0 views

Uploaded by XiqiangWu

- (5-3-1) NPTEL - Properties of Materials at Cryogenic Temperature
- Topic10-SeismicDesignofSteelStructures
- Chap1-Intro a [Compatibility Mode]
- csc portal frame
- csuserman
- Strength of Material Department of Mechanical Engineering 2
- B.C. Punmia_SOM.pdf
- ASTM-F 711
- B31.3 Process Piping Course - 03 Materials
- %28asce%290733-9445%281983%29109%3A12%282853%29
- Experiment 6 Compressive Stress
- Experiment 1 Tensile and Torsion Test - Copy
- FSEL Split Cylinder Testing Rev 00
- Bolt Connection
- C393C393M-11e1 Standard Test Method for Core Shear
- Engineering Lab - Materials
- AISC_Report_2_Phase4.pdf
- L3x3-vb
- Column Short
- M.K. Sahota. Experimental Investigation Into Using Lead to Reduce Vertical Load Transfer in Infilled Frames

You are on page 1of 15

Thin-Walled Structures

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/tws

a,b b,⁎

Yongqian Zheng , Zhong Tao

a

Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology and Informatization in Civil Engineering, Fujian University of Technology, Fuzhou, Fujian Province 350118,

China

b

Centre for Infrastructure Engineering, Western Sydney University, Penrith, NSW 2751, Australia

Keywords: Concrete-filled double-tube (CFDT) columns have the potential to be widely used in high-rise buildings due to

Concrete-filled double-tube columns their very high load-carrying capacity, excellent ductility and good fire resistance. This new type of composite

Stub columns construction has attracted increasing research attention in the last decade, but there is a need to develop

Finite element models practical design recommendations for this construction. This paper aims to study the ultimate strength, the

Compressive strength

ultimate strain corresponding to the ultimate strength (ductility), and the stiffness of CFDT stub columns under

Compressive stiffness

axial compression. An existing finite element model is directly used to study square CFDT stub columns and this

Ductility

model is further modified to simulate circular CFDT stub columns under axial compression. Numerical data are

generated to cover a wide range of parameters for CFDT stub columns. Through regression analysis, simple

equations are proposed to calculate the ultimate strength, the compressive stiffness and the ultimate strain of

CFDT stub columns. These equations can assist engineers to conduct structural analysis and design of CFDT

columns.

1. Introduction guidelines. Roik and Bergmann [7] reported the earliest use of CFDT

columns in the extension of the city hall in Wuppertal, Germany. In this

Concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) columns have been widely used project, a smaller circular tube (406.4 × 17.5 mm) was embedded into

in construction due to their great advantages resulting from the com- a larger circular tube (558 × 12.5 mm) to increase the load-carrying

posite action between the steel and concrete materials [1]. In the last capacity and fire resistance. Later on, triangular CFDT mega-columns

few decades, many different types of CFST columns have been devel- were used in the construction of the Commerzbank Tower (56 stories

oped by utilising new construction materials or changing the config- and 258.7 m in height, completed in 1997) in Frankfurt, Germany [8].

uration of conventional CFST columns, with an aim to improve the This building has been the tallest building in Germany since 1997.

structural performance or meet specific design requirements [2]. For Another application of CFDT columns in Germany was in the con-

example, concrete-filled double-tube (CFDT) columns shown in Fig. 1 struction of the Central Station in Berlin, where rectangular inner and

were developed to increase the strength, ductility and fire resistance of outer tubes were adopted [9]. More recently, the Guangzhou Fortune

composite columns [3,4]. Such CFDT construction consists of two Center (68 stories and 309 m in height, completed in 2015) in China

concentric steel tubes with the presence of concrete both inside and was constructed using four CFDT mega-columns in the corners [10].

outside of the inner tube. Thus, there is an inner CFST component, The mega-column had two square cells and a circular tube was em-

which is protected by the outer concrete. It is envisaged that the CFDT bedded in each cell to increase the load-carrying capacity and stiffness.

construction has very good fire resistance, making it very suitable to be In the last decade, extensive studies have been conducted on CFDT

used in high-rise buildings [5]. Meanwhile, its load-carrying capacity stub columns under axial compression [3,11–16], CFDT beams [17],

and stiffness can be significantly increased due to the presence of the slender CFDT columns under axial compression [5,15,18,19] and CFDT

inner tube. Thus, it is possible to greatly reduce the size of the columns. columns under combined compression and bending [20]. Meanwhile,

Furthermore, the CFDT construction also offers a much improved re- Qian et al. [6] experimentally studied the seismic behaviour of square

sistance to impact, blast and seismic loads compared to conventional CFDT columns. More recently, Romero et al. [4] and Espinos et al. [21]

CFST columns [6]. studied the fire resistance of circular CFDT columns. In general, these

Compared with conventional CFST columns, there are only a few studies confirmed that CFDT columns have excellent performance at

applications of CFDT columns in practice due to the lack of design both ambient and elevated temperatures.

⁎

Corresponding author.

E-mail address: z.tao@westernsydney.edu.au (Z. Tao).

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tws.2018.10.019

Received 25 April 2018; Received in revised form 3 September 2018; Accepted 15 October 2018

0263-8231/ © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Y. Zheng, Z. Tao Thin-Walled Structures 134 (2019) 174–188

Since circular tubes generally provide better confinement to con- integration (S4R) were used to model the steel tubes. Sensitivity ana-

crete than non-circular tubes, previous studies have predominantly lysis indicates that tubes with excessively large thicknesses are more

adopted circular inner tubes, except that Xiong et al. [17] conducted suitable to be modelled with solid elements to improve the prediction

two bending tests on CFDT members with square inner tubes. In con- accuracy. This is consistent with the finding reported in [23]. There-

trast, both circular and square tubes have been used as outer tubes in fore, C3D8R elements were also used to model steel tubes with a dia-

previous studies, although circular outer tubes were mostly preferred meter-to-thickness (or width-to-thickness) ratio of 12 in the numerical

by researchers. This study will focus on CFDT stub columns with cir- analysis conducted in Section 3.

cular inner tubes only, but the outer tube of a CFDT column is either As suggested by Tao et al. [24], the strain-hardening effect was

circular (Fig. 1a) or square (Fig. 1b). It is believed that a square CFDT considered for a circular inner or outer steel tube by using the

column shown in Fig. 1b is easier to connect with beams. If the cross- stress–strain (σ − ε) model presented by Katwal et al. [26], whereas an

sectional areas are the same, the square column also has higher flexural elastic-perfectly plastic model was adopted for a square outer tube. It

stiffness than the circular CFDT counterpart shown in Fig. 1a [16]. should be noted that Katwal et al.’s model is an extension of the steel

Therefore, both types of columns have potential for structural appli- model presented in [27], where the upper limit of the yield stress (fy)

cations. has been increased from 800 to 960 MPa.

