol. II) - Connections

API RP 752 Management of Hazards Associated with Location of


Process Plant Buildings CMA Manager's Guide

ASCE 7 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures

ASCE Manual 41 Plastic Design in Steel: A Guide and Commentary

ASCE Publication Design of Blast Resistant Buildings in Petrochemical


Facilities

ASTM 1136136M Specification for Carbon Structural Steel

ASTM A325 Specification for Structural Bolts, Steel, Heat-Treated,


1 2 0 / 105 ksi Minimum Tensile Strength

ASTM A490 Specification for Heat-Treated Steel Structural Bolts, 1 5 0


ksi Minimum Tensile Strength

ASTM A61 5 Specification for Deformed and Plain Billet-Steel Bars for
Concrete Reinforcements

ASTM A653 Specification for Steel Sheet, Zinc-Coated (Galvanized) or


Zinc-Iron Alloy-Coated {Galvannealed) by the Hot-Dip
Process

ASTM A706 Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Deformed and Plain Bars
for Concrete Reinforcement

ASTM (31 5 0 Specification of Portland Cement

ASTM F1554 Specification for Anchor Bolts, Steel, 36, 55, and 105
ksi Yield Strength

AWS D1.l Structural Welding Society - Steel

BS 449 Part 2 Specification for The Use of Structural Steel in Building:


Part 2: Metric Units

IS0 Metric Precision Hexagonal Bolts, Screws and Nuts -


Specification (Metric Units)

Specification for Sulfate-Resisting Portland Cement


Specification for Carbon Steel Bars for the Reinforcement
of Concrete

BS 5 6 2 8 Code of Practice for Use of Masonry

BS 5 9 5 0 Structural Use of Steel Work in Building:


Parts 2 & 8 Part 2: Specification for Materials, Fabrication and
Erection: Hot Rolled Sections
Part 8: Code of Practice for Fire Resistant Design

BS 6 3 9 9 Part 1 Loading for Buildings - Code of Practice for Dead and


Imposed Loads

BS 8 0 0 4 Code of Practice for Foundations

BS 81 1 3 Part 1 Structural Use of Concrete - Part 1 : Code of Practice for


Design and Construction

Specification for Scheduling, Dimensioning, Bending


and Cutting of Reinforcements for Concrete

BS CP 3 Code of Basic Data for the Design of Buildings -


Part 2 Chapter V: Loading Part 2: Wind Loads

Hot Rolled Products of Non-Alloy Structural Steels -


Technical Delivery Conditions

2 9 CFR 1 9 10.1 1 9 2 9 Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) 1910.1 1 9 Process


Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals

TM-5-1300 Structures t o Resist the Effects of Accidental Explosions

UBC ( V d . 1-3) Uniform Building Code


Vol. 1 - Administrative Fire and Life Safety, and Field
Inspection Provisions
Vol. 2 - Structural Engineering Design Provisions
Vol. 3 - Material, Testing and Installation standards

4.2.2 KOC Standards

KOC-C-30 1 KOC Standard for Basic Civil Engineering Design Data

KOC-C-302 KOC Recommended Practice for Engineering Design


Basis of Civil and Structural Work

KOC-C-006 KOC Standard for Concrete Work - Materials and


Construction

KOC-C-307 KOC Standard for Structural Steel Work - Materials,


Fabrication and Erection
KOC-C-027 KOC Standard for Materials and Workmanship - Fire
Proofing of Structural Steel Work

KOC-G-002 KOC Standard for Hazardous Area Classification

KOC-G-007 KOC Standard for Basic Design Data

KOC Fi-e & Safety Regulations (Latest)

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

Refer t o KOC Standard for "Basic Design Data" (KOC-G-007), which


provides the detailed design information regarding the environmental, site
and utility supply conditions prevailing throughout the KOC facilities.

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT

The engineering design should meet all the applicable Kuwait EPA
Regulations and should conform t o the KOC Health and Environment (H&E)
guidelines with a view t o protecting its personnel and surrounding
environment.

All relevant safety requirements of KOC Fire & Safety Regulations and KOC
Health, Safety and Environment Management System (HSEMS) procedures
and manuals as applicable, shall be adhered to by the designer / contractor,
while dasigning the blast resistant buildings in KOC areas.

BASIC CONSIDERATIONS

General Objectives

Control room buildings / houses and other functional buildings housing


personnel and critical control equipment, 'near hydrocarbon processing
plants :;hould be designed with a level of blast resistance, wherever the
potential explosions due t o sudden process upsets or accidental vapour
cloud releases are predicted by blast/explosion impact assessment studies
as a part of Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) after evaluating the
nature, magnitude and consequences of these hazards.

The basic intent for blast resistant design of buildings / facilities is briefly
summarized as below:

a. to protect human lives and critical control systems for process and
operation with a desired level of safety.

b. to permit an orderly and controlled shutdown after accident,


preventing cascading events due to loss of control over critical
systems.
c. to organize prompt recovery after accident, minimizing financial losses.

d. to perform other critical services during the incidents.

Siting Requirements

Normally based on the criticality of the functions and expected occupancy


of buildings, the following requirements for the blast resistant design should
be considered when the control room house or building(s):

a. serves one major unit 1 plant that processes large volumes of volatile
and flammable liquids and gases; and/or

b. is located closer to the unit 1 plant than the recommended minimum


spscing required.

If a critical building is sited far enough {usually 6 0 m and above) from a


potential blast source, it may not need increased blast resistance.

But if a suitable remote location is unavailable, or proximity of the building


to the unit / plant is important for operational reasons, then the choice
should be to provide a higher level of blast resistance than a normal building
designed for conventional loads.

Generally, buildings designed structurally for conventional loads can be sited


in areas where the peak side-on overpressure is less than 1.0 psi (6.9 kPa)
or the side-on impuise is less than 3 0 psi-ms (207 kPa-ms).

When siting buildings the following requirements should be considered so


that the resulting blast effects are minimized:

Buildings should be oriented such that the short side faces the most
probable explosion source.

Buildings housing personnel not required for actual operation of the


unlt should be sited as far away as possible; and the staff level should
be kept to the minimum.

Buildings should be sited away from areas of congestion and


confinement as these may contribute to the severity of the explosion.

Buildings should not be sited downhill from potential release sources


of heavier than air materials.

BuAdings should not be sited in prevailing downwind direction from


potential release sources.

Buildings should be made above the surrounding ground level with an


elevation so as to avoid any entry of spilled hydrocarbon and pool fire.
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I
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DOC. NO.KOC-C-030 Page 14 of 62

Blast Protection Options

7.3.1 Blast protection options will depend on the inherent risk factors from the
probable hazards in the adjacent and nearby processing operations; and the
appropriate levels of safety to be provided for a given blast load.

7.3.2 Blast resistant design of buildings / facilities that can absorb the blast
energy with tolerable consequences should be considered with the options
as follows:

a. Conventional building with appropriate modifications as required.

b. New building / structure designed t o resist the specified blast load or


strengthened fully (if existing).

I c. Reduce building occupancy and functions.

d. Consider localized impacts from flying debris.

7.3.3 Further existing buildings which might not be feasible to relocate, should
consider the following options to increase their blast capacity as below:

a. Enhance the blast resistance capacity of structures / buildings by

i, adding an external blast resistant reinforced concrete shell.

ii. erecting an external structural barrier (steel or concrete) wall on


the most vulnerable sides of the building.

iii. strengthening or replacing critical 'weak link' structural component


in the existing building.

I b. Minimizing the hazards associated with windows by

i. placing plastic film on the window glasses t o reduce flying


fragments.
..
11. replacing ordinary glass with tempered glass, polycarbonate sheets
or laminated glass which consists of t w o or more plies of heat
treated strengthened glass.

iii. reducing the span width of the open glass with addition of new
struts and mullions.
c. Improving conditions o f doors by

i. replacing w i t h blast resistant doors.

ii designing statically for inward and outward pressure all the doors,
their frames and anchors for external blast resistant walls.

Blast Waves

In the event of a Vapour Cloud Explosion (VCE) followed by fire in a plant,


any control room building I house or other facility buildings can be
damaged, not by fire itself, but by:

a. overpressure resulting from the ignition and explosion of flammable


material that has escaped into the atmosphere, or

b. overpressure or flying components from runway reactions.

For blast resistant design, the most significant feature when a VCE occurs
is the sudden release of energy t o the atmosphere which results in a
pressure transient, or blast wave that rises almost instantaneously over
normal pressure t o the overpressure condition; and propagates outward in
all directions f r o m the source at supersonic or sonic speed in a very short
duration (expressed in milliseconds).

This shock wave intensity decays w i t h distance and time, and the
m a g n i t ~ d eand shape depends on the nature of energy release. The incident
side-on overpressure (P,,) attaining t o a peak value then decays rapidly,
followed by a period of negative pressure.

I f the shock w a v e impinges on a rigid surface, such as wall, the wave


propagation being obstructed reflects from t h e wall causing a rapid increase
in pressure against the wall, which is much greater than t h e overpressure.
This re'lected overpressure (P,) will be magnified by the reflection co-
efficient (C,) and' usually higher by factor o f from 2.0 t o 2.5, for the range
of peak overpressure used for blast resistant design. Refer t o Fig.1 of
Appendix4 for details.

The shock wave will also generate drag pressure onto the building, which is
due t o air movement associated w i t h the shock front moving a t high
velocity. This velocity is generally assumed t o be same as t h e shock front
velocity. The drag forces produced by this w i n d in its path should be
combined algebraically w i t h peak overpressure forces.
The magnitude of the blast overpressure at a building should be a function
of the following:

a. Size of the flammable vapour cloud.

b. Material of the cloud.

c. Level of equipment and piping congestion in the vapour cloud.

d. Area of confinement for the vapour cloud.

e. Distance of the building from the Vapour Cloud Explosion.

