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UNIT 1 – SEMICONDUCTOR DIODE

1. What is energy level diagram?


In an atom, each orbit has fixed amount of energy associated with energy
levels. The electrons moving in a particular orbit possess the energy of the
orbit. The convenient way of representing the energy of different orbit is
known as energy level diagram.

2. Find the voltage at which the reverse current in a germanium PN


junction diode attains a value of 90% of its saturation value at room
temperature. (Apr/May 2017)
η (a constant)= 1 for Ge,
VT (thermal voltage)= 26mV at room temperature
I = 0.9I0 (I is negative since it is reverse current)
I = I0 [𝑒 (𝑉/𝜂𝑉𝑇) – 1]
−3
-0.9I0 = 𝐼0 [(𝑒 𝑉⁄26 x 10 ) − 1]
−3 𝑉
-0.9+1 = (𝑒 𝑉⁄26 x 10 ) [i.e. ln 0.1 = ]
26x10−3
V= -2.3026 x 26 x 10−3 = -59.867 mV
The negative sign indicates the reverse voltage applied to the diode.

3. What is meant by doping in a semiconductor? [Nov/Dec 2015]


The process of adding impurity atoms to the intrinsic semiconductor is
called doping. When pentavalent impurity is added to the intrinsic
semiconductor, it becomes N-type semiconductor. When trivalent impurity
is added to the intrinsic semiconductor, it becomes P-type semiconductor.

4. Define drift and diffusion current. [Nov/Dec 2015] [Nov/Dec 2014]


Drift current: The drift current is defined as the flow of electric current due
to the motion of the charge carriers under the influence of an external
electric field.
Diffusion current: When a semiconductor is non-uniformly doped, then
there exists a concentration gradient. As a result the charge carriers move
from higher concentration region to lower concentration region. This
process is called diffusion and the current due to diffusion is known as
diffusion current.

5. What are the classifications of energy band?


Energy band is classified into three types,
• Conduction band
• Forbidden band
• Valence band

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6. Define carrier life time.


The time for which the charge carriers exist on an average before
recombination with a carrier of opposite charge is called carrier life time

7. What is continuity equation?


Continuity equation is a fundamental law which governs the flow of charge
carriers and to calculate the excess density of electrons and holes in time
and space. This equation is applied to the semiconductor in order to
describe how the carrier concentration varies with time and distance of a
material.

8. Write down the diode current equation.


The diode current equation relating the voltage V and current
I is given by,
I = I0 [𝑒 (𝑉/𝜂𝑉𝑇) – 1]
I0 – Reverse saturation current
η – 1 for germanium and 2 for silicon.
VT - Voltage equivalent of temperature.

9. What are the applications of PN Diode?


➢ Rectifiers in power supplies
➢ Clamping circuits
➢ Demodulation circuits
➢ Voltage regulators
➢ Detectors in optical communication.

10.List the diode parametres.


The diode parameters are,
➢ Bulk Resistance
➢ Static Resistance
➢ Dynamic Resistance
➢ Reverse Resistance
➢ Knee voltage
➢ Break down voltage

11.Differentiate between drift and diffusion current.

Drift current Diffusion current


It is developed due to drifting of It is developed due to charge
electrons across the semiconductor concentration gradient
material

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This phenomenon is found in both This is found only in semiconductors


metals and semiconductors
12.What is meant by barrier potential? [Nov/Dec 2016]
The oppositely charged ions present on both sides of PN junction
exert an electric potential across the junction even without any external
voltage source applied. This potential is known as barrier potential.

13.What is meant static resistance in a diode?


Static resistance R of a diode can be defined as the ratio of voltage V
across the diode to the current flowing through the diode.
R= V/I
Where,
R= static resistance
V=voltage across diode
I= current across the diode

14.Define dynamic resistance.


Static resistance R of a diode can be defined as the ratio of change in
voltage V across the diode to the change in current flowing through the diode.
.
R = ∆V/∆I
Where,
R = dynamic resistance
∆V= change in voltage across diode
∆I= change in current across the diode

15.Differentiate between zener breakdown and avalanche breakdown.

zener breakdown avalanche breakdown


Breaking of covalent bond due to Breaking of covalent bond due to
intense electric field. collision.
This occurs when voltage is less This occurs when voltage is more
than 6V. than 6V.
The temperature coefficient is The temperature coefficient is
negative. positive.
The breakdown voltage decreases as The breakdown voltage increases as
junction temperature increases junction temperature increases.

16.What is avalanche breakdown?


When reverse voltage is increased, the velocity of minority charge
carriers increases. When such highly accelerated charge carrier collides
against the atom in a covalent bond, it breaks the covalent bond and creates
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new charge carriers. Now these charge gain sufficient velocity and further
collides with the atoms and releases more charge carriers which leads to
the breakdown of junction called avalanche breakdown or avalanche
multiplication.

17.Why silicon is widely used than germanium?


The valance shell of silicon is in third shell while that of
germanium is in fourth shell. Hence the valance electrons of germanium
are far from the nucleus than silicon and therefore the valence electrons of
germanium is loosely bound to nucleus than silicon. When a small energy
is provided germanium electrons easily escape from the atom. Therefore at
high temperatures germanium is less stable than silicon and hence silicon
is widely used than silicon.

18.What is diffusion current in PN junction diode? [Nov/Dec 2016]


[April/May 2016]
When a semiconductor is non-uniformly doped, then there exists a
concentration gradient. As a result the charge carriers move from higher
concentration region to lower concentration region. This process is called
diffusion and the current due to diffusion is known as diffusion current.

19.What is peak inverse voltage? (Apr/May 2017)


The maximum value of reverse voltage which the diode can
withstand without breakdown when it is reverse biased is known as peak
inverse voltage.

20.Draw the energy band structure of silicon and germanium at room


temperature indicating the energy gap value in eV.

21.What is meant by zener breakdown?


When a PN junction is heavily doped, the depletion region is very
narrow. When a reverse voltage is applied to a diode, it causes a very
intense electric field to appear across a narrow depletion region. Such an
intense electric field is strong enough to pull some of the valence electrons

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into the conduction band by breaking their covalent bonds .these electrons
then become free electrons which are available for conduction. A large
number of such free electrons will constitute a large reverse current
through the diode. This phenomenon is called zener breakdown.

