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# STEEL DESIGN FORMULAS AND PRINCIPLES BY: NTDEGUMA STEEL DESIGN FORMULAS AND PRINCIPLES BY: NTDEGUMA

EULER'S CRITICAL LOAD AND STRESS Maximum Allowable compressive stress of conc. 2. Average Shearing Stress in the Web 5. Allowable Shear Stress
For Hinged-Ended Columns: On full area of a concrete support bf
fv1
a. When h/tw < 998/ Fy
fv2
Load Stress Fp = 0.35 fc' tf Allowable shear stress

Pc =
p EI
2
Fa =
p E
2
On less than the full area of a concrete support h
tw
d
Fv = 0.40 Fy
L2 (L / r) 2 tw
b. When h/tw > 998/ Fy
d
Fp = 0.35 fc' A 2 /A 1 < 0.70 fc'
Allowable shear stress
For Fixed - Ended Columns:
B. BENDING OF BASE PLATE Fv = Fy Cv/2.89 < 0.40 Fy
If n > m, fvave
4p EI 4p2 E If m > n,
2
Pc = Fa =
L2 (L / r) 2 2
3 fp n 2 SPACING OF RIVETS OR BOLTS
t = 3 fp m t = where:
where: Fb Fb VQ1
fv1 = Ib
Q1 = Q f + Q w
RI
kL/r = max. effective slenderness ratio Q2 = Q f S =
k = effective length factor where: VQ
VQ2
k = 1 for columns hinged at both sides fp = P/ A B fv2 = Ib where:
k = 0.50 fixed-fixed Fb = 0.75 Fy
R = shear capacity of each bolts
k = 0.70 hinged-fixed V = maximum shear of beam
2
fvave = fv2 + 3
(fv1 - fv2 ) Q = statical moment area

## SHEARING STRESS OF BEAMS MOMENT REDUCTION DUE TO THE PRESENCE

COLUMN BASE PLATE: OF HOLE IN BOTH FLANGE
1. Maximum Web Shear Stress
3. Maximum Vert./Hor. Shear Stress - holes in beam generally will reduce its capacity. When the
m holes are located in the beam web, it reduces its shear
bf
capacity while holes in the beam flanges reduce its moment
tf capacity.
VQ
fvh = Ib
bf

## 0.95D tw Afn = net flange area

d Dh Dh Afg = gross flange area
where: Ah = Ag - area of holes
D tw
Area of hole = (Dh)(tf)
V = maximum shear of beam Dh = db + 3 mm
Dh Dh
m Q = statical moment area db = diameter of the bolt
I = moment of inertia (mm^4) tf
n 0.80B n b = base sheared

## Vmax NGCP SPECS:

A. BEARING ON CONCRETE fv =
d tw 4. Shear flow
1. Reduction of hole is neglected
Actual/Applied Bearing stress:
When 0.50 Fu Afn > 0.60 Fy Afg
where: VQ
q = I 2. Reduction of holes must be considered
P
fp = Ap V = max. shear force
d = depth of the beam When 0.50 Fu Afn < 0.60 Fy Afg
tw = web thickness where:
Effective tension flange section:
where: q = shear flow (N/m)
P = column load (kN) 5 Fu Afn
Afe =
6 Fy
Ap = contact surface between the
base plate and conc. pedestal
Afn = Afg - area of holes

CECC-3 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 5/16 CECC-3 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 6/16
STEEL DESIGN FORMULAS AND PRINCIPLES BY: NTDEGUMA STEEL DESIGN FORMULAS AND PRINCIPLES BY: NTDEGUMA

