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Antioxidant Status in Periparturient Mehsana Buffaloes

Pathan, M.M.1; Latif, A. 2, Das, H.3, Siddiquee, G. M 4, and Vadodaria, V. P.5
1Ph. D. scholar, Animal physiology, NDRI, Karnal, Haryana. 2Professor & Head, Dept. of Animal physiology & Biochemistry, SDAU, Gujarat. 3Assistant professor, Dept. of Animal physiology & Biochemistry, SDAU, Gujarat. 4Professor & Head, Dept. of Clinics, SDAU, Gujarat.5Dean & Principal, College of Veterinary Science & A. H., SDAU, Gujarat, India

ABSTRACT: Periparturient period is especially critical for health and subsequent productivity of buffaloes. The present study was undertaken to assess the degree of oxidative stress in Mehsana buffaloes during periparturient period. The results of the present study revealed that the antioxidant markers i.e. Melendealdehide (MDA), Super oxide dismutase (SOD) and Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were significantly (p<0.01) increased from 30 days before parturition attaining highest levels on the day of parturition. Significantly (p<0.01) decreased levels of these marker/enzymes were observed from 15 days after parturition to 30 days after parturition. This indicates higher oxidative stress and lower anti-oxidant status during pregnancy and parturition as significantly decreased level of MDA, SOD and GSH-Px were observed in non-pregnant buffaloes compared to pregnant buffaloes on the day of parturition. The study indicated higher level of oxidative stress in buffaloes during parturition than non-pregnant buffaloes. The levels of these markers observed at 30 days after parturition was higher than non-pregnant buffaloes. This might be due to stress imposed by heavy lactation and incomplete involution of uterus in pregnant buffaloes. Keywords: Oxidative stress, Periparturient period, Antioxidants, buffaloes. INTRODUCTION Pregnancy and milk production although economic traits are physiological process, but create a stressful condition as oxidative stress in the animal body. The oxidative stress is produced in multiple physiological processes from oocyte maturation to fertilization, embryo development, parturition and in initiation of preterm labour and lactation. Pregnancy is a physiological state accompanied by a high energy demand for many bodily functions as a result of which an increased intake and utilization of oxygen takes place and thereby augmenting level of oxidative stress. This oxidative stress is favored during pregnancy mostly because of the mitochondria rich placenta6. It attains the peaks by the second trimester of pregnancy that appears to be a vulnerable period for fetal health and gestational progress. Antioxidants are molecules or compounds that act as free radical scavengers. Most of those are electron donors that react with the free radicals to form innocuous end products such as water and prevent cells from oxidative damage. To detoxify ROS the cell develops its own enzymatic and non-enzymatic endogenous antioxidant defense mechanism3. Antioxidants like SOD, catalase and GSH-Px constitute enzymatic arsenals of the antioxidant defiance mechanism of the cell. Looking to the immense importance of antioxidants to maintain physiological functions and prevent oxidative stress, it is intended to assess oxidative stress in periparturient Mehsana buffaloes. Hence the present study was planed to determine the status of antioxidants biomarkers viz. lipid peroxidase (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in blood of pre and post parturient buffaloes.
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MATERIALS AND METHODS The present investigation was carried out on periparturient Mehsana buffaloes, maintained at the Livestock Research Station, SDAU, Sardarkrushinagar, Gujarat (India). For the present study, 12 buffaloes were selected and categorized as group-I (Control) comprised of six non-pregnant (at diestrous stage) and group-II (Experimental) comprised of six pregnant (9 months) buffaloes. About 10 ml of blood was collected aseptically from jugular vein in heparinized vials, once only from non-pregnant buffaloes and from six pregnant buffaloes at 15, 30 days before, on the day, 15 and 30 days after parturition. The plasma was separated after centrifugation at 3000 rpm for 15 minutes. Fresh haemolysate obtained after centrifugation was used for estimation of Lipid Peroxidase (LPO) in the form of Malondialdehyde (MDA), SOD and GSH-Px. Membrane peroxidative damage in erythrocytes was determined in terms of MDA production by the method of Shafiq-URahman9. SOD and GSH-Px activity was determined as per the method described by Madesh and Balasubramanian4 & Paglia and Valantine7 respectively. The significance of difference between means for different biochemical parameters were tested by applying paired t-test for dependant samples and unpaired t-test for independent samples assuming equal variances10. Table 1: Lipid peroxidase (LPO), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in Erythrocyte of Mehsana Buffaloes.

RESULT AND DISCUSSION Table 1 shows the mean erythrocytic MDA, SOD and GSH-Px concentrations of non-pregnant and pregnant buffaloes on 30, 15 days before, on the day, 15 and 30 days after parturition whereas, differences in the level of MDA, SOD and GSHPx from 0 to 30 days before and after parturition have been presented in table 2 and figure 1.

• The mean having same numerical superscipt within a colum did not differ significantly (p< 0.05) between group I and group II. • The mean having same alphabetical superscipt within a colum did not differ significantly (p< 0.05) within group II. • * = significant (p< 0.05) and** = highly significant (p< 0.01).

Table 2: Differences in the level of MDA/LPO, SOD and GSH-Px from 0 to 30 days before and after parturition were as under:

Figure 1: (A) Erythrocyte lipid peroxide (nM/ml); (B) Superoxide dismutase (U); (C) Glutathione peroxidase (U/ml) in non-pregnant (control) and around parturition in pregnant Mehsana buffaloes. Buenos Aires, Abril 2010

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01) with levels found on 30 days before. a possible homeostatic control2. The increase in SOD activity up to parturition was probably a response to the higher superoxide generation. on the day and before and after parturition were found to be highly significantly different (p<0. while highly significant (p<0. 15 and 30 days after parturition.01) lower than on the day of parturition and significantly (p<0. while in all other MDA levels on various days. After parturition the difference in the level of SOD between 30 days after and on the day of parturition was lower than the difference between 15 days after and on the day of parturition indicating decrease in the level of stress after the parturition. The study also suggests that the levels of LPO increased significantly before parturition. levels observed on the day of parturition was highly significantly different (p<0.05) lower than 15 days after parturition. Mean value of SOD in non-pregnant buffaloes was highly significantly (p<0. The difference in the level of LPO between 30 days before and on the day of parturition was higher than difference between 15 days before and on the day of parturition indicating increase in the oxidative stress with advancement of pregnancy. Current study reveled that. The differences in MDA levels between 30 days before and 15 days after parturition were non-significant. another immediate stress due to lactation is imposed on them. signifying that the levels were higher before parturition. the difference between 15 and 30 days before parturition was almost 3 times lesser than the difference observed between 0 and 30 days before parturition suggesting gradual adaptation of the animals to the mounting level of stress to combat the maximum stress on the day of parturition. This explains that after the animals are relieved from parturition stress.05).8. The GSH-Px level showed an increasing trend from 30th day pre-partum and highest level was obtained on the day of parturition and than the levels gradually decreased from 15th day post-partum attaining the lowest level on 30th day post-partum. which then became steady till 30 days after parturition. 30 days before and 15 days after parturition differed significantly (p<0. Present study revealed depleted antioxidant status in the prepartum period and on the day of parturition. However. Results showed that level of MDA concentration of non-pregnant buffaloes was significantly (p<0.5 times higher than the difference between 15 days after and on the day of parturition indicating decrease in the level of stress after the parturition. highly significantly (p<0. 15 days before. including normal cellular functions. The findings of the present study are similar to the earlier reports1. It was also evident that after parturition the animal was relieved from stress and it was associated with a sudden drop in the level of LPO (from the day of parturition to 15 days after parturition). After parturition the difference in the level of LPO between 30 days after and on the day of parturition was 1. The SOD levels between 30 and 15 days before parturition. the difference in the level of SOD between 30 days before and on the day of parturition was higher than difference between 15 days before and on the day of parturition suggesting oxidative stress induced by pregnancy. The differences in GSH-Px levels between 15th day pre-partum and 15th day post-partum.PRODUCTION SYSTEM The concentration of erythrocytic MDA was significantly higher on the day of parturition as compared to 30 and 15 days before and 15 and 30 days after parturition.05) lower than 30 days before and 15 days after parturition whereas. The higher mean value of MDA indicates higher lipid peroxidation of cell membranes as a result of higher oxidative stress in periparturient buffaloes1.05). The concentration of erythrocytic GSH-Px was significantly higher on the day of parturition as compared to 30. which is somewhat higher as compared to non-pregnant buffaloes as strongest trend to metabolic imbalance is observed in dairy cows during early lactation resulting in an increased level of plasma lipid peroxidation5.01) 750 Proceedings 9th World Buffalo Congress . associated with sudden decrease in the SOD level which become steady up to 30 days after parturition. SOD catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The role of intracellular SOD is to scavenge the superoxide produced by a number of reactions. This shows that after parturition lactation stress was observed which is somewhat higher as compared to non-pregnant buffaloes. 15th and 30th day post-partum were significant (p<0.2. whereas. As explained earlier after parturition animal was relieved from stress which.01) from each other. The higher erythrocyte SOD activity on the day of parturition indicates higher oxidative stress and lower anti-oxidant status. Highly significant (p<0. The result revealed significantly higher erythrocytic SOD value on the day of parturition as compared to 30 and 15 days before parturition and 15 and 30 days after parturition. Insignificant difference was also observed between 15 and 30 days after parturition. 15 days before.01) difference was also observed between 15 and 30 days after parturition. With the advancement of pregnancy oxidative stress increases and at the time of parturition it reaches to its peak and then after parturition it decreases1.01) lower than 15 day before and on the day of parturition. 15 days after and 30 days after parturition.

