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Phuoc Le Tam1 , El-Houssaine Aghezzaf1 , Abdelhakim Khatab2 and Chi Hieu Le3

1 Department of Industrial Systems Engineering and Product Design, Faculty of Engineering, Ghent University,

Technologiepark 903, B-9052 Zwijnaarde, Belgium

2 Industrial Engineering and Production Laboratory, National School of Engineering, Metz, France

3 Faculty of Engineering and Science, University of Greenwich, Kent, U.K.

Abstract: This paper investigates the integrated production and imperfect preventive maintenance planning problem. The

main objective is to determine an optimal combined production and maintenance strategy that concurrently

minimizes production as well as maintenance costs during a given finite planning horizon. To enhance the

quality of the solution and improve the computational time, we reconsider the reformulation of the problem

proposed in (Aghezzaf et al., 2016) and then solved it with an effective MILP-based Relax-and-Fix/Fix-and-

Optimize method (RFFO). The results of this Relax-and-Fix/Fix-and-Optimize technique were also compared

to those obtained by a Dantzig-Wolfe Decomposition (DWD) technique applied to this same reformulation of

the problem. The results of this analysis show that the RFFO technique provides quite good solutions to the

test problems with a noticeable improvement in computational time. DWD on the other hand exhibits a good

improvement in terms of computational times, however, the quality of the solution still requires some more

improvements.

Martorell et al., 2005; Dahal and Chakpitak, 2007).

Even though managed by two different departments in Integrated production and imperfect preventive main-

some factories, the production planning and mainte- tenance planning models were also proposed, see for

nance planning are two closely interrelated functions. example (Chung and Krajewski, 1984; Ben-Daya and

In the major modern factories effort is done to also Rahim, 2000; Sana and Chaudhuri, 2010; Fitouhi and

carry these two planning functions in an integrated Nourelfath, 2012; Aghezzaf et al., 2016). Imperfect

manner. Researchers have also proposed strategies preventive maintenance, when performed, brings the

and developed models to integrate the production and manufacturing system to an operating state that is be-

maintenance planning decisions both at the tactical tween as bad as old and as good as new. The result-

as well as at the operational levels. Various mathe- ing mathematical models are naturally non-linear and

matical models focusing on coordinating production involve many binary variables. In (Aghezzaf et al.,

and maintenance plans are proposed in (Lin et al., 2016), the authors proposed a reformulation for the

1992; Gurevich et al., 1996; Agogino et al., 1997; natural integrated production and imperfect preven-

Ben-Daya and Rahim, 2000; El-Amin et al., 2000; tive maintenance planning problem. The resulting op-

Kiyoshi et al., 2002; Chattopadhyay, 2004; Martorell timization model is a mixed-integer linear program-

et al., 2005; Aghezzaf et al., 2007; Dahal and Chakpi- ming problem which is solved using a MILP-based

tak, 2007; El-Ferik, 2008; Fitouhi and Nourelfath, approximation method. The current paper proposes

2012; Wang, 2013). A wide variety of solution tech- to adopt a Relax-and-Fix/Fix-and-Optimize approach

niques and algorithms including the whole spectrum and analyse its results.

of heuristic techniques, dynamic programming, tabu- This Relax-and-Fix/Fix-and-Optimize approach

search multi-objective optimization, expert systems results in quite good solutions. However, it still re-

and many other hybrid techniques are also proposed, quires a large amount of the computational time for

see for example (Lin et al., 1992; Gurevich et al., medium and large scale instances of the problem. To

1996; Agogino et al., 1997; Ben-Daya and Rahim, deal with these large scale instances, some heuris-

tics based on the Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition tech- riods, each having a duration τ, and a set of products

niques and a new version of the Relax-and-Fix/Fix- j ∈ P = {1, ...N} to be planned during this horizon.

and-Optimize method are investigated and developed. Let d jt be the demand for item j in period t, f jt be

The main goal is to obtain good quality solutions the fixed cost of producing item j in period t, p jt be

within a reasonable amount of the computational time the variable cost of producing item j in period t, and

frame. h jt be the variable holding cost of item j in period t.