Blast Wave Parameters

The principal parameters of the blast wave should be specified to define the
requirec blast loading for a building's components as below:

a. Peak side-on-positive overpressure Pa0,positive phase duration, t, and


the corresponding positive impulse, I,.

b. Peak side-on-negative overpressure (suction), Pc,- negative phase


.
duration, t,- and the associated negative impulse, lo-

In addition to peak overpressure, duration, and impulse, other blast wave


parameters should be considered to determine the blast loads for a structure
as follows:

a. Peak Reflected Pressure (Pr)

b. Peak Dynamic (Blast Wind) Pressure (qo)

c. Shock Front Velocity (U)

d. Blast Wave Length (Lw)

These secondary parameters above can usually be determined from the


primary blast wave parameters as described in ASCE publication "Design of
Blast Resistant Buildings in Petrochemical Facilities" referenced in clause
4.2.1 of this RP.
Page 17 o f 62

DETERMINATION OF DESIGN LOADS

The Designer should specify the actual site specific blast loads in
consultation with KOC t o design control room houses and other facility
buirdings as follows:

a. by a simple blanket statement as "All buildings shall be designed for a


peak reflected overpressure X psi (kPa), a peak side-on overpressure of
Y xi (kPa), and a duration of Z milliseconds"; or

b. by providing overpressures and durations based on the distance


between the structure and a potential source, where the distances are
given in stepped blocks or a continuous function in order to determine
design loads on the appropriate distance.

Overpressures should be determined at the point of the structure closest to


the source and then applied t o the entire structure. If the structure is large,
the average overpressure on the surface or the overpressure at the centroid
of the surface may be used.

Normally a building should be designed considering the potential blast wave


from the horizontal direction according t o QRA, but not from all directions
simultaneously.

The crkeria commonly used for design should be at least t w o (2) blast
overpressures for buildings spaced 3 0 m (10 0 ft) from a vapour cloud
explosicn (VCE) hazard as follows:

a. High pressure, short duration, triangular shock loading: Side-on


overpressure of 1 0 psi (69 kPa) with a duration of 2 0 milliseconds
(ms).
b. Low pressure, long duration, triangular loading: Side-on overpressure of
3 psi (21 kPa) with a duration of 100 milliseconds (ms).

Generally, blast loadsloverpressures are specific t o processes and sites; and


the greater the spacing from the explosion source, the lesser the
overpressure and impulse, but the longer the duration of the blast loading.

Using ASCE recommendations as guidance for structural design, the blast


loads t o buildings spaced from 3 0 m t o 6 0 m ( 1 0 0 f i to 2 0 0 ft) are
recommended in the range of I-5psi to 15 psi (10 kPa t o 103 kPa) side-on
overpressure with positive phase duration varying from 2 0 ms t o 200 ms.
DOC. NO. KOGC-030 Page 18 of 62 REV.1

8.2 Blast Loadinqs

8.2.1 Based on the owner / KOC specified side-on overpressure and duration to
design a blast resistant building, the designer shall determine the blast loads
from the free field blast overpressure for various structural components of
the building such as wall, roof, frame etc. for a closed rectangular box-
shaped building as given below. Refer to Figure 2, Appendix - I1 of this RP
for details.

8.2.2 Front VJall Loading

The front walls facing the blast source will experience the reflected
overpressure ( PI) much more than the incident side-on overpressure;
and the amplification of the reflected blast pressure depends the angle
of incidence (a),and on the rise-time (tr)of the side-on overpressure
pulse.

For design purposes, the normal shock reflection conditions at a =Or


and t, =O should be assumed, unless otherwise stated by the specified
design blast scenario.

However, cases shall also be considered where oblique reflection from


an angle of about 30° t o 60° may be more critical t o the overall
building as the full reflected overpressure could load t w o adjacent sides
of the building.

8.2.3 Side Walls Loading

a. Side walls will experience less blast loading than the front wall, due to
lack of overpressure reflection and to decay of the blast wave with
distance from the blast source.

b. Tke peak side-on overpressure should be decreased by a reduction


factor (C,) as given in Figure 3 of Appendix II, as it varies with both
time and distance when traveling along the building length. Values of
Ce will depend on the length of the structural element, L,, in the
direction of the traveling blast wave.

c. If the blast wave is traveling perpendicular t o the span, then it should


be considered on a nominal unit width of the element.

8.2.4 Roof Loading

a. Normally for a building with a flat roof (slope < lo0), reflection should
not be considered, as it does not occur when the blast wave travels
horizontally.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-030 Page 19 o f 62 REV.1
-

b. However for roof loading, the side-on overpressure (pJ shall be


combined w i t h the dynamic wind pressure (qo),the same as the side
walls; and the dynamic wind force on the roof acts in the opposite
direction t o the overpressure (upward).

c. Consideration should also be given t o variation of the blast wave w i t h


distance and t i m e as it travels across a roof element, and the resulting
load shall depend on t h e ratio of blast wave length t o the span o f the
roof element and o n its orientation relative t o t h e direction of the blast
wave.

Rear Wsll Loading

a. Rear wall loading shall b e used only t o determine the net overall frame
loading.

b. Generally rear wall loading shall be ignored as it is opposite t o the


direction of front wall load and reduces the overall lateral blast force.

Frame Loading

a. The building frame system shall also experience the diffraction loading
which is the net loading on the front and rear walls considering the
time phasing.

b. During t h e travel time of blast wave from the front t o the back of the
building, t h e structural framing system shall be subjected t o the large
lateral unbalanced pressure on the front wall.

Negative Pressure and Rebound Loading

The building components will also experience negative blast load,


o p ~ o s i t e in direction t o the primary blast load effects due t o the
suction phase (negative) of the blast wave, together w i t h the rebound
o f t h e structural components from the inertial effects of the
ovsrpressure loading.

These negative pressure forces acting on the components are relatively


small and should b e generally ignored i n the design.

However, these effects should be assessed from the time history


dyqamic analysis; and the rebound should be adequately incorporated
in the structural detailing for satisfactory performance o f members /
joints etc.
GENERAL STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS

Technical Considerations

Any building / structure to be truly blast resistant should attain the basic
resilience to blast forces by evaluating their probable magnitude and
characteristics as well as by selecting appropriate materials of construction
with inherent dynamic properties for adequate and rapid structural response.
The stn~cturalsystems shall be such designed and detailed that they should
achieve in-built ability t o absorb blast energy without causing collapse or
significant failure(s) as a whole.

Further, any impact of fire impingement shall also be determined by QRA on


the ability of structural system t o resist blast loads; accordingly the most
effective means of protection system (coating /cladding) against fire shall be
applied as required.

Construction materials in blast protective structures shall be chosen for


those having good properties of ductility and material strength as the most
important features to withstand the blast loads and ensure safety against
catastrcphic failures. Besides, structure component parts shall have
adequate deformation capacity t o form the yield mechanism,

Brittle materials such as un-reinforced concrete, brick, and un-reinforced


masonry shall not be used for blast resistant structures.

Reinforced concrete is normally found the most suitable and economical


material for robust construction; and shall be used for blast resistant
buildings, specially in areas where they are close t o a potential blast source
and where they are likely t o be subjected t o relatively high overpressure and
thermal effects in the event of an explosion.

Normally, the cost of blast resistance increases with the building height for
given building volume and a taller building / structure attracts much more
blast loads and overturning effects than a low profile building.

Buildings over t w o stories i n height are, therefore, n o t recommended as


blast resistant structures. Therefore, preference should be given t o single
storey buildings when designing for any significant overpressure
scenarios.

The blast resistant buildings should be profiled as clean and simple as


possible in plan and elevation without reentrant corners and offsets, in
particukr, t o avoid local high concentrations of blast loadings.

The building should also be oriented in such a way that only a smaller area
should face the most probable source of an explosion and should withstand
the blast induced loads as less as possible. Refer t o clause 7.2.4 of this RP
for other siting considerations.
9.2 Common Svstems Used

9.2.1 Buildings of normal construction with conventional loads may provide some
level of blast resistance; but are generally vulnerable t o even low-level blast
effects due t o presence of certain features such as large windows, un-
reinforced masonry walls and weak structural connections causing improper
performance.

9.2.2 Normal construction includes, except reinforced concrete, other common


systems used in industries for load transfer such as pre-engineered steel
framing with metal cladding, and steel framing with masonry or precast
concrete walls.

These types of structures could withstand (without collapse) blast loadings


on the order of 1.0 psi (6.8 kPa) side-on overpressure; but architectural
items sclch as doors, windows and glasses etc. shall be designed adequately
so as t o prevent severe damages and become flying fragments.

9.2.3 However, the types of construction referred above in clause 9.2.2 could be
used with necessary strengthening and upgrading measures, where
appropriate for increasing levels of blast forces and decreasing spacing from
potential hazards as described below.

9.2.4 Enhanced Pre-engineered Metal Building

This type of building should be comprised of steel frames with cold-formed


steel panels supported on cold-formed steel girts and purlins. The steel
frame shall be designed to resist all vertical and lateral loads, incorporating
necessary design improvements to enhance blast resistance that can be
achieved by:

a. Specifying closer spacing of steel frames.

b. Using symmetric sections (back t o back C-shapes) for purlins and gitrts
and reducing their spacing.

c. lncreasing size of anchor bolts and strengthening wall panel


connections at the foundation and at the roof.

d. lncreasing the number of cladding fasteners and using oversized


washers t o reduce tear-out of siding material.

e. Fixed base of columns.

f. lncreasing the degree of static indeterminacy in the structure t o


improve the dynamic response and blast resistance.