College of Veterinary Science and A. India. The SOD and GSH-Px represents the major arsenals of intracellular antioxidant defense mechanism2. the difference in the level of GSH-Px between 30 days after and on the day of parturition was higher than the difference between 15 days after and on the day of parturition indicating gradual decrease in the level of stress after the parturition. SDAU. Madesh M and Balasubramanian KA 1998. Bernabucci U. 8. Satistical methods. Influence of body condition score on relationships between metabolic status and oxidative stress in periparturient dairy cows. on the day of parturition and 30th day postpartum. GSH-Px plays an important role in protecting the cells against hydrogen peroxide. Bernabucci U. as well as Research Scientist. Submitted to Punjab Agricultural University. 8th edn. Lab. 15th day pre-partum and 30th day post-partum. Biophys. New Delhi. 7. the difference in the level of GSH-Px between 30 days before and on the day of parturition was higher than difference between 15 days before and on the day of parturition which shows that the higher GSH-Px activity during pre-partum and on the day of parturition was probably a response to the higher SOD activity. Toxicology Letter. 5. UCL Press Limited. protection from elevated hydrogen peroxide would only be conferred by a co-ordinate increase in catalase and GSH-Px activity.V. Shafiq-U-Rahman 1984. 164. J. Ronchi B. Acknowledgement. SOD catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. 6. Snedecor GW and Cochran WG 1994. 9. which is indicated by a non-significantly higher level when compared to non-pregnant buffaloes because non-pregnant buffaloes are already adapted to this lactation stress. Sardarkrushinagar for providing the facility to carry out the study. 113:189-190. 2. Lead induced regional lipid peroxidation in brain. signifying that the levels were higher before parturition.PRODUCTION SYSTEM differences were observed between 15th day pre-partum and on the day of parturition. Deutsche tierärztliche Wochenschrift. Studies on the quantitative and the qualitative characterization of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase J. Since. Med.Sc. J. Lacetera N and Nardone A 2002. The role of oxygen derived free radicals in human disease processes. Markers of oxidative status in plasma and erythrocytes of transition dairy cows during hot season. Abril 2010 751 . Sathya A 2005. India. Bulkley GB 1983. After parturition. p. LRS. In the present study. Buenos Aires. 21: 359-364. on the day of parturition and 15th day post-partum. including membrane lipid resulting initiation of lipid peroxidation.05) lower than 30 days before parturition whereas. 35 (3): 184-188. 95: 2173-2179. The Authors are grateful to the Dean and Principal. REFERENCES 1. Ludhiana. This explains that the stress of parturition was over but the stress of lactation was imposed on them. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and plasma antioxidative capacity in dairy cows at different lactation stages. Lacetera N and Nardone A 2005. London. Dairy Sci. which attacks all biological molecules. Paglia DE and Valantine WN 1967. Studies on oxidative stress in dystocia affected buffaloes. Biochem. GSH-Px decomposes hydrogen peroxide into hydroxyl radical. 4. Oxford and IBH publishing Co. Microtitre plate assay for superoxide dismutase using MTT reduction by superoxide. It was also evident that after parturition that the animal was relieved from stress and it was associated with a sudden drop in the level of GSH-Px (from the day of parturition to 15 days after parturition). Mudron P and Konvicna J 2006. highly significantly lower (p<0. The level of endogenous antioxidant increases as the risk of oxidative damage increases. 10.01) than 15 days before and on the day of parturition. Page KR 1993. Dairy Sci. which then became steady till 30 days after parturition. Thesis. 88: 2017-2026. The level of GSH-Px concentration in erythrocyte of non-pregnant buffaloes was significantly (p<0. The physiology of human placenta. 70: 158. M.H. Clin. 3. SOD activity increases hydrogen peroxide production. Indian J. Surgery 94:407-411. Ronchi B.

5. accomplished in implanted forests. of different ages. The knowledge contributed by the researchers and technicians of public entities like of the private activity. allows to have more information every year. that make the introduction promissory of this type of cattle in the silvo-pastoral system of the province and the region. J. The system was already working with cattle and it was considered that there would be no difficulties with buffaloes. different species from pastures and a roundup of young of buffalos. Besides. which allowed the understanding and the improvement of the handling of as much of the wooded mass. F. INTRODUCTION The Silvopastoral System used with cattle is increasing in the province of Misiones every year. Oberá. Cattle Association Center Zone. mainly in pines. Thus. Misiones between 14th and 16th of May of 2009. P. especially in afforestation of Pinus and in less extent on Eucalyptus and native forest of different species1. Marion. The experience is being developed in a forestation from 75 hectares of Pinus elliottii Engelm. Misiones. since the capacity of the buffalo is recognized (Bubalus bubalis) to adapt to the tropical and subtropical climate. besides the rusticity and productivity. with the acquisition of the first buffaloes and with the aim of developing a dairy project for the production of mozzarella cheese. producers and advisers are developing and adapting new technologies for the different areas and productive systems in the province. the different implanted pastures and the handling from the cattle. The establishment had 75 hectares of afforestation with 6 years of age. The preliminary results indicate that it is possible to implement this technique successfully and high productivities are achieved. it offers the livestock and pastures a better climate in this system by attenuating the cold winter and the summer heat.2.4. CP N3360FPE E-mail: ftejedor@arnetbiz. handling.PRODUCTION SYSTEM Behaviour of the bubalino cattle in forestations of pine with different species from pastures in a silvopastoral system. have had a great growth in the last years. Thus. Silvopastoral Systems offer the potential to combine two activities on the same soil such as forestry in the long term and livestock in the medium term. The introduction of Buffalo livestock to the silvopastoral system was carried out in the year 2002. Keywords: Buffalo. which does not damage to the trees. if for cattle a better environment improved their production.ar ABSTRACT The silvopastoral systems in the Province of Misiones. with buffaloes something similar would happen. var elliottii and Pinus taeda cv.6. although there was background from other producers who discouraged this practice for the damage that caused to the trees.com. The introduction of bubalino cattle in a silvopastoral system has the objective of developing techniques and adaptations of the present knowledge of the silvopastoral system with bovine cattle. and for its development it was verified that the damage to the trees is very little and mainly bark peeling only. Tejedor. obtaining a synergy from both. 752 Proceedings 9th World Buffalo Congress .3 The National Institute of Agricultural and Livestock Technology (INTA). Salta 235. for greater and better quality of livestock production.7. which has been reflected in the works presented/ displayed in 1st National Congress of Silvopastoral Systems realised in the city of Posadas. to this species of ruminant. Silvopastoral System.

(forage sorghum). On the 6th year the first thinning was conducted. buffaloes have the advantage of being more rustic and better adapted to subtropical climate. Each newborn calf has its navel healed and it is vaccinated against parasites.11. to prevent buffaloes from breaking the wires. besides open plantations were conducted of Zea mays (corn). milk and the average of calving are high and in accordance with the normal parameters of the area. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION No behavior was observed that prevents the development of forestry and Buffalo livestock in the same area. Animals There are all categories of buffaloes. with two wires in general and three wires in alleys. The rates of pregnancy and calving are higher in buffaloes than cattle. Ameghino. Brachiaria brizantha (brachiaria grass) 8. Health management Mandatory vaccination program by law (aphthous) is done. with a low commercial impact of them.16.17 Parcels are done from half to one hectare average and animals graze for one day. Pruning of branches were made every two years to six meters high.12. they always have access to the cutwater for their bathing and drinking. The grass production is similar to the systems of open plantations with the advantage of having an additional forestry production and a better management of resources. Buenos Aires. Compared with cattle. A cutwater is performed for the bathing in the warm months. which are handled in two herds.000 plants/hectare. It was measured no more than 3% of partially peeled trees. apart from blackleg and carbuncle (anthrax). Management Afforestation is surrounded with a 7-wire perimeter. apart from the low incidence of parasites.PRODUCTION SYSTEM MATERIALS AND METHODS The establishment Estancia del Puerto is located in the municipality of F. since the damage to the trees is not significant. as a consequence of animal scratching. two Km from provincial route Nº 2. Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane) and Sorghum sp.50 meters between trees. which facilitates the animal controls. Pastures Pasture implants were performed under trees with the following species: Axonopus compressus (running carpet grass). if there is no grass. besides they are more docile and easier to handle than cattle. they are placed in areas without implanted pastures and sugar cane and silage are supplemented.15. and on the other male calves raised until one year of age which are sold for meat and young female calves which are incorporated as mothers.13 Grazing Pastures are managed with an Intensive Rational Grazing or Voisin method. When due to lack of light more thinning is made to reduce tree density and increase luminosity. since the damage by water erosion is limited and a prolongation of green pastures is offered during the winter.9 and Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass)10. destined for silage. San Javier Department. Afforestation The largest area of afforestation of pine was conducted in 1997. all for winter supplementation. The original distance of afforestation was 4 meters between lines and 2. with a theoretical density of 1. in the place Puerto Rosario.14. Abril 2010 753 . It has 106 hectares and borders with the Uruguay Rivers. The production of meat. apart from small afforested areas with Eucalyptus (Eucaliptus grandis) and Silky Oak (Grevillea robusta). for reproduction on one side. being at a distance of 8 meters between lines and with a density of 380 plants/hectare since dominated and deformed trees were eliminated. placing three wires at short distance to the ground. existing before and after. In winter. The internal divisions are made with electric fences.