The remainder of this paper is organized as fol- The production system has a known maximum con-

lows. In section 2, a slightly modified version of stant production capacity κmax (given in time units)

the mathematical model, for integrated production and the processing time of each unit of item j is given

planning and imperfect preventive maintenance plan- by ρ j . The system can be maintained preventively or

ning, propose in (Aghezzaf et al., 2016) is presented. correctively when a failure occurs. The cost of carry-

In section 3, the developed Relax-and-Fix/Fix-and- ing out a kth preventive maintenance action is denoted

by CPMk and the cost of performing a corrective main-

Optimize techniques (RFFO) is introduced and pre-

sented in details. Section 4 presents the Dantzig- tenance action on the system when a failure occurred,

Wolfe (DWD) decomposition to solve the reformu- right after kth preventive maintenance, is denoted by

CCMk . Finally, let δk

lated production and maintenance planning model. PM be the expected time required

Computational results of a set of benchmark cases are for the kth preventive maintenance action, and δCMk the

presented and discussed in Section 5. Finally, Section expected time required to perform a corrective main-

6 summarizes the main findings of this research work tenance action on the system when a failure occurred,

and discusses some possible research directions. right after kth preventive maintenance.

The variables of the model are: Q jt the quantity

of item j produced during period t; I jt the inventory

2 THE INTEGRATED of item j at the end of period t; x jt a binary variable

set to 1 if item j is produced during period t and 0

PRODUCTION AND otherwise; yt a binary decision variable set to 1 if the

IMPERFECT PREVENTIVE machine is setup to production during period t and 0

MAINTENANCE MODEL otherwise; and finally zkst a binary variable set to 1 if

the last preventive maintenance of the system before

In this section, the mathematical optimization model the time period t is the kth one and has taken place dur-

for integrated production and imperfect preventive ing the time period s and 0 otherwise. By convention

maintenance problem described in (Aghezzaf et al., we assume that the manufacturing system is preven-

2016) is briefly summarized. Then, the reformulation tively maintained in the beginning of period 1, that is

proposed by the authors for this production and im- z111 = 1 for k ≤ s ≤ t. The optimization model for

perfect preventive maintenance problem is shown and the Integrated Production and Imperfect Preventive

used as the underlying optimization model for the de- Maintenance Planning Problem (IPImPMP) is given

tailed subsequent discussion. by:

Minimize

2.1 A Mathematical Optimization T N

IP

ZImPMP = ∑ ∑ ( f jt x jt + p jt Q jt + h jt I jt )

t=1 j=1

and Imperfect Preventive T t

+∑ ∑ CPM

k

zttk

Maintenance Problem (IPImPMP) t=1 k=1

T t s

In the IPImPMP problems, it is assumed that the +∑ ∑ ∑ Cstk (y)yt zkst

systemś operating state is stochastically predictable, t=1 s=1 k=1

in terms of its operating age, and that it can accord- subject to:

ingly be preventively maintained during preplanned

periods. The preventive maintenance is assumed I j,t−1 i f t > 1

Q jt + − I jt = d jt , (1)

to be imperfect, so that after each maintenance 0, if t = 1

action the manufacturing system is at an operating ∀ j ∈ P, ∀t ∈ H

state that is between as bad as old and as good as new. Q jt − κmax x jt ≤ 0, ∀ j ∈ P, ∀t ∈ H (2)

x jt − yt ≤ 0, ∀ j ∈ P, ∀t ∈ H (3)

Along the same lines as in (Aghezzaf et al., 2016),

we consider a planning horizon H = {1, ...T } of T pe-

Integrated Production and Imperfect Preventive Maintenance Planning - An Effective MILP-based Relax-and-Fix/Fix-and-Optimize Method

N t t s

period s, with k ≤ s ≤ t. These parameters depend on

∑ ρ j Q jt + ∑ δkPM zttk + ∑ ∑ κkst (y)yt zkst (4)

the system’s setup vector y and are given by

j=1 k=1 s=1 k=1

≤ κmax , ∀t ∈ H " # !