With enhancements, these buildings can attain structurally blast resistance


ranging from 1 t o 3 psi (6.9 t o 21 kPa) side-on overpressure.
I ,
DOC.
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NO. KOC-C-030
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Page 22 of 62
-

9.2.5 Reinforced Masonry Clad Building

a. Reinforced masonry clad buildings similar t o conventional buildings


should normally be constructed to resist conventional loading by means
of structural steel or concrete frame that is used t o support vertical
loads and resist lateral forces.

b. Reinforced masonry is used for the exterior walls and shall be designed
t c span either vertically or horizontally. The walls that run parallel to a
directional blast force can also be designed as shear walls t o transmit
lateral forces t o the foundation.

c. The reinforced masonry wall shall be attached to the building frame to


connect all components together and provide resistance t o rebound
forces.

This type of building can be economically designed t o withstand blast


loadings on the order of 3 psi (21 kPa) side-on overpressure; but adequate
design protection shall be taken for architectural items against severe
damages.

9.2.6 Metal Clad Building

a. Generally, metal clad building should be designed conventionally using


hot-rolled structural shapes for frames, girts and purlins. Metal siding or
insulated sandwich panels, with thicker gauge metal and more
ccnnectors, shall be used for exterior walls.

b. The steel frame should behave like pre-engineered metal buildings


resisting all vertical and lateral loads; and the connections should be
enhanced to develop the full plastic strength (ultimate moment and / or
shear capacities) of the structural members.

This type of building can be economically designed t o withstand structurally


blast loading on the order of 3 psi (21 kPa) side-on overpressure; but
adequate design protection shall be taken for architectural items against
severe damages.

9.2.7 Precast Concrete Wall

a. Tkis type of construction should use precast concrete walls on steel or


concrete frames that resist all vertical loads; and precast shear walls
resist lateral loads.

b. Ductile connections for precast panels shall be provided by embedding


steel connection devices attached t o the building frame by bolting or
welding.
Page 23 of 62 REV.l

c. The roof is usually a concrete slab on metal deck which should be


attached t o steel framing by studs or puddle welds. The roof needs to
be designed to cater for negative pressure impacts.

This tyse of building can be economically designed to withstand structurally


blast loadings on the order of 7 to 10 psi ( 4 8 t o 69 kPa) side-on
overpressure; but architectural items shall be selected with adequate design
protection against severe damages. Refer to clause 1 6.0 of this RP for
details.

Cast-in--Place Concrete Wall

a. Cast-in-place concrete construction should be used t o resist relatively


high blast overpressures where precast concrete is not economical or
practical.

b. Hcrizontal loads are resisted by shear walls whereas the structure


depends on the structural steel or concrete frame t o support vertical
loads. Thickness of the concrete walls, and size and placement of the
reinforcing steel shall be chosen suitably and designed t o provide
necessary resistance to any anticipated design blast loads.

c. Concrete sections should be under-reinforced, thereby ensuring ductile


yield occurs.

This tyge of concrete building can normally be required for higher blast
loading and for side-on overpressure greater than 7 psi (48 kPa); but
adequate design protection shall be taken for architectural items against
severe damages. Refer to clause 7 6.0 of this RP.

Recommended Svstem

Notwithstanding the structural systems described above, the new blast


resistant buildings shall generally be of reinforced concrete construction,
and clad with reinforced concrete walls and roof supported on reinforced
concrete frames. Each structural element should have energy absorption
capacity up t o the point of collapse more than the values recommended in
this RP that required resisting the design blast loading, which shall be at
least 3 psi (21 kPa) as minimum if not specified otherwise.

Unless specified otherwise, blast resistant building o f n e w construction


should be limited t o rectangular box shaped single storey building i n
reinforced concrete for better performance.

For upgrading and strengthening existing buildings, the other ductile


materials should be used on a case by case basis, depending on the
materials of construction and effective blast load(s) from the potential
source.
Page 24 of 62 REV.1

STRUCTURAL DESIGN

Basic Criteria

The basic design of a blast resilient building should be to achieve rapid


structural response under transient dynamic loading, while ductile materials
shall attain a strength increase that can significantly enhance the structural
resistance. Structural elements should be allowed t o undergo permissible
plastic (permanent) deformation t o absorb the explosion energy.

The intent of the design should be to accept moderate structural damage to


the building without collapse while still maintaining protection for personnel
and control equipment. Some distortion of the building structural elements
and external doors may occur at blast loading even less than the specified
design load.

For design purposes, it should be assumed that the explosion occurs as a


surface burst and no reflected loads shall be imposed on the roof.

It shall be assumed that the blast load should be unidirectional with respect
t o building orientation and front face of the structure should be designed for
the full reflected overpressure. The location of blast source should be
assume3 perpendicular t o the center of the building wall. Refer t o clause 8.2
and Figures 2 & 3, Appendix - II of this RP for blast loading details on walls.

Moreovx the buildings may suffer impacts from high velocity debris of
flying objects, in addition t o the overpressure condition from the blast.

Dynamic Response

Blast loaded structures would experience a very rapid application of the load
under transient condition and a corresponding rapid rise in member stresses;
and then normally return to ambient conditions in a very short period of time
in milliseconds (ms).

The member should be stressed in the plastic region to absorb the blast by
balancing the kinetic energy of the explosion against the total strain energy
of the nember, which shall be a function of dynamic material properties,
section properties and the amount of plastic deformation allowed. The
adequacy shauld be based on the maximum deformation limits rather
than stress limits.

The dynamic response of the structure (law, medium & high) should be
determined by using the simplified bilinear resistance-deflection curve in
which stress increases linearly with strain t o yield and a constant value after
yield, thus including strain hardening effects and then decreases linearly
with strain in the elasto-plastic range of the rebound.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-030 1 Page 25 of 62 !I REV.l

10.2.4 Low response limit shall be selected if a high degree of protection t o


personnel and equipment are desired t o be provided.

10.2.5 This dynamic response should be modeled accurately t o incorporate into the
SDOF analysis by selecting a design stress equal t o the average stress
occurring in the actual response. The stress shall be obtained by estimating
the maximum response range and using the ASCE recommendations given
in Tables IA to IC as follows:

Table IA: Response Criteria for Reinforced Concrete

Element Type Controlling Stress


I Ductility
Ratio I Support Rotation 0, (Note 21
L o w I Medium 1 High

Beams

- Concrete only
- Concrete + Stirrups

Slabs

Beams-Columns

Shear Walls,
Diaphracrms
-C

Notes: (11- Shear controls w h e n shear resistance is less than 120% o f flexural resistance.
("$ - Stirrups are required for support rotations greater t h a n 2 degrees.
( 5 )- Ductility Ratio =0.05 (p - $1 < 10.

Table 16: Response Criteria for Structural Steel


4
-
Element t y p e Response Range
Low 1 Medium

N o t e (1) : Side-sway limits for Frames: L o w = H150, M e d i u m = H135, High = H I 2 5


Table IC: R e s ~ o n s eCriteria for Reinforced Masonrv

Notes:

The following descriptions shall apply t o the response ranges mentioned above in Tables IA t o IC:

L o w Response: Localized building / component damage. 8uilding can be used; however repairs
are required t o restore integrity of structural envelope. Totat cost of repairs i s
moderate.

Medium Response: Widespread building I component damage. Building can n o t be used until
repaired. Total cost of repairs is significant.

High Response: Building / component has lost structural integrity and may collapse due t o local
weather conditions (wind / rain). Total cost of repairs approach replacement cost
o f building.

10.3 Dvnamic Desiqn Strength

10.3.1 A strength increase factor (SF) for the static properties of materials shall be
accounted as the average strength used for various materials are normally
greater than the specified minimum values and shall be applied as specified
in Table II of this RP.

Table II: Strenqth Increase Factors (SIF]

Structural Steel (fMS 50 ksl ) 1.1


Reinforcing Steel (f, 2 60 ksi 1

1
Cold-Formed Steel
1.1
1.21 -
Concrete-(Note 1) I 1.0 I
Note (1): --he results of compression tests are urualty well above the specified cmcrete wefigtha and
nay be used in lieu of the above fastor. Some conservatism may be warranted because
soncrete strengths have more influence on shear design than bending capacity.

The material dynamic design strength shall be determined by multiplying the


increased static strength by the dynamic increase factor (DIF) in order t o
account for strain hardening effects under rapidly applied loads. DlFs are a
function of material type as well as strain rate and shall depend on the type
of stress (flexuretdirect shear) as specified in Tables lllA t o 1118 of this RP.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-030 Page 27 of 62

Table MA: Dvnamic lncrease Factors (DIF) for Concrete, Reinforcinq Bars
and Masonry

Table IIIB: Dvnamic Increase Factors (DIF) for Structural Steel, Cold
Formed Steel, and Aluminum

A446
Stainless Steel Type 304
-Aluminum 6 0 6 1 -T6

10.3.3 The dynamic design strengths shall be derived from the maximum design
stresses of materials as specified in Tables IVA to IVB of this RP in
accordance with ASCE recommendations, after multiplying with appropriate
SIF and DIF of the material from Tables II & III of this RP.

Table IVA: Dvnamic Desiqn Stress for Reinforced Concrete

Type of Stress Type of Maximum Support Dynamic Design Stress


-
Reinforcement Rotation ( Fds)
Bending Tension and 0 < 8 ~ 2 h,
Compression 2 ~ 8 1 5 F, + 1/4 (Fh - FJ
5<6512 !h (F*, -+ FJ

Diagona Tension Stirrups Fdt

Direct Shear Diagonal Bars 0 < 8 1 2 Fat,


2<8<5 F, + '/4 (F.,, - Fd,)
5 < 8 ~ 1 2 1/2 (Fdr+ Flu)

Compression Column All F,


i
Table IVB: Dynamic Desisn Stress for Structural Steel

Maximum Ductility Ratio


All p s 10

A t low response ranges, the maximum design stress shall be equal to the
dynamic yield stress and at higher response ranges, the design stress shall
be increased t o account for strain hardening. But with greater deformation
the stress level and thus resistance becomes unpredictable by the design
stress.