Despite extensive investigations on the behaviour of CFDT columns The concrete σ − ε model proposed by Tao et al. [24] has been

under various conditions, very limited studies have been conducted to successfully used by Pons et al. [5] and Wang et al. [16] to simulate

develop design guidelines for CFDT columns [15,22]. In particular, no CFDT columns. This model is also used in this study for both the inner

attention has been paid to the compressive stiffness and deformation core concrete and outer concrete ring. It should be noted that Tao

capacity of CFDT columns, which are important for structural analysis et al.’s concrete model was originally proposed for conventional CFST

and seismic design of high-rise buildings [23]. columns with normal- or high-strength concrete, where a confinement

Against the above research background, finite element (FE) analysis factor (ξ) should be defined. This factor affects the simulation of con-

will be conducted in this paper for circular and square CFDT stub col- crete confinement and the post-peak response of concrete [24]. Based

umns under axial compression. Using the FE modelling technique, nu- on the studies in [5,16], the confinement factor for the inner concrete

merical data will be generated to cover a wide range of parameters for (ξi) is calculated by Eq. (1), whereas the corresponding factor for the

CFDT stub columns. Through regression analysis, simple equations will outer concrete (ξo) is determined by Eq. (2).

be proposed to calculate the compressive strength and corresponding

fyi Asi fyi 2

strain, as well as the compressive stiffness of CFDT stub columns. = = ·

Di

1

i

fci Aci fci Di 2ti (1)

2. Finite element (FE) modelling

fyo Aso fyo 2

Do

= = · 1

2.1. Model description o

fco Ac,nominal fco Do 2to (2)

Based on the work conducted by Tao et al. [24] for conventional where fyi and fyo are the yield stresses of the inner and outer steel tubes,

CFST columns, Wang et al. [16] developed a FE model for square CFDT respectively; Asi and Aso are the cross-sectional areas of the inner and

stub columns with or without stiffeners using ABAQUS [25]. The FE outer steel tubes, respectively; fci and fco are the cylinder compressive

model presented in [16] is directly used in this paper to study square strengths of the inner and outer concrete, respectively; Aci is the cross-

CFDT stub columns shown in Fig. 1b. Meanwhile, Wang et al.’s FE sectional area of the inner core concrete; Ac,nominal is the void area in-

model [16] is further modified in this study to simulate circular CFDT side the outer steel tube; Di and ti are the diameter and thickness of the

stub columns shown in Fig. 1a. Unless otherwise specified, the length of inner circular steel tube, respectively; Do is the diameter of a circular

a stub column is determined to be three times the overall diameter or outer tube or the width of a square outer tube; and to is the thickness of

width (Do) of the cross-section in the simulation. Since details of the FE the outer steel tube.

modelling have been presented in [16,24], only a brief description of A surface-to-surface contact with friction was introduced to model

the FE model is given below. the interaction between different components, where the friction

Due to symmetry, only one-eighth of a CFDT stub column was coefficient between the steel and concrete was taken as 0.6 [24]. It is

modelled to improve the computational efficiency, as shown in Fig. 2. worth noting that a direct interaction will occur between the inner

Three-dimensional eight-node brick elements (C3D8R) were adopted to CFST and the outer concrete ring in a CFDT stub column after the de-

model the concrete, whereas four-node shell elements with reduced velopment of a large axial deformation [16]. This interaction will

175

Y. Zheng, Z. Tao Thin-Walled Structures 134 (2019) 174–188

produce a lateral confinement stress (p) for the inner CFST, as shown in circular and square CFST stub columns, respectively. Wang et al. [28]

Fig. 3. The influence can be automatically taken into account in reported a relative reduction of 9.7% in peak strength when the ex-

ABAQUS and it was found that there is no need to modify the concrete ternal diameter increased from 153 to 469 mm for circular CFST col-

models to account for this [5,16]. umns with a steel ratio of 4.1% (Do/to ≈ 100). The relative reduction of

Symmetry boundary conditions are applied to each symmetric plane peak strength, however, increased to 22.2% when the cross-sectional

of a CFDT stub column, where no rotation about the in-plane axes of the dimension increased from 300 to 750 mm for square CFST columns

symmetric plane was allowed and neither was the translation normal to with a steel ratio of 8.5% (Do/to = 50). This is consistent with the

the symmetric plane. For the top end of the column, all degrees of research finding reported by Yamamoto et al. [30], who found that size

freedom were fixed except the axial displacement. An axial displace- effect in circular CFST columns was less obvious than that in square

ment was applied to the top end of the column to simulate the axial CFST columns. According to Caner and Bažant [31], the size effect in

compression. The FE simulation was implemented using the ABAQUS CFST columns could be reduced or even eliminated if sufficient con-

static general approach. finement is provided to suppress softening of concrete in compression.

It should be noted that size effect associated with the brittle strain- This explains the smaller size effect in circular CFST columns since a

softening damage of concrete under compression has not been con- circular steel tube is more effective in confining concrete than the

sidered in the present FE model. Wang et al. [28] and Wu et al. [29] square counterpart. Because of the use of dual tubes to confine con-

recently studied the size effect on axial compressive behaviour of crete, it is expected that size effect in CFDT columns is less significant

176

Y. Zheng, Z. Tao Thin-Walled Structures 134 (2019) 174–188

than that in conventional CFST columns. This is confirmed by the test further compared with the measured ultimate strengths (Nue) in Fig. 6.

results reported by Wan and Zha [15], where size effect was negligible Following the definition proposed by Tao et al. [24], the ultimate

for the CFDT specimens with an overall diameter of 426 mm. However, strength is defined as the first peak load corresponding to an axial strain

size effect may still be available in CFDT columns with thin-walled less than 0.01 if the N − ε curve has a descending branch (such as the

tubes; further research should be conducted in this area. curve in Fig. 4b); otherwise the ultimate strength is defined as the load

at the strain of 0.01 (a typical example is shown in Fig. 4c). For circular

columns, the mean value (µ) and the standard deviation (SD) of NuFE/

2.2. Verification of the FE model

Nue are 0.954 and 0.068, respectively; whilst the corresponding values

of µ and SD are 0.995 and 0.058 for square columns, respectively. As

Wang et al. [16] have verified the FE model with their own test data

can also be seen in Fig. 6, the prediction errors are normally

of 12 square CFDT stub columns. In their test program, longitudinal

within ± 10% for the ultimate strength. The comparisons shown in

stiffeners were provided for the thin-walled outer square tubes with a

Figs. 4–6 indicate good prediction accuracy of the FE model.

Do/to ratio of 100. Excellent agreement has been achieved between the

experiment and simulation, in terms of failure mode, ultimate strength

and axial load–axial strain (N − ε) curve. If these test data reported by 2.3. Behavioural analysis

Wang et al. [16] are taken into account, test data of 40 circular and 35

square CFDT stub columns from five sources [3,11,14–16] are available The behaviour of square CFDT columns with longitudinal stiffeners

to verify the FE model. The detailed parameters of the test data are has been thoroughly analysed by Wang et al. [16], including the in-

summarised in Table 1. It should be noted that concrete cube com- teraction between different components. CFDT columns without stif-

pressive strengths were reported in the references except [3]. Since the feners have similar behaviour except that the influence of local buck-

concrete model for FE analysis uses concrete cylinder compressive ling might become significant if unstiffened thin-walled outer tubes are

strength ( fc ) as an input parameter, the cube strength was converted to used. Therefore, this section will focus on the behavioural analysis of

equivalent cylinder strength using a conversion table provided by Yu CFDT columns with thin-walled outer tubes, which are susceptible to

et al. [32]. As can be seen from Table 1, high-strength concrete (HSC, fc local buckling.

is between 60 and 120 MPa) was used in [11,14,16], whereas ultra-high Two typical CFDT stub columns are analysed, including a circular

strength concrete (UHSC, fc > 120 MPa) was used by Liew and Xiong column and a square column with the following parameters: Do

[3]. = 400 mm, to = 2.67 (circular) or 4 mm (square), Di × ti

N − ε curves are available for all test specimens except one square = 200 × 4 mm, L = 1200 mm, fyo = fyi = 400 MPa, and fco′ = fci′

specimen I-CSCFT1 in [11]. In general, the predicted N − ε curves are = 50 MPa. Therefore, the chosen Do/to values are 150 for the circular

in good agreement with the measured curves reported in the literature. column and 100 for the square column, which are extreme values in the

Figs. 4 and 5 compare the predicted N − ε curves with typical experi- analysed parameter ranges in Section 3. For comparison purposes, the

mental results of circular and square CFDT columns, respectively. As corresponding CFST columns without inner tubes are also analysed.

can be seen, the concrete strength has not apparently affected the When the analysed circular CFDT column reaches its peak load, the

prediction accuracy. It should be noted that N − ε curves of the spe- axial load carried by the outer circular tube with a Do/to ratio of 150 is

cimens tested by Wang et al. [16] are not compared in Fig. 5, since they only 69% of its nominal strength fyoAso. Because of the presence of the

have been rigorously compared with predictions in [16], showing an inner tube in confining concrete, the peak load of this column is still

excellent agreement between them. 6.2% higher than the superposition strength of all components. If the

The predicted ultimate strengths from the FE model (NuFE) are Do/to ratio of the outer tube decreases to 100 and other parameters

Table 1

Summary of test data for CFDT stub columns.