22.Define barrier potential across the diode.


Due to the presence of immovable ions at the PN junction, there
exists an electric field across the unbiased PN junction. This creates a
potential difference across the junction which is called barrier potential.
Thus the voltage existing across the depletion region or barrier is called a
barrier potential.

23.What is meant by knee voltage or threshold voltage or cut-in voltage?


The minimum voltage at which the diode starts conducting is known
as threshold or knee or cut-in or break point or offset voltage.

24.What is meant by depletion region?


In a PN junction, electron and holes diffuse across the junction. The
electrons recombine in p-region to form immovable negative ions while the
holes recombine in n-region to form immovable positive ions. So in the
junction only the immovable ions reside while the charge carriers get
depleted.
The region where charge carriers get depleted and only immovable ions
are present is called depletion region.

25.Consider a silicon pn junction at T=300K so that ni=1.5x1010 cm-3. The n


type doping is 1x1016 cm-3 and a forward bias of .60 V is applied to the
PN junction. Calculate the minority hole concentration at the edge of the
space charge region. [Apr/May 2015]
Pn = Pn0 eV/VT
Pn0 = ni2 / ND
16 2
= (1.5 x 10 ) / 1x10
Pn = 2.25 x 1010 e0.6/ 0.0259
= 2.588 x 1020 / m3

26.Define transition capacitance of a diode.


A capacitance existing at the PN junction when the diode is
reverse biased where the two regions act as plates while depletion region
acts as dielectric is called transition capacitance of a diode.

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27.Draw the VI characteristics of PN junction diode.

28.Why a series resistor is necessary when a diode is forward biased?


A series resistor is necessary for limiting the forward current
which increases exponentially with voltage.

29.What is meant by breakdown voltage in PN junction diode?


During reverse bias, when reverse voltage is increased, the current
remains constant upto a certain voltage. The voltage at which the diode
breaks and large amount of reverse current flows is known as breakdown
voltage.

30.Define drift current in PN junction diode. [Apr/May 2015]


The drift current is defined as the flow of electric current due to the
motion of the charge carriers under the influence of an external electric
field.

31.Consider a Si PN junction at T= 300K with doping concentrations of Na


=1016 cm-3 and Na =1045 cm-3. Assume that ni =1.5 x 1010 cm-3. Calculate
width of the space charge region in a PN junction, when a reverse bias
voltage VR=5V is applied. [Nov/Dec 2014]
T=300ºK, NA =1016/cm3, ND = 1015 /cm3, ni =1.5 x 1010/cm3, VR =5V,
𝜀𝑟 =11.7 for si, q=1.6 x 10-19
VJ = VT ln [NAND / ni2]
= 26 x 10-3 ln[1016 x 106 x 1015 x 106 / (1.5 x 1010 x 106)2]
= 0.637 V
VB = VJ + VR
= 5 + 0.637 = 5.637 V

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2𝜀0 𝜀𝑟 (𝑉𝐽+ 𝑉𝑅 ) 𝑁𝐴+ 𝑁𝐷


𝑊= √ [ ]
𝑞 𝑁𝐴 𝑁𝐷
= 2.833µm

32.Define storage time. [Nov/Dec 2016]


When the diode is switched from forward bias to reverse bias, the minority
charge carriers remain stored and decrease slowly to zero. This time for
which minority charge carriers remain zero is called storage time.

33.What is the principle of operation of a PN junction diode in reverse bias


condition? [May/June 2014]
Under reverse biased condition, the PN junction offers very high resistance
and a small amount of current flows through it due to minority carriers.
This flow of current is independent of reverse bias voltage applied.

34.Sketch the forward bias characteristics of the PN junction diode.


[Apr/May 2015]

35.Define mass action law. [Nov/Dec 2016] [May/June 2014]


According to the law of mass action, the product of concentrations
of holes and electrons is always constant at a fixed temperature.

np = ni2
Where,
n – Concentration of free electrons
p - Concentration of holes
ni – Intrinsic concentration

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UNIT II – BIPOLAR JUNCTION

1. What is a transistor?
The Transistor is a three terminal device: Base, emitter and collector,
can be operated in three different configurations: common base, common
emitter and common collector.
According to configuration it can be used for voltage as well as current
amplification.

2. If a transistor has an α 0f 0.97, find the value of β.


The relation between α and β is given by,
𝛼
β= ,[ since α =0.97]
1−𝛼
0.97
β= = 32.333
1−0.97

3. Why transistor is also called bipolar junction transistor?


The current conduction in bipolar transistor is because of both the
types of charge carriers, electrons and holes. Hence this is called Bipolar
Junction Transistor.

4. Why transistor is called current controlled device?


In BJT the output current is controlled by input current and hence it is
called as a current controlled device.

5. Calculate the collector and emitter current levels for a BJT with 𝜶 dc =
0.99 and IB = 20μA. [Nov/Dec 2014]
𝐼
𝛼𝑑𝑐 = 𝐶
𝐼𝐸
β = α / 1- α
= .99 / (1-.99)
= 99
𝐼
β dc = 𝐶 = IC / 20µA
𝐼𝐸
IC = 1980 µA = 1.98mA
IE = IB + IC = [20μA +1.98mA] = 2mA
6. Draw the circuit for a transistor in CB configuration.

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7. State the three operating regions of a transistor.


The three operating regions of a transistor are: Active region, cut-off
region and saturation region.

8. What is early effect? [May/June 2016][Apr/May 2015][Apr/May 2017]


When reverse bias voltage VCB increases, the width of the depletion
region also increases, which reduces the electrical base width. This effect
is called early effect or base width modulation.

9. What is the need of biasing in the transistor?


➢ To achieve faithful amplification
➢ To avoid thermal runaway.

10.Assume that the p+n junction of a uniformly doped silicon n channel


JFET at T=300K has doping concentrations of Na =1018 cm-3 and Nd =1016
cm-3. Assume that the metallurgical channel thickness α is 0.7 µm.
Calculate the pinch off voltage.

For 0.7µm, pinch off voltage VP is given by,

qND 2 (1.6x10−19 )(1016 )x(0.7x10−4 )2


VP = a =
2𝜀 2x12x8.85x10−14

qND 2
VP = a = 3.7V
2𝜀

11.What is meant by punch through?