Deformation Limits

Approp-iate deformation limits should be used t o ensure that the adequate


response t o blast loads can be provided in design; and these limits shall be
based on the type of structure or component, construction materials used,
locatior of the structure and desired protection level as given in Tables IA t o
IC of this RP.

The primary method of evaluating adequate response of the blast loaded


structures shall be t o limit maximum ductility ratio (p) for structural steel
members and support hinge rotation (8) for concrete members by allowing
them without failures t o exceed yield stresses beyond elastic zones for
economy. Frame systems shall not exceed the side-sway limits t o minimize
the chance of progressive collapse and t o reduce ?-A effects on columns.

Structu-at collapse shall not be permitted and suspended equipment shall be


adequately anchored within the structure.

Maximum acceptable values for ductility and support rotation shall be in


compliance with Tables IA t o IC of this RP as per ASCE recommendations.
DOC. NO. KO REV.l
cb

METHODS OF DYNAMIC ANALYSIS

General Obiectives

The ovarall objective of a dynamic blast analysis should be t o assess the


capability of a structure to resist the defined blast load by predicting with a
fair degree of accuracy the dynamic response of the structure.

A resistance function or applied force versus displacement relationship


should be developed based on assumed failure mechanisms, the member
configuration, and estimated section capacities. The analysis should
specifically provide:

a. Maximum relative deflections of each structural element.

b. Relative rotation angles at plastic hinge locations.

c. Dynamic reactions transmitted t o the supporting elements.

d. Deflections and reactions due t o rebound and negative pressure.

The method(s) of dynamic analysis should normally be applied based on the


probable blast load and its pressure time relationship to the simplified
structural models with a number of approximations that may affect the
accuracy of the results.

However, the analysis methods shall not be too complex and / or time
consuming depending on the structural configuration; and shall provide the
necessary balance between the sufficient accuracy and calculation
simplicity t o predict its behaviour.

Calculation o f Mass and Inertia

The mass of the structure shall be calculated by including its self weight
and the weight of permanently attached equipment divided by gravity.
Normally 50% of the supported beam's mass shall be considered to be
lumped at the mid-span of each supporting girder when beam is more rigid
than the girder, such as in concrete construction and 20% for structural
steel members.

Live loads which would be blown away by a blast wave or which would not
increase the inertia of a supporting member shall not be included in the
mass calculation for dynamic analysis.

Fioor live load representing personnel and furnishings shall not be included in
the analysis. However, floor live load shall include heavy racks and
equipment like in Auxiliary room.
The moment of inertia shall be calculated for gross and cracked sections of
concrele as per ACI 31 8 and of steel members as per AISC. For deflection
calculation purposes, the average of the inertia(s) for the gross and cracked
concrete sections shall be used in the analysis.

Basic Methods

The basic analytical model used in most blast design applications should be
generally single degree of freedom (SDOF) system. However in some cases,
multi-degree of freedom (MDOF) system should be applied, if the situation is
warrawced.

For enclosed buildings, the blast loads shall be applied t o the exterior walls
and rocf, and shall be transmitted through various structural members to the
foundation; and the blast energy should be absorbed through elastic and
plastic deformation of the structure. The portion of blast energy not
absorbed by the structure should be transmitted into the ground,
establishing a continuous load path t o ensure a safe design.

The s t r x t u r e should be separated into its major components for simplifying


the dynamic analysis and should be analyzed as uncoupled member by
member approach, thus neglecting dynamic interaction effects.

Normally coupling should be negligible if the natural frequencies of


connec~edelements differ by a factor of t w o (2) or more. Otherwise,
frequencies of interconnected members need t o be tuned by changing their
stiffness or weight t o achieve this separation of frequencies.

If neglecting dynamic interaction effects of the connected members can not


be justified, multi-degree of freedom (MDOF) system should be used to
consider these effects inherently.

Damping of materials should normally be ignored in blast resistant design as


the structure reaches its maximum response in short time and it has little
effect on peak displacements.

In blast analysis, the resistance should usually be specified as a nonlinear


function t o simulate elastic, perfectly plastic behaviour of the structure; and
when the ultimate resistance (RJ has been reached upon forming the
collapse mechanism in the member, the dynamic equilibrium equation
becomes then as below:

Ma + I? = F, where R = Lesser of Ky or R, and


Ky = Resistance = Stiffness x displacement
Ma = Inertia Force = Mass x acceleration
F, = Applied force as a function of time
11.3.7 Several methods of solutions for the above equation are available in simple
graphical non-dimensional charts, closed form solutions (i.e. equations) or
empirical formulas for SDOF systems in technical publications for triangular
and rectangular load pulses, to determine the maximum ductility demand
and the time of maximum response in both elastic and elastic-plastic stages.
See Figure 4, Appendix - Ill of this RP for reference.

11.3.8 However for more appropriate and wide applications, numerical time
integration method or as generally known as time history method should
be recommended for use due t o availability of several tested computer
programs solving the equation of motion.

A small time increment equal t o l / l O t h of either the load duration or the


natural vibration period of the structure shall be used initially in the analysis
to evaluate response; and may be further reduced if required to generate
adequate time deflection curve.

11.3.9 When :he structural configuration is not simple or significant dynamic


interaction between interconnected members can not be avoided; a
compreclensive dynamic analysis of the entire superstructure should be
conducted by involving the use of many degrees of freedom with coupled
analysis approach for the structural system.

11.3.10 Finite element analysis method (FEM) should be recommended as an


advanced analysis method, when one or more of the following conditions
exist:

The ratio of a member's natural frequency to the natural frequency of


the support system is in the range of 0.5 t o 2.0, such that an
uncoupled analysis may yield significant inaccuracies.

Time varying support reactions or member forces are desired to


evaluate the structure or its foundation in great detail in an effort to
minimize costs of structural back fit modifications.

Overall structural behaviour is to be evaluated with regard to structural


stebility (frame buckling), gross displacements and P-A effects.

The structure has unusual features such as unsymmetrical or non-


uniform mass and stiffness characteristics.
12.0 DESIGN PROCEDURES

12.1 General Desiqn Conce~ts

12.1.1 While designing blast resistant buildings or structures, the key concepts
should include in the systems such important features as high energy
absorption, safety factors, limit states, load combinations, resistance
functions, structural performance considerations and redundancy as
described below t o achieve the most satisfactory results without any
catastrophic failures.

12.1 - 2 Energy Absorption

a. The overall structure and its members shall achieve both strength and
ductility having high energy absorption capacity, which should be
derived from the area under the load vs. displacement diagram or
resistance function of members.

b. The high energy absorption capacity shall be attained through the use
of appropriate materials of ductility and suitable construction details.

c. These details must accommodate relatively large deflections and


rotations in order to provide redundancy in the load path.

12.1.3 Safety Factors

a. Safety factors in terms of strength requirements such as load-


resistance factors or allowable stresses used for conventional static
loads are not applicable in blast resistant design.

b. They shall be measured by strain energy demand vs. strain energy


absorption capacity which is quantified by the allowable deformation.

c. Margins of safety against structural failure shall be attained by the use


of allowable deformation criteria as described in clause 10.0 of this RP
using ASCE recommendations.

1 12.1.4 Limit State Design

a. Limit state design methods shall be used in blast resistant design.

b. Ths Strength Design Method shall be applied as per ACI 318 or BS


81 I 0 for structural concrete and masonry materials.

c. Thz Load and 8esistance Factor Design (LRFD) Method shall be used
for structural and cold-formed steel.
d. Special provisions for detailing and design requirements as applied to
high seismic conditions shall be considered for blast resistant design in
order t o assure ductility and strength and t o protect against non-ductile
failure modes, such as buckling or premature crushing of materials.

12.1.5 Loading Combinations

a. Blast Loading

i. The required dynamic resistance t o blast loads in the basic limit


state loading combination with other loads for all material types shall
be as follows:

U = Required total structural resistance


DL = Dead Load
LL = Live Load (refer to clause 11.2)
BL = Blast Load

ii. Blast load should not be considered in combination with wind load
WL).

iii.The required rebound resistance such as for roofs, should normally


be considered in combination with dead loads only.

b. Normal Loading

i. Normal conventional loadings such as DL, LL and WL acting on the


structure and its members shall be considered in accordance with
KOC-C-001 "KOC Standard for Basic Civil Engineering Design Data"
and other applicable standards / codes such as ASCE 7 or BS 6399
Part 1 or UBC as referenced in clause 4.2.1 of this RP.
..
11. The basic limit state loading combinations with normal conventional
loads shall be calculated with the appropriate load factors as per ACI
318 or BS 81 1 0 for structural concrete and AlSC (LRFD) for
structural steelwork.

12.1.6 Resistance Functions

a. Resistance functions shall be established from the force vs. deflection


relationships for the overall structure or each member t o determine the
dynamic response of the equivalent SDOF systems.

b. These relationships (force vs. deflection) are generally nonlinear due to


material properties or geometry; but should be assumed to be linear
with few approximations to simplify the analysis and design process
ignoring some nonlinear effects.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-030 Page 34 of 62
-

12.1.7 Structural Performance Considerations

The structural performance requirements for blast resistant design shalt


include limits imposed on member deflections, story drift and damage
tolerance levels as described in clause 10.2 of this RP.