Type Number of specimens Do (mm) Do/to Di (mm) Di/ti Di/Do fyo (MPa) fyi (MPa) fco (MPa) fci (MPa) Source

Circular 6 426 55–57 133–273 20–42 0.3–0.6 298–302 317–478 25 25 Wan and Zha [15]

8 219 22–44 114 18–32 0.5 377–381 406–428 51–167 51–184 Liew and Xiong [3]

26 168–219 21–37 89–102 13–23 0.4–0.6 313–365 322–413 33–88 33–88 Fang and Lin [14]

Square 23 180 33–50 89–140 25–49 0.5–0.8 338–348 308–345 78–96 78–96 Qian et al. [11]

12 200 100 115–140 29–70 0.6–0.7 230 322–492 42 42–70 Wang et al. [16]

177

Y. Zheng, Z. Tao Thin-Walled Structures 134 (2019) 174–188

Fig. 4. Comparison between predicted and measured N − ε curves for circular CFDT columns.

remain the same, the axial load carried by the outer tube increases to concrete dilation. For the square columns, no obvious outward de-

75% of its nominal strength. At the same time, the peak load of the formation is found before the axial strain reaches 800 με. After that, the

column is 8.2% higher than the superposition strength. When the outward deformation develops rapidly and reaches about 35 mm cor-

square CFDT column reaches its peak load, the axial load carried by the responding to an axial strain of 0.01. Meanwhile, a gap develops be-

outer square tube with a Do/to ratio of 100 is only 54% of fyoAso because tween the outer square tube and concrete, inferring that the outward

of the significant influence of local buckling, whereas the peak load of deformation of the square tube is only caused by the in-plane com-

this column is 2.7% lower than the superposition strength. However, if pressive stress. It is not surprising that the square tube is more prone to

the ratio of Do/to decreases to 30 and other parameters remain the local buckling. It can also be found in Fig. 7 that the outward de-

same, the local buckling influence of the outer square tube on the formation of a CFDT column is quite close to that of the CFST coun-

strength will be eliminated. In this case, the axial load carried by the terpart. Similarly, it is found that the presence of the inner steel tube

outer tube increases to 88% of its nominal strength as the column has no significant influence on the interaction between the outer steel

reaches its peak load, which is 2.3% higher than the superposition tube and concrete.

strength. It has been well documented that a compact steel tube de- The initial compressive stiffness of the thin-walled CFDT column is

velops an axial stress less than the yield stress due to the interaction compared with the superposition stiffness of individual components,

between the steel tube and concrete [26]. In general, both examples which indicates a close agreement between them. It can be concluded

highlight that local buckling of the steel tube leads to a reduction in the that local buckling of the outer tube has no obvious influence on the

compressive strength of the stub column. This finding is similar to that initial compressive stiffness since local outward deformation is not

observed in conventional CFST columns [33]. obvious in the initial stage, as can be seen in Fig. 7.

The outward deformation of the outer steel tube at the mid-height is For structural design purposes, engineers may want to have a limit

analysed, where Point A shown in Fig. 2 is selected. Fig. 7 shows the criterion specified for the Do/to ratio to exclude influence of local

corresponding outward deformation as a function of the axial strain for buckling of thin-walled outer tubes on the strength of CFDT columns.

the selected CFDT columns and the corresponding CFST counterparts. Uy [33] used a finite strip model to analyse local and post-local buck-

Both types of columns reach the ultimate strength at almost the same ling of square CFST columns, whereas Bradford et al. [34] adopted the

time. For the circular columns, the outward deformation of the outer Rayleigh–Ritz method to study the slenderness limit for circular CFST

tubes is only about 1 mm at peak load. After that, the outward de- columns. Since the outward deformation of the steel tube can be caused

formation develops gradually while the steel tube remains in contact by local buckling and/or interaction between the steel tube and con-

with the concrete. It seems the outward deformation of the circular tube crete, both Uy [33] and Bradford et al. [34] assumed that only the steel

results from the in-plane compressive stress in combination with the tube is subjected to uniform compression and concrete is a rigid

178

Y. Zheng, Z. Tao Thin-Walled Structures 134 (2019) 174–188

Fig. 5. Comparison between predicted and measured N − ε curves for square CFDT columns.

medium. Therefore, the concrete itself will not deform radially to push Therefore, the outward deformation of the steel tube will be affected by

the steel tube outward. According to the study conducted by Uy [33], the concrete dilation, making it hard to define the initiation of local

the limit of Do/to ratio could be specified as 60 250/ fyo for a square buckling of the outer tube. If adopting a similar method used by Uy

tube in the composite column to reach plasticity. The corresponding [33] or Bradford et al. [34] to study the limit of Do/to ratio for CFDT

slenderness ratio of a circular tube was specified as 125 × f by Brad-

250

columns, the presence of the inner tube will have no influence on the

yo

ford et al. [34]. As for CFDT columns, the FE method developed in this local buckling behaviour. Therefore, the limit criteria suggested by Uy

paper is not suitable to define the limit criterion of Do/to ratio since the [33] and Bradford et al. [34] for conventional CFST columns are also

load is applied to the concrete and steel tubes simultaneously. applicable to CFDT columns. This is further supported by the fact that

179

Y. Zheng, Z. Tao Thin-Walled Structures 134 (2019) 174–188

the outward deformation of a CFDT column is not obviously affected by enough to predict the compressive strength of thin-walled square CFDT

the inner tube, as shown in Fig. 7. It is worth noting that there is no columns with stiffeners. Since this paper aims to propose generalised

need to specify a limit of diameter to thickness ratio for the inner tube models for CFDT columns covering a wide range of parameters, the

since local buckling is avoided by embedding in concrete. superposition strengths (Nu0) calculated from Eq. (3) are firstly com-

pared with the ultimate strengths (NuFE) obtained from the FE predic-

3. Development of a numerical database tions. If it is necessary, new equations will be proposed to predict the

ultimate strength (Nu).

The verified FE model was used to generate numerical data to cover Nu0 = fyi Asi + fci A ci + f Aso + fco Aco

yo (3)

a wide range of parameters for CFDT stub columns. Based on the nu-

merical database, equations are then developed in Section 4 to predict where Aco is the cross-sectional area of the outer concrete sandwiched

the ultimate strength, the compressive stiffness and the ultimate strain between the two tubes.

of CFDT stub columns.

Seven key parameters are identified for the analysis, including the 4.1. Circular columns

yield stresses (fyi and fyo) and cross-sectional aspect ratios (Di/ti and Do/

to) of the inner and outer steel tubes, cylinder compressive strengths ( fci Fig. 8a shows the comparison between NuFE and Nu0 for circular

and fco ) of the inner and outer concrete, and Di/Do ratio. The levels columns. Generally, the simple supposition method underestimates the

chosen for these parameters are: fyi = 200, 400, 690, 960 MPa; fyo ultimate strength of the circular columns. The mean of NuFE/Nu0 is

= 200, 400, 690, 960 MPa; fci = 20, 50, 100, 150, 200 MPa; fco = 20, 1.100 for all the 435 examples and the maximum ratio reaches 1.195.

