THE STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF TALL AND SPECIAL BUILDINGS Struct. Design Tall Spec. Build.

19, 537–550 (2010) Published online 23 February 2009 in Wiley Interscience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI: 10.1002/tal.501

CONCEIVING METHODS AND INNOVATIVE APPROACHES FOR TALL BUILDING STRUCTURE SYSTEMS
JIANGUANG SHI* AND TONG HAN
School of architecture and civil engineering, Xiamen University, 361005, Xiamen, China

SUMMARY Conceiving tall building structure systems is a major step in the plan and design of tall buildings. Through summarizing the basic components and the basic lateral elements in various tall building structures, four conceiving methods for tall building structure systems are presented: (1) intercombination or alone forming by the basic lateral elements, (2) intercombination of different structures, (3) adding basic components in structure systems and (4) replacing basic components in structure systems. With these methods, designers could be able to establish the needed structure system to meet architectural functions, spatial arrangement, facade and other conditions, and these conceiving methods are helpful to architects or engineers to innovate the structure system in their special project. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

1.

INTRODUCTION

Sustainable development required the building design to pay more attention to energy, traffic, pollution, material, water, land, ecology, health and management. The tall buildings could obtain more development opportunity so that many sustainable requirement aspects could be satisfied (Dalton and John, 2008). As the main portion of building, the structure system is closely related to these sustainable development topics, and is a fundamental factor for tall buildings (Ali and Moon, 2007). The conceiving process of building structure systems is not only a technical analysis process, but also an architectural creation and thought process (Zhengwei, 2006). It is a passive thought process when selecting one structure for a special building project from existing structure systems. But if considering the buildings’ requirement, conceiving or forming the structure system for the special building project is an active creation process. This active creation process could be consistent with architectural creation. In this way, the obtained structure system may meet more sustainable development in a wider scope. The traditional structure system can be formed by the stress method (Halis Gunel and Emre Ilgin, 2006). It provides a definite loading and transfer process. Or the structure system can be established based on the materialsaving design strategies (Moon, 2007). It provides analytic and calculating ways to meet sustainable development. The forming method of structure systems through constructing internal and external structure of tall buildings is a better way to be consistent with the architect’s space creation process (Ali and Moon, 2007). In this paper, through analyzing the formation of tall building structure systems, summarizing the makeup regulation and determining the basic components and lateral elements of structure, the conceiving methods of tall building structure systems are presented. These conceiving methods are helpful to architecture creation and active makeup of structure systems. The whole process from basic components to basic lateral elements, then to structure system is shown in Figure 1.
* Correspondence to: Jianguang Shi, School of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Xiamen University, 361005, Xiamen, China. E-mail: jgshi798@xmu.edu.cn

Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Struct.1002/tal . Conceiving methods and innovative approaches for tall building structure systems Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. Ltd. Build.538 J. 19. HAN Basic components (1) Beam Column Brace Shear wall Slab Rigid outrigger Basic lateral elements (2) Closed tube Frame tube Frame Truss Shear wall Braced tube Braced tube Diagrid tube Four conceiving methods for tall building structure system (3) Intercombination or alone forming by the basic lateral elements Example: Adding basic components in structure systems Example: Alone Intercombination Intercombination of different structures Example: +Rigid outrigger +Brace Replacing basic components in structure systems Example: Amalgamation Internal and external Upper and lower Parallel combination Difference forms Different materials Difference connection mode or transferring force forms Difference layout Figure 1. Design Tall Spec. SHI AND T. 537–550 (2010) DOI: 10.