12.2 Basic Calculation Methods

12.2.1 The members of a blast loaded structural system shall be analyzed member
by member for the above criteria as described in clause 12.1 of this RP in
order to determine their adequacy and critical response as outlined below:

1 2.2.2 Load Determination

a. D ~ l et o blast load on the primary members such as external walls and


roof slabs etc. the incident and reflected overpressures shall be
computed in accordance with clause 8.2 of this RP by using the
formulas given in ASCE Publication "Design of Blast Resistant
Buildings in Petrochemical Facilities".

b. Loads on supporting or interior members shall be determined either by


the tributary area method or from a computed dynamic reaction from
the numerical time history analysis.

1 2.2.3 Membef Properties

a. Generaily, the member properties shall be obtained from the test


results from the Supplier (concrete) or from the Manufacturers (steel).

b. The required dynamic properties shall usually include unit weight,


modulus of elasticity, elastic yield strength and allowable deformations
as well as post yield strength or membrane resistance.

12.2.4 Mathematical Models

a. Suitable mathematical models shall be developed for individual


members, usually idealizing them as simple one way beams or t w o
way plates as mostly applied in the analysis of SDOF systems. The
common practice is to use as one way members for simplicity.

b. Boundary conditions should be assessed on the type of connections t o


be used for member supports to ensure that support details must
provide sufficient strength, ductility and stability t o enable the member
to develop full collapse mechanism.

c. When assessing boundary conditions, the support capability to resist


reaction forces for both the loading and rebound phases of the
response must be considered.
12.2.5 Trial Selection

a. The dynamic analysis should be carried out by selecting sizes of


members on trial basis to determine the nonlinear response properties
in order t o check its adequacy by iterative process.

b. The process shall be continued until the close results are derived for
economy and satisfactory performance levels of the trial members.

12.2.6 Dynamic Analysis

The dynamic analysis itself shall then be performed by one of a number of


different methods as outlined in clause 11.3 of this RP t o compute member
deformations and reactions.

12.2.7 Deformation Criteria Check

a. Thz analysis results should indicate peak element deformations in


terms of ductiIity ratios, support rotations, deflections, or as deflection
- span ratios; and shall be compared t o the allowable values as given
in ~dause10.2 of this RP.

b. In case the allowable values are not met, the analysis shall be
repeated with some changes to trial member sizes or t o structural
configurations t o arrive at close values.

12.2.8 Connec-:ion Sizing

Connections shall be sized and adequately detailed to transfer the


computed reaction forces and to assure that plastic hinges can be
meintained in the assumed locations.

Fot. reinforced concrete design, splices and development lengths of


reinforcing bars shall be provided for the full yield capacities of
reinforcements.

For structural steel design, connections shall be designed for a greater


capacity than that of its supported member.
12.3 Structu ~ aAl p ~ l i c a t i o n s

Any building or structure subject to blast should behave structurally like


seismic condition with an instantaneous response t o the dynamic loads so
that the transient loads will be transferred t o the foundations; and normally
the follcwing structural models shall be applied for dynamic analysis:

a. Shear Wall / Diaphragm Type Structures; or

b. Frame Type Structures

12.3.1 Shear Wall / Diaphragm Type Structures

a. This analysis usually envisages that the front wall facing the blast will
be designed for lateral blast loads, and will span vertically as a flexural
member between the roof and the foundation.

b. The roof system will act as a horizontal diaphragm spanning between


the side walls of the building and shall be designed accordingly.

c. Side walls will then be designed as shear walls which carry the lateral
loads as well as the overturning effects t o the foundations.

d. Alternatively lateral loads could be resisted by a compact building by


cantilever beam action instead of the shear wall / diaphragm action
depending on the proportions of the building; and the appropriate
behaviour shall be decided by the designer.

1 2.3.2 Frame Type Structures

Geqerally the frame type structures should be modeled using MDOF


approach with simultaneous application of lateral and vertical blast
loads on the frame, resulting combined axial and bending load
combinations in the individual frame.

De~endingon the symmetry of the structural resistance, mass and the


loading, a t w o dimensional plane frame model can be used for
analysis.

Material model should be incorporated with proper consideration for


non-linear properties and piastic behaviour in the analysis which should
provide displacements and plastic hinge rotations for comparison
against acceptance criteria given i n Tables IA t o IC of this RP.
- -.---
REINFORCED
.. CONCRETE DESIGN

General

For blast resistant buildings, reinforced concrete shall be used mostly for
new construction with cast-in-situ or pre-cast walls as exterior faces
directly exposed t o blast effects.

Roof and side walls shall also be made of reinforced concrete for resistance
against projectile penetration and fire hazards. These structural elements
should be designed for adequate ductile response t o absorb blast energy
and should also utilize the inherent in-plane strength of concrete t o resist
lateral Mast forces.

Rectangular box shaped buildings shall be generally chosen as per clauses


7.2.4 & 9.3.2 of this RP; and shall be designed for the blast pressures
given as below. Refer t o clause 8.2 for blast loadings and Figures 2&3,
Appendix-Il of this RP for details.

a. Vertical Exterior Walls: Front wall facing the blast load, for the peak
reflected pressure and side walls for the
appropriate incident side-on overpressures.

b. Roofs: Flat roof slabs and beams for the incident side-
on overpressure.

c, Structural Frames: The main structural frames for the blast


pressure on any wall as per the above loading
criteria (a) together with roof loading (b).

Due t o very high design loads under blast condition, interior columns should
normally be provided when roof spans exceed 9.1 5 m (approx. 30 ft).

Depth of the structural elements like beams should be chosen in such a


way that the overall building height will be minimized to reduce blast
effects; and blast exposure trough requirements of HVAC ducts wherever
required, shall be incorporated in false ceiling of the building. Height of the
parapet roof wall shall also be kept t o minimum t o reduce blast exposure.

Founda-tions shall be always constructed of reinforced concrete. Spread


footing!; with a grade beam system or raft foundations shail be used to
minimize relative displacements between individual footings.
Design Principles

The structural concrete shall be designed with higher concrete strengths as


per ACI 3 1 8 or BS 81 1 0 to attain sufficient member strength and ductility
requirements as specified in clauses 10.2 & 10.3 of this RP.

The resistance of concrete elements shall be computed by using the


dynamic material strengths as given in clause 10.3 of this RP.

Strength reduction factors shall not be applied (i.e.cll= 1 .O) to load cases
involving blast.

Thickness of reinforced concrete blast walls shall be established as per


design blast load combinations specified in clause 12.1.5 of this RP, but
shall nor. be less than 250 mm. Roof slab shall be minimum 1 5 0 m m thick.

Blast walls shall be taken to the minimum depth of 1 5 0 0 m m below NGL or


up t o the top of foundations whichever are shallower, maintaining the wall
thickness and reinforcements same as in the wall above ground level.

All concrete surfaces shall be doubly reinforced to take care of rebound and
negative forces.

Maximum spacing of bars in wall as well as in roof slab shalt not exceed
1 5 0 mrri c/c; and minimum diameter should be used 1 2 m m for flexure.

Higher strength concrete may be used to reduce field labour costs by


eliminat ng shear reinforcements, if possible. Refer t o KOC-C-006 for other
details of design and construction.

Materials to be Used

Normally stronger concrete grade should be preferably used for new


construction of blast resistant structures; but shall not be less than the
minimurn concrete compressive strength of Grade 3 0 (27.6 MPa or 4000
psi) in accordance with KOC-C-006 "KOC Standard for Concrete Work -
Materials and Construction".

Reinforcing bars of Grade 6 0 (No.1 1 and smaller) with a specified yield


strength 60,000 psi conforming to ASTM A615 or Grade 4 6 0 with a
specified characteristic strength of 460 ~ / m m ' conforming to BS 4449
shall be used t o derive sufficient ductility for dynamic loading.

Bars with higher yield strength shall not be used as they may have less
ductility for flexural resistance and shop bending.
13.3.4 Welding of reinforcement shall be generally discouraged for blast design
applications; however it may be required for anchorage. ASTM A706 bars
may be used in these cases.

13.4 Supplernentarv Requirements

In addition to the above requirements, the following items shall be


considered for blast resistant design.

13.4.1 Minimum Reinforcement

The mi-rimum reinforcing provisions shall be applicable as per ACI 3 1 8 or


BS 81 1 0 and reinforcement in excess of the cracking moment should be
provided t o prevent a premature ductile failure. The dynamic material
strength should be used as per clause 10.3 of this RP in computing
minimum reinforcement.

13.4.2 Maximum Reinforcement

Maximum reinforcement provisions shall be applicable as per ACI 31 8 or


BS 81 ' 0 to prevent crushing of concrete prior to yielding of steel; and
should be used for compression reinforcement to offset maximum tension
reinforcement requirements. Each face shall be equally reinforced to resist
rebound stresses for blast resistant concrete members.

13.4.3 Substitution of Reinforcements by Higher Grades

The reinforcements shall not be allowed t o be substituted by higher grades


as it can alter a ductile response to become non-ductile. Stronger
reinforcing will increase the moment capacity of the concrete section,
thereby increasing the dynamic reaction t o the supporting member, while
not affecting the concrete shear capacity.

13.4.4 Development Lengths

Development lengths should not be reduced for excessive reinforcement.


The full actual length of reinforcements should be used in computing
section capacities, as plastic hinges will cause over-designed
reinforcements t o yield.

13.4.5 Serviceability Requirements

These criteria intended to reduce cracking at service load levels shall not be
applied to load combinations w i t h blast, as some tolerable cracking as well
as perrnanent deformations resulting from the plastic range response are
acceptable for blast load. The ductility limits shall be used for the consistent
performance requirements of the buildings under blast as per cause 10.2 of
this RP.
13.4.6 Lacing

The lacing shall be provided to tie together longitudinal bars, as a special


type o f shear reinforcing in a continuous zigzag shape, where large
deformations are t o be tolerated. Otherwise, standard tie bars or stirrups
should be used t o restrain longitudinal reinforcing bars t o achieve adequate
plastic rotation capacity.