50, 100, 150, 200 MPa; Di/ti = 12, 30, 50, 100; Do/to = 12, 30, 50, 100, The clear strength enhancement results mainly from the concrete con-

150 for circular outer tubes and 12, 30, 50, 100 for square outer tubes; finement provided by the double circular tubes. A typical example is

and Di/Do = 0.25, 0.5, 0.75. Since size effect is not considered in the selected to demonstrate this, where parameters of the circular column

present study, the overall cross-sectional dimension Do is taken as are: fci = fco = 50 MPa, fyi = fyo = 400 MPa, Di/ti = Do/to = 50, and

400 mm and the length L of the columns is kept constant at 1200 mm. Di/Do = 0.5. Fig. 9 shows the N − ε curves of different components in

To develop the numerical database, it is not practical and necessary the column. This column reaches its ultimate strength at an axial strain

to analyse a total of 43,200 combinations of all parameters at various of 0.88%. At this moment, the two tubes are already in the post-peak

levels. Instead, 846 examples including 435 circular and 411 square regime due to the concrete dilation [26]. The corresponding axial

CFDT stub columns were designed to cover the parameter space in a stresses in the outer tube and inner tube are 0.78fyo and 0.87fyi, re-

reasonable manner. The chosen examples can be classified into three spectively. At the same time, the average axial stresses for the outer

groups: (1) examples in Group I were designed to conduct parametric concrete and inner concrete are 1.38 fco and 1.65 fci , respectively. Since

analysis for the inner CFST component (fyi, fci , Di/ti and Di/Do) when the concrete strength enhancement outweighs the strength reduction of

parameters for the outer CFST component (comprising of the outer tube the steel tubes at the ultimate state, the ultimate strength of this CFDT

and outer concrete) were kept constant (fyo = 400 MPa, fco = 50 MPa column is 14.3% higher than Nu0.

and Do/to = 50); (2) examples in Group II were designed to conduct The above analysis indicates that it is generally conservative to ig-

parametric analysis for the outer CFST component (fyo, fco and Do/to) nore concrete confinement effect in circular CFDT columns. Based on

when parameters for the inner CFST component were kept constant (fyi the numerical database, it is possible to develop equations in-

= 400 MPa, fci = 50 MPa, Di/ti = 50 and Di/Do = 0.5); and (3) ex- corporating the confinement effect to predict the ultimate strength (Nu)

amples in Group III listed in Table 2 have varying parameters for both of CFDT columns by summing the actual contributions from various

the inner and outer CFST components. Only examples in Groups I and II components. But due to the complex interaction between these com-

cover all possible combinations of various parameters, whereas Group ponents, it is envisaged that the equations will be relatively compli-

III mainly consists of examples with extreme values (lowest and cated using this method. Instead, this study applies a strength correc-

highest) specified for the parameters. tion factor ks to the superposition strength Nu0 to predict Nu, as shown

in Eq. (4).

4. Proposed model for compressive strength

Nu = ks Nu0 = k s fyi Asi + fci Aci + f Aso + fco Aco

Wang et al. [16] suggested that a superposition model is accurate

yo

(4)

180

Y. Zheng, Z. Tao Thin-Walled Structures 134 (2019) 174–188

Table 2

Analysed examples in Group III.

No. Do/to fco (MPa) fyo (MPa) Di/Do Di/ti fci (MPa) fyi (MPa) No. Do/to fco (MPa) fyo (MPa) Di/Do Di/ti fci (MPa) fyi (MPa)

2 50 50 200 0.5 50 50 690 50 50 20 400 0.5 30 50 400

3 50 50 200 0.5 50 50 960 51 50 20 400 0.5 100 50 400

4 50 50 690 0.5 50 50 200 52 50 150 400 0.5 12 50 400

5 50 50 690 0.5 50 50 690 53 50 150 400 0.5 30 50 400

6 50 50 690 0.5 50 50 960 54 50 150 400 0.5 100 50 400

7 50 20 400 0.5 50 50 200 55 30 50 400 0.5 12 50 400

8 50 20 400 0.5 50 50 690 56 30 50 400 0.5 30 50 400

9 50 20 400 0.5 50 50 960 57 30 50 400 0.5 100 50 400

10 50 150 400 0.5 50 50 200 58 100 50 400 0.5 12 50 400

11 50 150 400 0.5 50 50 690 59 100 50 400 0.5 30 50 400

12 50 150 400 0.5 50 50 960 60 100 50 400 0.5 100 50 400

13 30 50 400 0.5 50 50 200 61 50 50 200 0.25 50 50 400

14 30 50 400 0.5 50 50 690 62 50 50 200 0.75 50 50 400

15 30 50 400 0.5 50 50 960 63 50 50 690 0.25 50 50 400

16 100 50 400 0.5 50 50 200 64 50 50 690 0.75 50 50 400

17 100 50 400 0.5 50 50 690 65 50 20 400 0.25 50 50 400

18 100 50 400 0.5 50 50 960 66 50 20 400 0.75 50 50 400

19 50 50 200 0.5 50 20 400 67 50 150 400 0.25 50 50 400

20 50 50 200 0.5 50 100 400 68 50 150 400 0.75 50 50 400

21 50 50 200 0.5 50 150 400 69 30 50 400 0.25 50 50 400

22 50 50 200 0.5 50 200 400 70 30 50 400 0.75 50 50 400

23 50 50 690 0.5 50 20 400 71 100 50 400 0.25 50 50 400

24 50 50 690 0.5 50 100 400 72 100 50 400 0.75 50 50 400

25 50 50 690 0.5 50 150 400 73 50 50 960 0.5 50 50 200

26 50 50 690 0.5 50 200 400 74 50 50 960 0.5 50 50 690

27 50 20 400 0.5 50 20 400 75 50 50 960 0.5 50 20 400

28 50 20 400 0.5 50 100 400 76 50 50 960 0.5 50 150 400

29 50 20 400 0.5 50 150 400 77 50 50 960 0.5 30 50 400

30 50 20 400 0.5 50 200 400 78 50 50 960 0.5 100 50 400

31 50 150 400 0.5 50 20 400 79 50 50 960 0.25 50 50 400

32 50 150 400 0.5 50 100 400 80 50 50 960 0.75 50 50 400

33 50 150 400 0.5 50 150 400 81 50 100 400 0.5 50 50 200

34 50 150 400 0.5 50 200 400 82 50 200 400 0.5 50 50 690

35 30 50 400 0.5 50 20 400 83 50 100 400 0.5 50 20 400

36 30 50 400 0.5 50 100 400 84 50 200 400 0.5 50 150 400

37 30 50 400 0.5 50 150 400 85 50 100 400 0.5 30 50 400

38 30 50 400 0.5 50 200 400 86 50 200 400 0.5 100 50 400

39 100 50 400 0.5 50 20 400 87 50 100 400 0.25 50 50 400

40 100 50 400 0.5 50 100 400 88 50 200 400 0.75 50 50 400

41 100 50 400 0.5 50 150 400 89 12 50 400 0.5 50 50 200

42 100 50 400 0.5 50 200 400 90a 150 50 400 0.5 50 50 690

43 50 50 200 0.5 12 50 400 91 12 50 400 0.5 50 20 400

44 50 50 200 0.5 30 50 400 92a 150 50 400 0.5 50 150 400

45 50 50 200 0.5 100 50 400 93 12 50 400 0.5 30 50 400

46 50 50 690 0.5 12 50 400 94a 150 50 400 0.5 100 50 400

47 50 50 690 0.5 30 50 400 95 12 50 400 0.25 50 50 400

48 50 50 690 0.5 100 50 400 96a 150 50 400 0.75 50 50 400

a

Columns with Do/to = 150 are only considered for circular CFDTs.

181

Y. Zheng, Z. Tao Thin-Walled Structures 134 (2019) 174–188

plained by the less significant concrete confinement by the outer square

tube and its increased possibility of local buckling. For stocky CFDT

columns with small Do/to ratios, their NuFE/Nu0 ratios are generally

greater than unity, highlighting the benefits of strong concrete con-

finement. A typical column with a thick outer tube is simulated to il-

lustrate this. The parameters of this column are: Do/to = 12, fci = fco

= 50 MPa, fyi = 400 MPa, fyo = 690 MPa, Di/ti = 50 and Di/Do = 0.5.