Shear panel is the shear wall with internal precasted steel plate brace. 2002a). Columns may be different in material. scope of application and manufacturing energy consumption. The basic lateral elements can be abstracted from various structure systems. manufacturing technology. Professional standard of the people’s republic of China. Figure 2. 2002b) (Table 1). Brace also can be different in material. section shape. National standard of the people’s republic of China. Professional standard of the people’s republic of China.1002/tal . 2000. it is necessary to understand all basic components fully. Mega-column of mega-structure was also a kind of column. 2002a. (5) steel RC frame tube. Professional standard of the people’s republic of China. Shear wall can be different in material. Struct. Ltd. BASIC LATERAL ELEMENTS IN TALL BUILDING Horizontal force is a controlling factor in tall buildings. 2002b). (6) steel frame tube.. 2000.. bearing capacity and support style (National standard of the people’s republic of China. 2000. use condition. National standard of the people’s republic of China. vertical slit reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall and horizontal slit RC shear wall according to configuration modes (Zhao. 2003. 537–550 (2010) DOI: 10. Professional standard of the people’s republic of China. 19. function. opening layout and section shape. space and shape. conditions. Slabs may have different material. 2002a). Its main forms may be: (1) mega-solid column. 2000. National standard of the people’s republic of China. and are used to satisfy the functions. BASIC COMPONENTS IN TALL BUILDING Tall buildings’ basic components can be divided into transverse components and vertical components (Figure 2). Rigid outrigger (Fu. mode of construction and slenderness ratio (Zhong. (3) brace and truss and (4) tube. 3. section shape. (2) spatial bar. it is able to design a suitable structure system for sustainable development and material saving. Whether how complex tall buildings are.TALL BUILDING STRUCTURE SYSTEMS INNOVATION 539 2. Build. Frame is composed of beam and column. 1999) in tall buildings is also a type of beam. etc.. Design Tall Spec. The enrichment and development of basic components provide more innovation opportunity to the formation of structure systems. Beams are the most usual component in the structure. The basic lateral elements in tall buildings can be abstracted to four kinds (Figure 3): (1) frame. they are composed of these basic components. etc. (4) RC frame tube. Only grasping the performance. (7) braced tube and (8) trussed tube etc. 2000. (3) RC closed tube. 1999. 2000. 2002a. To change the passive selecting process of structure system to the active structure makeup. 2002a). Basic components in tall buildings Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. It was primarily used to connect core-tube to periphery structure. Basic lateral elements have the precise force transfer mechanism. Intercombination of these basic lateral elements could produce new structure systems. It can be classified according to material. (2) shear wall and shear panel. Professional standard of the people’s republic of China. layout position and layout form (National standard of the people’s republic of China. or make them compatible to deformation (Table 2). and force effects. support style and beam layout (Luo et al.

When combined with concrete filled steel tubular structure. HAN Table 1. #-shape slab and cross beam slab etc. PRC slab. it suitably connects to steel reinforced concrete core-tube and steel reinforced concrete column. and suitably connects to steel core-tube. 537–550 (2010) DOI: 10. steel plate shear wall. RC brace. . coupling beam. flat beam. SRC column and CFST column etc. continuous slab and flat slab etc. Build. Solid wall. RC. steel brace. rib slab. Table 2. steel brace and SRC brace etc. Primary-secondary beam slab. RC column. Classification and layout requirements of rigid outriggers Classification according to material Steel rigid outrigger Reinforced concrete rigid outrigger Steel-concrete composite rigid outrigger It is commonly composed of tilted belly poles. K-brace. Poured concrete slab. [-beam and flanged beam etc. It is suitably connect to reinforced concrete core-tube and reinforced concrete column with rigid joint. Classification of basic components Classification factor Beam Material Section shape Function Bearing capacity Support style Column Material Section shape Mode of construction Slenderness ratio Slab Material Manufacturing technology Force effects Form of bearings Beam layout Shear wall (panel) Material Opening layout Section shape Function Brace Material Layout position Layout form Basic components RC beam. SRC beam and S-RC Composite beam etc. .1002/tal . shear wall with congruent staggered openings and Shear wall of wall frame etc. Design Tall Spec. [. When combined with steel reinforced concrete structure. eccentric brace. multi-limb wall. steel column. Ltd. CFST. T-beam. bending-torsion resistance beam. Central brace. cylindrical column and special-shaped column Solid-web column and open spandrel column Long column and short column RC slab. steel beam. steel frame or steel column with hinged joint. PRC beam. steel reinforced concrete. Y-brace.540 J. two-way slab and Irregular slab Simply supported slab. deep beam. vertical slit RC shear wall and horizontal slit RC shear wall etc. prestressed reinforced concrete. Classification according to form Mega solid beam Box beam Spatial truss Spatial bar Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. Square column. Simply supported beam. precast slab and partial precast slab One-way slab. and — shape etc. PRC. Frame beam. bending-shear resistance beam. reinforced concrete. Rectangular beam. Struct. lintel beam. rectangular column. cantilever beam and continuous beam etc. RC wall. ring beam and foundation beam etc. 19. Shear wall with internal precast steel plate brace. SRC. X-brace. concrete filled steel tubular. single-layer brace and multi-layer brace etc. T. it suitably connects to concrete filled steel tubular column with hinged joint and to core-tube with rigid joint. Knee-brace and diagonal-brace etc. L. shear wall with staggered openings. RC shear wall with SRC column on both ends and RC shear wall with SRC column in the middle etc. shear-torsion resistance beam and bending-shear-torsion resistance beam etc. . steel slab and S-RC composite slab etc. cantilever slab. coupled wall. Bending resistance beam. SHI AND T.