Acknowledgements. Pastoreo racional intensivo. La Impresión. Nº 8. a silvopastoral parcel is being installed based on pasture of Brachiaria brizantha and Leucaena leucocephala. S. E. Posadas. INTA. Orientación Gráfica Editora S. Edit. 11. Brasil 17. MVZ. 2003. 6. Torres.. Orientación Gráfica Editora. Crechi.L. Sistemas Foresto Ganaderos con especie de rápido crecimiento. A. Establecimiento y Manejo. M.PRODUCTION SYSTEM CONCLUSION After seven years of experience with buffaloes in Silvopatoral Systems.S. Argentina. INTA. D.. 15.006. 22 pag. Argentina. Colombia. Posadas. Editorial Tecnos S. This year.. A. The author wants to thank Agricultural Engineer Ph. M. Argentina... Actas 1º Congreso Nacional de Sistemas Silvopastoriles. Casanova. Guaiba. Navajas. Dr Omar Lestón for introducing me in the breeding of buffaloes. Pág 266 .. A. H. 2000. Experiencia adquirida en establecimientos de parcelas de experimentación adaptativa de sistemas silvopastoriles Pinus elliottii var. Nº 3. Revista Yvyraretá. Brasil . O Manejo do Búfalo. Madrid.A. 3 a 7. In these circumstances.005. Editorial Hemisferio Sur. 1967.. Keller.. Santa Catarina.. reaching 85% calving easily.R. y Lacorte. Pastoreo de pasto elefante cv Panamá. Buenos Aires. Argentina. España.. 16. Pachas.271. Marzeski. Florianópolis. N. Acaresc.Voisin. 3 a 8 Año Imp. Espinel M. Pachas. Montecarlo. M. Editorial Tecnos S. SAGPyA Y PFD.Oliveira. Brachiaria brizantha en el Noroeste Argentino. E. Misiones. Enrique.. Ferreira Romero. 4. A. 250 -254. 72 a 78. Impresión: Feriva S. Revista La Palanca. Valencia C. Argentina 10. N. Pachas. Colcombet. H. Fahler. M. 7. de Corrientes.. Argentina. L. Argentina. 2009.. 2006. 13. Pasturas implantadas. 1967. Daniel Pavetti. Año 2003. IDIA XXI. RS. N.. percentage which is reached in establishments with very good technology in bovine. Lacorte. for the basic and advanced information in the silvopastoral system of the province. S. 754 Proceedings 9th World Buffalo Congress . A. Mnes. Colcombet. REFERENCES 1.E.ASCRIBU.Voisin. Kurtz. Elliottii. Agricultural Engineer Enrique Murgueitio Restrepo for presenting a new vision on silvopastoral systems. V. España. Riograndense de artes gráficas. 1991.A. Pachas. Wilson. Sulina de Criadores de Búfalos . 3 a 9 y Nº 2 pag. 3. Posadas.. Posadas. 1967. A. Porto Alegre. Murgueitio R. M. A. Evolución de sistemas silvopastoriles de Pinus elliottii. Lacorte. o feio bonito. Liliana M. La Impresión. Concordia. Pag. EEA Montecarlo. Dinámica de los Pastos. E. Revista La Palanca Nº 1 pag.245. A. 2.Colcombet. Balanda Gómez. Fassola. EEA INTA Montecarlo. 8. A. Relación entre la radiación fotosintética activa que llega al estrato herbáceo y la cobertura arbórea de Pinus taeda bajo manejo silvopastoril. CIPAV. Pág. pag. de Misiones. Zava. Edit. Director Ejecutivo CIPAV. en el N. 2006. D. S. as recommended by Agricultural Engineer Enrique Murgueitio Restrepo from Colombia.E. A. 2. Vanoni. A. 12. 239 . Misiones. Siembra de Pasturas en el Subtrópico. J. Argentina. Actas 1º Congreso Nacional de Sistemas Silvopastoriles. Ed. Argentina.. C.. et al. 5. Brachiaria brizantha y Penisetum purpureum en predios de pequeños productores en el N.A. Sistema Foresto Ganaderos. at higher costs than in buffaloes. Lanari Vila. Rubén G. Manuel Belgrano. 2009.Cali. Año 5. Agricultural Engineer Eduardo Vanoni for introducing me in the Intensive Rational Grazing and the establishment staff of Estancia del Puerto. L. Pag. Búfalo.. Brasil 14. R. Alimente seus pastos con seus animais. Fassola. Técnico Privado. A. 1989. Cía. they improve their productivity. bajo cubierta de un monte de Pinus elliottii. E.. Misiones.. N. R. Misiones. Forestal Engineer Valentín Kurtz and colleagues of The National Institute of Agricultural and Livestock Technology (INTA) Misiones. Livraria e Editora Agropecuaria. Sistemas Silvopastoriles. to incorporate arboreal leguminosae within the system. Brachiaria brizantha y Penisetum purpureum en predios de pequeños productores del departamento Gral. A.Agroecológica para el Tercer Milenio. MVZ. 2009. 2. 1994. L. Madrid. the advantages of using buffaloes must be added. 9. 1992. S. Argentina. 2003. Pinazo. (Pinus spp y Eucaliptus grandis) XXI Jornadas Forestales de Entre Ríos. Misiones. D. Buenos Aires. Keller. Posadas. Misiones. Buenos Aries. N. Productividad de la Hierba. Argentina. Carvallo. Asoc. E. Pavetti. Producción de Búfalos. we can conclude that apart from the advantages of this system as regards the microclimate achieved. 1967. El Sistema Silvopastoril y la nueva generación empresaria.

of the Rotational Pasture. Buenos Aires. recommends stalls of a "standard" size for milking 400 to 500 cows. It also compares two methods for rotational grazing: the fixed sized and the variable sized paddock systems. Definitions • Rotational Paddock (RP): an area of pasture of 30 to 60 has that is grazed rotationally in 8 to 20 minor subdivisions • Lot: each of the minor subdivisions of a Rotational Paddock • ycle: total time measured in days for a complete rotation around the RP. The paper discusses many design and production model aspects that are at the center of the technical debate amongst buffalo dairy farmers in South America as many farmers cling to the old "double purpose" methods for dairy production in which cows are milked without weaning offspring in small dairy stalls of about 100 cows each.7 buffaloes per hectare. All recommendations are grounded on clear economic and efficiency criteria and recommendations are of a practical nature. Abril 2010 755 . which started as an intensive grazing project in 1976 for fattening steers.PRODUCTION SYSTEM Buffalo Dairy Production in the Latin American Tropics under Rotational Grazing Alberto Duhau Industrial Engineer. Bufalinda operates two 2 x 20 herring bone milking centers. located in Eastern Venezuela. MBA Ajduhau@myacc. recommends feeding strategies and explains in detail how rotational paddocks should be sized and designed. bulls and heifers. • Herd Categories included in the milking herd: > Breeding Heifers are females in breeding above 280 kilos of live weight.net October 20 2009 ABSTRACT This paper summarizes the principal aspects of designing. The paper defends the decision for milking without offspring. • Instantaneous Stocking Rate (ISR): same concept as mentioned before but the quotient being the area of the Lot and not of the whole RP. or alternatively amount of kilos of live weight per ha. The paper describes Bufalinda grazing and supplementary feeding strategy that allows for year round stocking rates of 1. • Rotational Frequency (RF): number of days or fraction of days that is spent grazing each Lot • Herd size: amount of cattle grazing in a RP • Average Stocking Rate (ASR): amount of head per ha. The analysis and recommendations are based on the experience of the Bufalinda farm. Bufalinda currently has 85 rotational pastures with approximately 1500 small paddocks covering a total area of approximately 6000 hectares of which 1000 hectares are dedicated to 1700 dairy water buffalo cows. • The Bufalinda farm assumes that a lactating Buffalo cow is equivalent to 750 kilos of live weight steer and that a non lactating buffalo cow is equivalent to 600 kilos of live weight steer and calculates stocking rates in Kg per ha. building and operating dairy stalls and farms for milking water buffalo cows under intensive grazing in the Latin American Tropics. with 500 Hectares of land each for sustaining an 850 cow herd and milking an average of 400 buffalo cows. Females below this weight are not considered to be part of the milking herd.

or about 3200 meters per day. With this design the average walking distance is 800 m each way twice a day. Bulls (4%) = 35 30 TOTAL ADULT HERD 912 809 756 Proceedings 9th World Buffalo Congress . are active males (above 400 kilos) retained for reproduction purposes only > Calves are considered to be part of the milking herd only until weaning at about 110 days or 100 kilos if females or not at all if males. 3. non floodable and 100% plant-able terrain has 256 has. thus retaining some surface water for about two or three months a year during the rainy season. although not extremely severe.5 to 5) flat savannas that alternate from concave to convex. The herd size is calculated as follows: 1. the total herd size per category will be: Current Achievable 1. Bufalinda has proved after 30 + years of intensive grazing that it is ideal for high yielding fattening and dairy operations that have in turn significantly improved soil quality.6 km) of flat. 4. Percentage of Buffalo cows under milking: line 3 x (1 . The soil composition is varied with stripes of pure sand covering about 15% of total area. 2. where it rains 40 inches (1000 mm) per year distributed in 8 months of rainy season (mid May to mid January) and 4 months of mostly dry season where on average 50 mm of rain fall per month. Non lactating cows & surr. The rule of thumb developed by the Bufalinda farm is that a square mile (1. distances that can be easily traveled with good transit avenues that are critical for this model to work. Average Calving Interval Average Lactating Period Percentage of Buffalo cows in lactation Percentage Buffalo cows being used as surrogate mothers 5.4) 6.6 km x 1. mothers = 340 217 3. The area is composed of low PH (4.5% 25% Thus if 400 to 450 buffalo cows are to be milked. Breeding heifers = 133 112 4.PRODUCTION SYSTEM > Buffalo cows are females that have calved at least once > Bulls. bands of sandy loam that cover about 45% of the area and areas of claysandy lower lands that cover the remaining 40%. • Herd Categories not included in the milking herd: > Females and males since weaning until breeding age (durimg this phase they are considered part of a beef production herd). or about 240 has of net graze-able land that can sustain under rotational pasture management about 425 milking buffalo cows year round. Determining The Size Of The Padocks And Herd The largest possible size for a water buffalo milking center and herd with a pasture based production model is determined by the maximum size of the paddocks that can be accessed with stress free walking twice a day by the buffalo cows. Average cows under milking year round = 400 450 2. The dry season. Considerations About The Bufalinda Farm The Bufalinda farm is located 20 miles south of Maturin city in Eastern Venezuela. The region was originally used only for extensive cow calf operations and reputed to be of low quality and potential. Percentage of Heifers in breeding = = = Current Achievable 420 days 400 days 280 days 300 days 67% 75% 20% 54% 25% 10% 67. causes significant restrictions in pasture growth and browning of the pastures during the last two months.

