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EULER'S CRITICAL LOAD AND STRESS Maximum Allowable compressive stress of conc. 2. Average Shearing Stress in the Web 5. Allowable Shear Stress

For Hinged-Ended Columns: On full area of a concrete support bf

fv1

a. When h/tw < 998/ Fy

fv2

Load Stress Fp = 0.35 fc' tf Allowable shear stress

Pc =

p EI

2

Fa =

p E

2

On less than the full area of a concrete support h

tw

d

Fv = 0.40 Fy

L2 (L / r) 2 tw

b. When h/tw > 998/ Fy

d

Fp = 0.35 fc' A 2 /A 1 < 0.70 fc'

Allowable shear stress

For Fixed - Ended Columns:

B. BENDING OF BASE PLATE Fv = Fy Cv/2.89 < 0.40 Fy

Load Stress

If n > m, fvave

4p EI 4p2 E If m > n,

2

Pc = Fa =

L2 (L / r) 2 2

3 fp n 2 SPACING OF RIVETS OR BOLTS

t = 3 fp m t = where:

where: Fb Fb VQ1

fv1 = Ib

Q1 = Q f + Q w

RI

kL/r = max. effective slenderness ratio Q2 = Q f S =

k = effective length factor where: VQ

VQ2

k = 1 for columns hinged at both sides fp = P/ A B fv2 = Ib where:

k = 0.50 fixed-fixed Fb = 0.75 Fy

R = shear capacity of each bolts

k = 0.70 hinged-fixed V = maximum shear of beam

2

fvave = fv2 + 3

(fv1 - fv2 ) Q = statical moment area

COLUMN BASE PLATE: OF HOLE IN BOTH FLANGE

1. Maximum Web Shear Stress

3. Maximum Vert./Hor. Shear Stress - holes in beam generally will reduce its capacity. When the

m holes are located in the beam web, it reduces its shear

bf

capacity while holes in the beam flanges reduce its moment

tf capacity.

VQ

fvh = Ib

bf

d Dh Dh Afg = gross flange area

where: Ah = Ag - area of holes

D tw

Area of hole = (Dh)(tf)

V = maximum shear of beam Dh = db + 3 mm

Dh Dh

m Q = statical moment area db = diameter of the bolt

I = moment of inertia (mm^4) tf

n 0.80B n b = base sheared

A. BEARING ON CONCRETE fv =

d tw 4. Shear flow

1. Reduction of hole is neglected

Actual/Applied Bearing stress:

When 0.50 Fu Afn > 0.60 Fy Afg

where: VQ

q = I 2. Reduction of holes must be considered

P

fp = Ap V = max. shear force

d = depth of the beam When 0.50 Fu Afn < 0.60 Fy Afg

tw = web thickness where:

Effective tension flange section:

where: q = shear flow (N/m)

P = column load (kN) 5 Fu Afn

Afe =

6 Fy

Ap = contact surface between the

base plate and conc. pedestal

Afn = Afg - area of holes

CECC-3 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 5/16 CECC-3 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 6/16

STEEL DESIGN FORMULAS AND PRINCIPLES BY: NTDEGUMA STEEL DESIGN FORMULAS AND PRINCIPLES BY: NTDEGUMA

C. BENDING/FLEXURAL MEMBERS 4. When Lb < Lc 2. When Lb > Lc and Lb > Lu 2. SHEARING STRESS

703000Cb < Lb > 3520000 Cb fV = ±

Ix b Iy b

200 bf Fy rt Fy

Mc M Lc =

fb = I

= S Fy 3

1170 x 10 Cb

Fb = 2

3. USING INTERACTION EXPRESSION

Lb = unbraced length of compression flange (Lb/rt) use bigger value of Fb

ALLOWABLE STRESSES: but should be a. f bx f by

+ < 1.0

3 Fbx Fby

5. When Lb > Lu 83 x 10 Cb < 0.60 Fy

A. LATERALLY SUPPORTED BEAMS: Fb =

Lb(d/Af) b. For compact laterally supported shapes:

1. Compact Sections Fb = 0.60 Fy f bx f by

+ < 1.0

where: 0.66Fy 0.60 F y

Fb = 0.66 Fy 137,900 Af rt = radius of gyration of a section

Lu =

Fy d comprising the compression flange plus

1/3 of the compression web about the For doubly symmetrical I and H shape members with

vertical axis. compact flanges continuously connected to the web and

Flange width - thickness ratio 6. When Lb > Lc and Lb < Lu bent about their weak axis, the allowable bending stress is

2

bf 170 bf Cb = 1.75 + 1.05 (M1 / M2 ) + 0.30 (M1 /M 2 ) 0.75 Fy.