various novel structures can be created for special building projects. 19. storey quantity. green or energy saving. Brace or truss is composed of beam. 537–550 (2010) DOI: 10. Combining different lateral elements in structure systems. but is weak out of plane. Ltd. brace can be composed of concrete beam. column and brace. Through transforming the basic component in the lateral element.. Basic lateral element to basic component is not only a method to conceive structure systems. column and eccentric steel brace (Shi and Ye. a trussed tube.TALL BUILDING STRUCTURE SYSTEMS INNOVATION 541 Figure 3. and uses less material and supplies more space or freedom. building height. The basic components in these basic lateral elements may be different in material. Basic lateral elements and resists the horizontal force by components bending and mainly produces shear deformation. Struct. 2008). Shear wall or shear panel has a very large anti-lateral stiffness in its plane. Summarizing and analyzing a structure system. It transfers the horizontal force through its component tension and compression. CONCEIVING AND INNOVATIVE OF STRUCTURE SYSTEM IN TALL BUILDINGS Basic components and lateral elements supply the material to conceive and innovate to structure system in tall buildings. but one of innovative approach to create a structure system in tall buildings. layout. etc. Considering force transfer. the advantage of each lateral element and its material Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. (2) intercombination of different structures. a frame tube. Tubes may be a closed tube. a braced tube and a diagrid tube (Moon.1 Intercombination or alone forming by basic lateral elements The basic lateral elements decide force transfer mechanism and deformation behaviour.1002/tal . 2007). Design Tall Spec. It resists horizontal force by shear and mainly produces bending deformation. the conceiving method and innovative way of a structure system are the following: (1) intercombination or alone forming by the basic lateral elements. the architect or engineer establishes the structure system by basic component and lateral element. 4. So the multiplicity of the basic component provides opportunity to change the basic lateral element. (3) adding basic components in structure systems and (4) replacing basic components in structure systems (Figure 4). Build. site. This new kind of structure has stronger stiffness and strength. building function. section shape and mode of construction. For example. 4. They resist the horizontal force by their spatial overall bending. space and shape. and produces axial deformation.