typically have a throughput of 5 buffalo cows per hour per stall pair with high milk line and 6 buffalo per hour per stall pair with low line. These are traditional. This allows the milking of a maximum of two groups of 250 cows in peak season. with automatic withdrawal systems and automatic feed systems while milking.000) plus the land with infrastructure (typically around US$ 2000 per ha. The bottom of the trench is sufficiently elevated to drain by gravity (no sump pump required). The retaining corral allows the culling of animals after milking for different purposes including veterinary or reproductive work in a chute that located straight after the milking barn. In practice Bufalinda has 7 laborers per dairy stall to compensate for resting days. Moreover there is no economic justification for saving on milking installations as a complete milking infrastructure such as the one mentioned costs about US$ 250. The former would decrease the need for labor. a small fraction of the total value of the buffalo herd (typically $ 1000 per animal. Bufalinda has not yet experimented. thus Bufalinda's stalls have respectively capacities of 100 and 120 buffalo cows per hour. thus 4 people are required in the trench plus another laborer to feed the cattle and a 6th laborer on horse to get the herd back and forth from the paddock. The dairy barn (three corrals plus dairy stalls) is roofed. determining a separation in between buffaloes of 85 cm. This throughput allows a single team of laborers to handle both daily milkings in a split shift arrangement. sick leaves and absenteeism. has no walls and has irrigation for watering the buffaloes during the hotter months and is very airy. 3.000).000. therefore slower equipment is a very common mistake causing the loss of economies of scale. resting bulls and to produce grass bales for the dry season bringing the total area required to 500 has. Angle of the herring bone at 70o allowing for milking in between the hind legs something that is agreeable to buffaloes. vacations. but thinks it would be worth while doing so. or US$ 1.000. that are slower in releasing their milk than normal cows. 5. avoiding the use of a different group of laborers for each milking. For solid removal a large trap is located at the lower end of the building which is cleaned by tractor with a shovel. heifers. thus avoiding the use of a slush pump. Designing The Dairy Barn And Stall Bufalinda operates two 2 x 20 herring bone dairy stalls one with 40 milking units in low line disposition and the other with 20 pendulum milking units with high line arrangement. The milking is of course done without calves which are raised separately with surrogate mothers. There are two separate waiting corrals plus a third corral that serves as a recycling or retaining corral. Bufalinda estimates that one and a half large round bale of reserves are required per adult animal. 2. In this manner it can be concluded that 500 has of intensively grazed pastures can sustain a herd between 800 and 900 adult dairy buffaloes and milk between 400 and 450 buffalo cows on average year round. holidays. non lactating cows. simplicity and ease of maintenance as follows: 1. This is what we call a "standard size milking unit" that we recommend for farmers that want to maximize efficiency and economies of scale. for a total of around US$ 850. sturdy pieces of equipment. a figure that could be decreased with automatic withdrawal systems and in countries with higher labor costs. The three afore mentioned corrals have an area of 500 m2 and can handle a maximum of 250 buffalo cows at 2 m2 per cow. while the latter would motivate the buffalo cows to release their milk easier and without the use of injected oxitocin a common problem with dairy buffaloes. Installing smaller. 4. Buenos Aires. to detect heat and to manage the rotating pastures. 6.PRODUCTION SYSTEM Bufalinda estimates that another 244 has of net graze-able land are necessary for the surrogate mothers. Herring bone dairy stalls with buffalo.5 hours. The typical amount of labor is one laborer every five stall pair. plus one half additional hour devoted to cleaning. Abril 2010 757 . Other important technical and design details of the Bufalinda dairy stalls are geared towards functionality. sufficient to milk the whole herd in about 4.

urea and minerals. with only 1. as the Bufalinda farm has proved this is entirely achievable by combining the following programs in a consistent and orderly manner: 1. In order to achieve good energy and protein levels in humidicola grass the fertility levels must be kept high. Thus Bufalinda needs to cut approximately 90 has per year per dairy unit. Haylage production for transfer to the dry season. molasses. Haylage Bufalinda´s rule of thumb is that one and a half 800 kilos round bales of haylage of 55% humidity are required by adult buffalo in order to maintain an excellent nutrition throughout the dry season.PRODUCTION SYSTEM Considerations About Double Purpose Milking Systems (With Calf) Bufalinda does not recommend the traditional "double purpose" method for buffalo milk production for the following reasons: 1. The rotational cycle for well fertilized humidicolas is 20 days in the rainy season and around 30 days in the dry season. with applications of 50 kilos of Urea and 50 kilos of an NPK mixture. Fertilization. one ha. the buffalo cow accepts in natural conditions suckling from calves that are not their own thus lending themselves very well for raising several calves simultaneously with surrogate mothers. Average yield per hectare per cut is 15 round bales. (or half a Rotational Pasture) three times during the months of July to December. The Bufalinda Feeding System Feeding 800 to 900 adult milking buffaloes in 500 has without irrigation and with very low use of purchased feeds is a challenge in tropical areas. which is typically done harvesting 30 has. using a mixer wagon. and as Bufalinda achieves three cuts per rainy season (one every 60 days) when rainfall is uniform. Bales are consumed from February to May. greener and digestible leaves than normal. 3. milking with calf requires handling smaller milking units due to the complexity of joining and separating calf and mother in each milking. produces 45 bales per season. This requires more labor and implies loss of economies of scale. a very high level indeed for the tropics (Bufalinda achieves 800 kilos of steer live weight in its fattening operation. Rotational Grazing System and Fertilization Bufalinda has brachiaria humidicola pastures which it fertilizes four times in the milking cow paddocks and two or three times a year in the non milking cow paddocks. Thus for each 850 buffalo dairy unit Bufalinda produces 1275 round bales or haylage.8 adult buffaloes per ha. With this management the average stocking rate per hectare year round is of about 1. 758 Proceedings 9th World Buffalo Congress . Purchased Feed In addition Bufalinda distributes a daily ration of about 10% of total DM consumption (about 1. For stuffing the bales in tubes Bufalinda uses a Silatube Pronovost machine and for distributing the bale it uses Haybuster bale processors.8 kilos per day per head) composed of corn or wheat meal. In this manner the humidicola totally changes from its normal appearance increasing the leave to stem ratio and producing much wider. which is equivalent approximately to 1250 kilos of live steer weight per ha. The surrogate mother method is simple and foolproof for tropical regions having very low mortality rates and excellent wait gains.. A buffalo cow on average raises 2 calves simultaneously and raises a total of 5 in a 280 day lactation. and the grass must not be allowed to grow more than 30 cm. considering the typical limitations of monsoon rains followed by a dry season and naturally unfertile soils with low organic matter contents. 2. only to the lactating cows herds. Low utilization of purchased feeds only for mineral and protein correction. High Frequency Rotational Grazing. 4.5 applications of fertilizer per year). Further sections of this paper delve deeper in the design and management aspects of RP. Yet. The RF utilized is twice daily for milking cows (once after each milking) and once every two days for non milking cows. As mentioned before haylage is produced by making round bales with highly fertilized freshly cut humidicola grass. and then stuffing them in a hermetic 50 mts long plastic tubes of 4 feet in diameter. 2.

3. • Paddocks are protected from over grazing at the end of the dry season. as it is not profitable to replace grass with grain based feeds in most of Latin American countries. Thus the purchased feed ration is not designed to substitute grass. Thus if we have a 200 cow herd that we need to feed for half a day (typically a twice a day rotation is used) then the farm hand will determine and layout the precise lot area in order to accommodate and feed the 200 buffalo cows during half a day without restrictions. The width of each Lot in a FLA RP should be no more than 150 meters in order to make it easy to change the portable fence. Design of FLA RP´s and VLA RP´s Boundary fencing is shown with three lines. For example if a Lot of an RP with FLA has 120 fattening steers and it can only sustain 100 head for one day. Rotational Paddocks There are two types of RP´s those with fixed lot area (RP with FLA) and those with variable lot area (RP´s with VLA). especially during the summer months. 4. equivalent to about 3 steers per ha. and the rotational sequence is shown with blue arrows. Buenos Aires.PRODUCTION SYSTEM The goal of this ration is to give an extra shot of protein to the cows with about 100 grams of urea per day and to force the ingestion of minerals in adequate quantity. from Lot to Lot. moveable fencing for dividing for front/back grazing of each lot are shown in red. and especially so in Venezuela. and milk production remains in general unaffected by the dry season. as buffaloes are incrementally restricted of direct grazing and more haylage under confinement is delivered. then the 20 head in excess are removed and sent elsewhere in order to avoid overgrazing and Cycle acceleration. RP´s with FLA are ideal for situations where the size of herd can be increased or decreased according to the supply of forage. 2. The central circulation street should be no less than 20 meters wide. CONCLUTION With this feeding strategy Bufalinda achieves: • An average stoking rate of 1. The width of each band in a VLA RP should be not wider than 200 meters for the same reason mentioned above. On the other hand in lactating cows. • Buffaloes are in excellent condition year round.8 adult buffalo per ha. internal electric fencing is show in black with one line. herd count cannot be easily changed therefore the VLA RP´s are recommended. to guarantee year round stress free transit to buffaloes. Other Considerations For The Design and Construction of RP´s 1. A sturdy at least three wire perimeter fence is required (middle line electric). In effect it is an "insurance" to protect the lactating herd from the risk of a sudden down fall in protein levels or minerals. This FLA RP has 10 main lots which are divided into 20 with the moveable electric fence. So this type of RP is suitable for non lactating herds. Abril 2010 759 .