1 3.4.7 Combined Forces

Some concrete elements subjected t o simultaneous loadings from both


planes, should be designed t o resist the combined forces from out-of-plane
bendinc loads in combination with in-plane shear loads. Side walls shall
resist side overpressures acting in its plane, with reactions from the roof
diaphragm acting in the plane of side wall. This situation shall be dealt with
the ways as follows:

a. Separate sets of reinforcements should be determined for bending and


shear t o be resisted; and shall be provided accordingly at the exterior
faces for bending while a layer of center reinforcements for in-plane
shear only.

b. otherwise, the interaction equation shall be applied t o check the


acceptable behaviour of the concrete elements as follows:

+IAJA,I~~
[A~,IA,I,~ 1 1 where,

A, = Computed deformation (ductility ratio or support rotation)


A, = Allowable deformation (ductility ratio or support rotation)
i = in-plane deformations
o = out-of-plane deformations

13.4.8 Joints

While designing, contraction Iexpansion joints shall be avoided in the blast


resistant structure as far as possible; and construction joints shall be
planned t o be minimum. In case of shear walls, additional care shall be
taken t o form keys or epoxy resin bonding agents may be used in horizontal
joints. In case of precast elevation, panels shall be designed with an
overlap.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-030 1 Pase41 of 62 1 REV.l

Failure Mechanism

The reiqforced concrete building shall be designed and detailed in such a


way that the concrete elements under blast loading should undergo
preferably flexure failure mechanism rather than direct shear and diagonal
tension failures to achieve an extended plastic response.

Other common failure mechanism in a blast loaded structure should be


suitably avoided by proper design and detailing of the elements, which shall
include failures such as reinforcing development, overlapping of pre-cast
connec-:ions, anchor bolt embedment and door connections.

STEEL DESIGN

General

Structural steel should normally be applied in blast resistant design, where


specified, for beams and columns for the support of vertical loads, braced
and rigid frames for the support of vertical and horizontal loads, and
specialized elements such as doors, frames, decking, and protection of duct
openin~s.

Steel being a factory produced material, has the distinct advantage of


having well controlled and predictable strength and post-yield properties;
and unlike concrete, has tensile as well as compressive strength.

However, the most disadvantage of structural steel in blast design should


be the possibility of premature local or general buckling due t o its inherent
slenderness ratio.

The s t r ~ c t u r a steel
l for blast resistant design shall be as per the AISC Load
and Resistance Factor Design Specification (AISC LRFD) or BS 5950 to
attain sufficient member strength and ductility requirements as specified in
clause 10.2 & 10.3 of this RP.

The rezistance of structural steel elements shall be computed by using the


dynamic material strengths as given in clause 10.3 of this RP, plastic
analysis and detailing provisions similar to seismic conditions.

Strength reduction factors shall not be applied (i.e. a = 1.0) t o load cases
involving blast.

Slenderness of structural steel members shall be particularly considered to


the ductility in blast design so that the effects of overall and local
instabillties upon the ultimate capacity shall be avoided due t o general
thinness of members.
Proper width-thickness provisions shall be applied in design so that not only
t o the extent a full plastic capacity can be achieved, but t o the extent that
higher ductility ratios can also be safely reached.

For this purpose, refer t o Table 8-1 from the AlSC Seismic Provisions of
Structusal Steel Buildings for the width-thickness ratios.

Materials to be Used

Low and medium carbon structural steels, such as ASTM A36 / A 5 0 or BS


equal, having sufficient ductility shall normally be used in blast design. High
strength materials should be discouraged in most applications t o prevent
problerrrs with decreased ductility.

Generally for strengthening of existing structures t o higher blast resistance,


structural steel (rolled shapes) and plates used shall be in accordance with
ASTM A 3 6 or 8 s EN 10025 Grade 275JR or equivalent and shall comply
with K3C-C-007"KOC Standard for Structural Steel Work - Materials,
Fabricarion and Erection".

Structural bolts shall be mechanically galvanized and of high strength


conforming t o either ASTM A325 / A490 or BS 3 6 9 2 Grade 8.8.

Welding shall be carried out in compliance with all requirements specified in


AWS D l .l.

Supplementary Requirements

In addit:ion t o AlSC LRFD and above requirements, the following shall be


considered for blast resistant design:

Substitution of Steel by Higher Grades

Substitution of steel by higher grades shall not be allowed, as they possess


less effective resistance-deflection curves, may alter the relationship
between flexural and shear capacity, and tend t o increase the dynamic
reaction on the supporting members t o resist.

Cold-Formed Steel

AlSl shall be used with several adjustments; and the special provisions
within these specifications pertaining t o seismic design shall also be
adopted for blast resistant design.
14.4.3 Diaphragms

Generally it shall be assumed that t o resist blast pressure loads, the


walls are supported at opposite sides for one way slab design or
s u ~ p o r t e dat four sides for t w o way slab design. The roofs or floors
s h - x ~ l dtherefore,
, be designed adequately as diaphragms to resist the
in-plane loads and transmit them to the resisting shear walls.

In addition to the above in-plane loads, the roof diaphragms shall be


designed for normal positive overpressures and to a less severe
extent, normal negative pressures.

Roof diaphragms should also be designed t o resist lateral wall


reactions as in-plane loads as well as blast overpressures as out-of-
p k n e loads through the interaction formula in clause 13.4.7(b) of this
RP.

Normally, separate structural bracing members should be provided to


transfer lateral wall reactions.

14.4.4 Connection Design

The connection design shall be such that it will not control the
capacity of the member to maximize the plastic response and
preferably, a moment connection should be used t o force a plastic
hinge away from the connection and into the member.

Connection strength shall be determined through AlSC LRFD design


methods and ductility requirements shall be implemented through the
use of appropriate connection details.

Both welded and bolted type connections shall be used in rigid and
semi-rigid construction, as there is no particular advantage of using
one type over the other with regard t o joint performance under blast
lozding conditions.

Sharp corners and weld details prone t o undercutting should be


avoided.
Cladding

Cold-formed light gauge sheet metal panels should be used only for
lo-,^ blast pressure due to premature buckling of the relatively thin
wsbs.

Materials conforming t o ASTM A653 should be used for cold formed


sections with yield strengths ranging from 3 3 ksi (228 MPa) t o 65 ksi
(1450 MPa); and should also be checked for the blast load case in
accordance with the AlSl LRFD Cold-Formed Steel Design Manual.

Sd:rength reduction factors shall not be applied (i.e.cIj= 1 .O) t o load


cases involving blast.

The resistance of cold-formed steel panel should be computed by


using dynamic increase factors (DIF) given in clause 10.3 of this RP.

P r ~ p e rcare shall be taken in selecting the suitable section for the


anticipated load, as the deflection increase with the increase of load
intensity causes steel panels to act as a membrane in tension.

Ccrld-formed steel panels shall be checked for thin webs against web
crippling and should provide larger bearing are t o preclude this
problem.

Lcw response range values as specified in Table IB of this RP shall be


used when tension membrane action is not present; otherwise high
range values can be used when tension membrane action is permitted
and steel panel end connections are properly designed.

Failure Mechanism

The structural steel building shall be designed and detailed t o ensure that
the pririary load bearing elements under a given blast loading shall undergo
maximum deformation within the recommended ductility limits for steel
members to preclude any gross member collapse due t o failure of the
member itself or its connections.

Local and gross member instabilities shall be prevented by providing


adequate bracing and stiffeners.

Generally the structural connections shall be developed for full strength of


the member t o ensure its integrity and t o withstand fire exposure without
appreciable loss of strength if recommended by QRA.
FOU NGATION DESIGN

The foundation of a blast resistant building 1 structure shall be designed


generally more rigid than the building with conventional loads in order t o
minimize any excessive relative displacements between columns and walls
to maintain structural integrity.

Normally structural columns of the building on spread footings shall be tied


together by using grade beams for uniform behaviour of the footings.
Combined mat foundations or raft foundations shall be used for rigidity,
where soil conditions are poor either having low bearing capacity or
chances of settlements are quite high due t o excessive blast forces.

Allowat~lestatic soil bearing and passive pressures should be obtained from


the in-situ field and laboratory test reports of the location or Site.

As blast is a rare event, the bearing pressure under blast load combination
as per :lause 12.1.5 of this RP, should be considered in design not less
than twice (2) the allowable static bearing pressure.

Usually foundations shall be designed by equivalent static method after


summing up the peak reactions from the super-structure dynamic analysis
with other conventional static loads from the load bearing cohmns.

The downward force from the overpressure on the roof shall atso be applied
simultar~eouslywith the horizontal force from the peak reflected pressure
on the front wall.

However, the compensating effects of blast forces acting on the rear wall
should be neglected.

The fol'owing design criteria with factors of safety should be used in


equivalent static design for foundations as below:

a. Vertical loads on soil: 1.2

b. Overturning: 1.2

c. Sliding: 1.0 for lateral loads resisted by frictional soil resistance, and
1.5 for lateral loads (in excess of friction) resisted by passive
resistance

In case the foundation designed by equivalent static method has found t o


be too massive or of impractical sizes, dynamic analysis method should be
adopted for more economical and rational design that can take into account
the inertia of the foundation mass in resisting all the loads and appropriate
soil stiffness as springs in t w o directions (x, y & 8).
DOC. NO. KOC-C030 1 Page 46 o f 6 2

However, if the maximum movements are found to be excessive, the


foundation should be enlarged to increase the contact with the soil or
deepened to increase the passive soil resistance.

ARCHITECTURAL CONSIDERATIONS

General Criteria

Besides any blast loaded building or structure being adequately designed for
the specified structural performance, the safety aspects related to the
architectural requirements shall also be deeply looked into in order t o
minimize the chances of human injury and damages t o equipment by the
falling debris and flying fragments.