Rτ k s−1

t s

δCM β r0 u + α ∑ yt 0 τ du

k k

∑∑ zkst = 1, ∀t ∈ H (5)

0 t 0 =1

s=1 k=1

if t s, k

zkst − zks,t+1 ≥ 0, ∀k, s,t ∈ H, k ≤ s ≤ t ≤ T − 1 (6)

= " s, #

≤

Rτ s−1

t−1 κkst (y) = δCM

k βk r0 u + αk ∑ yt 0 τ (10)

zttk − ∑ zk−1

s,t−1 ≤ 0, ∀t, k\{1} ∈ H, 1 < k ≤ t (7)

0 t0"=1

t−1

# !

s=k−1

T t

+ ∑ yt 0 τ du

∑ ∑ z1st = 0 ∀s,t ≥ 2 ∈ H, s ≤ t (8)

t 0 =s

t=2 s=2 if s ≤ t ≤ T.

t

∑zttk ≤ yt , ∀t ∈ H (9) "

s−1

# !

k=1 Rτ k

CCM β r0 u + α ∑ yt 0 τ du

k k

Q jt , I jt ≥ 0, x jt , yt , zkst ∈ {0, 1}

0

t 0 =1

∀ j ∈ P, s,t ∈ H, k ≤ s ≤ t

if t s, k

= " s,

≤ #

Rτ s−1

Constraints (1) are the flow conservation constraints. Cst (y) = CCM β r0 u + α ∑ yt 0 τ

k k k k (11)

They guarantee that the available inventory aug-

0 t 0"=1 # !

mented with the quantity produced in period t is suffi-

t−1

cient to satisfy the demand d jt of item j in that period.

+ ∑ t τ du

y 0

t 0 =s

The remainder is stocked for the subsequent periods.

if s ≤ t ≤ T.

Constraints (2) make sure that, when the production

of an item is scheduled in certain period, the system We adopt a hybrid failure rate model which was

is setup accordingly to produce that item in that pe- defined in (Aghezzaf et al., 2016). If after kth pre-

riod. These constraints force also disbursement of the ventive maintenance the failure rate function remains

fixed costs. Constraints (3) indicate whether the sys- below some threshold function, rkmax (t), the system

tem is operating or not in each period, in which it is can again be preventively maintained. However, if

setup to produce some products. Constraints (4) are it reaches or exceeds this threshold level, it is over-

the capacity restrictions which are defined for each hauled and will be returned to an ”as-good-as-new”

period t ∈ H. They guarantee that the quantity which state. We considers a lifetime of a whole system is

is produced in a period t does not exceed the avail- randomly distributed and for which the correspond-

able capacity of the system, given its status in terms ing initial hazard rate function is given by the function

of the expected capacity loss during that period. Con- r0 (t). If the kth preventive maintenance takes place

straints (5) determine the periods during which the Tk τ units of time after an overhaul, that is in the be-

preventive maintenance activities take place. In order ginning of period Tk having fixed length τ, the hazard

to assure the consistency, constraints (6) are estab- rate function rk (t) of the system is then defined as:

lished to guarantee that if the last preventive mainte-

nance action, before a time period t + 1, takes place in k

a period s < t and it is the kth one, then this preventive rk (t) = βk r0 (t + αk TAOT ),

maintenance action must also be the kth and the last t ∈ [0, (Tk+1 − Tk )τ], ∀k, 1 ≤ k ≤ kmax (12)

one before a period t. Again, in order to keep the con-

k

sistency, constraints (7) assure that the kth preventive where TAOT is the actual operating time of the

maintenance takes place in some period t ≥ k, only system since the beginning of the planning hori-

if the (k − 1)th preventive maintenance took place in zon until the beginning of period Tk , the period

some period before t. Constraints (8) assures that the during which the kth preventive maintenance is

system is always maintained for the first time in the taking place. The parameters αk and βk stand,

first period. Constraints (9) ensure that the kth pre- respectively, for the age reduction coefficient and

ventive maintenance takes place only once and when the hazard rate increasing coefficient (adjustment

the system is setup to production. factor) such that 0 ≤ α1 ≤ α2 ≤ . . . ≤ αkmax ≤ 1 and

As in (Aghezzaf et al., 2016), the function κts k (y) 1 ≤ β1 ≤ β2 ≤ . . . ≤ βkmax .

k

and Cts (y) are the expected production capacity loss

and expected maintenance cost during the time period

t when the kth and the last preventive maintenance ac-

tion before time period t has taken place in the time

2.2 Reformulation of the Problem where ust (p, q), with p ≤ s ≤ t and 0 ≤ q ≤ t − s + 1,

(Re IPImPMP) to be a binary variable assuming value 1 if the system

is setup to production p times during the horizon 1,...,

The natural formulation of problem (IPImPMP) is s-1 and q times during the periods s,..., t-1.