C. BENDING/FLEXURAL MEMBERS 4. When Lb < Lc 2. When Lb > Lc and Lb > Lu 2. SHEARING STRESS

## Actual/Applied bending stress: Fb = 0.66 Fy Vx Q x Vy Qy

703000Cb < Lb > 3520000 Cb fV = ±
Ix b Iy b
200 bf Fy rt Fy
Mc M Lc =
fb = I
= S Fy 3
1170 x 10 Cb
Fb = 2
3. USING INTERACTION EXPRESSION
Lb = unbraced length of compression flange (Lb/rt) use bigger value of Fb
ALLOWABLE STRESSES: but should be a. f bx f by
+ < 1.0
3 Fbx Fby
5. When Lb > Lu 83 x 10 Cb < 0.60 Fy
A. LATERALLY SUPPORTED BEAMS: Fb =
Lb(d/Af) b. For compact laterally supported shapes:
1. Compact Sections Fb = 0.60 Fy f bx f by
+ < 1.0
where: 0.66Fy 0.60 F y
Fb = 0.66 Fy 137,900 Af rt = radius of gyration of a section
Lu =
Fy d comprising the compression flange plus
1/3 of the compression web about the For doubly symmetrical I and H shape members with
vertical axis. compact flanges continuously connected to the web and
Flange width - thickness ratio 6. When Lb > Lc and Lb < Lu bent about their weak axis, the allowable bending stress is
2
bf 170 bf Cb = 1.75 + 1.05 (M1 / M2 ) + 0.30 (M1 /M 2 ) 0.75 Fy.
<
bf Cb < 2.3 Note: Consideration should be given to the question of
2tf Fy
Fb = Fy ( 0.79 - 0.00076 Fy M1 = smaller end moment lateral support for the compression flange which
tw d 2tf will indicate wether compact or non-compact
M2 = bigger end moment sections.
Web depth - thickness ratio
tf M1 /M2 = negative (-) for single curvature
d 1680
< B. LATERALLY UNSUPPORTED BEAMS: M1 /M2 = positive (+) for double curvature TENSION WITH BENDING
tw Fy
1. When Lb > Lc and Lb > Lu
2. Non-compact Sections BENDING IN BOTH AXIS
bf 170 703000Cb < Lb < 3520000 C b Beams Bending in Both Axis
Fb = 0.6 Fy when > T
Fy rt Fy (Unsymmetrical Bending) T
2tf Fy

2
2 - Fy ( Lb/rt ) 1. BENDING STRESS T MC
Fb = Fy f = ±
3. Partially compact Sections 3 6 a. If lateral loads pass thru the centroid of the beam section A I
10.55 x 10 Cb

bf M x Cx M y Cy
fb = ±
Fb = Fy ( 0.79 - 0.00076 Fy 83 x 10 Cb
3 Ix Iy Members subject to both axial tension and bending shall be
2tf Fb = P proportioned at all points along their length to satisfy the
Lb(d/Af) Mx My Mx
fb = ± following equation:
Sx Sy
Flange width - thickness ratio 1. BENDING IN ONE AXIS ONLY
bf 170 b. If lateral loads applied at the top flange and does not
> passes thru the centroid of the beam section
2tf Fy Use biggest value of Fb but should be P
fa
+
f bx
< 1.0
Mx My Ft Fbx
Web depth - thickness ratio < 0.60 Fy fb = ±
Sx Sy /2
where:
bf 250 Mx Ft = allow. tensile stress
> fa = computed axial stress
note: fa = T/A = 0.60 Fy
2tf Fy Only one half of the section modulus about Fbx = allow. bending
fb = computed bending stress
the y-axis is considered stress

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STEEL DESIGN FORMULAS AND PRINCIPLES BY: NTDEGUMA STEEL DESIGN FORMULAS AND PRINCIPLES BY: NTDEGUMA

## 2. BENDING IN BOTH AXIS

LOCAL WEB YIELDING WEB CRIPPING SIDESWAY WEB BUCKLING
fa f bx f by - occurs when heavy concentrated loads produces stress at A. When the concentrated load is applied at a distance - the web will be subjected to compression if a compressive
+ + < 1.0
Ft Fbx Fby the junction of the flange and web of the beam where not less than d/2 from the end of the member. force will be applied to braced the compression flanges as
the load is being transferred from the relatively wide a result the tension flange will buckle
flange to the narrow web. R
where: tf bf
Ft = allowable tensile stress
= 0.60 Fy
R
Fbx = 0.66 Fy (for compact section) K
R
Fbx = 0.60 Fy (for non-compact section) web toes dc h d
Fby = 0.75 Fy web toes of fillets 2.5K N 2.5K d
of fillets tw
k

2.5K N 2.5K d tw
tw
K
critical
A. If the loaded flange is restrained against rotation and
section
N + 5K 1.5
dc/tw is less than 2.30
N tw Fyw tf
R R = 177.2 tw² 1 + 3 L/bf
d tf tw
N 2.5K
3
where: dc/tw
Fyw = specified minimum yield stress of beam R = 46880 tw² 1 + 0.4
a. Stress at the end of the member h L/bf
web in MPa