<

bf Cb < 2.3 Note: Consideration should be given to the question of

2tf Fy

Fb = Fy ( 0.79 - 0.00076 Fy M1 = smaller end moment lateral support for the compression flange which

tw d 2tf will indicate wether compact or non-compact

M2 = bigger end moment sections.

Web depth - thickness ratio

tf M1 /M2 = negative (-) for single curvature

d 1680

< B. LATERALLY UNSUPPORTED BEAMS: M1 /M2 = positive (+) for double curvature TENSION WITH BENDING

tw Fy

1. When Lb > Lc and Lb > Lu

2. Non-compact Sections BENDING IN BOTH AXIS

bf 170 703000Cb < Lb < 3520000 C b Beams Bending in Both Axis

Fb = 0.6 Fy when > T

Fy rt Fy (Unsymmetrical Bending) T

2tf Fy

2

2 - Fy ( Lb/rt ) 1. BENDING STRESS T MC

Fb = Fy f = ±

3. Partially compact Sections 3 6 a. If lateral loads pass thru the centroid of the beam section A I

10.55 x 10 Cb

bf M x Cx M y Cy

fb = ±

Fb = Fy ( 0.79 - 0.00076 Fy 83 x 10 Cb

3 Ix Iy Members subject to both axial tension and bending shall be

2tf Fb = P proportioned at all points along their length to satisfy the

Lb(d/Af) Mx My Mx

fb = ± following equation:

Sx Sy

Flange width - thickness ratio 1. BENDING IN ONE AXIS ONLY

bf 170 b. If lateral loads applied at the top flange and does not

> passes thru the centroid of the beam section

2tf Fy Use biggest value of Fb but should be P

fa

+

f bx

< 1.0

Mx My Ft Fbx

Web depth - thickness ratio < 0.60 Fy fb = ±

Sx Sy /2

where:

bf 250 Mx Ft = allow. tensile stress

> fa = computed axial stress

note: fa = T/A = 0.60 Fy

2tf Fy Only one half of the section modulus about Fbx = allow. bending

fb = computed bending stress

the y-axis is considered stress

CECC-3 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 7/16 CECC-3 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 8/16

STEEL DESIGN FORMULAS AND PRINCIPLES BY: NTDEGUMA STEEL DESIGN FORMULAS AND PRINCIPLES BY: NTDEGUMA

LOCAL WEB YIELDING WEB CRIPPING SIDESWAY WEB BUCKLING

fa f bx f by - occurs when heavy concentrated loads produces stress at A. When the concentrated load is applied at a distance - the web will be subjected to compression if a compressive

+ + < 1.0

Ft Fbx Fby the junction of the flange and web of the beam where not less than d/2 from the end of the member. force will be applied to braced the compression flanges as

the load is being transferred from the relatively wide a result the tension flange will buckle

flange to the narrow web. R

where: tf bf

Ft = allowable tensile stress

= 0.60 Fy

R

Fbx = 0.66 Fy (for compact section) K

R

Fbx = 0.60 Fy (for non-compact section) web toes dc h d

Fby = 0.75 Fy web toes of fillets 2.5K N 2.5K d

of fillets tw

k

2.5K N 2.5K d tw

tw

K

critical

A. If the loaded flange is restrained against rotation and

section

N + 5K 1.5

dc/tw is less than 2.30

N tw Fyw tf

R R = 177.2 tw² 1 + 3 L/bf

d tf tw

N 2.5K

3

where: dc/tw

Fyw = specified minimum yield stress of beam R = 46880 tw² 1 + 0.4

a. Stress at the end of the member h L/bf

web in MPa

R

< 0.66 Fy B. When the concentrated load is applied at a distance

tw ( N + 2.5 K)

less than d/2 from the end of the member.

B. If the loaded flange is not restrained against rotation

and

b. Stress at the concentrated load dc/tw

is less than 1.70

L/bf

d

R tw

< 0.66 Fy K

tw ( N + 5 K) 3

dc/tw

R = 46880 tw² 0.4

Bearing stiffeners shall be provided if the compressive stress h L/bf

at the web toe of the fillets resulting from concentrated loads R

exceeds 0.66 Fy.