nonlinear. It can be reformulated and modeled as a

mixed-integer linear program as is shown in (Aghez- Constraints (1) - (3) and (5) - (9) are the same

zaf et al., 2016). We propose a slight variation of as before. Constraints (13) are revisited from (4).

the mathematical reformulation proposed in (Aghez- However constraints (14), (15), (16) determine the

zaf et al., 2016) by adding the variables vkst (p, q), with values of the variables u and v. The constraints (17)

p ≤ s ≤ t, k ≤ s and q ≤ t − s + 1, to be a binary relate the variables z with u and v, meaning that if

variable assuming value 1 if the system is setup to the kth and last preventive maintenance before t takes

production with p time during the horizon 1, ..., s − 1 places in period s ≤ t and if the system is setup to pro-

and q time during the period s,..,t, and the kth main- duction p times during the horizon {1, ..., s − 1} and

tenance takes place in period s and, wkst (p, q), with q times during the periods {s, ...t − 1} then vkst (p, q)

p ≤ s ≤ t, k ≤ s and q ≤ t − s + 1, to be a binary vari- =1. The constraints (18) relate the variables v with

able assuming value 1 if the system is setup for pro- y and w, meaning that if both the kth and last preven-

duction p time during the horizon 1, ..., s − 1 and q tive maintenance before t takes places in period s ≤ t

time during the period s, ..,t and the kth maintenance and if the system is setup to production p times dur-

takes place in period s and the system must be pro- ing the horizon {1, ..., s − 1} and q times during the

duced at period t. periods {s, ...t − 1} and the system must be produced

at period t then wkst (p, q) =1.

(Re IPImPMP) : Minimize Re IP

ZImPMP = Here again, as reported in (Aghezzaf et al., 2016),

T N T t we let Cstk (p, q) and κkst (p, q) be respectively the ex-

∑∑ f jt x jt + p jt Q jt + h jt I jt + ∑ ∑ CPM

k

zttk pected maintenance cost and expected loss in produc-

t=1 j=1 t=1 k=1 tion capacity of the system during period t, when the

T t s s−1 t−s last preventive maintenance action before time period

+∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ Cstk (p, q)vkst (p, q) t has taken place in the beginning of period s, s ≤ t.

t=1 s=1 k=1 p=0 q=0

These parameters are given by:

subject to :

Eq. (1) - (3) and (5) - (9) Rτ

k

CCM βk r0 (u + αk pτ)du

N t

∑ ρ j Q jt + ∑ δkPM zttk 0

i f t = s,

j=1 k=1

Cstk (p, q) = Rτ (19)

k

t s s−1 t−s

C βk r0 (u + αk pτ + qτ)du

+∑ ∑∑∑ ckst (p, q)vkst (p, q) ≤ κmax , ∀t ∈H

CM

0

s=1 k=1 p=0 q=0

i f s ≤ t ≤ T.

(13)

s−1

and

∑ ∑ p.ust (p, q) − s ∑

s−1 t−s

ys 0 , if s > 1

≤ 0, (14) Rτ

p=0 q=0

=1 0

k

δCM βk r0 (u + αk pτ)du

0, if s = 1

0

∀t, s ∈ H, 1 ≤ s ≤ t i f t = s,

t−1 κkst (p, q) = Rτ (20)

∑ ys

s−1 t−s

, if t > 1

∑ ∑ q.ust (p, q) − δk βk r0 (u + αk pτ + qτ)du

0

≤ 0, (15)

CM

s0 =s

p=0 q=0 0, if t = 1

0

i f s ≤ t ≤ T.

∀t, s ∈ H, 1 ≤ s ≤ t

s−1 t−s

∑ ∑ ust (p, q) = 1, ∀t, s ∈ H, 1 ≤ s ≤ t (16)

p=0 q=0

zkst + ust (p, q) − vkst (p, q) ≤ 1, (17) 3 RELAX-AND-FIX WITH

∀k, s,t, p, q ∈ H, p ≤ s − 1, q ≤ t − s FIX-AND-OPTIMIZE

yt + vkst (p, q) − wkst (p, q) ≤ 1, (18)