When the collector voltage is increased, effective base width is
reduced to zero, and the emitter barrier voltage becomes smaller as the
collector voltage reaches through the base region. Due to lowering of
emitter junction voltage, an extensively large emitter current flows.
Therefore, there is an upper limit on the magnitude of collector voltage.
This phenomenon is called punch-through.

12.What are the types of transistors?

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There are two types of transistors:


➢ Unipolar junction transistor
➢ Bipolar junction transistor is further classified as (i) npn transistor and (ii)
pnp transistor

13.State the two junctions in the transistors.


The transistor has two pn junctions. One junction is between emitter and
base called emitter base junction or emitter junction J E and other junction
is between collector and base called collector base junction or collector
junction JC.

14.Why transistor cannot be replaced by back to back connected diodes?


(i) Relative doping levels of base, emitter and collector junctions must be
satisfied to work as a transistor. Two normal pn junction diodes cannot
satisfy this requirement.
(ii) Diffusion process occurs in transistor and almost entire IE reaches
collector and IB is negligibly small. In back to back diodes, diffusion
cannot take place and current which flows is reverse saturation current.
Hence back to back connected diodes cannot be used as transistor.

15.Define current amplification factor.


It is the ratio of output current IC and input current IE in CB
configuration.
For CB, α = ∆ IC / ∆ IE
For CE, β = ∆ IC / ∆ IB
For CC, 𝛾 = ∆ IE / ∆ IB

16.Compare CC, CB, CE configurations of BJT.


Transistor Common Base Common Common
Configuration Collector Emitter
Voltage Gain High Low Medium
Current Gain Low High Medium
Power Gain Low Medium High
Input / Output
0° 0° 180°
Phase Relationship
Input Resistance Low High Medium
Output Resistance High Low Medium

17.Why CE configuration is widely used in amplifier circuits?


❖ Provides high voltage gain and current gain.

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❖ Provides high power gain.


❖ Can be cascaded efficiently.

18.What are the benefits of h-parameters?


❖ Easy to measure.
❖ Can be obtained from transistor static characteristic curves.
❖ Real numbers at audio frequencies.
❖ Convenient to use in circuit analysis and design.
❖ Most of the transistor manufacturers specify the h-parameter.

19.What do you meant by multi emitter transistor?


Merged transistors – two or more devices which share one or more
common regions, provide one method of space saving on a chip. The most
widely used merged transistor is multiple-emitter transistor.

20.State about doping in transistor.


The base region is very thin and lightly doped. The emitter and
collector are highly doped. But the doping level in emitter is slightly
greater than that of collector.

21. What is high injection effect?


When there is high level of injected holes from the emitter, extra
electrons attract extra holes, increasing the positive mobile charge in base.
A portion of the applied base–emitter voltage appears across the positive
charge in the base and not available for the base-emitter junction. This is
high level injection effect.

22.State about doping in transistor?


The base region is very thin and lightly doped. The emitter and
collector are heavily doped. But the doping level in emitter is slightly
greater than that of collector.

23.What is an input and output characteristics?


An input characteristic is a relationship plotted graphically between
input voltage and input current while keeping output voltage constant.
An output characteristic is a relationship plotted graphically between
output voltage and output current keeping input current as constant.

24.When does a transistor act as a switch?


The transistor acts as a switch when it operated at either cut-off region or
saturation region.

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25.Why CC configuration is used for impedance matching?


The common – collector configuration is used primarily for
impedance matching purpose, because it has high input impedance and low
output impedance in contrast to CE and CB Configuration.

26.Define emitter efficiency.


It is the ratio of current due to injected electron to total emitter current.
γ = current due to injected carrier at emitter current / total emitter current

γ= IEn / IE

27.Describe how switching are achieved by a BJT?


Cut – off region and saturation region of output characteristics are used for
switching in BJT. When it is saturated, it acts as a closed switch and when
it is operated in cut off region, it acts as an open switch.

28.What is tunneling phenomenon?[Nov/Dec 2016]


In normal PN junction, width of depletion region is about 5 x 10-4 cm while
that for tunnel diode, it is 1 x 10-6 which is 1:100th of normal diode.
Due to thin depletion region, electrons penetrate easily into the depletion
energy due to their high kinetic energy.
The penetration of electrons into depletion region due to high velocities is
known as tunneling.

29.A transistor has β = 150, find the collector and base current, if I E = 10mA.
[May/June 2016]
𝐼𝐸
IB = = 10mA / (1+150)
1+𝛽
IB =66.225 µA
IC = β IB
IC = 150 *66.225 µA
IC = 9.934mA

30.What is meant by thermal runaway? [Nov/Dec 2015]


Due to the self heating at the collector junction, the collector current rises.
This causes damage to the device. This phenomenon is called thermal
runway.

31.Sketch the Ebbers Moll model.[Apr/May 2015]

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32.Draw the h-parameter model for CE transistor.[May/June 2014]

33.What is the major difference between bipolar and unipolar device?


Current conduction in unipolar devices is due to majority carriers only.
i.e) current conduction is due to electrons in n-type and holes in p-type
semiconductor. Example – FET.
Current conduction in bipolar devices is due to both majority carriers and
minority carriers. Example – BJT.

34.Define transport factor.


The transport factor β* is defined as the ratio of injected carrier current
reaching JC to the ratio of injected carrier current at JE.
β*= injected carrier current reaching JC / injected carrier current at JE

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UNIT III – FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTORS


1. What is FET?
The field effect transistor (FET) is a semiconductor device which depends
on the control of current by an electric field for its operation.

2. Give the current voltage relationship of D-MOSFET and E-MOSFET.


The current voltage relationship of D-Mosfet and E-Mosfet is given by,
𝑽
ID =𝑰𝑫𝑺𝑺 [1-( 𝑮𝑺)]2 for D-MOSFET and
𝑽𝑷
ID =K[VGS –VT]2 for E-MOSFET.
Where,
ID – Drain current.
IDSS – Drain to source current, when VGS =0.
VGS – Gate to source voltage.
VP – Pinch off voltage
VT – Threshold voltage
K – Constant (Conduction parameter).