4. Intercombination or alone forming by the basic lateral elements may be a permutation and combination problem (Figure 5). Internal structure and external structure combination method is consistent with internal and external space of building. Build. as core-tube partial suspension structure. Such as frame-shear wall structure. According to a different combination mode. It is a useful and easy way to combine different structures. Parallel combination method is setting one structure on another structure side by side. Ltd. 19. Upper structure and lower structure combination method is setting one structure upon another structure. as frame-core-tube structure. Struct. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. For example.2 Intercombination of different structures Every type of structure has its evident characteristics. (2) upper structure and lower structure combination method. this way can be summarized into four types: (1) amalgamation method.1002/tal . its frame and shear wall are distributed in building and mixed and alternated in structure. as a bundled tube structure. 4.3 Adding basic components in structure systems Adding basic components in a structure system could achieve a special effect. Amalgamation method is the mutual fusion of two kinds of structure. It has obvious dividing lines. The produced structure does not have obvious dividing lines. It unites multilateral resistant advantage of frame-core-tube structure and earthquake resistant performance of suspension structure. adding rigid outrigger into structure system could greatly enhance structural stiffness and guarantee overall coordination (Figure 6). The two structures have obvious dividing lines. Conceiving method or innovative way of structure system function can be fully performed. Mutual fusion structure system can perform each structure advantage and offset its disadvantage. frame-core-tube structure and tube-in-tube structure are usual ways to combine two kinds of lateral element for establishing a structure system. as frame-shear wall structure. HAN Figure 4. Design Tall Spec.542 J. SHI AND T. (3) Internal structure and external structure combination method and (4) parallel combination method (Table 3). 537–550 (2010) DOI: 10.

Intercombination or alone forming by the basic lateral elements If the structure system is composed of different upper and lower structures. Ltd. Build. 537–550 (2010) DOI: 10. Struct. transfer floor may be added in condition: (1) different structure types of upper and lower structures. (2) different column network and axis of upper and lower structures and (3) both the first and the second conditions. 19.TALL BUILDING STRUCTURE SYSTEMS INNOVATION 543 Figure 5.1002/tal . and need a transfer floor. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. Design Tall Spec.

537–550 (2010) DOI: 10. Ltd. Design Tall Spec.1002/tal . Struct. 19. Adding basic components in structure systems Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. HAN Table 3. Intercombination of different structure Amalgamation method Frame-shear wall structure Braced-frame structure Upper and lower combination method Frame-supported shear wall structure Local energy dissipation structure Frame supported flat plate structure Core-tube partial suspension structure Internal and external combination method Frame tube Tube-in-tube structure Frame-suspension structure Frame tube outrigger structure Frame-core-tube structure Mega-frame structure Parallel combination method Bundled tube structure Multiple tube-frame structure Frame tube-space structure Structures for combination Frame structure and shear wall structure Frame structure and truss Upper structures Shear wall structure Energy dissipation brace-frame structure Frame structure Core-tube-suspension structure Exterior structures Tube structure Tube structure Frame structure Frame tube structure Frame structure Frame structure Lower structures Frame structure Shear wall structure Slab-column structure Frame-core-tube structure Interior structures Frame structure Tube structure Frame structure Outrigger structure Tube structure Frame structure Structures for combination Several tube structures Several tube structures and frame structure Frame tube structure and space structure Figure 6. Build. SHI AND T.544 J.