HEURISTIC (RFFO) TO SOLVE

∀k, s,t, p, q ∈ H, p ≤ s − 1, q ≤ t − s

THE Re IPImPMP MODEL

Q jt , I jt ≥ 0, x jt , yt , zkst , ust {p, q},

The Relax-and-Fix (RF) heuristic solves MIP prob-

vkst {p, q}, wkst {p, q} ∈ {0, 1}

lem by sequentially resolving sub-problems in which

∀ j ∈ P, s,t ∈ H, k ≤ s ≤ t, p ≤ s − 1, q ≤ t − s some variable are fixed and others are relaxed. To

solve production planning problems, for example, 4 SINGLE DANTZIG-WOLFE BY

the planning horizon is partitioned and the setup PRODUCT DECOMPOSITION

variables are fixed backward or forward. Fix-and-

Optimize is an improvement heuristic also based on WITH FIX AND OPTIMIZE TO

decompositions of the original problem into multi- SOLVE THE MINLP IPImPMP

ple sub-problems with smaller number of binary vari- MODEL

ables. The RFFO method is a framework designed to

combine the Relax-and-fix (RF) and fix-and-optimize Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition (DWD) method is used

(FO) heuristics. In (Toledo et al., 2015), the authors in (Pimentel et al., 2010) to solve the multi-item ca-

propose an approach in which most binary variables pacitated lot sizing problem with setup times. The

are fixed or relaxed and only few of them are forced to authors applied the standard DantzigWolfe decompo-

be integer and are optimized. They named this small sition (DWD) in three different ways. In the first the

set of integer variables a ”window” and suggested subproblems are defined by items (PIDWD), in the

three window type strategies: row-wise, in which the second they are defined by periods (PJDWD) and a

window moves along rows; column-wise, in which third decomposition in which the subproblems of both

the window moves along columns; and value-wise, in types are integrated in the same model (MDWD). The

which the window selects the variables with relaxed three approaches were tested on the IPImPMP model

values closest to 0.5. As in (Toledo et al., 2015), For defined in Section 2.1. Based on the results, the suit-

both heuristics applied to the Re IPImPMP model, we able approach seems to be the production decompo-

consider a matrix Y where each of its entries is the sition which is then selected for the comparison of

binary varaible yt . The inputs of the RF are the set the results. We consider the capacity constraints 4,

of binary variables (sol.y), the number of binary vari- linking constraints the the variables associated with

ables (windowSize) to be chosen, the selection criteria different products as the master problem for this de-

to choose variables (windowType), the overlap rate composition.

of binary variables to be re-optimized (overlap) and

the execution time limit (timeLimit). Initially, all bi- 4.1 Master Problem

nary variables in the RF solution (sol.y) are relaxed,

and a window is defined as a set that includes a fixed The master problem includes the collections of pro-

amount of (windowSize) variables. Then, those vari- duction plans of each items and the maintenance plan-

ables which are inside the window are enforced to ning. The decision variables are ϑmj , corresponding to

be integer in the set yMIP , while the others are kept the items production plans m generated by the sub-

in yLP . We solve the problem to get the results of problems for products j, and zkst are the variables cor-

MIP. Next, a new set of variables (window) is de- responding to the maintenance plan developed at the

fined by a subset of fixed integers (y f ixed ), sets of master problem level. The linear programming relax-

optimized integer (yLP ) and relaxed variables (yMIP ). ation of the master problem of the production decom-

The window moves forward by the step parameter at position is given below:

each iteration on which each step = round(|overlap ∗ MPJ

(MPJ-PPM) : Minimize ZIPImPPM =

windowSize|), overlap ∈ [0, 1]. All variables that " #

leave the window are fixed in the next iteration, and N Mj T

the same number of relaxed variables are enforced to ∑ ∑ ∑ ( f jt x̄mjt + p jt Q̄mjt + h jt I¯mjt ) ϑmj

be integer. The algorithm proceed in this way until all j=1 m=1 t=1

variables are fixed. After the RF phase is complete, T t T t s

FO tries to improve this initial solution until the time +∑ ∑ CPM

k

zttk + ∑ ∑ ∑ ckst (ȳ).ȳt zkst

limit has been reached. If the improvement achieved t=1 k=1 t=1 s=1 k=1

is increased. The MIP subproblems become larger as

N Mj T t t s

an attempt to find better solutions.