Further buildings may be elevated above the surrounding ground to


minimize any chance of spilled oil entry and subsequently being engulfed by
pool fire. Refer t o clause 7.2.4 for other siting considerations.

The designer should ask the supplier I manufacturer t o furnish the tested
records or performance results of the prime architectural elements for
review and records; and if required to demonstrate that these items can
sustain the blast without damage or fail in such a way that they do not
increase the risk to personnel or equipment within or outside the building.

Some c f the main architectural elements, generally t o be used in a building


shall comply with the following blast resistant requirements as described
below.

External Doors

External doors in a blast resistant building shall be kept t o a minimum


consistent with escape requirements; and normally should be provided on
the rear or side walls where the overpressures are less than that on the
front wall. Doors in the external walls shall be no less weaker than the
requirements for the design areas walls, floors, roofs and other structural
cornpor ents.

Blast resistant doors should be categorized t o distinguish varying levels of


blast prsssures they can sustain with the following definitions as below:

a. Low-range Door

A door designed t o withstand an equivalent static pressure that will be


less than 3 psi (21 kPa).

b. Mid-range Door

A door designed t o withstand an equivalent static pressure that will be


less than 3 psi to 25 psi (21 kPa to 1 7 2 kPa).
DOC. NO. KOC-C-030 Page 47 of 62 REV.l
-
c. High-range Door

A door designed to withstand an equivalent static pressure that will


exceed 25 psi (172 kPa).

For elastic behaviour, it shall be assumed that an applied static force shall
be half that of the applied dynamic force of infinitely long duration.

Doors shail open outward and butt on all four edges, against the steel
frames fixed into the concrete. Doors should preferably be flush with the
outside of the building.

Doors, atches, and hinge mechanisms should be designed t o be tight and


should remain operable after being subjected t o the blast loads.

Doors shall be made of steel plates on both faces, internally reinforced, and
generally having the appearance of conventional flush metal doors.

The doors shall be so designed that easy operation under normal conditions
can be done with proper selection of closing and locking mechanisms.
Power assistance may be needed to employ for the opening and closing of
blast resistant doors.

The door frames should be rigidly anchored into the surrounding walls by
several methods such as casting in place in new concrete, bolted in with
concrete expansion anchors, welding the frame to an existing steel
embed or structure, or bolted to an existing structure, as designed or
specified by the door manufacturer in conformity with the given blast load.

Guidelines for Blast Resistant Door Design

a. Based on the desired end-use, the guidelines for acceptance of the


bfast resistant doors should be recommended as foliows:

i. Category I

'The door must remain operable after the loading event and does not
exceed pre-established design criteria for stress, deflection and the
permanent deformation limits. It should have a ductility ratio of 1.0
lor less within elastic range and edge rotation no more than 1.2
degrees.

'This category should be recommended when the door is a primary


13xit point or personnel may be entrapped or when it may have to
resist repeated blast loads.
ii. Category II

The door must remain operable after the loading event but
significant permanent deformation to the door is permitted. It should
have a ductility ratio in the range of 2 to 3 and edge rotation no
more than 2.0 degrees.

This category should be recommended when personnel entrapment


IS a concern.

b. The designer shall coordinate with blast resistant door manufacturer at


an early stage of design with the specific design information,
performance and testing requirements for acceptance of the specific
p~rpose-builtdoor with all its accessories.

c. Tbe blast resistant doors shall have also approved fire labels such as 3
hour "A" or 2 hour "B" on low-range and mid-range doors
respectively, certifying that the construction of the doors have been
fir3 tested by Underwriters Laboratories (UL) or equal.

Windows

Windows in blast resistant buildings should be avoided; or kept t o the


minimum except for specific purposes required for operations. Windows if
provided shall be protected by the use of blast resistant glass that should
also be heat and noise proof as well.

Windows including the frames and glass should be designed t o withstand


the same blast loads as on the walls. The window frames shall be properly
anchored in the walls.

The window frames shall be flush with external wall and recessed with the
back side on supporting concrete wall. Glass shall be recessed on profiled
window frame and fixed from the outside t o withstand better blast
exposure.

Windows should be equipped with mechanism that enables persons t o open


them from inside out in case of fire breakout in the building.

Fire rating of the windows shall be same as of the doors.

Windows parapet height shall be studied carefully in respect of the users


like sitting operator in Control Room overlooking the facilities.

Higher strength type glass and glazing materials such as tempered glass,
polycarbonate, and laminated glass with plastic interlayer should be
considered acceptable depending on the design overpressures. These
materials may be used either by themselves or as components in a
composite construction.
16.3.8 Wire g l s s (annealed glass) shall be avoided in blast resistant buildings, as it
has relatively low strength compared to tempered glass and tends t o
fracture into dagger shaped razor sharp fragments.

16.3.9 Windows may be configured with t w o reinforced glass sheets with void
space of either negative or positive air pressure.

16.3.1 0 Glass shall be of minimum 1 2 mm thick, non-splinter type with maximum


size of sach pane not exceeding 150 mm x 150 mm (width and height).

16.3.1 1 More than one pane should be used for viewing areas as required, but shall
be supported by structural dividers (mullions).

16.3.12 Further t o mitigate flying glass hazards, the application of transparent


polyester anti-shatter film (ASF) t o the inner surface of the glazing should
be considered-

16.4 Utilitv O ~ e n i n q s

16.4.1 Like conventional buildings, utility openings for air intake, exhaust, power
and control cables and service piping shall also be provided in blast
resistant buildings, but with adequate design precautions so that chances
of the entry of blast overpressures through these openings should be
minimized with protective devices.

16.4.2 The designer should consult with the manufacturers of these protective
devices for the necessary design/construction details to include in the
detailed design stage.

16.4.3 Electrical cables and service piping shall be brought into the building
underground t o ensure against any ingress of blast overpressures.

16.4.4 Blast Dampers

a. HVAC blast dampers should be used as the devices with mechanical


elements which can close within milliseconds of the blast wave arrival;
an.i will remain closed or will reopen manually only after pressures
return t o normal.

b. Blast dampers shall be furnished in frames that are attached to


properly designed structural elements.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-WO 1 Pane 50 of 62 1 REY.1

16.4.5 Blast Attenuators

a. HVAC blast attenuators that are similar t o blast dampers but without
any moving parts, are stationary devices used to reduce or lessen the
blast wave effects by reducing the interior increase in pressure.

b. They should be intended for short duration blast waves and necessary
design information should be furnished by the manufacturers.

16.4.6 Cable and Conduit Penetrations

a. Significant blast waves can enter into the building through large
concentrations of unprotected cable or conduit penetrations resulting
in increase of internal pressure and can cause fatal damages.

b. However, this should be prevented by sealing the annular space


around cable or conduit with the use of proprietary devices or with
custom designed closure plates as an alternate.

Note: All automatic "fail-safe" devices in the building shall be reactivated


manually by initiation from the operator.

16.5 Interior Desiqn

16.5.1 Internal Fixtures

Proper considerations shall be given to some internal fixtures, such as


lights, ceilings, ventilating ducts and partition walls, which should be
designed and installed in a way that they will not dislodge from the
wall by its rapid inward movement during blast and will cause injury to
people or damage equipment.

File cabinets and other furnishings for the same reasons should not be
placed closer t o the interior walls than the maximum deflection of the
wall.

No equipment shall be mounted on or placed against the interior face


of external walls or suspended from ceiling / roof, as they can lose
t h i r stability when walls / roof shall be subjected t o blast loading.

Suspended ceiling components being particularly susceptible t o be


dislodged during a blast, should be attached t o the roof ceiling by
more rigid system than those generally used.

Ceiling lighting fixtures, diffusers should be supported independently of


the suspended ceiling.
DOC. NO. KOC-C-030 Page 51 of 62 REV.l

Internal Partition Walls

Internal partition walls should normally be of proprietary items used for


convenience of office adjustments. But they should be designed and
specially installed t o account for possible movement of the main structure
and should not cause any injury to personnel or damage t o equipment.

Special Data Room

An internally located, reinforced concrete blast resistant data room housing


back-up data of distributed control system (DCS) and a remote workstation
of prog-ammable logic controller (PLC) of the Emergency Shutdown System
(ESD) shall be provided in the architectural plan of Control room building I
house t o prevent any damages and loss of valuable data.

Air-conditioning System

Normally, blast resistant buildings shall have A/C system isolated from the
open am-msphere; and shall maintain positive pressure inside t o prevent
ambienr air from entering, as well as ingress of any toxic gases (H,S) in the
event of explosion and damages t o plant or equipment due to blast effects.

Exterior. Desiqn

Equipment such as air conditioners, chillers etc. shall not be placed on the
roof of s blast resistant building.

Canopies and vestibules shall not be provided, and generally cantilever


elements for structural or architectural purposes shall be avoided, as their
dynamic responses will be more pronounced causing instability.

Re-entrant corners and set back doors should be avoided as they are prone
t o experience higher loading than the peak reflected overpressures.

Passive fire protection (PFP) shall be applied, if recommended by QRA.

Services Connections

Connections of building services t o a blast resistant building (newlexisting)


shall be designed flexibly to minimize damages during displacement under
the design blast load.

Staffinq Levels

The number of personnel housing in a blast resistant building shall be kept


to a mirlimum consistent with safe operation of the plant.
17.0 EVALUATION AND UPGRADING OF EXISTING BUILDING

17.1 General Evaluation S t r a t e ~ i e s

17.1.1 Depending on the safety and economic considerations if an existing building


has b e m decided t o be upgraded t o an adequate level of blast resistance
for the specified blast load rather than constructing a new building, several
options should be looked into, for evolving the right evaluation strategies.