3. List the features of FET.


(i)It is less noisy than a BJT.
(ii)It has high input impedance.
(iii)It has thermal stability
(iv)It is relatively immune to radiation.

4. Why FET is called a unipolar device?


In FET, the current is carried by only one type of charge carrier, either by
electrons or holes. Hence it is known as unipolar device.

5. Write the drain current equation or Shockley’s equation of JFET?

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ID = IDSS {1-(VGS/VP)} 2
Where,
ID – Drain current
IDSS – Saturation drain current
VGS – Gate to Source voltage
VP – pinch off voltage

6. What are the characteristics associated with JFET?


There are two important characteristics of JFET,
➢ Transfer characteristics – the graph drawn between gate source voltage
VGS and drain current ID while keeping drain source voltage VDS constant.
➢ Drain characteristics – drain characteristics shows the relationship
between drain source voltage VDS and drain current ID.

7. Define pinch-off voltage. [Dec 2015/Jan 2016][Nov/Dec 2014]


With increase in the reverse bias of gate terminal, the depletion layer
widens and a point is reached where entire channel is filled with depletion
layer and drain current will be reduced to zero except for small reverse
saturation currents order of nano amperes. The gate to source voltage at
which at which the entire channel will be depleted of charge carrier is
called pinch-off voltage.

8. List out the operating regions of JFET.


The various operating regions of JFET are,
➢ Ohmic region
➢ Saturation region
➢ Breakdown region
➢ Pinch-off or cut-off region.

9. Compare JFET and BJT. [Dec 2015/Jan 2016][May/June 2014][May


2017]

S.No JFET BJT


Unipolar device (current conduction Bipolar device (current condition,
1. is only due to one type of majority by both types of carriers, i.e.,
carrier either electron or hole). majority and minority-electrons
and holes )
The operation depends on the control The operation depends on the
2. of a junction depletion width under injection of minority carriers
reverse bias. across a forward biased junction.

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Voltage driven device. The current Current driven device. The


3.
through the two terminals is current through the two terminals
controlled by a voltage at the third is controlled by a current at the
terminal (gate). third terminal (base).
4. Low noise level. High noise level.
High input impedance (due Low input impedance (due to
5.
to reverse bias). forward bias).

10.Compare JFET and MOSFET.

S.No JFET MOSFET


JFET Gate is not insulated from the MOSFET Gate is insulated from
1. channel. the channel.
Channel and gate forms two p-n Channel and gate forms parallel
2. junctions. plate capacitor.
Can be operated in depletion mode Can be operated in both depletion
3.
only. and enhancement mode.
4. Input impedance is high. Input impedance is very high.
5. Signal handling capacity is more.
Signal handling capacity is less.

11.How can a FET be used as a voltage controlled resistor? (or) In which


region JFET acts as a resistor and why?
In ohmic region, JFET acts as a resistor. The depletion layer of the
channel is very small and JFET acts like a variable resistor. As V DS is
increased from zero, ID corresponding to it increases. In ohmic region,
drain current ID varies with VDS and drain to source resistance varies in
linear manner. Thus FET acts as a voltage controlled resistor in ohmic
region.

12.Define amplification factor in JFET.


Amplification factor is defined as the ratio of change in drain to source
voltage to change in gate to source voltage when drain current is
maintained constant.
change in 𝑽𝑫𝑺
𝝁=
𝒄𝒉𝒂𝒏𝒈𝒆 𝒊𝒏 𝑽𝑮𝑺

13. Draw the symbol for dual gate MOSFET.[Nov/Dec 2014]

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14.What is transconductance in JFET?


The ratio of change in drain current, ∆ID, to the change in gate-source
voltage, ∆VGS, is the transconductance, gm.
The unit of transconductance is the Siemens (S). It is the reciprocal of
resistance (Ω).

15.When a breakdown occurs in JFET (or) what is meant by breakdown


region in JFET?
When the value of VDS is increased beyond pinch-off voltage VP, drain
current ID remains constant up to a certain value of VDS. If VDS is further
increased, voltage reaches appoint where gate channel junction breaks
down due to avalanche effect. The point where ID increases very rapidly
due to this breakdown is called breakdown region.

16.In which region JFET acts as a resistor and why?[May/June 2014]


In ohmic region, JFET acts as a resistor. The depletion layer of the channel
is very small and JFET acts like a variable resistor. As V DS is increased
from zero, ID corresponding to it increases. In ohmic region, drain current
ID varies with VDS and drain to source resistance varies in linear manner.
Thus FET acts as a voltage controlled resistor in ohmic region.

17.Compare n-channel JFET and p-channel JFET.

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18.Compare MOSFET and FET. [May/June 2016]


FET MOSFET
Operated in both depletion mode
Operated in depletion mode
and enhancement mode
Gate is not insulated from the Gate is insulated from channel
channel. by a layer of Sio2
Channel is permanent for
Channel exists permanently depletion type but temporary for
enhancement type.

19.What are the applications of JFET? [May/June 2016]


The applications of JFET are,
➢ Used in RF amplifiers, FM turners
➢ Used as buffer amplifiers
➢ Used in oscillator circuits
➢ Used as buffer in measuring instruments.

20.What is channel length modulation in MOSFET? [April/May 2015]


Channel length modulation in MOSFET is a phenomenon where,
• An increase in VDS causes the depletions region at the drain
junction to grow. and
• The length of the effective channel is reduced

21.Why input impedance of MOSFET is high when compared to JFET?


There is no direct electrical connection between gate terminal and the
channel of MOSFET. Gate is insulated from the channel by a thin layer of
dielectric SiO2. Due to this extra layer, input impedance of MOSFET is
very high.

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22.Draw the structure of dual gate MOSFET.

23.Draw the symbol of n-channel and p-channel JFET.

24.Write down the advantages of FinFET.


➢ Provides better electrostatic control over channel.
➢ Reduces short channel effects.
➢ Much lower breakage current compared to bulk counterpart.
➢ Promising matching behavior.
25.Write down the advantages dual gate MOSFET.
➢ Reduction of leakage current.
➢ Double gate allows for higher current drive capability.
➢ Better control of short channel effects.
➢ Low noise and good power gain.
26.State the limitations of planar technology.
MOSFET scaling, reduces gate channel length, in turn reduces the control
of gate around channel resulting in short-channel effects like,
➢ More leakage current.
➢ Fluctuation of device characteristics.
➢ Harder to turn OFF transistor.