The pseudo-code of the method can be provided to ∑ ∑ ρ j Q̄mjt ϑmj + ∑ ∑ δkPM zttk + ∑ ∑ κkst (ȳ)zkst

j=1 m=1 t=1 k=1 s=1 k=1

interested researchers upon request.

≤ κmax , ∀t ∈ H(µt )

(21)

Mj

∑ ϑmj = 1, ∀ j ∈ N(π j ) (22)

m=1

Mj subject to:

∑ x̄mjt ϑmj <= ȳt , ∀ j ∈ N;t ∈ H (η jt ) (23) Eq. (1) - (2)

m=1

ϑmj ≥ 0, ∀j ∈ N (24) Q jt , I jt ≥ 0, x jt , yt ∈ {0, 1}

∀ j ∈ N, s,t ∈ H, k ≤ s ≤ t, p ≤ s − 1, q ≤ t − s

zkst ≥ 0, ∀ j ∈ N;t, s ∈ H (25)

variables :Q jt , I jt ≥ 0, x jt

and Eq. (5) - (9) n o parameters: d jt , µt , π j , η jt

where ȳt = max j,m x̄mjt and the objective function The pseudo-code of the proposed DWD approach

minimizes the overall production and maintenance can be provided to interested researchers upon re-

costs. The set of constraints (21) are capacity con- quest.

straint. These constraints impose that the combina-

tion of the chosen production plans satisfies the avail-

able capacity in each period based on the maintenance 5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

plans. Constraints (22) are the convexity constraints.

The mixing of the chosen production plans is forced In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the

by constraints (23) to satisfy the production setup re- Re IPImPMP model and the developed algorithms,

quirements. Constraints (24) and (25) force the de- the following paragraphs present the results of the

cision variables to take nonnegative values. computational experiments on some test instances,

Of course at the end of the process, the problem available in the literature. In particular, a collection of

is solved again but then with the variables ϑmj and zkst test instances from the LOTSIZELIB (Trigeiro, 1989)

satisfying the following conditions: is used to evaluate the performance of the model

(Re IPImPMP) and developed algorithm. Of course,

ϑmj , zkst ∈ {0, 1}∀ j ∈ N, s,t ∈ H, k ≤ s ≤ t, m ∈ M j the instances from the LOTSIZELIB were extended

To recover solution of problem IPImPMP, in and adapted to the integrate maintenance optimization

terms of the original variables, we can obtain the aspect as done in (Aghezzaf et al., 2016).

value of (Q jt , x jt ) from a solution of master problem

(MPJ PPM) as follows: 5.1 The Test Instances

Mj

The algorithms presented above are coded in AMPL

Q jt = ∑ Q̄mjt ϑmj , ∀ j ∈ N, ∀t ∈ T (26)

using the callable CPLEX 12.6 library to solve the

m=1

Mj MILP problems. The computation tests were car-

x jt = ∑ x̄mjt ϑmj , ∀ j ∈ N, ∀t ∈ T (27) ried out on an Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-3770 CPU @

m=1

3.40 GHz, 3401 MHz, 4 Core(s), 8 Logical with 32

4.1.1 Subproblem GB RAM. under windows 7. CPU times are given

in seconds. For the maintenance part, we assumed

Assuming that µt is the vector of dual variables as- that the machine is subject to the random failures ac-

sociated with the constraints (21), indexed by t, the cording to a Gamma distribution Γ(m=2, ν=2) with

π j the vector of dual variables associated with the set a shape parameter m = 2 and a rate parameter ν = 2

of convexity constraints (22) and the η jt is a dual as in (Aghezzaf et al., 2016). We also assume imper-

associated variables with constraints (23). Each sub- fect preventive maintenance with αk = k/(3k + 7) and

problem is one of following types: βk = (12k + 1)/(11k + 1) for all k.

T

SPJ

ZIPImPMP = ∑ ( f jt x jt + p jt Q jt + h jt I jt ) Table 1: Initial value of WindowSize and Overlap chosen

in RFFO Algorithm.

t=1

T T Instances WindowSize Overlap %

− ∑ ρ j Q jt π j − µt − ∑ η jt x jt , ∀ j ∈ N A2007 5 60

t=1 t=1 tr6 15 8 60

or

tr6 30 12 60

T

SPJ

ZIPImPMP = ∑ [( f jt − η jt )x jt + p jt Q jt + h jt I jt ] tr12 15 8 60

t=1 tr12 30 12 60

T tr24 15 8 60

− ∑ ρ j Q jt π j − µt , ∀ j ∈ N tr24 30 12 60

t=1 set1ch 8 60

Table 2: A Summary of the experimental results for comparision between the Re IPImPMP and RFFO Heuristic algorithm.