17.1.2 The primary concern in the evaluation strategy shall be the selection of the
appropriate response criteria for existing buildings and the incremental cost
of upgrading using the same performance criteria as new designs.

17.1.3 The existing buildings should absorb blast loads through inelastic response
near incipient failure. However if the building is uninhabited or inhabited
with few personnel who could be protected, dynamic response near
incipient failure of the structure may be acceptable for the existing
buildings.

17.1.4 During evaluation of existing buildings from the as-built drawings, all the
modifications since the original construction should be considered,
especially those added later like door openings and other large penetrations
that may affect and can reduce the blast resistance capacity.

17.1 -5 A blast protection study for the existing buildings should typically involve
the folluwing:

Determine the location and size of potential explosions, and establish


the blast loads on the building(s).

Establish appropriate level of blast protection based on building


category or function.

Inspect the building and evaluate the structural components for blast
resistance.

Determine if structural deficiencies exist based on structural evaluation


and blast resistance required.

Identify different upgrade options and make selection based on


technical feasibility and cost effectiveness.
17.2 Upqrade Options

17.2.7 Upgrading of the existing facility shall consider the required increase in
blast resistance capacity, depending on the level of blast protection which
shourd generally be based on building category, function, risk level and
blast loads.

Structurai assessment and cost evaluation should then be made to


determine the best aIternative(s) to use.

17.2.2 The upgrade options available to increase the blast capacity of existing
buildings should be chosen from the following alternatives as below:

Strengthen member connections to prevent shear failures if the blast


ca3acity is marginally less. Replacement of existing members which
c a l not be adequately strengthened may be more expensive.

Increase moment capacity of structures by adding new lateral bracing


between structural elements.

Strengthen metal panels by providing end connections, and reducing


span of panels by adding girts and purlins.

Strengthen concrete masonry walls by reinforcing and grouting or


adding shotcrete layer on the outside walls.

Piece cast-in-place or pre-cast reinforced concrete panels in front of


existing walls.

Build a barrier wall on the sides of the existing building facing possible
blast source.

Replace or eliminate windows and replace doors of insufficient blast


capacity with blast resistant doors.

Some other methods t o reduce blast hazards including architectural


mc~dificationsof existing building.

17.2.3 From the above considerations of a particular existing building, the designer
should determine the most cost effective upgrade options and shall deveiop
the relevant details to apply for strengthening the structural elements such
as various connections of steel members, bracings, metal panels for
exterior cladding or pre-cast panels, concrete masonry walls and
windowldoor replacements in order to achieve the desired performance
goals.
Page 54 o f 82

The construction details shall be subject t o KOC / Consultant's review and


approval prior t o any execution of work.

QUALITY ASSURANCE

The designer / contractor shall operate a quality system preferably based on


I S 0 9000 series of standards t o satisfy t h e requirements of this RP. The
designer / contractor shall demonstrate compliance by providing a copy of
the accredited certificate or its quality manual. Verification of the designer /
contractor quality system is normally part of the pre-qualification procedure
and is, therefore, not detailed in the core text of this RP.

DOCUMENTATION

Genera!

All correspondence, instructions, data sheets, drawings or any other written


information shall be in English language. In case of dual languages, one
language shall be English.

19.1.2 All dimensions, units of measurement, physical constants etc. shall be in SI


units unless otherwise specified. (Nominal bore pipe sizes t o be generally
mentioned in inches).

19.1.3 All documents (text, data sheets, specifications etc.) shall be provided with
electror4c files in the approved and widely used software (MS Word, Excel,
Auto Cad etc.). All calculations shall be submitted in approved and widely
used softwareh) agreed upon by KOC.

The designer / contractor shall submit the necessary documents as a


minimum t o KOC for review and acceptance as given below, but is not
limited to the following only:

Geo-technical Investigation Report


Topographical Survey
Contour Maps
Plot Layout
Block Diagrams
Area Drawings
Grading Plans
Architectural Plans, Elevations and Sectional Drawings for New or
Existing Building(s)
Structural Design Calculations for New Blast-Resistant Building
Structural Design Drawings showing plans, levels, and details with
dimensions, sizes, materials and connections for New Building
DOC. NO. KOC-C-030 1 Page 55 of 62 I REV.1 I

Structural Design Calculations for modifications / strengthening of


Existing Building(s)
Structural Design Drawings showing all construction details with
dimensions, sizes, materials and connections for Existing Building to be
upgraded and strengthened
Master List of all Submittals
Master List of Schedules for Planned Progress
Work Breakdown Schedules (WBS)
All Test Records (laboratory / field)
Any other as required.
APPENDIX-I :BLAST WAVE RELECTION COEFFICIENTS VS. ANGLE OF INCIDENCE

FIGURE 1 : Blast Wave Reflection Coefficient vs. Angle of incidence (a)


(From TNO Green Book)
DOC. NO. jl
KOC-c-(MO Page 57 of 62 1
11 REV.^

APPENDIX- II: GENERAL BLAST LOADING FOR A RECTANGULAR BUILDING

FIGURE 2: -Blast Loading General Arranqement For a Rectangular Buildinq


(From Forbes 1995)

FIGURE 3 : Effective Overpressure Values 1From T M 5-1300)


APPENDIX- Ill : TYPICAL GRAPHICAL SOLUTION CHART FOR
ELASTO-PLASTIC SDOF SYSTEM

FIGURE 4: Tvpical Graphical Solution Chart for Elasto-Plastic SDOF Svstem


(From Biggs 1964)
Page 59 of 62 REV. 1

APPENDIX IV: NOMENCLATURES USED

a = Acceleration

BL = Blast Load

ce = Side W d I Reduction Factor


c, = Reflection Coefficient

DIF = Dynamic Increase Factor


DL = Dead Load

fc = Concrete Stress
fdc = Dynamic Concrete Strength
fh"
-
- Dynamic Masonry Strength
f = Nominal Masonry Strength
F = Blast Force
- Steel Dynamic Yield Strength
Fdv -
- Steel Dynamic Ultimate Strength
Fd" -
F, = Applied Force as a Function of Time
FU = Steel Ultimate Strength
Fv = Steel Yield Strength

- Positive Phase Impulse


10 -
I*- = Negative phase impulse

K = Stiffness

L = Building Depth, or Member Span Length


L, = Length 3f Element Parallel t o Traveling Blast Wave
L, = Blast Wave Length
LL = Live Load

M = Mass
rns = Milliseconds

PI = Effective Side-on Pressure


Po = Ambient Atmospheric Pressure
P = Peak Reflected Overpressure
pso = Peak incident Overpressure

9, = Peak Dynamic Pressure

R" = Ultimate Resistance

SIF = Strength Increase Factor


Positive Phase Duration
Natural Period
Rise Time

Deflection
Maximum Deflection

Wind Load

Angle of Incidence
Capacity Reduction Factor
Ducti1it.q Ratio
Rotatio~?,or Hinge Rotation
Tensior. Reinforcing Ratio
Compression Reinforcing Ratio
-ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
---

This KOC Recommended Practice (RP) has been approved by the Standards Technical
Committee (STC) consisting of the following:-

Mr. AIRedha Al-Haddad Standards Team Chairman


M r . Mohd. Emam Insp.& Corr. Team -S Deputy Chairman
Mr. S. Kumar Standards Team SecretaryIMember
Mr. Khalid At-At- mad Gen. Proj. Team Member
Mr. Henry S. Hill Opn. Tech. Svcs. Team -S Member
Mrs. Amina Rajab Design Team Member
Mr. Khalaf Hamada Design Team Member
Mr. N. Ramanathan Export Facilities Team Member
Mr. Ali Hassan Al-Failakawi HSE Team Member
Dr. Modistaba Araghi Insp. & Corr. Team -N&W Member
Mr. Daniel Pino Utilities Team Member
Mr. Abdul Aziz Akbar Proj. Mgmt-Team -N Member
Mr. Moataz Khalaf Information Systems Team Member

The draft of this RP has been circulated to the KOC User Teams for their review and
responses were received from the following:-

ENGINEERING GROUP OPNS. GROUP (NORTH)

Team Leader Design Team Leader HSE


Team Leader Construction Team Leader Maintenance

MAJOR PROJECTS GROUP OPNS. GROUP (SOUTH I

Team Leader Export Facilities Project Team Leader Prod. Opns


Team Leader Pro]'ect Support Team Leader Opns. Tech. Svcs

INDUSTRIAL SERVICES GROUP OPNS. GROUP (WEST)

Team Leader i m p . & Corr. (S&E) Team Leader Opns. Tech. Svcs

AHMADI SERVICES GROUP OPNS. GROUP (EAST)

Team Leader Util!ties. Team Leader Opns. Tech. Svcs.


Team Leader Project Design Team Leader Gas Opns.

HSE GROUP DIVIDED ZONE GROUP

Team Leader HSE; Systems Team Leader Project Engg. & Facilities
Team Leader Safety

DRILLING OPNS. GROUP SEK DIRECTORATE

Team Leader Drilling & W/o Svcs Team Leader HSE (S&E)
DOC. NO. KOC-C-030 I( Page 62 of 62 1 REV.1

This KOC RP has been prepared by the Task Force (TF-C/08) comprising of the
following membsrs:

Mr. S. Kumar Standards Team TF Leader /Author Tel. No. 6 1407


Mrs. Sana'a Al---alha Design Team Member Tel. No. 6 1 352
Mr. Mubarak At-Ahmed Major Proj. Team Ill Member Tel. No. 6 1249
Mr. Rafiq Khan Gen. Projects Member Tel. No. 61 3 5 6
Mr. Barun Baruah Safety Team Member Tel. No. 71408
Mr. Meshlej Al-K.haldi Constr. Team Member Tel. No. 61668