The obtained NuFE/Nu0 ratio for this example is 1.079. On the other

hand, the NuFE/Nu0 ratios are generally smaller than unity when the Do/

to ratios reach 100, as shown in Fig. 11a. This is due to the local

buckling of the outer thin-walled tube and the weak concrete confine-

ment. For example, for a thin-walled CFDT column (Do/to = 100, fci =

50 MPa, fco = 20 MPa, fyi = fyo = 400 MPa, Di/ti = 50 and Di/Do =

0.5), its NuFE/Nu0 ratio decreases to 0.946. In contrast, the NuFE/Nu0

ratios of most examples with a Do/to ratio of 30 or 50 are close to unity

since the outer square tubes are not susceptible to local buckling.

Fig. 9. N−ε curves for a typical circular column.

Therefore, it can be concluded that the NuFE/Nu0 ratio of a square CFDT

column is also dependent on the Do/to ratio.

Thus, ks can be expressed as ks = Nu/Nu0. If Nu is determined from Another fact to be considered is that the ultimate strain (εc) corre-

FE modelling, ks can be calculated as NuFE/Nu0 by replacing Nu with sponding to the ultimate strength is relatively small for a square CFDT

NuFE. Parametric analysis indicates that the confinement factor of the column. In most cases, εc varies between 3000 and 4000 με. However,

outer concrete (ξo) is the primary factor influencing ks for circular CFDT εc of a circular CFDT column normally exceeds 4000 με and sometimes

columns, as shown in Fig. 8b. The general trend is that ks increases with can be greater than 0.01. Thus, the different components in a square

increasing ξo when ξo < 2. When ξo increases further, ks reaches a CFDT column are less likely to reach their strengths at the same time,

constant value. Other parameters, such as ξi, also slightly affect ks. But especially when ultra-high strength materials are used. This is illu-

for the sake of simplicity, only ξo is considered to derive an equation to strated in Fig. 12, where the column has an inner tube with a fyi of

predict ks. Accordingly, Eq. (5) is suggested to predict ks for circular 960 MPa, and other parameters for the column are: Do/to = 50, fci = fco

CFDT columns. = 50 MPa, fyo = 400 MPa, Di/ti = 50 and Di/Do = 0.75. The inner

CFST of this column is relatively strong, but its capacity has not been

k s = 1.13 0.16exp ( 2.54 o ) (5)

fully utilised. As shown in Fig. 12, the outer tube of this column reaches

The accuracy of the proposed equation for ks can be found in its peak load before the column reaches its ultimate strength. While the

Fig. 10, where the coefficient of determination (R2) is 0.56. Because of outer concrete reaches its full capacity at an axial strain of 3213 με, the

the ignorance of influence of other minor factors, the value of R2 is not composite column as a whole also reaches its ultimate strength. But at

very high, but remains reasonable. ks predicted from Eq. (5) varies from this moment, the inner concrete and inner tube have not reached their

0.97 to 1.13. The prediction accuracy of Nu from Eq. (4) will be de- full load-carrying capacity. In fact, the inner CFST only reaches 67% of

monstrated in subsection 4.3. its capacity. Therefore, the ks-value of this column is 0.945, which is

smaller than unity. A survey of the numerical data indicates that the

values of ks are normally smaller than unity when fco > 150 MPa,

4.2. Square columns fyi > 690 MPa or fyo > 690 MPa. But ks has not been adversely affected

by the adoption of ultra-high strength inner concrete. This can be ex-

Fig. 11a provides a comparison between NuFE and Nu0 for square plained by the fact that the ductility of the inner concrete is greatly

columns, where the ratio of NuFE/Nu0 ranges from 0.841 to 1.099. In improved to allow the utilisation of its strength.

general, the NuFE/Nu0 ratio also increases with increasing ξo, as can be As can be seen in Fig. 11a, the superposition model expressed by Eq.

seen in Fig. 11b. But compared to circular columns, these square col- (3) provides reasonable predictions for most square CFDT columns.

umns generally have smaller NuFE/Nu0 ratios and the variation in the However, it should also be noticed that the predictions will be relatively

conservative if Eq. (3) is used to predict the ultimate strength of square

CFDT columns with a small Do/to ratio. Most importantly, unsafe pre-

dictions will be obtained if thin-walled outer tubes or ultra-high

strength materials are used. Therefore, Eq. (4) expressed as ksNu0 is also

adopted herein for square CFDT columns, where ks can be larger or

smaller than unity.

Based on regression analysis, Eq. (6) is proposed to calculate ks for

square CFDT columns, which is a function of ξo and Do/to. Meanwhile,

three correction factors k1, k2, k3 are introduced to account for the

reduction in ks for using ultra-high strength outer concrete, outer tube

and inner tube, respectively.

2.45

7 Do 0.6

ks = 1 7 × 10 + 0.022 o

k1 k2 k3

to (6)

k1 =

1.15 0.001fco 150 < fco 200 MPa (7)

Fig. 10. ks of circular CFDT columns as a function of ξo.

182

Y. Zheng, Z. Tao Thin-Walled Structures 134 (2019) 174–188

Fig. 11. Comparison between NuFE and Nu0 for square columns.

Fig. 12. N − ε curves for a square column with an ultra-high strength inner

tube. Fig. 13. Comparison of ks between predictions by Eq. (6) and FE predictions for

square columns.

k2 = (µ) of Nuc/NuFE ratio is 0.999 and the standard derivation (SD) is 0.025.

1 0.003 ( )Do 1.73

to

(fco ) 1.37 (0.0037fyo 2.553) 690 < fyo 960 MPa

The corresponding values for the square columns are 0.997 and 0.024,

(8) respectively. This comparison confirms that there is a good agreement

between the predictions from Eq. (4) and the FE predictions for both

1 200 fyi 690 MPa circular and square columns. Fig. 14 also presents the prediction ac-

k3 =

1.0966 0.00014fyi 690 < fyi 960 MPa curacy for different groups of data. It seems that the source of numerical

(9)

data has no obvious influence on the prediction accuracy. This is also

in which the units of fco , fyo and fyi are MPa. the case when predicting the compressive stiffness and the ultimate

According to Eqs. (7)–(9), k1 decreases from 1 to 0.95 when fco strain, as can be seen in the following sections.

increases from 150 MPa to 200 MPa; k2 decreases from 1 to 0.86 when The predicted ultimate strengths (Nuc) from Eq. (4) are further

fyo increases from 690 MPa to 960 MPa for columns with a Do/to ratio of compared with the measured ultimate strengths (Nue) in Fig. 15. For the

100 and fco of 20 MPa; and k3 decreases from 1 to 0.96 when fyi in- 40 circular specimens, the values of μ and SD of the Nuc/Nue ratio are

creases from 690 MPa to 960 MPa. 0.965 and 0.057, respectively. For the 35 square specimens, the cor-

The ks−values predicted by Eq. (6) are compared in Fig. 13 with the responding values of μ and SD are 0.993 and 0.052, respectively. It

values calculated using the FE model. In general, the agreement be- should be noted that the strength contribution of stiffeners (fylAsl) was

tween them is reasonable, and the prediction errors of ks are generally directly added to the predicted strength as an additional term for the 12

within ± 10%. The coefficient of determination (R2) for Eq. (6) is 0.57, square CFDT columns with longitudinal stiffeners reported by Wang

which is close to that of Eq. (5). et al. [16], where fyl and Asl are the yield stress and total area of the

steel stiffeners, respectively. Meanwhile, the longitudinal stiffeners

4.3. Prediction accuracy could delay the local buckling of the thin-walled outer tubes. To con-

sider this beneficial influence, the cross-section slenderness Do/to in Eq.