Instances Re PPImPMP CPU Time (sec) RFFO CPU Time(sec) GAP %

A2007 815.435 1.05 815.435 51.25 0.00

tr6 15 337,355.000 4,339.16 337,355.000 210.59 0.00

tr6 30 675,607.000 2,103,730.00 676,080.000 642,130.00 0.07

tr12 15 1,245,920.000 2,710.00 1,252,120.000 520.00 0.50

tr12 30 4,387,470.000 2,088,910.00 4,387,470.000 1,126,980.00 0.00

tr24 15 2,502,640.000 2,920.00 2,502,640.000 245.89 0.00

tr24 30 8,272,760.000 2,031,020.00 8,272,760.000 752,230.00 0.00

set1ch 107,532.000 130.00 107,532.000 244.69 0.00

Instance Value DWD CPU Time (sec) GAP %

A2007 875.520 1.95 7.37

tr6 15 337,787.000 1.65 0.13

tr6 30 859,051.000 1.29 27.15

tr12 15 2,159,410.000 1.05 73.32

tr12 30 8,917,970.000 3.59 103.26

tr24 15 4,829,470.000 1.01 92.98

tr24 30 16,945,000.000 3.76 104.83

set1ch 172,504.000 1.72 60.42

In this study, to evaluate the effect of windowSize set1ch instances) was increasing large CPU time by

and overlap for the RFFO heuristic method, we tested the inner loop algorithm.

all the windowSize parameters from 1 to the last pe- Table 3 summarizes the results of the computa-

riod of the planning horizon, and increasing overlap tional experiments carried out for the DWD decom-

by step from 1 to WindowSide for instances A20007 position method. The first column of the table identi-

and tr6 15 to get initial value of the problem as shown fies the instances solved. The second column presents

in table 1. the value of each instance which was obtained via

the proposed DWD decomposition algorithm; and

5.2 Analysis and Discussions about the the third column reports the CPU (solve) time. The

Experiments last column describes the GAP between the DWD

decomposition value and the Re IPImPMP value by

Table 2 summarizes the results of the experiments

(valueDW D − valueRe IPImPMP)

which were carried out to compare the Re IPImPMP GAP% = ∗ 100.

(Aghezzaf et al., 2016) and the RFFO heuristic valueRe IPImPMP

method. The first column of the table identifies the As shown in Table 3, the proposed DWD pro-

solved instances. The second column reports the op- vides solutions which are not so far from the op-

timal value of each instance which was obtained from timal Re IPImPMP value, with the less CPU time

the Re IPImPMP model and the third column reports and memory which is used to reach the optimality

the resulted CPU running time. The fourth column for the same instance. However, the GAP, which

describes the value of each instance which was ob- is defined as the ratio of the difference between the

tained by the proposed RFFO heuristic algorithm and value of the DWD algorithm and the value of the

the fifth column presents the obtained CPU running Re IPImPMP model, showing it is just suitable for

time. The last column shows the GAP between the small and medium scale instances.

RFFO heuristic value and the Re IPImPMP value.

When comparing the results of the proposed RFFO

with the results of the Re IPImPMP model, it is clear

that the proposed RFFO algorithm has the same op- 6 CONCLUSIONS

timal value with a considerable saving of the CPU

(solve) time; it is faster from 4 to 10 times for the In this paper, we investigated the optimization model

cases of the medium and/or large scale problems. of an integrated production planning and imperfect

However, in the small scale problems (A2007 and preventive maintenance. The natural optimization

model for this problem is as a nonlinear mixed in- Chung, C.-H. and Krajewski, L. J. (1984). Planning hori-

teger problem. We slightly modified the reformula- zons for master production scheduling. Journal of Op-

tion (Re IPImPMP) the problem proposed in (Aghez- erations Management, 4(4):389–406.

zaf et al., 2016) that solves the problem as a lin- Dahal, K. P. and Chakpitak, N. (2007). Genera-

ear mixed integer program. There are a few major tor maintenance scheduling in power systems us-

ing metaheuristic-based hybrid approaches. Electric

limitations for this reformulated model, including the Power Systems Research, 77(7):771–779.