R
< 0.66 Fy B. When the concentrated load is applied at a distance
tw ( N + 2.5 K)
less than d/2 from the end of the member.
B. If the loaded flange is not restrained against rotation
and
b. Stress at the concentrated load dc/tw
is less than 1.70
L/bf
d
R tw
< 0.66 Fy K
tw ( N + 5 K) 3
dc/tw
R = 46880 tw² 0.4
Bearing stiffeners shall be provided if the compressive stress h L/bf
at the web toe of the fillets resulting from concentrated loads R
exceeds 0.66 Fy.
N 2.5K
where:
R = concentrated load or reaction in Newtons
tw = thickness of wed in mm
N = length of bearing (not less than K for end 1.5
reactions) N tw Fyw tf
K = distance from outer face of flange to web R = 89.3 tw² 1 + 3
toe of fillet in mm
d tf tw

## NSCP Specs: If stiffeners are provided and extend at

least one half the web depth, equations A
and B need not to ckeck.

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STEEL DESIGN FORMULAS AND PRINCIPLES BY: NTDEGUMA STEEL DESIGN FORMULAS AND PRINCIPLES BY: NTDEGUMA

BEARING PLATES AXIAL LOAD WITH BENDING Magnification Factor ECCENTRICALLY LOADED COLUMNS USING
SECANT FORMULA
- beams maybe supported by connections to other Cm
structural members or they may rest on concrete or A. DESIGN FOR AXIAL COMPRESSION AND MF = > 1.0
masonry supports such as walls. When the support is 1 - fa / Fe' Critical Column Stress
BENDING
weaker than steel, it is usually necessary to spread the
load over a larger area so as not to exceed the allowable P MC ( Bending in one axis only)
f = ± P ec
bearing stress of the weaker material. A I smax = A
1+

sec q
Reduction Coefficient (Modification factor)
P M x Cx M y Cy ( Bending in both axis)
ALLOWABLE BEARING STRESS OF CONCRETE WALL: f = ± ± q=
L P
A Ix Iy Cm = 0.60 - 0.40 (M 1 /M 2 ) 2r EA
On full area of a concrete support Cm = 0.85 - for members whose ends are ec
= eccentricity ratio
B. NSCP SPECS FOR AXIAL COMPRESSION restrained against rotation in the plane r²
Fp = 0.35 fc' of bending
AND BENDING P = total axial load
On less than the full area of a concrete support Cm = 1.0 - for members whose ends are
unrestrained against rotation in the r= I (radius of gyration)
Fp = 0.35 fc' A 2 /A 1 < 0.70 fc' plane of bending A
A. SMALL AXIAL COMPRESSION ( fa/Fa < 0.15 ) L = unsupported length of column
where:
M1 = smaller moment
A. MINIMUM WIDTH OF BEARING PLATE : (N) fa fbx fby M2 = bigger moment
+ + < 1.0 PLASTIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
1. Due to web yielding Fa Fbx Fby

P P P fy fy
R
N = - 2.5K
0.66 Fy tw B. LARGE AXIAL COMPRESSION ( fa/Fa > 0.15 ) M2 M2 M2

fa Cm fb Cm fb
2. Due to web yielding + + < 1.0 fy fy
Fa (1 - fa/Fe') Fb (1 - fa/Fe') Fb
x y Section Elastic Distribution Plastic Distribution
of Stress of Stress
Strength interaction criterion:
1.5
N tw Fyw tf Plastic Neutral Axis
R = 89.30 tw² 1 + 3 fa fbx fby
d tf tw + + < 1.0 M1 M1
- the plastic neutral axis of a section is the line that
0.60 Fy Fbx Fby divide the section into two equal areas.
P P P
where: M1 = 12 M2 M1 = M2 M1 = 0 Yield Moment
Fyw = Fy if not specified Cm = 0.40 Cm = 1.0 Cm = 0.60 - moment that will just produce the yield stress in the
Amplification Factor M1/M2 is positive M1/M2 is negative outermost fiber of the section
Reversed Curvature Single Curvature My = S Fy where:
B. THICKNESS OF BEARING PLATE: 1 S = section modulus
AF =
1 - fa / Fe' where: Plastic Moment
fa = computed axial stress
fb = computed bending stress - moment that will produce full plasticity in a member
Fa = allowable axial stress cross section and create plastic hinge.
t = 2n fp Fb = allowable bending stress if bending
Fy 12p 2 E moment alone existed Mp = Z Fy where:
Fe' =
23 (KLb/rb) 2 K = effective length factor Z = plastic section modulus
Lb = actual unbraced length in the plane of
bending Shape Factor
rb = corresponding radius of gyration
Z
Shape factor =
S

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