83 x 85%/80%) por lo tanto ocupan los 10 rotativos de bandas de 400 has y piden prestado algunas parcelas más cercanas a los rotativos fijos. the six paddocks could be replaced by four FLA RP´s for a total of 8 identical FLA RP´s. Alternatively if a farmer does not want to deal with the added labor and complications of VLA RP´s. 760 Proceedings 9th World Buffalo Congress . The milking installations would be located at the middle and the Surrogate Mother Barn at one side: • Distribución del rebaño en el pico de lactancia (enero a abril): 400 búfalas en ordeñe requieren 420 has (0. During times of rapid pasture growth Cycles have to be accelerated and some paddocks left behind for haylage production. During times of slow growth herd size has to be decreased or alternatively the herd can be restricted of direct grazing while it is fed with haylage. for a total of 10 RP´s. one FLA RP for surrogate mothers two for heifers and one for dry pregnant cows.PRODUCTION SYSTEM Other Considerations in RP Management 1. A Final Design An ideal final design for a standard 500 ha milking unit would have six VLA RP´s for milking herds. Special care should be taken to avoid Cycle acceleration and overgrazing of the paddock. 2. Special care has to be taken to avoid overgrowth and lignification of the grass.

Abril 2010 761 . specially in the case of soybean. A new generation of technologies produced a massive expansion of the agricultural frontier. production systems. In the region.PRODUCTION SYSTEM Buffalo Production Systems in Argentina Eng. located in the Parana River basin. specially in northern areas. since under extensive conditions this allows for 20 % additional calving compared to cattle.com. Argentina.000 existing heads. the province of Formosa has 35. Keywords: buffalo.of. Buenos Aires. Zava Executive Director .000. Cattle breeding has been displaced from a large part of the humid pampas. The buffalo production systems that we will describe are located in both provinces. which results in slaughtering animals one year earlier. possibly by means of buffaloes. and 70-100 % additional weight gain. Marco A. north of 31° south latitude. Gral. subtropical area. This scenario favored a great expansion of the buffalo.Argentina bufalosmz@fibertel. 2 .ar ABSTRACT An agricultural revolution started in Argentina in the last 30 years. The production datas described in this paper really are an objective to be reached by the livestock industry in the country. An extraordinary cattle-breeding node is being developed in the Argentine northeast (NEA) and more recently in the northwest (NOA) of the country. The NEA holds most of the buffalo heads.000 and Corrientes has 30. The buffalo is becoming a fantastic tool for meat production in the subtropical regions of Argentina. annual rainfall. above 12 % per year. with 1000-2500 mm. Ramón Freire 183 . buffaloes occupy not only the low lands but also the high fields. It should also be highlighted that the buffalo cow productive life doubles that of cows. Of the 100. since 1992.Argentine Buffaloes Breeders Association Cap.(1426) Buenos Aires . where cattle breeding is not very efficient. also for dairy production.p. 40 . with humid subtropical climate. mostly in open low fields. and more recently.

biomass and nutritive value of herbage and biochemical composition of soil.martiniello@entecra.. pasturelands. scattered over the territories amount about to 7.. Keywords: fertilizers application.. development of native flora.M.. per Napoli Km 12.**Corresponding author: CRA ZOE. The mean heifers body gain was not differed in buffaloes bred in intensive system using unifeed alimentation.2 millions of hectare. ZPS)... The experiments aimed to detect the effect of the increase in topsoil on flora composition. herbage quality and small influence on flora composition and biochemical characteristic of topsoil. +390881880482. Roma. productivity and increasing biomass production and quality of the herbage of natural pasturelands. 1CRA ZOE. Odoardi3 M. (National Park. E-mail: pasquale. The biodiversity existing in these areas is protected by European law: 1. 2CRA PCM.2 In the last decade.. INTRODUCTION The Italian protected pasturelands of Mediterranean European Union. The effect of fertilizer applications on herbage was evaluated by grazing with buffalo heifers and tested with a similar flock bred in cowshed. The determinations were carried out on grass harvested in protected areas of sward. Pacelli4 C. The increase of soil of Ap horizon with chemical applications favouring germination of the indigenous seedbank born present in the sward.it ABSTRACT Herbage pasturelands production of 9 regions of Mediterranean European Union (EU) was weakened with drastic consequences on animal feeding and geological stability of land. the agro-pastoral activity stress the sward of the pastures with intensive grazing causing overgrazing of sward. Sabia4 E. herbage yield.Terzano2 G. Lodi. 4University of Basilicata. Mazzi2 M.S. 71100-Foggia (Italy) Tel. 762 Proceedings 9th World Buffalo Congress . Sites with Community Importance. flora composition. Caternolo1 G. The fertilizer application increased 47% biomass yield.PRODUCTION SYSTEM Buffalo's Grazing of Natural and Improved Sward Pasturelands in Protected Environments of Mediterranean European Union* Martiniello1** P. Ursino3 A. Annicchiarico1 G.. Potenza. Bella-Scalo. 3CRA FLC. SIS and Zones with Special Protection. NP. S.

Leguminousae and Compositae botanical families. respectively at the rate 36 and 96 kg ha-1: 4. The data of the traits reported in the tables consider only the effect of improved treatment over sites. Pasturelands of sites. All others were included in a miscellaneous group. Abril 2010 763 . The non variation of soil organic matter between control and fertilizer treatment evidenced that the compounds required for sustain the increase of dry matter production was achieved by microbial activity favoured the increase of soil fertility (Table 2):3 Table 2: Dry matter mean among phenological stage in natural and improved sward. Buenos Aires. harvest II (March). beginning of shooting. Comparisons among means were performed according to LSD statistical test at P=0. II. heading harvest III (April). was determined by harvests of biomass present in the surface of 1 m-2. Table 1: Biochemical characteristics of topsoil horizon (Ap35 cm) of the sward.5% in Legume.05 level of probability. flowering harvest IV (May) and dead plant harvest V (June). MFU and fibre in grass of improved sward (12%.25 m2 by iron fenced net boxes. in side and outside of the iron box.PRODUCTION SYSTEM MATERIALS AND METHODS The experiments was established in two pasturelands sites of southern Italy in 2006-7 (Environment I. The flora species were grouped into Graminaceae. The characteristics of the herbages and soil were assessed in protected surface of 2. were fertilised with combined nitrogen and phosphorous. harvest I (November). The content of crude protein. 6% and 4% higher than the control) showed statistical significance in harvests (Table 3). Gioi and Environment II. Monterotondo). The dynamics of grass growing and the intake of herbage browsed. in November of each year. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The effect of fertilizer not influence substantially the soil parameters content (Table 1). The effect of fertilizer application on average increased the Graminea flora by 34% and 6% those of 29. 18 buffalo heifers of about 6 months hold begun to graze the sward and were removed 18 months later. III. at phenological stage: herbaceous. IV and V harvest. The presences of flora species belonged to Compositae. respectively for I.

As consequences of fertilizer application on flora species with high nutritive values the content of MFU was 5. CONCLUSIONS The effect of pasture improvement increased qualitative and dry matter characteristic in all harvests.. 3. Hill JO. Gazzetta Ufficiale. 291. physiological peculiarity of animal and the opportunity to safeguard soil erosion. Boitani L. 56: 1027-1039. *C=Compositae..U. *M= Miscellaneous. 88 p. The flora composition as affect of fertilizer shoved small variation of botanical species.. 2002. valorise ecological and nutritional aspects of natural pasture. and Miscellaneous was 6% and 21%. Pasture improvement increase the availability of herbage feeding.. Chapman DF.7% higher than those of the control (Tables 3 and 4). Gazzetta Ufficiale Supplemento Ordinario N. Wood JT. The phosphorous and nitrogen requirements of temperate pasture species and their influence on grassland botanical composition. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research. Ministero dell'Ambiente. Table 4: Effect of the improved treatments among the harvests on improved sward. Moore AD.respectively increased and reduced (Table 4). Legge quadro sulle aree protette.. n. Il ruolo delle aree protette nella conservazione dei vertebrati. 2. Falcucci A. Rete ecologica Nazionale. 83 alla G. 2005. the morphological. *L=Legume. REFERENCES 1..PRODUCTION SYSTEM Table 3: Grass qualitative characteristic among harvests in natural and improved sward. 764 Proceedings 9th World Buffalo Congress . 1991. Montemaggiori A. Simpson RJ. *G=Graminea. Maiorana L. 1991..

A dominant feature of the relief is to integrate a sedimentary basin with poor drainage. To calculate the loads are considered in their requirements a buffalo cows is equivalent to 1. The buffalo production systems are mainly extensive. Tecnología de Alimentos. The animals come from an extensive system of service fall.3 (1) Prof. it is estimated that both cover 45% of the provincial surface (flooded 17% and floodprone 28%) 3. fattening.1. Measurements in animals were: body weight. reservoirs. mainly in the northeast of the Argentinian.UNNE.2 . Abril 2010 765 . The objective was to evaluate the production of buffalo meat kept in field under natural pastures from weaning to shipment for slaughter. Adj. (3) Becaria de pos-grado de SGCyT UNNE. Feeding the animals were subjected to continuous grazing field was natural and the health plan used was recommended for cattle. are low and flooded land (60.A. Cabral 2139 . coming in heat from March to June.weaning and 500 grs. marshes. hip height at the initial and final gasping. because its weight is greater in some 150 kilos. while the cattle does not exceed 40 kilos. easily reached with a diet of grass to 600 kg at 24 months. allows a perfect adaptation to the requirements of subtropical forage curve. (2) Prof. G. Tit. The animals used were buffalos steers crosses.550 kilos and a yield of 50 to 55% 8.PRODUCTION SYSTEM Buffalos steers pos-weaning growth rearing on natural pastures in the northwest of Corrientes Rébak. Corrientes. With respect to the weight of these we note that at 18 to 20 months can reach 450 to 500kg. has a network consisting of wetland marshes. Corrientes Esteros del Ibera in the coastal lowlands of the Rio Parana and Uruguay in Formosa . This feature allows the production of buffalo milk and meat. natural pastures humid subtropical climate.unne. Ynsaurralde Rivolta.70% of cattle).2 EV (cow equivalent). This allows the slaught at 27 to 30 months of age. The trial was conducted in Ita Ibaté. / day post . with prudent management of loads in the winter: a buffalo on average represents 1. A. Keywords: buffalo meat. but also in the subtropics. autumn calving and weaning of spring.edu. natural pasture INTRODUCTION In our country there are areas for buffalo unexploited or inefficiently exploited. with fibrous grasses (there must be a minimum of volume).(3400) Corrientes. Main activity is cattle and meat buffaloes with 1600 ha of downfield for the buffaloes production. e-maill: acapellari@vet. and ponds malezales. Sgto. FCV .ar ABSTRACT The natural mating service in the fall. Buenos Aires.3. The daily gain is remarkable: 700 grams / day pre . Chaco and Corrientes. not only in temperate zones. The buffalo do not need to go in heat waiting for the "flushing" of green grass that occurs during the spring. which determines the presence of vast areas flooded and flooding. The production per hectare per year ranging from 40 to 60 kilos. E.000 ha). with a live weight of 500 . Meat production in field under natural pastures for cattle disabled is a very important production alternative for the region. including low submeridional of the province of Santa Fe. covering an area of about 16.000 km2. Capellari.UNNE. rearing.I. General Paz Department of the Province of Corrientes. It suffices that the summer temperatures are moderate. Introducción a la Producción Animal FCV . the pre-delta in the province of Entre Rios and the Delta of the province of Buenos Aires 2. The calving rate varies between 80 and 98% (well above 60 .weaning (70 to 100% higher than cattle under the same conditions). The trail objective was to evaluate the production of buffalo meat in natural pastures from weaning to slaughter weight.