N 2.5K

where:

R = concentrated load or reaction in Newtons

tw = thickness of wed in mm

N = length of bearing (not less than K for end 1.5

reactions) N tw Fyw tf

K = distance from outer face of flange to web R = 89.3 tw² 1 + 3

toe of fillet in mm

d tf tw

least one half the web depth, equations A

and B need not to ckeck.

CECC-3 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 9/16 CECC-3 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 10/16

STEEL DESIGN FORMULAS AND PRINCIPLES BY: NTDEGUMA STEEL DESIGN FORMULAS AND PRINCIPLES BY: NTDEGUMA

BEARING PLATES AXIAL LOAD WITH BENDING Magnification Factor ECCENTRICALLY LOADED COLUMNS USING

SECANT FORMULA

- beams maybe supported by connections to other Cm

structural members or they may rest on concrete or A. DESIGN FOR AXIAL COMPRESSION AND MF = > 1.0

masonry supports such as walls. When the support is 1 - fa / Fe' Critical Column Stress

BENDING

weaker than steel, it is usually necessary to spread the

load over a larger area so as not to exceed the allowable P MC ( Bending in one axis only)

f = ± P ec

bearing stress of the weaker material. A I smax = A

1+

r²

sec q

Reduction Coefficient (Modification factor)

P M x Cx M y Cy ( Bending in both axis)

ALLOWABLE BEARING STRESS OF CONCRETE WALL: f = ± ± q=

L P

A Ix Iy Cm = 0.60 - 0.40 (M 1 /M 2 ) 2r EA

On full area of a concrete support Cm = 0.85 - for members whose ends are ec

= eccentricity ratio

B. NSCP SPECS FOR AXIAL COMPRESSION restrained against rotation in the plane r²

Fp = 0.35 fc' of bending

AND BENDING P = total axial load

On less than the full area of a concrete support Cm = 1.0 - for members whose ends are

unrestrained against rotation in the r= I (radius of gyration)

Fp = 0.35 fc' A 2 /A 1 < 0.70 fc' plane of bending A

A. SMALL AXIAL COMPRESSION ( fa/Fa < 0.15 ) L = unsupported length of column

where:

M1 = smaller moment

A. MINIMUM WIDTH OF BEARING PLATE : (N) fa fbx fby M2 = bigger moment

+ + < 1.0 PLASTIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

1. Due to web yielding Fa Fbx Fby

P P P fy fy

R

N = - 2.5K

0.66 Fy tw B. LARGE AXIAL COMPRESSION ( fa/Fa > 0.15 ) M2 M2 M2

fa Cm fb Cm fb

2. Due to web yielding + + < 1.0 fy fy

Fa (1 - fa/Fe') Fb (1 - fa/Fe') Fb

x y Section Elastic Distribution Plastic Distribution

of Stress of Stress

Strength interaction criterion:

1.5

N tw Fyw tf Plastic Neutral Axis

R = 89.30 tw² 1 + 3 fa fbx fby

d tf tw + + < 1.0 M1 M1

- the plastic neutral axis of a section is the line that

0.60 Fy Fbx Fby divide the section into two equal areas.

P P P

where: M1 = 12 M2 M1 = M2 M1 = 0 Yield Moment

Fyw = Fy if not specified Cm = 0.40 Cm = 1.0 Cm = 0.60 - moment that will just produce the yield stress in the

Amplification Factor M1/M2 is positive M1/M2 is negative outermost fiber of the section

Reversed Curvature Single Curvature My = S Fy where:

B. THICKNESS OF BEARING PLATE: 1 S = section modulus

AF =

1 - fa / Fe' where: Plastic Moment

fa = computed axial stress

fb = computed bending stress - moment that will produce full plasticity in a member

Fa = allowable axial stress cross section and create plastic hinge.

t = 2n fp Fb = allowable bending stress if bending

Fy 12p 2 E moment alone existed Mp = Z Fy where:

Fe' =

23 (KLb/rb) 2 K = effective length factor Z = plastic section modulus

Lb = actual unbraced length in the plane of

bending Shape Factor

rb = corresponding radius of gyration

Z

Shape factor =

S

CECC-3 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 11/16 CECC-3 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 12/16

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