brace. slab. such as frame structure. shear wall Beam. etc. column. shear wall. frame-shear wall structure. column Beam. slab. mega-column and tube. braced-frame structure and shear wall structure.4. column.1 Adopting components of different materials By replacing materials of beam. frame structure can be different in beam and column (Table 5). such as frame structure. braced Beam. 4. Struct. shear wall. frame-shear wall structure. shear wall. column. e. This method could not only improve structural local performance. column. column. outrigger Beam. shear wall.1002/tal . Changing component type (Table 1) can produce suitable structure for building project. mega-column. column. column. tube. slab. frame tube structure. Design Tall Spec. Build. tube Beam. beam. (3) adopting components of difference layout and (4) adopting components differing in connection mode and transferring force. Ltd. column. replacing the method may be realized in four approaches: (1) adopting components of different materials.. slab.4. outrigger Tubes Tubes. column Tube. etc. Considering the type of component. 4.. (2) adopting components of difference forms. tube Beam. slab. shear wall Slab. but also improve the whole performance. tubes Beam. slab. slab. outrigger structure and mega-frame structure. slab. slab. 19.2 Adopting components of difference forms By replacing forms of beam. column. beam Beam. outrigger Mega-beam. beam Beam. column. shear wall structure. filler wall Slab. slab. brace. column 4. bundled tube structure. outrigger Mega-beam. Tall building structures and their components Structures Slab-column structure Slab column-shear wall structure Frame structure Frame-filler wall structure Shear wall structure Frame-shear wall structure Frame-shear panel structure Braced-frame structure Frame-supported shear wall structure Frame supported flat plate structure Braced-frame outrigger structure Frame-core-tube structure Frame-core-tube outrigger structure End tube-cross wall structure Multiple tube-frame structure Frame tube structure Frame tube outrigger structure Tube-in-tube structure Bundled tube structure Core-tube suspension structure Frame suspension structure Core-tube cantilevered structure Mega-frame structure Component Slab. column. outrigger Beam. slab. shear panel Beam. slab. slab. column. beam. slab. frame-core-tube structure. 537–550 (2010) DOI: 10. (Figure 7) Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. column.g. frame-shear panel structure. structural performance can be changed to meet structure function. tube Beam.4 Replacing basic components in structure systems Replacing basic components in structure systems is a fine-tuning method for structure performance. column. shear wall Tube. slab. slab. shear wall and brace. rigid outrigger (or mega-beam). column. structural performance can be changed. slab. tube-in-tube structure. shear wall Beam. column. Every tall building structure has its own components (Table 4). tube. column Slab. mega-column.TALL BUILDING STRUCTURE SYSTEMS INNOVATION 545 Table 4. etc.

structural performance can be changed such as shear wall structure and frame-shear wall structure. Adopting components of difference forms 4..3 Adopting components of difference layout Through the different layout of shear wall and brace. concrete filled steel tubular. their shear walls or braces are different in layout and position. and the upper part is S column.1002/tal . For skip-floor shear wall structure and staggered truss structure. RC. SRC. Struct. Build. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. Figure 7. steel. SRC and S: One column includes two parts: the lower part is SRC column. etc. The typical example is the different size and layout of wall openings in shear wall structures (Table 6).546 J. Design Tall Spec. and the upper part is RC column. 19. steel reinforced concrete. SHI AND T.4. Ltd. etc. HAN Table 5. CFST. reinforced concrete. Frame structures of different material’s components Frame structure RC frame structure Steel frame structure SRC frame structure Combination Frame Structure Beam RC S SRC S S S RC RC RC SRC SRC SRC RC RC S S Column RC S SRC RC SRC CFST S SRC CFST S RC CFST SRC and RC SRC and S SRC and RC SRC and S SRC and RC: One column includes two parts: the lower part is SRC column. 537–550 (2010) DOI: 10. S.

Build. 2007) (Figure 8). Four frame-core-tube structures differ in connection mode: (1) Scheme 1 (both hinged joint).1002/tal . 2007) 4. but could also change their performance absolutely.4. Ltd. Design Tall Spec. Struct. 537–550 (2010) DOI: 10.TALL BUILDING STRUCTURE SYSTEMS INNOVATION 547 Table 6. frame structure and braced-frame structure can change structural performance in the light of this method. but frame suspension structure connects them together with suspender and wire rope under the mega-beam (Figure 9). In addition.. Mega-frame structure and frame suspension structure are both structures composed of main frame and hypo frame. (2) Scheme 2 (rigid joint on core-tube and hinged joint on peripheral columns). (3) Scheme 3 (rigid joint on peripheral columns and hinged joint on core-tube) and (4) Scheme 4 (both rigid joint). The load action can be changed (Shen and Meng. 2008). Load action of four schemes (Shen and Meng. Types of shear wall structure Types of shear wall structure Moment of wall limb Solid wall Full wall Full wall with small opening Coupled wall Multi-limb wall Wall frame Size of openings Nonexistence Very small Small Large High and large Very large Figure 8.4 Adopting components differing in connection mode and transferring force Replacing connection mode and transferring force of components could not only change the structural types. The typical example is that changing connection between core-tube and periphery frame structure can tune the frame-core-tube structure performance (Nie et al. 19. the hypo frame connects the main frame with hinged or rigid joint. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. The differences are that in mega-frame structures.