27.How dual gate MOSFET reduces Miller effect?


In dual gate MOSFET, gate 1 is near the source and gate 2 is near the
drain. Gate 2 is held at a more or less fixed bias and so it shields gate 1
from drain, making Cgd very small. This reduces Miller effect.

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UNIT IV – SPECIAL SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES

1. Define electron affinity.


It is defined as the amount of energy released when an electron is added to the
neutral atom to form a negative ion.

2. Define work function for a material.


It is defined as the amount of minimum energy required to remove an electron
from a material to a point in a vacuum immediately outside the material
surface.

3. What is tunneling effect in diodes? [Nov/Dec 2016][Dec 2015/Jan 2016]

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In normal pn junction, width of depletion region is about 5 x 10 -4 cm while


that for tunnel diode, it is 1 x 10-6 which is 1:100th of normal diode.
Due to thin depletion region, electrons penetrate easily into the depletion
energy due to their high kinetic energy.
The penetration of electrons into depletion region due to high velocities is
known as tunneling.

4. What are the difference between a tunnel diode and a conventional PN


diode? [Nov/Dec 2014]
Tunnel diode Conventional PN diode
Impurity concentration is
Impurity concentration is low about 1
high about 1 part in 103
part in 108 atoms.
atoms.
Depletion region width is
about 5 microns, which is Depletion region width is high
th
1/100 of typical p-n compared to typical p-n junction diode.
junction diode.
Carrier velocities are high
Carrier velocities are low at low
at low forward bias,
forward bias, hence cannot penetrate
hence can punch through
through the depletion region.
the depletion region.
Switching time is very
Switching time is very high.
low

5. State the applications of tunnel diode. [May/June 2016][May/June 2014]


➢ As a high speed switch.
➢ In pulse and digital circuits.
➢ In switching networks.
➢ In negative resistance oscillators.

6. Differentiate between Schottky diode and PN diode. [Nov/Dec 2016]


Schottky diode p-n diode
Forward current is due to thermionic Forward current is due to diffusion of
emission. charge carriers.
Reverse current is due to majority Reverse current is due to minority
carriers that overcome barriers. carriers diffusing to the depletion
layer and drifting to the other side.
Cut –in voltage is small (about 0.3V) Cut – in voltage is large (0.7V)

7. What is a varactor diode?

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The varactor diode is a voltage dependent, variable capacitor


semiconductor diode. It is a special diode made for application utilization of
voltage variable property and hence called varactor diode or varicaps or
voltage cap. It is operated under reverse biased conditions so as to yield
variable junction capacitance.

8. List the applications of zener diode.


➢ Zener diodes are used as Voltage regulators
➢ used in Surge suppression circuitry for device protection
➢ Used in over voltage protection circuits.
➢ Zener diodes are used in clipping and clamping circuits especially peak
clippers.
➢ They are used as Reference elements.
➢ Used in switching applications.

9. Define process impact ionization.


In a diode, thermally generated carriers falls down the junction barrier
and acquire energy from applied voltage. This carrier collide a crystal ion with
sufficient kinetic energy to disrupt its covalent bond. This process is called
impact ionization.

10.Define figure of merit of a varactor diode.


Figure of merit is also known as Quality factor (Q). It is defined as the
ratio of energy stored and returned by a capacitor to energy dissipated in
resistance. High value of Q is always desirable, because high Q indicates low
loss in resistance.

11.Draw the energy band diagram of metal semiconductor junction after


contact is made. [May/June 2016][May/June 2014]

12.What is a Laser diode?


A laser diode consists of a p-n junction formed by two doped gallium
arsenide layers. The two ends of diode are flat and parallel with one end
mirrored and one partially reflective.

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13.What is meant by zener breakdown?


When a PN junction is heavily doped, the depletion region is very narrow.
When a reverse voltage is applied to a diode, it causes a very intense electric
field to appear across a narrow depletion region. Such an intense electric field
is strong enough to pull some of the valence electrons into the conduction
band by breaking their covalent bonds.
These electrons then become free electrons which are available for
conduction. A large number of such free electrons will constitute a large
reverse current through the diode. This phenomenon is called zener
breakdown.

14.What are the properties of LASER radiation?


➢ High intensity.
➢ High coherence.
➢ Highly monochromatic.
➢ Highly directional.
➢ Zero divergence.

15.State the materials used for LASER diode and its applications.
The materials used for LASER diode are GaAs, AlGaAs and GaInAsP.
Applications of LASER diode are: CD players, laser printers and fibre optic
communications.

16.List out the applications of varactor diode. [Apr/May 2017]


➢ Tuned circuits
➢ FM Modulators
➢ Adjustable BPF
➢ Parametric amplifiers
➢ TV receivers.

17.What is a schottky diode?


The diode specially manufactured to solve the problem of fast switching
are called schottky diodes. It is also called schottky barrier diodes, surface
barrier diodes or hot carrier diodes. It has metal to semiconductor junction,
different from conventional p-n junction diode.

18.Draw the V-I characteristics of tunnel diode.

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19.Define Gunn Effect or transferred electron mechanism.[Apr/May 2017]


When applied electric field increases beyond the critical value, electrons in
central valley gain enough energy to transfer from central valley to other
satellite valleys at higher energy level. Such a transfer of electrons is called
transferred electron mechanism or Gunn Effect.

20.What is LDR?
The light dependent resistor is a two terminal semiconductor component
whose resistance decrease with increasing incident light intensity. It is also
called photo resistor or photo conductor and works on the principle of
photoconductivity.

21.What are the applications of LDR? [Nov/Dec 2014]


The applications of LDR are:
➢ Consumer items such as camera light meter, clocks, security alarms,
street lights, etc.,
➢ In infrared astronomy and spectroscopy.
➢ In sensitive light operated relays.
➢ In light interruption detectors, automatic light circuits, etc.,

22.What is negative resistance in a tunnel diode?


In tunnel diode characteristics, slope dI/dV becomes zero at peak point. If
forward voltage is increased further beyond peak voltage VP, then current
starts decreasing rather than increasing. Hence dynamic resistance or
conductance becomes negative. This region is called negative resistance
region in tunnel diode.