Fig. 14 compares the predicted ultimate strengths (Nuc) from Eq. (4) (6) is replaced by the width-to-thickness ratio of the subpanel

with the FE predictions (NuFE). The range of Nuc/NuFE is from 0.942 to [(0.5Do−2to)/to] [35]. The comparison in Fig. 15 confirms a good

1.056 for the 435 circular examples, whereas that for the 411 square agreement between Nuc and Nue. The prediction errors of the ultimate

examples is from 0.941 to 1.066. For circular columns, the mean value strengths are generally within ± 10%.

183

Y. Zheng, Z. Tao Thin-Walled Structures 134 (2019) 174–188

5. Proposed model for compressive stiffness EA = Esi Asi + Eso Aso + c (Eci A ci + Eco Aco ) (10)

Following the definition of Huo et al. [36] and Yang et al. [37], the

compressive stiffness EA of CFDT columns were determined as the se- 5.1. Determining κc

cant stiffness corresponding to 0.4Nu from the FE predicted N − ε

curves. This definition was also adopted by Wang et al. [23] to derive From Eq. (10), κc can be derived as c = (EA Esi Asi Eso Aso )/

EA for conventional CFST columns. (Eci Aci + Eco Aco ) . Using this expression, κc can be determined for each

The values of EA from numerical predictions are compared in example in the numerical database. As already shown in Fig. 16, ξo has

Fig. 16 with (EA)0 calculated based on superposition. (EA)0 is expressed influence on the ratio of EA/(EA)0. Thus, it can be inferred that κc is also

as (EA)0 = Esi Asi +Eso Aso + Eci A ci + Eco Aco , in which Esi, Eso, Eci, and dependent on ξo. Parametric analysis indicates that κc is also slightly

Eco are the elastic moduli of the inner tube, outer tube, inner concrete affected by ξi, Di/Do and fco . In general, κc decreases with increasing ξi,

and outer concrete, respectively. In this study, Esi and Eso are taken as and the influence is similar to that of ξo. Meanwhile, κc also decreases

200,000 MPa, whereas Eci and Eco are determined using the empirical with increasing Di/Do ratio. As the Di/Do ratio increases, the area of the

equation presented in ACI 318 [38]. The same values have been outer concrete decreases and that of the inner concrete increases. Since

adopted in the FE modelling. In general, EA is smaller than (EA)0 due to the inner concrete is normally better confined than the outer concrete,

the nonlinearity of concrete. The stronger the confinement, the larger is the concrete as a whole develops higher nonlinearity. Furthermore, κc

the stiffness reduction for the concrete [23]. As shown in Fig. 16, EA is increases with increasing fco . This can be explained by the fact that

generally close to (EA)0 when ξo is relatively small. However, EA tends higher strength concrete demonstrates less pronounced nonlinearity in

to decrease with increasing ξo, and EA can be 12% lower than (EA)0 the ascending stage.

within the parameter range. Therefore, the superposition model may be To simplify the calculation, however, κc is only considered as a

used to predict EA, but a reduction in stiffness should be considered for function of ξo. Based on regression analysis, Eqs. (11a) and (11b) are

the inner and outer concrete. Although it is possible to introduce two proposed to predict the values of κc for circular and square CFDT col-

reduction factors for the inner concrete stiffness (Eci Aci ) and outer umns, respectively.

concrete stiffness (Eco A co ), respectively, it is found that a single re-

c =1 0.014 o 0.7 for circular CFDT (11a)

duction factor ( c ) can be used for both inner and outer concrete

components to simplify the calculation. Thus, Eq. (10) is proposed to c =1 0.011 0.74 for square CFDT (11b)

o

predict EA for CFDT columns.

Fig. 17 compares the predicted c from Eq. (11) with the numerical

184

Y. Zheng, Z. Tao Thin-Walled Structures 134 (2019) 174–188

data obtained from the FE analysis. The value of R2 is 0.307 for circular (Nu) reflects the deformation ability and ductility to some extent.

columns, whereas the corresponding value is 0.371 for square columns. Compared to a circular outer tube, a square outer tube is less effective

The R2-values are relatively low due to the neglect of the influence of ξi, to confine concrete in compression. Therefore, the square column

Di/Do and fco . generally has a smaller εc than the circular counterpart.

The compressive strains (εcFE) obtained from the FE analysis are

5.2. Prediction accuracy used to conduct parametric analysis for CFDT columns. It is found that

key parameters influencing εcFE include ξo, Di/Do and ξi for circular

The compressive stiffness (EA)c of CFDT columns calculated from columns (Fig. 19), whereas the corresponding parameters are ξo, Di/Do,

Eq. (10) are compared in Fig. 18 with the values of (EA)FE determined and fyi for square columns (Fig. 20). In general, εcFE increases with an

from the FE analysis. The range of (EA)c/(EA)FE is from 0.979 to 1.106 increase in ξo as a result of better confinement from the outer tube, as

for circular columns and the corresponding range is from 0.978 to shown in Figs. 19a and 20a. This effect is more significant in circular

1.084 for square columns. For the examples of 435 circular columns, columns than in square columns. Meanwhile, εcFE increases with in-

the mean value μ and standard deviation SD of (EA)c/(EA)FE are 1.003 creasing Di/Do ratio for circular columns when the ratio of Di/ti is kept

and 0.016, respectively. The corresponding values of μ and SD are 0.996 constant. This can be explained by the fact that the area of the inner

and 0.010, respectively, for the examples of 411 square columns. It is tube increases and more concrete is confined by the double tubes. Thus,

obvious that the proposed model can predict the compressive stiffness the circular CFDT column becomes more ductile. However, the influ-

of CFDT columns with very good accuracy. ence of the Di/Do ratio is only obvious for square columns with an fyi

It is worth noting that concrete is a time-dependent material and the greater than 690 MPa, as shown in Fig. 20b. This is because the failure

axial stiffness of the CFDT members will be affected by the concrete of a square CFDT column is mainly determined by the outer CFST

shrinkage and creep. To quantify the influence, further research is re- component rather than the inner CFST. For the same reason, εcFE in-

quired to investigate the behaviour of CFDT columns under long-term creases with increasing ξi for circular CFDT columns, whereas the in-

loading. fluence of ξi is minor for square CFDT columns. However, it is found

that the square CFDT column will become more ductile if fyi of the inner

steel tube is relatively high, as shown in Fig. 20b. To simplify the cal-

6. Proposed model for compressive strain corresponding to the

culation of εc, however, the influence of Di/Do and fyi is neglected.

ultimate strength

Based on regression analysis, Eq. (12) is proposed to predict the ulti-

mate compressive strains εc for CFDT columns.

The compressive strain (εc) corresponding to the ultimate strength

185

Y. Zheng, Z. Tao Thin-Walled Structures 134 (2019) 174–188

2.5 0.53

Do 3.3 3.2 Do 1.37

c = 4500 0.004 + 6000 exp ( 0.1 0.016 ) c = 3100 + 2700 10000 for square columns

(12b)

o i o

to to

10000 for circular columns (12a)

It should be noted that the ratio of Do/to also partially reflects the

concrete confinement level in a CFDT column and Do/to is included in

Eq. (12) as a separate term to improve the prediction accuracy. In the

186

Y. Zheng, Z. Tao Thin-Walled Structures 134 (2019) 174–188

regression analysis, the obtained value of R2 is 0.907 for circular col- strength of the inner concrete fci or the outer concrete fco

umns, whereas the corresponding value is 0.848 for square columns. = 20 − 200 MPa; (c) diameter-to-thickness ratio of the inner tube Di/ti

Fig. 21 shows the comparison between the predicted strains (εcc) = 12 − 100; (d) diameter-to-thickness ratio of the outer tube Do/to

from Eq. (12) and FE predicted values (εcFE). The mean value μ and = 12 − 150 for circular columns, and wide-to-thickness ratio Do/to

standard deviation SD of εcc/εcFE are 0.998 and 0.095, respectively, for = 12 − 100 for square columns; and (e) dimension ratio of the inner

the 435 circular columns; whilst the corresponding values of μ and SD tube to the outer tube Di/Do = 0.25 − 0.75.

are 1.001 and 0.113, respectively, for the 411 square columns. It can be

seen from Fig. 21 that the prediction errors of εcc are normally Acknowledgements

within ± 20%. Compared with Eqs. (4) and (10) developed for the

ultimate strength and compressive stiffness respectively, Eq. (12) is less This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation

accurate in predicting the compressive strain. However, the prediction of China (Grant No.: 51678151). It has also been supported by the

accuracy of Eq. (12) is still reasonable and this equation can be used by China Scholarship Council. The financial support is highly appreciated.

engineers to conduct preliminary design.