Mega-frame structure and frame suspension structure Figure 10. shear walls and columns. Figure 9. then using the method of replacement of basic components to achieve the current structure system (Figure 10). The tube is surrounded by wing walls. Its center is an outrigger structure with three outrigger truss. there are four ways to innovative structure system (Figure 4). 19. forming the bundled tube structure system by the method of intercombination of structure systems. SHI AND T. 2008) has a special type of bundled tube structure. and braced-tube structure surrounds the structure. its center core is a hexagonal RC core wall.1002/tal . It is composed of a central-core. These approaches can help the architect master the structure mechanism and to find a way to solve structure problems in building projects. Design Tall Spec. Build. It is braced-tube outrigger structure. Different from the usual tube structure.548 J. Typical floor plan of Burj Dubai Tower Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. 2007) composed of beam. The third example is the Shanghai World Financial Center. It can be classified as braced-tube structure adding outrigger truss (Figure 11). hammer head walls and perimeter columns. and are alone-forming basic lateral elements. HAN 5. It can be considered as space truss structure (Ali and Moon. column and brace. Burj Dubai Tower (Baker et al. instead of a closed tube.. Struct. The forming process of Burj Dubai Tower structure can be considered as: first. 537–550 (2010) DOI: 10. DISCUSSION For establishing structure system based on components and lateral elements. For example. Ltd. The second example is the Bank of China in Hong Kong.

Middle East Technical University: Turkey. Luo F. Journal of Architecture and Civil Engineering 25: 110–117. Nie J.TALL BUILDING STRUCTURE SYSTEMS INNOVATION 549 Figure 11. Yang J. Architectural Structure Conceptual Design and Case. 2008. and can provide expansive space of innovation and development for structure systems. In Proceedings. Jiao J. 2008. 19. JGJ 138-2001. Baker WF. (2) intercombination of different structures. Faculty of Architecture. March 3–5 2008. Fu X. Stiffness regularity in option of frame-corewall composite structure systems. 3–5 March. 2008. With these methods or its ideas to design tall buildings.1002/tal . Tian S. They are an open-ended and active thought. (3) adding basic components in structure systems and (3) replacing basic components in structure systems. Shanghai World Financial Center 6. These approaches could not only be used to explain the forming process of existing tall buildings structures. Zhang H. Applied Tall Building Structures’ Design. 2006. operate and master. Towards more sustainable tall buildings. China Architecture & Building Press: Beijing. but also could be used to create a new type of structure or vary the structures. Tall & Green: Typology for a Sustainable Urban Future: CTBUH 8th world congress. Engineering the world’s tallest—Burj Dubai. Emre Ilgin. H. Dubai. Dubai. Structural Developments in Tall Buildings: Current Trends and Future Prospects. 537–550 (2010) DOI: 10. Dubai. In The CTBUH 8th World Congress “Tall & Green: Typology for a Sustainable Urban Future”. 2000. Novak LC. CONCLUSIONS Considering the basic component and the basic lateral elements. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. Material-Saving Design Strategies for Tall Building Structures. 1–10. Architectural Science Review 50: 1–10. John R. 2003. so it is easy to understand.. 1–10. Dalton K. 2008. 2007. 1999. Ltd. China. A Proposal for the Classification of Structural Systems of Tall Buildings. Technical specification for steel reinforced concrete composite structures. Moon KS. the new building structure system can be formed in a reasonable way and tall buildings structure systems will be abundant. Design Tall Spec. Tsinghua University Press: Beijing. Ministry of Construction. 3–5 March. Korista DS. Halis Gunel M. Struct. REFERENCES Ali MM. In The CTBUH 8th World Congress ‘Tall & Green: Typology for a Sustainable Urban Future’. So they are suitable to active conceiving. These methods or approaches are based on general and fundamental structure knowledge. the structure system can be established from four ways: (1) intercombination or alone forming by the basic lateral elements. Moon KS. National standard of the people’s republic of China. Build.

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