23.Differentiate between zener diode and p-n junction diode.

p-n diode Zener diode


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➢ Diode can conduct current only in one ➢ Zener diode allows the conduction in both
direction. directions.
➢ A normal diode will be permanently ➢ Zener diode will not get damaged for a
damaged for a large reverse current. large reverse current.
➢ Amount of doping for P and N ➢ Amount of doping for P and N
semiconductor layers are different semiconductor layers are different
➢ Diodes are normally used for rectification ➢ Zener diodes are used for voltage
regulation.

24.Draw the equivalent circuit of tunnel diode.

25.Sketch the graph symbol for n-channel and p-channel MOSFET.


[Nov/Dec 2014].

26.What is a MESFET? [Apr/May 2015]

MESFET stands for Metal-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor. It is


similar to JFET in construction .The only difference is a Schottky barrier
rectifying contact is used instead of PN junction.

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27.Expand: LASER, LDR. [Apr/May 2015]


LASER - Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
LDR – Light Dependent Resistors.

28.What is PINFET?
PINFET stands for PIN field effect transistor. It is an optical receiver
formed by combining a positive – intrinsic –negative (PIN) photodiode and
field effect transistor in a single housing.

29.State the major difference between CNTFETs and MOSFETs.


The major difference between CNTFETs and MOSFETs is that the channel
of the devices is formed by carbon nano tubes (CNTs) instead of silicon.

30.List out the applications of Gunn diode.


➢ As a local oscillator
➢ Oscillator for radio communications
➢ Sensors for detecting velocity, direction of fluid levels.
➢ In alarms and police radars.
➢ In wireless local area networks.

31.What is a FinFET?
➢ A Fin Field-effect transistor (FinFET) is a MOSFET double-gate
transistor, built on a substrate where the gate is placed on two, three, or
four sides of the channel or wrapped around the channel, forming a
double gate structure.
➢ These devices have been given the generic name "finfets" because the
source/drain region forms fins on the silicon surface.
➢ The FinFET devices have significantly faster switching times and higher
current density than the mainstream CMOS technology.

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UNIT V – POWER DEVICES AND DISPLAY DEVICES

1. Define intrinsic stand-off ratio of UJT.


Intrinsic stand – off ratio of UJT is defined as

2. Define inter base resistance of UJT.


When emitter is not conducting, the resistance between two bases is called
inter base resistance given by,
RBB = RB1 + RB2.

3. Why Germanium is used instead of Silicon for manufacturing SCR?


Germanium is preferred instead of Silicon for manufacturing SCR because
more current is required for silicon. Hence current rating also increases when
silicon is used.

4. What are the methods used to turn ON a SCR?


The commonly used methods to turn ON a SCR device are:
➢ Voltage triggering
➢ dV/dt triggering
➢ Gate triggering.

5. Mention the applications of SCR.


➢ It can be used as speed control element in DC and AC motors.
➢ It can be used as an inverter.
➢ It can be used as a converter.

6. What is SCR? Draw its symbol.


A silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) is a unidirectional, three terminal, three
junction semiconductor device, which converts ac into dc and controls the
amount of power fed to the load.

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7. Define breakdown voltage and latching current of SCR.


Breakdown voltage: The minimum forward voltage at which the SCR
starts conducting is called breakdown voltage in SCR.
Latching current: It is defined as the maximum anode current that an SCR
is capable of passing without destruction.

8. What is negative resistance region in UJT?


When emitter voltage VE becomes equal to VP, p-n junction becomes
forward biased and IE starts flowing. Voltage across device decreases in this
region, though current through device increases. Hence this region is called
negative resistance region.

9. Write the applications of UJT.


➢ In relaxation oscillator.
➢ In sawtooth waveform generator.
➢ Triggering of other devices like SCR.
➢ In timing circuits.
➢ In automobile ignition circuits.

10.Define holding current of SCR. [Apr/May 2017]


The value of current below which SCR switches from conduction state
(ON) to forward blocking state is called holding current.

11.Differentiate between SCR and TRIAC. [Nov/Dec 2016]

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12.What is the necessity of power transistor?


Power transistors are designed for power amplification, hence designed to
handle large voltage and currents. The power handling capacity is very high
and they have to dissipate large power in the form of heat.

13.How to avoid secondary breakdown in power BJT?


➢ Power dissipation should be kept under control especially during turn
ON or OFF using protective circuits.
➢ Avoiding any non – uniform distribution of current.
➢ Not to allow collector current to increase beyond maximum allowable
value.
➢ By using multiple base emitter structures interleaved as narrow fingers.

14.Write the features of power MOSFET.


❖ Power handling capacity is more than 100W.
❖ Current handling capacity is in ampere range.
❖ Large forward transconductance.
❖ Drain to source blocking voltage may be more than 100V.

15.What is LED?
A diode which emits light when it is forward biased is called as Light
Emitting Diode (LED). The LED works on the principle of electro
luminescence.

16.What is LCD?
Liquid crystal display refers to the fact that these compounds have a
crystalline arrangement of molecules, yet flow like a liquid. LCD’s do not
emit or generate light, rather alter externally generated illumination.

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A material in which crystalline arrangement of molecules is disturbed


when electric field is applied; causing change in optical properties is called
liquid crystal display.

17.What is dynamic scattering type LCD?


When LCD cell is activated, molecular turbulence causes light to be
scattered in all directions so that activated areas appear bright. This
phenomenon is known as dynamic scattering.

18.Define phototransistor.
A transistor providing internal current multiplication when exposed to light
is called phototransistor.

19.What is an opto coupler?


A package which is a combination of light source like LED and light
detector such as photo diode is called an opto coupler or opto isolator.

20.What is a photovoltaic cell?


Photovoltaic cell is nothing but a solar cell, which works on the principle
of photovoltaic effect. Solar cell converts light energy into electrical energy,
i.e.) voltage is proportional to the light incident on it.
21.List the applications of LED.
➢ Used in all kinds of displays used in watches and calculators.
➢ In opto couplers.
➢ As ON – OFF indicator in various electronic circuits.
➢ In remote controls and burglar alarms.