References

7. Conclusions

[1] L.H. Han, W. Li, R. Bjorhovde, Developments and advanced applications of con-

crete-filled steel tubular (CFST) structures: members, J. Constr. Steel Res. 100

In this paper, the compressive strength and corresponding strain,

(2014) 211–228.

along with the compressive stiffness are investigated for concrete-filled [2] X. Yu, Z. Tao, T.Y. Song, Effect of different types of aggregates on the performance

double-tube (CFDT) stub columns under axial compression. The fol- of concrete-filled steel tubular stub columns, Mater. Struct. 49 (9) (2016)

lowing conclusions can be obtained in the scope of this study: 3591–3605.

[3] J.Y.R. Liew, D.X. Xiong, Ultra-high strength concrete filled composite columns for

multi-storey building construction, Adv. Struct. Eng. 15 (9) (2012) 1487–1503.

(1) An existing finite element (FE) model has been directly used in this [4] M.L. Romero, A. Espinós, J.M. Portolés, A. Hospitaler, C. Ibañez, Slender double-

paper to study square CFST stub columns under axial compression. tube ultra-high strength concrete-filled tubular columns under ambient temperature

and fire, Eng. Struct. 99 (15) (2015) 536–545.

This FE model was further modified to simulate circular CFDT stub [5] D. Pons, A. Espinós, V. Albero, M.L. Romero, Numerical study on axially loaded

columns. The predicted ultimate strengths and axial load–axial ultra-high strength concrete-filled dual steel columns, Steel Compos. Struct. 26 (6)

strain curves agree very well with the experimental results. (2018) 705–717.

[6] J.R. Qian, N.B. Li, X.D. Ji, Z.Z. Zhao, Experimental study on the seismic behavior of

(2) Local buckling of the outer steel tube leads to a reduction in the high strength concrete filled double-tube columns, Earthq. Eng. Eng. Vib. 13 (1)

compressive strength of the CFDT column, but the influence on the (2014) 47–57.

initial compressive stiffness is not obvious. The limit criteria of [7] K. Roik, R. Bergmann, Composite column design and examples for construction, In:

Proceedings of the US/Japan Joint Seminar, Composite and Mixed Construction,

diameter to thickness ratio or width to thickness ratio specified for Seattle, July 18-20, 1984, ASCE, New York: 267–278.

conventional CFST columns are also applicable to CFDT columns. [8] J. Kleinschmitt, Zur Traglastoptimierung von rechteckigen Verbundstützen aus

(3) The superposition method generally underestimates the ultimate einbetonierten I‐Profilen–Lohnt sich der Einsatz von hochfestem Beton oder sind

konventionelle Modifikationen genauso effizient? Stahlbau 74 (5) (2005) 339–347.

strength of circular CFDT columns, but can sometimes overestimate

[9] G. Hanswille, M. Bergmann, R. Bergmann, Design of composite columns with

the ultimate strength of square CFDT columns. A strength correc- cross‐sections not covered by Eurocode 4, Steel Constr. 10 (1) (2017) 10–16.

tion factor ks can be applied to the superposition strength Nu0 to [10] D.L. Chen, Steel structure construction technologies in Fortune Plaza Project,

predict the ultimate strength of CFDT columns. The prediction ac- Guangzhou, Architecture 42 (1) (2014) 6–14 (in Chinese).

[11] J.R. Qian, Y. Zhang, X.D. Ji, W.L. Cao, Test and analysis of axial compressive be-

curacy of the ultimate strength is verified by comparison with ex- havior of short composite-sectioned high strength concrete filled steel tubular

perimental and numerical results. columns, J. Build. Struct. 32 (12) (2011) 162–169 (in Chinese).

(4) Using the numerical database, formulas were proposed to predict [12] X. Chang, Z.L. Ru, W. Zhou, Y.B. Zhang, Study on concrete-filled stainless steel–-

carbon steel tubular (CFSCT) stub columns under compression, Thin Walled Struct.

compressive stiffness and compressive strain corresponding to the 63 (2013) 125–133.

ultimate strength. The simplified models can be used for the eva- [13] M.F. Hassanein, O.F. Kharoob, Q.Q. Liang, Behaviour of circular concrete-filled lean

luation of deformation capacity and ductility of CFDT columns. duplex stainless steel carbon steel tubular short columns, Eng. Struct. 56 (2013)

83–94.

[14] X.D. Fang, S.J. Lin, Axial compressive test of columns with multi barrel tube-con-

It should be noted that the proposed equations in this paper are only fined high performance concrete, J. Build. Struct. 35 (4) (2014) 236–245 (in

valid in the following parameter ranges: (a) yield stress of the inner Chinese).

[15] C.Y. Wan, X.X. Zha, Nonlinear analysis and design of concrete-filled dual steel

tube fyi or the outer tube fyo = 200 − 960 MPa; (b) compressive

187

Y. Zheng, Z. Tao Thin-Walled Structures 134 (2019) 174–188

tubular columns under axial loading, Steel Compos. Struct. 20 (3) (2016) 571–597. [27] Z. Tao, X.Q. Wang, B. Uy, Stress-strain curves of structural and reinforcing steels

[16] Z.B. Wang, Z. Tao, Q. Yu, Axial compressive behaviour of concrete-filled double- after exposure to elevated temperatures, J. Mater. Civ. Eng. 25 (9) (2013)

tube stub columns with stiffeners, Thin Wall Struct. 120 (2017) 91–104. 1306–1316.

[17] M.X. Xiong, D.X. Xiong, J.Y.R. Liew, Flexural performance of concrete filled tubes [28] Y.Y. Wang, P. Chen, C.Y. Liu, Y. Zhang, Size effect of circular concrete-filled steel

with high tensile steel and ultra-high strength concrete, J. Constr. Steel Res. 132 tubular short columns subjected to axial compression, Thin Walled Struct. 120

(2017) 191–202. (2017) 397–407.

[18] M.F. Hassanein, M. Elchalakani, V.I. Patel, Overall buckling behaviour of circular [29] M.C. Wu, C.C. Chen, C.C. Chen, Size effect on axial behavior of concrete-filled box

concrete-filled dual steel tubular columns with stainless steel external tubes, Thin columns, Adv. Struct. Eng. 21 (13) (2018) 2068–2078.

Walled Struct. 115 (2017) 336–348. [30] T. Yamamoto, J. Kawaguchi, S. Morino, Size effect on ultimate compressive

[19] M.L. Romero, C. Ibañez, A. Espinos, J.M. Portolés, A. Hospitaler, Influence of ul- strength of concrete-filled steel tube short columns, in: Proceedings of the Structural

trahigh strength concrete on circular concrete-filled dual steel columns, Structures 9 Engineers World Congress, Yokohama, Japan, 2002.

(2017) 13–20. [31] F.C. Caner, Z.P. Bažant, Lateral confinement needed to suppress softening of con-

[20] C. Ibañez, M.L. Romero, A. Espinos, J.M. Portolés, V. Albero, Ultra-high strength crete in compression, J. Eng. Mech. -ASCE 128 (12) (2002) 1304–1313.

concrete on eccentrically loaded slender circular concrete-filled dual steel columns, [32] Q. Yu, Z. Tao, Y.X. Wu, Experimental behaviour of high performance concrete-filled

Structures 12 (2017) 64–74. steel tubular columns, Thin Walled Struct. 46 (4) (2008) 362–370.