Measurements of annual weight gain of animals on natural pastures for growing a load of 1 head/ha in the area of agro-ZAH homogeneous flows II. Measurements in animals were: body weight. using natural field fodder only recourse is very similar to the growth curve of this range. The growth pattern for growing cattle. and the gasping for determining the timing tooth was performed when each animal was immobilized in the stocks of the box to operate.18 kg in low fields of natural pastures were higher compared with the 50 to 86 kg of meat per hectare per year is commonly achieved in the farms of Corrientes with natural pastures beef cattle 7. For live weight and the height is used a single scale and a tape measure. respectively. The animals used were buffalos steers crosses. Table 1: Number (n). 90 to 120 kg in Lomadas Sandy. Corrientes. Department of General Paz in the province of Corrientes. Come from an extensive farming system of continuous service in autumn and weaning of spring. The annual weight gain for growing cattle range from 70 to 80 kg in Malezales.5. Set in Depression Ibera known subunits: 2a. Is dominated by marsh vegetation. partly floating. Table 2: Frequency table of the final weight of buffalo steers at 20 months of age produced in natural pastures in Ita Ibaté. in Ita Ibaté. 766 Proceedings 9th World Buffalo Congress . rather trial and to the south of 145 kg LW/ha3. Corrientes. The total gain achieved by the buffalo in 379-day evaluation of 159. Ibera Marshes: swampy region dotted with lakes that decrease to the south and is an ecological environment with very few analogies in the world. The main activities include cattle and meat buffaloes with 1600 ha of downfield for the buffalo production. resulted in annual production of meat for the north 80 to 100 kg LW/ha. Feeding the animals were subjected to continuous grazing field was under natural pastures and the health plan used was recommended for cattle. hip height at weaning and final weight of steers buffalos crosses. minimum and maximum weaning weight. from 125 to 160 kg in South Central and 95 to 105 kg in the Northwest 4. and from which emerge some islands scattered arboreal vegetation (ZAH II) 3. average. The data sheets were settled in the farm and then were statistically analyzed by the Info-Stat program version 2009 for Windows by the technique of frequency distribution of simple series. hip height at the initial and final gasping. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The results are reported in Tables 1 and 2.PRODUCTION SYSTEM MATERIAL AND METHODS The trial was conducted in Ita Ibaté. There are eight months of weight gain of 500 g/day/animal and four months on weight maintenance during the winter. standard deviation (SD).

Abril de 2006 Nº 408. Serie Producción Animal. 1991. Arias. Abril 2010 767 . 43% weighing between 360 and 420 kg of live weight and 12% between 420 kg and 500 kg liveweight the second summer of their life or after the first winter unlike steers whose completion in our province performed mostly on natural pastures and the animals are marketed at 500 kg at 4-5 years of age.. REFERENCES 1. 6. y A. 25p. INTA.. enable and allowed for these and so many tasks. Sampedro. Argentina. Arias Usandivaras. 45p. 1999. EEA INTA Mercedes. Zava. O. O. Corrientes. Argentina.. Corrientes. Goldfarb.. Noticias y Comentarios Nº 344. 2004. y R.. Benítez. INTA. S. 2. Simposio Internacional de Forrajeras Subtropicales. Noticias y Comentarios. El nuevo rol del búfalo en la ganadería en el NEA (sistemas de producción de búfalos en Argentina).. 1979.PRODUCTION SYSTEM 45% of the buffaloes had a final weight of between 290 and 360 kg of live weight. 2005. Royo Pallares. Corrientes. Bol Técnico N°5. G. C. y A. Argentina. Buenos Aires. Royo Pallares. Celcer. Facultad de Agronomía y Zootecnia. Argentina.. Acknowledgments. Conti.. Bol Técnico N°3. O. Meat production in natural pasture often unusable for cattle production is an important alternative for buffalo production in the region. Provincia de Corrientes: Zonas Agroeconomicas Homogéneas. y A. 2000. 3. Producción animal en seis pastizales del este de la provincia de Corrientes. Ed. Pizzio. Kraemer. based economically in production of primary products. Corrientes. Características productivas del búfalo en Argentina. Serie Técnica N°34. Suplementación de vacunos en pastizales naturales. Mercedes.. Argentina. essential to the progress of a country like ours. 62p. company directory.A. D. INTA. A.A. F.. F. M. M. O. Serie Técnica Nº 36. Manunta. El mejoramiento genético de los bovinos de carne en la Provincia de Corrientes. 4. A. y Acosta. D. Ed. 4.M. Manunta. Experiencias con pasturas subtropicales cultivadas en la Provincia de Corrientes. Arias. Corrientes. Vogel. This represents a gain of 70 to 90 kg/animal/year 6. personnel of the farm and all who accompanied. M. R. Vallejos. Slobodzian. Evaluación bajo pastoreo de pasto pangola en exarroceras.p. 2006. Universidad Nacional de Tucumán. EEA INTA Mercedes. D. Ed. INTA. 7. O. Corrientes. EEA Mercedes. Serie Producción Animal. 8. Calvi. Argentina. 5. Memorias del 1er Seminario de NEA. 2007. Delfino. Especially the professional technical staff. Ed. 26p..

Brasil. RJ . Brazil* Dos Santos. Av. E. Departamento de Zootecnia. due likely to the sugar-alcohol crisis that drove the creation of this industry. As for the technological management.3 The aim of the present study was to characterize the dairy buffalo industry in the state of Pernambuco.M. Recife -PE. bolsista do CNPq. pasture with dry roughage supp lamentation represented 66. The questions addressed infrastructural and technological management aspects. which found deficiencies in the general management of the herds.Professora Adjunta.1 Buffalos were introduced in the state in the early 1970s. Rodovia BR 465. Keywords: Production System. among which 19. Dois Irmãos. Dom Manoel de Medeiros. The farms were located with help from the Builders Association of Buffalo and Defense Agency and Supervisory Agricultural State of Pernambuco. feed management and milking management. Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco. 2-Professora do Departamento de Zoote cnia.31 million heads. but only six of them explored buffalo milk. UFRPE. Brazil. 42. and in 57. K.82% had fewer than 50 cows. Farmers were handed with a questionnaire with the purpose of gathering data on their farms. Modesto. the buffalo milk producers in Pernambuco use low-cost system with low technology adoption. A survey in the Zona da Mata of state was carried out in 1998. milk production and technological management. From the inspected farms. Dom Manoel de Medeiros.B4 1-Aluna do Programa de Doutorado Integrado em Zootecnia. 3. Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco. Dois Irmãos. Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro. INTRODUCTION Buffalo herds in Brazil total approximately 1. Brasil. bolsista de Produtividade em Pesquisa do CNPq. s/n. km 07 s/n Seropedica. Mostly.2. Recife-PE.1. 50% were greater than 100 hectares. A. The buffalo has adapted well to the environmental conditions of the region.L.14% of them the milking was conducted manually with calf at foot.239 are raised in the state of Pernambuco. Av. Av.com ABSTRACT The objective was to identify and characterize the producers of buffalo milk in the state of Pernambuco.PRODUCTION SYSTEM Characterization of Buffalo Management on Dairy Farms in the State of Pernambuco. UFRPE. Vieira Batista. its average land area and access roads.3. regional particularities and common market demands is a valuable tool for decisionmaking processes and more efficient production on buffalo farms. The study was conducted in eighteen different farms from January to October 2009. Dois Irmãos. Dom Manoel de Medeiros. Infrastructural issues were centered at identifying the farm's location.2 Studies on buffalo production systems in Pernambuco are scarce. Recife -PE. its goal was to define which technical resources being used for reproductive management. as buffalos occupy lands that are improper for sugarcane plantations and cattle raising.2 Information generated from reliable data and related to milk production systems.66% of intake food.C.43% held natural breeding.Brasil. Brasil 4-Aluno do programa de p ós-graduação em Zootecnia. 768 Proceedings 9th World Buffalo Congress . as expressed by the low use of technologies despite the integration of buffalo raising and the sugar-alcohol industry. s/n. E-mail: keylasantos@gmail. Marcelo José Da Silva. 71. The data obtained from the questionnaire were subjected to frequency analysis so to identify common points. s/n. F. UFRPE. Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco.