22.State the applications of DIAC.


➢ Motor speed control
➢ Temperature control
➢ Light dimming circuit
➢ Triggering of TRIAC.

23.What is CCD?
The charge coupled device is a part of a broader class of structure known
as charge transfer device. These are dynamic devices which move charge
along a pre-determined path under the control of clock pulses.

24.Why SCR cannot be used as a bidirectional switch?


SCR can do conduction only when anode is positive with respect to
cathode with proper gate current. Therefore, SCR operates only in one
direction and cannot be used as bidirectional switch.

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25.What is a DIAC?
DIAC is a two terminal bidirectional semiconductor switching device. It
can conduct in either direction depending upon the polarity of the voltage
applied across its main terminals. In operation DIAC is equivalent to two 4
layer diodes connected in anti parallel.

26. Give the symbol, structure and equivalent circuit of DIAC.[Apr/May


2017]

27.Mention some advantages and disadvantages of LCD. [May/June 2016]

Advantages:
➢ Less power consumption.
➢ Uniform brightness with good contrast.
➢ Low cost.
➢ Low operating voltage and current.
Disadvantages:
➢ Limited temperature range.
➢ Requires an ac drive.

28.What is the principle of operation of LCD? [Dec 2015/ Jan 2016]


When LCD cell is activated, molecular turbulence causes light to be
scattered in all directions so that activated areas appear bright. This
phenomenon is known as dynamic scattering.

29.Sketch the V-I characteristics of UJT. [Apr/May 2015]

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30.“A solar cell is a pn junction device with no voltage directly applied


across the junction”. If it is so, how does a solar cell deliver power to a
load? [Apr/May 2015]

A solar cell is a photovoltaic cell which works on the principle of photovoltaic


effect. Solar cells generate voltage proportional to the light incident on it.
When light strikes the cell, photon light energy is absorbed by the
semiconductor material and number of electron – hole pair are generated.

This happens on both sides of the junction. The hole is directed toward p-
region and electrons are directed towards n-region due to electric field present.
Due to this movement minority current is setup due to which voltage is
developed across p and n regions.

31.Draw the two transistor equivalent circuit of an SCR. [Nov/Dec 2014]

32.Draw the basic structure of TRIAC and its symbol. [May/June 2014]

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33.Write down the significance of opto coupler. [May/June 2014]


A package which is a combination of light source like LED and light
detector such as photo diode is called an opto coupler or opto isolator. In an
opto coupler if input voltage changes, then light emitted by light source
changes. This changes the characteristics of a light detector and hence output
voltage changes. Thus the device couples input to output circuit optically,
providing electrical isolation.

UNIVERSITY QUESTIONS

UNIT –I SEMICONDUCTOR DIODE

PART B

1. Derive the current equation of PN junction diode. [Nov/Dec 2016]


2. Derive the construction of PN junction diode. Explain the forward and reverse
characteristic of PN junction diode and obtain its VI characteristic curve.
[Nov/Dec 2016]
3. The diode current is 0.6 mA when the applied voltage is 400 mV and 20 mA
when the applied voltage is 500 mV. Determine ƞ. Assume KT/q = 25 mV.
[April/May 2016]

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4. Describe the action of PN junction diode under forward and reverse bias
condition. [April/May 2016]
5. The reverse saturation of a silicon PN junction diode is 10µA. Calculate the
diode current for the forward bias voltage of 0.6V at 25ºC. [April/May 2016]
6. Describe the action of PN junction diode under forward bias and reverse bias.
[Nov/Dec 2015]
7. Explain switching characteristics of a diode. [Nov/Dec 2015]
8. Explain and derive the diode current equation. [Nov/Dec 2015]
9. Explain how a barrier potential is developed at the PN junction. [Nov/Dec 2015]
10.Derive the expression for drift current density. [April/May 2015]
11.Determine the ideal reverse saturation current density in a silicon pn junction at
T=300K. Consider the following parameters in the silicon pn junction: Na = Nd =
1016 cm-3, ni = 1.5 x 1010 cm-3, Dn = 25 cm2/s, Tpo = Tno =5x10-7s, Dp = 10cm2/s, 𝜀𝑟
= 11.7. Comment on the result. [April/May 2015]
12.Derive the expression for diffusion current density. [April/May 2015]
13.Describe the deviation of V-I characteristics of PN junction diode from its ideal.
[April/May 2015]
14.Explain the operation of PN junction under zero voltage applied bias condition
and derive the expression for built in potential barrier. [Nov/Dec 2014]
15.Calculate the built in potential barrier in a PN junction. Consider a silicon PN
junction at 300K with doping densities Na = 1 x 1018 cm-3 and Nd = 1x 1015 cm-3.
Assume ni = 1.5x 1018 cm-3. [Nov/Dec 2014]
16.Explain the basic structure of the PN junction. [Nov/Dec 2014]
17.Write short notes on diode switching characteristics. [Nov/Dec 2014]

UNIT II – BIPOLAR JUNCTION

PART B

1. With neat diagram explain the input and output characteristics of common
emitter configuration. [Nov / Dec 2016]
2. Derive the h-parameter for CE. [Nov / Dec 2016]
3. Derive the expression for Gummel Poon model with a neat circuit diagram. [Nov
/ Dec 2016]
4. Explain the input and output characteristics of CB configuration. [Nov / Dec
2016]

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5. Draw the CE configuration of NPN transistor and explain its input and output
characteristics with suitable diagram. [May/June 2016]
6. Distinguish between h-parameter and hybrid 𝜋 model. [May/June 2016]
7. The reverse leakage current of the transistor when connected in CB configuration
is 0.2 mA and it is 18µA when same transistor is connected in CE configuration.
Calculate 𝛼 dc and β dc.[ assume IB=30mA]. [May/June 2016]
8. Explain NPN common – emitter configuration and draw a circuit for determining
its input and output characteristics. [ Dec 2015/ Jan 2016]
9. Define α, β, γ of a transistor. Show how they are related with each other. [ Dec
2015/ Jan 2016]
10.Briefly explain CE transistor hybrid 𝜋 model. [ Dec 2015/ Jan 2016]
11.Draw the Ebers-Moll model for NPN transistor and give the equation for emitter
and collector current. [ Dec 2015/ Jan 2016]
12.With relevant expression and figure, explain early effect. [April/ May 2015]
13.Discuss the input and output characteristics of CE configuration. [April/ May
2015]
14.With relevant expressions and sketch, describe h-parameter model. [April/ May
2015]
15.Describe the working of PNP junctions. [April/ May 2015]
16.Define the hybrid parameters for the basic transistor circuit in CE configuration
and give its hybrid model. [Nov / Dec 2014]
17.Write short notes on (i) Early Effect and (ii) Ebers – Moll model for BJT. [Nov /
Dec 2014]
18.Explain the characteristics of BJT in CC, CB, CE configuration and compare the
performance of the transistor in different configurations. [April/ May 2014]
19.Draw the voltage divider bias circuit and derive an expression for its stability
factor. [April/ May 2014]