[21] A. Espinos, M.L. Romero, D. Lam, Fire performance of innovative steel-concrete [33] B. Uy, Local and post-buckling of concrete filled steel welded box columns, J.

composite columns using high strength steels, Thin Walled Struct. 106 (2016) Constr. Steel Res. 47 (1–2) (1998) 47–52.

113–128. [34] M.A. Bradford, H.Y. Loh, B. Uy, Slenderness limits for filled circular steel tubes, J.

[22] J.Y.R. Liew, M.X. Xiong, Design Guide for Concrete Filled Tubular Member With Constr. Steel Res. 58 (2) (2002) 243–252.

High Strength Materials to Eurocode 4, Research Publishing, Singapore, 2015. [35] Z. Tao, B. Uy, L.H. Han, Z.B. Wang, Analysis and design of concrete-filled stiffened

[23] Z.B. Wang, Z. Tao, L.H. Han, B. Uy, D. Lam, W.H. Kang, Strength, stiffness and thin-walled steel tubular columns under axial compression, Thin Walled Struct. 47

ductility of concrete-filled steel columns under axial compression, Eng. Struct. 135 (12) (2009) 1544–1556.

(2017) 209–221. [36] J.S. Huo, G.W. Huang, Y. Xiao, Effects of sustained axial load and cooling phase on

[24] Z. Tao, Z.B. Wang, Q. Yu, Finite element modelling of concrete-filled steel stub post-fire behaviour of concrete-filled steel tubular stub columns, J. Constr. Steel

columns under axial compression, J. Constr. Steel Res. 89 (10) (2013) 121–131. Res. 65 (8) (2009) 1664–1676.

[25] ABAQUS, ABAQUS Analysis User’s Guide, Version 6.14, Dassault Systèmes Corp., [37] Y.F. Yang, K. Cao, T.Z. Wang, Experimental behavior of CFST stub columns after

Providence, RI (USA), 2014. being exposed to freezing and thawing, Cold Reg. Sci. Technol. 89 (2013) 7–21.

[26] U. Katwal, Z. Tao, M.K. Hassan, W.D. Wang, Simplified numerical modelling of [38] American Concrete Institute. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete

axially loaded circular concrete-filled steel stub columns, J. Struct. Eng. 143 (12) (ACI 318-14) and Commentary. MI, USA: Farmington Hills, 2014.

(2017) 04017169.

188

- (5-3-1) NPTEL - Properties of Materials at Cryogenic TemperatureUploaded byCryogenics_NPTEL
- Topic10-SeismicDesignofSteelStructuresUploaded bypd110382
- Chap1-Intro a [Compatibility Mode]Uploaded byIbrahim A Said
- csc portal frameUploaded byPhilip Amankwah
- csusermanUploaded byMarcos Amorim
- Strength of Material Department of Mechanical Engineering 2Uploaded byAnkit Kumar
- B.C. Punmia_SOM.pdfUploaded byravi verma
- ASTM-F 711Uploaded byIngJGM
- B31.3 Process Piping Course - 03 MaterialsUploaded byCarlos Del Toro
- %28asce%290733-9445%281983%29109%3A12%282853%29Uploaded bypramoedya04
- Experiment 6 Compressive StressUploaded byRicky Jay
- Experiment 1 Tensile and Torsion Test - CopyUploaded byMuhd Fauzan Ibrahim
- FSEL Split Cylinder Testing Rev 00Uploaded byClyde Labay
- Bolt ConnectionUploaded byHitesh Vishwakarma
- C393C393M-11e1 Standard Test Method for Core ShearUploaded byJuan Frausto
- Engineering Lab - MaterialsUploaded byabrahamaudu
- AISC_Report_2_Phase4.pdfUploaded bybarouniamine
- L3x3-vbUploaded byAnonymous xcFcOgMi
- Column ShortUploaded byAriel Sialongo
- M.K. Sahota. Experimental Investigation Into Using Lead to Reduce Vertical Load Transfer in Infilled FramesUploaded byAdel Adel
- dissertation.book(chapter3.pdfUploaded byjorgebulk7331
- 08 1 Mechanical PropertiesUploaded byMartha Guzman
- Effect of Hole Reinforcement on the Buckling Behaviour of Thin-walled Beams Subjected to Combined LoadingUploaded bychristos032
- Volume (8) Issue (6) 754- 763Uploaded bytahat22
- New lab constructionUploaded byTravis Wood
- GRWP00EN02 SL Wedge Style Pocket Tensile Grips Datasheet A4Uploaded bymarcelonicolas
- steel_unit_2_qbUploaded byNishan Singh
- ObjectiveUploaded byhan
- Behaviour of Cold Formed Steel Single and Compound Plain Angles in CompressionUploaded bythiya123
- Openings in ShellsUploaded byanon_10010624

- 损伤因子计算Uploaded byXiqiangWu
- Han 2013Uploaded byXiqiangWu
- Zheng 2019Uploaded byXiqiangWu
- 怎样进行可靠度分析 Su MeiniUploaded byXiqiangWu
- Tee Section SpecimenUploaded byXiqiangWu
- 2011-11-30 Topic 8 BondUploaded bySaroj Kumar Sahu
- abaqus model information.txtUploaded byXiqiangWu
- fbs-Finney_v_S&RUploaded byXiqiangWu
- Hku BridgeUploaded byXiqiangWu

- Enigeering ThermodynamicsUploaded byKuldeep Singh
- m4l30 Lesson 30 The Direct Stiffness Method: Plane FramesUploaded byVitor Vale
- Sand CastingUploaded byjethwa999_62474255
- TENSACCIAI - PostTensioningUploaded bynovakno1
- Communications Script 2013 EnUploaded byradhakodirekka8732
- Richard P. Feynman by Bilal AzamUploaded byBilalAzam
- LIGHT-REFLECTION AND REFRACTION.ppt.pptxUploaded byShubham Jain
- Plaxis Tutorial 01Uploaded byDuc Tran
- physicsUploaded byganeshmurthishiva
- Paneles_VientoUploaded byeduper3
- Cracked Asphalt Pavement Under Traffic Loading – a 3D Finite Element AnalysisUploaded byYasser Alghrafy
- Turbulent Flow in Pipes_ShearStressUploaded byscience1990
- Post Launch Report for Apollo Mission A-004 (Spacecraft 002)Uploaded byBob Andrepont
- Ktg and Themodynamics Type 1gggggggggggUploaded byvishal110085
- Chapter 02 - Atoms Molecules and IonsUploaded byJohnnySnow
- SurfadoneLPUploaded bySohaib Brazi
- Panchromatic and Multispectral Remote Sensing Image Fusion Using Machine Learning for Classifying Bucolic and Farming RegionUploaded byDr.P.S.Jagadeesh Kumar, Research Scientist, Harvard University, Cambridge, United States
- vvUploaded byLisaam De Yeste
- Q & a of Old ICAS PapersUploaded byViswanadh Lvs Kuchibhotla
- 0409901067.(PH)Uploaded byZeen Majid
- Radiance Harvard 09 StockUploaded byhoangpalestine
- c 17 Earths Interior NotesUploaded byanon-579447
- Large Binocular Telescope 2004Uploaded by王轩
- Lecture 7 and 8 Transients and Control SystemUploaded byRaisul Haque Rahat
- Bauer 1997 Plastic Modulus AiscUploaded byFWICIP
- Oculomotor Systems and PerceptionUploaded byRoy Golden
- geometric solutions of quadratic equationsUploaded byapi-334491054
- A Review About the Anisotropic Material PropertiesUploaded bykaveh-bahiraee
- Fauzan, Ryan - Lab 1 NotebookUploaded byryanfsf
- SES - Field Metallurgical ReplicationUploaded bySES_Cincinnati