1).15% carry out other activities: 28.5 The predominant breed in the production systems is Murrah. Table 1: Characterization of production systems on buffalo dairy farms in the state of Pernambuco. Sairé and Canhotinho. The farms were located with the assistance of the Association of Buffalo Raisers and the State of Pernambuco Livestock Defense and Monitory Agency. feeding management and milking management were investigated. cattle and sheep. and 14. with a greater percentage (42. only seven of which were dairy farms. Água Preta. Brazil. The properties were located in the municipalities of Vitória de Santo Antão.57% raise buffalo and cattle. which facilitates the commercialization of the products. This breed is an excellent milk animal. Buenos Aires. half of these dairy farms are located in the wet coastal region and half in the semi-arid hinterland of the state. technical reproductive management resources.16 km. Quipapá. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Dairy buffalo farming represents 33. with production between 1500 and 4000 liters in an average of 300 days of lactation. In general.4 A semi-structured questionnaire with both open-ended and closed-ended questions was used for the characterization of the farms with regard to infrastructure and technological management.29% raise buffalo.6 The number of matrices varied with the property size. In relation to infrastructure. The official record of the 2006 Livestock Census reports 11 buffalo dairy farms. A total of 71.29% raise buffalo and cattle and produce sugarcane. whereas 50% of the farms were larger than 100 hectares (Table 1).86%) for properties with less than 50 matrices.PRODUCTION SYSTEM MATERIALS AND METHODS A survey of buffalo milk production units in Pernambuco was carried out between January and October 2009. Brazil Figure 1: Principal types of buffalo production systems in the state of Pernambuco. This value is above the national average of 15% for milk production and 85% for meat production. which pertain to the wet coastal and semi-arid hinterland regions of the state of Pernambuco (Brazil). Ribeirão.32% of the buffalo exploitation in the state of Pernambuco (Figure. 14. area of the property and access to the farm were investigated. Eighteen farms were visited. Despite the help of these organizations.42% of the farms have areas with a river and/or ponds. location. Concerning technological management. 57. there is no information on the actual number of buffalo dairy farms and there is a lack of stimulus on the part of producers to form associations. The data obtained were submitted to frequency analysis for the identification of the most common points. Among the producers interviewed. Abril 2010 769 . The average distance from town is 11. buffalo milk is not the exclusive source of income of the producers.

14% of the farms and performed once a day (in the morning) on 85.Fernandes. D.V.08.PRODUCTION SYSTEM Age is used as a requisite for the first mating of the females on 85. Rev.. Mounting is natural on 71.S.82% of the farms. Only 33. Matarazzo. 6. at 24 months on 66.57% make us of artificial insemination and/or estrous synchronization.C. Milking is manual on 57. with grass/legume supplementation in the dry season. A.pdf. A.66% of the farms. The predominant production system employs grazing.66% of the farms. REFERENCES 1. J. A.43% of the farms. On 66. grazing is rotative. The pasture feeding system is employed. Científica Eletrônica de Medicina Veterinária.ibge. 565-577. Censo Agropecuário 2006.M. n. S. ano IV. p. Rev.33% of the farms use some type of grain/seed supplementation. Mcmanus. formed by species from the genera Braquiaria and Pangola.. First mating occurs prior to 24 months on 16.14 and 42. Country report on the state of animal genetic resources. Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias.66% of the farms and at 36 months of age on 16. caracterização e diagnóstico.71% of the farms surveyed. J. J. 2008. This is likely due to the fact that these methods require a greater degree of organization on the part of the producer. I. p. n. Documentos Embrapa Nº 99. Produção Pecuária Municipal 2007.67% of the farms.. A. 2. Only 28.71% of the farms. Deficiencies in feeding management and milking hygiene were observed.Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). Bras. A.1-62. 2003. Lopes. p. Panizza.S.D. G.B. Post-dipping is not performed on any of the farms surveyed and less than 50% use tests for the detection of mastitis (strip cup test and California Mastitis Test). Unesp.Mariante. Practices such as washing the teat and predipping are performed on 57. The presence of the calf is also obligatory to stimulate the release of the milk. with low use of technology. 2008. medium-sized and small farms. respectively.Lopes. Z.F. Martins. 5. M. http:// www. p. C.Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). Dissertação mestrado. v. Mendonça.. Sistemas produtivos de búfalos na zona canavieira de Pernambuco. Filho. 4. 3. Introdução de búfalos no Brasil e sua aptidão leiteira. v. Brasília. Caracterização de unidades produtoras de leite na área de abrangência do escritório de desenvolvimento rural de Jaboticabal. Buffalo milk production in the state of Pernambuco occurs on large. 2007.br/home/estatistica/economia/ agropecuaria/censoagro/2006/agropecuario. Campus de Jaboticabal.3... S.121.97. de Saúde Produção. 2008.9.gov. 2006. 35.Rosa. 770 Proceedings 9th World Buffalo Congress ..

22. Heat storage and heat production differed significantly (p<0.00. dry bulb and wet bulb temperature. Dairy Cattle Physiology Division. RT.. 18.01) during spring and summer season compared to winter in both growing and adult buffaloes. with respect to environmental variables. spring (Feb-March) and summer (April-May) season.00 hrs during summer compared to spring and winter. Keywords: circadian. heat production.01) among adult and growing buffaloes during spring and summer season. skin temperature (ST) and pulse rate (PR)].e.00 and 2.00. Physiological responses (RR.00 hrs than at 2.00 hrs. wind speed was also recorded at the same interval and THI was calculated. Heat loss through skin and pulmonary system was higher (p<0.05) heat load was observed in adult compared buffaloes during summer. Oxygen consumption of growing and adult Murrah buffaloes was found to be significantly higher (p<0. minimum and maximum temperature. Keeping the hypothesis in mind. Karnal -132001 (India) ABSTRACT Rhythmicity in physiological parameters is an important process both as convenient and reliable markers of operation of the biological clock and as an indicator of general health of an animal.00 hrs interval i..00. National Dairy Research Institute. Significantly higher (p<0. THI showed a positive correlation with physiological responses. The circadian rhythmicity in physiological functions with change in environmental variables was found to be maximum at 14. Buenos Aires. Vir Singh. 14. 6 each of growing (8-12 months) and adult (18-24 months) female Murrah buffaloes were selected from NDRI herd to monitor the circadian physiological functions during winter (Dec.01) in adult compared to growing buffaloes during summer. Environmental variables viz. P.00 hrs) for maintaining normal physiological conditions and productivity. heat storage and negative with heat loss.PRODUCTION SYSTEM Circadian variations in heat production and heat loss in Murrah buffaloes during different season Vaidya. Abril 2010 771 . V. Physiological functions were recorded at 4. M. ST and PR) increased significantly (p<0. oxygen consumption. Therefore. buffaloes INTRODUCTION Rhythmicity of physiological parameters in farm animals is important from an economic perspective because knowledge of these processes can lead to improvements in stress and disease management through better knowledge of animal's rhythmic behavior.00 to 16. 10. Physiological responses [respiration rate (RR).00.S. relative humidity. Kumar.Jan). rectal temperature (RT).01) at 14.00 hrs which enabled Murrah buffaloes to maintain the thermal balance. In order to find out the rhythmicity in heat production and heat loss in Murrah buffaloes during different seasons present study was carried out. heat production and heat loss through sweating and panting were recorded at four hourly intervals round a day. oxygen consumption. buffaloes required special protection particularly during summer stress (10. 6. variations.

20C in growing Murrah buffaloes at 2. 7.1: Circadian variations in RT (0C) and RR (breaths/min) of adult and growing Murrah buffaloes during different seasons.5 and 10 beats /min in adult and growing Murrah buffaloes at 2. During winter. 70C and 10 0C.00pm compared to 2. pulse rate (PR) and skin temperature (ST). 50C and 9. spring and summer season respectively. 7.01) in both the groups of buffaloes.e. Almost similar increasing trend in RR was observed in growing buffaloes (Fig. Fig.70C and 0. The physiological parameters viz.00am. The RR increased by 4.10C.PRODUCTION SYSTEM MATERIALS AND METHODS Twelve Murrah buffaloes were selected from the NDRI. RT (0C Fig.0 breaths/min at 2.00 am during winter. Circadian change in the heart rate of Murrah buffalo calves and adults3. rectal temperature (RT).0 beats /min and 5. RT RR and PR recorded during afternoon and night differed significantly (p<0.00am respectively (Fig. 2: Circadian variation variations in PR (beats/min) and ST (0C) in adult and growing Murrah Buffaloes during different seasons. spring and summer season.8 0C. The study was conducted during winter. The oxygen consumption (Vo2) was recorded by using modified Benedict-RothCollins Spirometer. Increase in all the physiological responses was recorded as the ambient temperature increased in both the group of animals maintained inside and outside the shelter 6. the RT increased by 1. ST was increased by 9. 5.1). spring and summer season. The overall mean values varied significantly during spring. 0. growing (8-12 months) and adults (24-48 months).00pm compared to 2. Heat loss through respiratory tract was measured by ventilated mask method.90C in adult and 0. The PR increased by 8.2). relative humidity were recorded at the similar intervals and temperature humidity index (THI) was calculated. oxygen consumption. Karnal herd and further divided equally into two groups i.30C. dry and wet bulb temperature.00am compared to 6. respectively (Fig.5 and 6.1). RR (breaths/min) PR (beats/min) 772 ST (0C) Proceedings 9th World Buffalo Congress . 0.20C in adult and growing Murrah buffaloes at 10. Diurnal variation in skin temperature of different body parts was reported in response to heat stress in male buffalo3.0. The data were analyzed statistically using suitable statistical models.2). The environmental variables viz.00pm over 6. heat production (oxygen consumed) and heat loss through sweating and panting were recorded at 4-hourly intervals during 24 hours a day. minimum and maximum temperature. spring and summer season.00am in adult Murrah buffaloes during winter. Heat loss through skin was measured using ventilated capsule method5. spring and summer season respectively (Fig.80C and 1.0 and 8. respiration rate (RR). 7.40C. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Physiological responses: During winter.