time consuming as well as the increased number of El-Amin, I., Duffuaa, S., and Abbas, M. (2000). A

variables and constraints for the large and medium- tabu search algorithm for maintenance scheduling of

sized problems. We applied the Relax-and-Fix/Fix- generating units. Electric Power Systems Research,

and-Optimize heuristics and the Dantzig-Wolfe De- 54(2):91–99.

composition (DWD) methods to select the suitable El-Ferik, S. (2008). Economic production lot-sizing for an

strategies to solve the proposed optimization models. unreliable machine under imperfect age-based main-

The developed algorithm are tested and compared for tenance policy. European Journal of Operational Re-

CPU time and gap. The results from the numerical search, 186(1):150–163.

examples and computational experiments showed that Fitouhi, M.-C. and Nourelfath, M. (2012). Integrating non-

cyclical preventive maintenance scheduling and pro-

the developed algorithm for solving the Re IPImPMP

duction planning for a single machine. International

problem has a very good solution quality with reduced Journal of Production Economics, 136(2):344–351.

computational time. Further studies are currently in- Gurevich, V., Frant, S., and Bianu, A. (1996). Generating

vestigated to improve the DWD method in order to units maintenance scheduling optimizing production

obtain better quality solutions and increase computa- cost and reliability. Power systems computation con-

tional time savings, especially for large scale, block ference, 2:9–9.

structured, and linear programming problems of inte- Kiyoshi, S., Shigeo, S., Hideaki, I., and Fumiyuki, H.

grated production planning and imperfect preventive (2002). Advanced technologies of preventive main-

maintenances. tenance for thermal power plants. Hitachi Hyoron,

84(2):6–6.

Lin, C. E., Huang, C. J., Huang, C. L., Liang, C. C., and

Lee, S. Y. (1992). An expert system for generator

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS maintenance scheduling using operation index. Power

Systems, IEEE Transactions on, 7(3):1141–1148.

Martorell, S., Villanueva, J. F., Carlos, S., Nebot, Y.,

We would like to express our sincere appreciation

Snchez, A., Pitarch, J. L., and Serradell, V. (2005).

to the reviewers for their helpful comments. These Rams+c informed decision-making with application

helped improve the quality of this research work. to multi-objective optimization of technical specifica-

tions and maintenance using genetic algorithms. Reli-

ability Engineering & System Safety, 87(1):65–75.

Pimentel, C. M. O., Alvelos, F. P. e., and Valrio de Car-

REFERENCES valho, J. M. (2010). Comparing dantzig-wolfe de-

compositions and branch-and-price algorithms for the

Aghezzaf, E., Khatab, A., and Tam, P. L. (2016). Optimiz- multi-item capacitated lot sizing problem. Optimiza-

ing production and imperfect preventive maintenance tion Methods & Software, 25(2):299–319.

planning’s integration in failure-prone manufacturing Sana, S. S. and Chaudhuri, K. (2010). An emq model in an

systems. Reliability Engineering & System Safety, imperfect production process. International Journal

145:190–198. of Systems Science, 41(6):635–646.

Aghezzaf, E. H., Jamali, M. A., and Ait-Kadi, D. (2007). Toledo, C. F. M., da Silva Arantes, M., Hossomi, M.

An integrated production and preventive maintenance Y. B., Frana, P. M., and Akartunal, K. (2015). A

planning model. European Journal of Operational Re- relax-and-fix with fix-and-optimize heuristic applied

search, 181(2):679–685. to multi-level lot-sizing problems. Journal of Heuris-

Agogino, A. M., Chao, S. Y., and Lee, Z. (1997). Develop- tics, 21(5):687–717.

ment of decision strategies for scheduling outages of Trigeiro, W. W. (1989). A simple heuristic for lot sizing

power plants. Final Report, 1998:1997–2004. with setup times. Decision Sciences, 20(2):294–303.

Ben-Daya, M. and Rahim, M. A. (2000). Effect of main- Wang, S. (2013). Integrated model of production planning

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European Journal of Operational Research, 120:131– gle machine system. International Journal of Opera-

143. tional Research, 18(2):140–140.

Chattopadhyay, D. (2004). Life-cycle maintenance man-

agement of generating units in a competitive envi-

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