UNIT III – FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTORS

PART B

1. Describe the working and characteristics of MOSFET, D-MOSFET and E-


MOSFET. [Nov/Dec 2016]
2. Write short notes on FINFET. [Nov/Dec 2016]
3. Explain drain and transfer characteristic of JFET. [Nov/Dec 2016]
4. Derive an expression for drain current of FET in pinch off region with necessary
diagram. [May/June 2016]

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5. Explain the construction and principle of operation of depletion MOSFET with


suitable diagram. [May/June 2016]
6. Write short notes on dual gate MOSFET. [May/June 2016]
7. With the help of neat sketches and characteristics curves explain the operation of
the junction FET. [Dec 2015/ Jan 2016]
8. Define and explain the parameters, transconductance gm , drain resistance rd, and
amplification factor µ of a JFET. Establish the relation between them. [Dec 2015/
Jan 2016]
9. With the help of suitable diagram explain the working of E-MOSFET and D-
MOSFET. [Dec 2015/ Jan 2016]
10.What is channel length modulation in MOSFET? [Dec 2015/ Jan 2016]
Discuss the drain and transfer characteristics of JFETs. [April/May 2015]
11.Explain the concept of threshold voltage in a MOSFET. [April/May 2015]
12.Discuss the characteristics of MOSFET. [April/May 2015]
13.Describe the concept of dual gate MOSFET. [April/May 2015]
14.Draw the circuit diagram for obtaining the drain and transfer characteristics for
an N channel JFET. [Nov/Dec 2014]
15.Draw the circuit diagram of the cross section of an enhancement MOSFET. Also
discuss the drain and transfer characteristics for EMOSFET. [Nov/Dec 2014]
16.Discuss about FINFET and dual gate MOSFET. [May/June 2014]
17.Explain the four distinct regions of the output characteristics of the JFET.
[May/June 2014]
18.With the help of suitable diagrams explain the working of different types of
MOSFET. [May/June 2014]
19.Briefly describe some applications of JFET. [May/June 2014]

UNIT IV – SPECIAL SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES

PART B

1. Explain the construction and volt-ampere characteristics of tunnel diode.


[Nov/Dec 2016]
2. Explain the working and characteristics of LASER diode. [Nov/Dec 2016]
3. Explain V-I characteristics of zener diode. [Nov/Dec 2016]
4. Describe the V-I characteristics of LDR. [Nov/Dec 2016]

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5. What is meant by tunneling? Explain the V-I characteristics of tunnel diode using
energy band diagram. [May/June 2016]
6. Briefly explain the operation of (i) Varactor diode (ii) Laser diode. [May/June
2016]
7. Draw the structure of Metal – semiconductor junction and explain the energy
band structure before and after contact. [Dec 2015/ Jan 2016]
8. Explain the principle behind the LASER diode with a neat sketch. [Dec 2015/
Jan 2016]
9. What is schottky diode? Explain the flow of carriers across its junction during
forward and reverse biased conditions with energy band diagrams. [Dec 2015/
Jan 2016]
10.Explain the principle behind the varactor diode and list out its applications. [Dec
2015/ Jan 2016]
11.Discuss the working of metal – semiconductor junction. [April/May 2015]
Write short notes on (i) Tunnel Diode (ii) Varactor diode. [April/May 2015]
12.Explain the characteristics of zener diode and distinguish between avalanche and
zener breakdown. [Nov/Dec 2014]
Explain the principle and operation of varactor diode. [Nov/Dec 2014]
13.Draw the V-I characteristics of zener diode and explain its operation. [May/June
2014]
14.Write short notes on schottky diode. [May/June 2014]
15.Explain the principle the varactor diode and list out its application. [May/June
2014]
16.Give the details about the LASER diode. [May/June 2014]

UNIT V - POWER DEVICES AND DISPLAY DEVICES

PART B

1. Explain the operation and volt ampere characteristics of SCR. [Nov/Dec 2016]
2. Describe the working of phototransistor. [Nov/Dec 2016]
3. Explain the construction and operation of LCD. [Nov/Dec 2016]

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4. Explain the working and characteristics of DMOS. [Nov/Dec 2016]


5. Draw the basic structure of UJT and explain V-I characteristics of UJT using
equivalent circuits. [May/June 2016]
6. Draw the V-I characteristics of (i) DIAC (ii) TRIAC and explain their operation.
[May/June 2016
7. Draw the V-I characteristics of a UJT and explain its working principle. [Dec
2015/Jan 2016]
8. Draw the two transistor model of an SCR and explain its breakdown operation.
[Dec 2015/Jan 2016]
9. Explain the operation of a DMOS and VMOS transistor. [Dec 2015/Jan 2016]
10.Explain the operation of LED and CCD and list out its applications. [Dec
2015/Jan 2016]
11.Write short notes on (i) Power BJT (ii) Power MOSFET. [April/May 2015]
12.Write short notes on (i) LCD (ii) CCD. [April/May 2015]
13.Give the construction details of UJT and explain its operation with the help of
equivalent circuits. [Nov/Dec 2014]
14.Write short notes on (i) Photo transistor (ii) Opto couplers (iii) CCD with
necessary sketches. [Nov/Dec 2014]
15.Explain the operation, characteristics and applications of SCR. [May/June 2014]
16.Write short notes on (i) Solar cell (ii) CCD. [May/June 2014]

Department of ECE / EC8252 – Electronic Devices – Dr.S.Senthil kumar


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