00am. 0. Studies on rectal temperature. NDRI Deemed University.A.1 in adult and 0. 3.J. Upadhyay R. 1989.3). India. Evaporation from the skin is the major route of heat dissipation in cattle exposed to hot environment as compared to pulmonary evaporative losses4.00am (Fig. RR. Med. 2.00pm compared to 2. Re. Abril 2010 773 . 1985. 1980.00pm as compared to 2.K. Brody. Seasonal variation in some body reactions and blood constituents in lactating buffaloes and Friesian cows with reference to acclimatization. Fig. respiratory rate and heat tolerance in cattle in humid tropics. and Singh B.8 l/m growing Murrah buffaloes at 2. 8. Association. Finch. Buenos Aires.P. During spring and summer heat loss through skin increased significantly (p<0. S. spring and summer season. Studies on physiological responses of man and animals with different tillage tools under field conditions. Indian J Dairy Sci 42:332. 755 and 970 kJ/h in growing buffaloes at 2. During summer the heat loss through pulmonary system increased significantly (p<0. O.A. V. M. McLean. 36: 497-508. Singh. 1963a. Amakiri. Das. Soly.Sc.A. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION The physiological responses (RT. M. 40:63. Egyptian Vet.S.05) by 588.. 1640 and 2597 kJ/h in adult and 1226. 0. Thakur. Measurement of cutaneous moisture vaporization from cattle by ventilated capsules. Bioenergetics and growth. 7. and Madan. S. 1945. J. 5. Heat production in animals has been shown to vary with environmental temperature2.L. Salam. PR and ST) and heat production increased significantly (p<0. Livestock Prodn Sci 61: 71-78. HLSK (kj/h) REFERENCES HLPS (kj/h) 1.66 and 0. Karnal.00pm as compared to 2.45 and 2. 1999. Heat loss through the skin was found to be major route accounting for about three forth of the total heat loss.00am. 3: Variation in Vo2 (l/min)heat production (kj/h) in adult and growing Murrah buffaloes Oxygen consumption (l/min) Heat Production (kJ) Fig.00pm as compared to 2. 2001. in both adults and growing buffaloes during different seasons. (Haryana). 4: Variation in heat loss through skin and heat loss through pulmonary system (kJ/h) in adult and growing Murrah Buffaloes during different seasons. Reinhold Publ. J.C.66. and Funsho. M.N. 28: 329-335.A. M.00am (Fig. spring and summer.01) at 2 pm as compared to respective values at 2 am. J Physiol 167: 417-426 6. T.05) by 485 and 1041 in adult and 100 and 308 kJ/h in growing Murrah buffaloes at 2.PRODUCTION SYSTEM During winter. Comparison of non evaporative heat transfer in different cattle breeds.01) by 240 and 127 kJ/h in adult and growing Murrah buffaloes respectively at 2.4). The result of the study indicated suitable manangemental practices should be followed for reducing thermal heat load. Heat stress in Murrah buffalo calves. Australian J Agri. Corp. heat Production increased significantly (p<0. Physiological and hematological responses of crossbred males under different housing conditions. S. 1979. 4.C.05) by 0.F. Thesis. New York. Animal Prod. During winter. U. oxygen consumption increased significantly (p<0.45. I.

Sakyo-ku. HG and HW was higher in LF than in SF (P<0.PRODUCTION SYSTEM Comparison of Bodyweight and Body Size of Growing Buffaloes between Large and Small Scale Farms in Nepal Hayashi. K. Rampur.ac. the improvement of growth rate in buffaloes is required for efficient dairy and meat production.79AM+50. Y. 140. Kasugai. Faculty of Agriculture.0 cm.03.2 1Experimental Farm. buffaloes are remarkable for the meat production in the country. 169. Kumagai.3 cm. the variance of the growth remains obscure. The comparison indicated that the improvement of feeding and breeding managements in buffaloes was still required for the efficient growth of buffaloes in SF. Although there are different developments of buffaloes between large-scale and small-scale farms.0 cm and 47. respectively. criss-cross height (CH).8 cm. *The study was supported by a fund for research project in 2007 from Meijo Asian Research Center and a grant-in aids for scientific research (No.97 in the both sex (P<0. the corresponding values of SF reached to 200. BL.3Graduate School of Agriculture. Therefore. E-mail: yoshiha@ccmfs.01). M.jp ABSTRACT The bodyweight (BW). BL. Oiwake-cho. body length (BL).0 kg.0 kg. 19405041) from the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).0 cm. the present study is conducted to compare the body dimension of growing buffaloes raised by large-scale and small-scale farms. Nepal INTRODUCTION Buffaloes are essential animals which have been raised for draught and dairy in Nepal. The mean WHR of BW.85.31AM+38. Hishigaike. Kyoto University. Postal Address: 4311-2. 115. Meijo University.2 cm. The development of the buffaloes was faster in LF than in SF.01). The corresponding equations of SF were as follows: The male BW=6. the average WHR of CH in SF was higher than that in LF (P<0. Chitwan. However.01). The following equations to show the average BW (kg) with age of month (AM) in the buffaloes of LF were calculated: The male BW=9. Tribhuvan University. The development of the body measurements. The correlation coefficient between BW and HW was 0. Takaki-cho. 4). The BWR in male and female had higher average values in SF than in LF (P<0.01). Kyoto. The maximum of BW.2. Nepal. 2).8 cm.11. HG and HW in the buffaloes less than 24 months old of LF reached to 365. heart girth (HG) and hip width (HW) in the total 143 head of growing buffaloes raised by a large-scale farm (LF) in Kaski and small-scale farms (SF) in Chitwan were measured for presenting the growth differences of the buffaloes in Nepal. respectively.meijo-u. buffalo. On the other hand.21AM+41. WH. K. comparison. 123. Shah. 126. 123. growth. 113. Keywords: body size. the BW ratio (BWR) and the withers height ratio (WHR) of each body trait was compared between LF and SF. 2Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science. The female BW=5.1. The BW of the 24 months old buffaloes calculated by the equations differed around 90 kg between LF and SF.5 cm.5 cm.3. A few studies on body size variation of growing buffaloes have been conducted3. S.0 cm and 37. As Nepalese do not eat beef due to their religious reasons. bodyweight. the consumption of milk and meat produced by buffaloes has been increasing in Nepal1.14. The phenotypic correlation coefficient between every pair of traits in the buffaloes was calculated. 109. 606-8502 Japan. 486-0804 Japan. H. CH. 774 Proceedings 9th World Buffalo Congress . Hence. Shah. withers height (WH). The female BW=9. Kitashirakawa.88AM+30. In addition.

The BW of the 24 months old buffaloes calculated by the equations differed around 90 kg between LF and SF (Figure 1). The female WH=0.3 cm. HG and HW was higher in LF than in SF (P<0. 113. respectively. The female BW=5. (Figure 2). The every pair of traits had high correlation (P<0. Kaski and private small-scale farms (SF) in Chitwan were selected for the survey from July 2007 to March 2009. The maximum of BW. The corresponding formulae of SF were calculated: The male WH=1. respectively.01).966 in male and female. The correlation coefficient between BW and HW was 0. withers height (WH). and 319.86. respectively. The female WH=1. 109.0 cm and 36.0 cm and 46. The phenotypic correlation coefficient between every pair of traits in the buffaloes was calculated.2 cm. BL. The possibility of efficient growth in buffaloes with the improvement of feeding and breeding in SF was suggested.8 cm. 126. respectively.42. 115. 108. 120.14.61.31AM+38. 169. The bodyweight (BW). respectively. BL. the corresponding values of SF reached to 200. Sixty five percent of the total buffaloes were born from June to October when pasture was available to be taken by the animals5).45AM+85.0 cm in female.5 cm in male. The development of the buffaloes was faster in LF than in SF. The age of the buffaloes was from 4 to 24 months old in male and from 5 to 24 months old in female.0 kg.92AM+81. BW and WH were used for the regression analyses to establish the formulae to estimate BW and WH with age in the growing buffaloes. WH. HG and HW in the buffaloes of LF reached to 365.79AM+50. The present study was carried out with the regard to the ethical treatment of animals.3 cm. body length (BL).11. The buffaloes were considered to have a seasonal breeding. The following equations to show the average BW (kg) with age of month (AM) in the buffaloes of LF were calculated: The male BW=9. 112. The values of age.71AM+73.5 cm.0 cm and 37. On the other hand. The corresponding equations of SF were as follows: The male BW=6.03. The female BW=9. Although the BW is usually estimated using HG. the BW ratio (BWR) and the withers height ratio (WHR) of each body trait was compared between LF and SF.01). criss-cross height (CH). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Totally 84 and 59 head of buffaloes in LF and SF were studied. 123.8 cm. The formulae to estimate WH with AM in the buffaloes of LF were as follows: The male WH=1.88AM+30.6 cm.01).0 cm and 47.0 cm in female.6 cm.PRODUCTION SYSTEM MATERIALS AND METHODS The total 143 head of buffaloes which unused for dairy and drought raised by a large-scale farm (LF). The breed of buffaloes was Murrah and Murrahcross. The BWR and WHR of each body trait of the buffaloes in LF and SF were shown in Table 1 and 2.8 cm. Buenos Aires.0 cm in male.0 kg. 108. Abril 2010 775 . The mean WHR of BW. The results indicated that the body of buffaloes in SF was thinner than that in LF. 123.73. the average WHR of CH in SF was higher than that in LF (P<0. However. Livestock Development Farm in Lampatan.21AM+41.969 and 0. 123. The BWR in male and female had higher average values in SF than in LF (P<0.0 kg. 150.01). CH. 123.34AM+85. and 176. This condition indicated that the proportion of BW with body size in SF was lower than that in LF. HW is also assumed to be the effective body trait for BW estimation of growing buffaloes. The phenotypic correlation coefficient between every pair of traits in the buffaloes in LF and SF was shown in Table 3. The development of body was considered to be slower in SF than in LF. heart girth (HG) and hip width (HW) of the growing buffaloes.0 kg.0 cm.2 cm.85. 135. 140.0 cm.

2006. FAOSTAT.01 Table 3: Phenotypic correlation between every pair of traits in the buffaloes Male above the diagonal and female under the diagonal. P<0. feeding and management. Rome. Shah MK. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2009.01 Table 2: Withers height ratio (WHR) in the buffaloes less than 24 months old ab: P<0. Proceedings CD of the 13th Animal Science Congress of the Asian-Ausralasian Association of Animal Production Sciences (2. 08). Feeding traits. Tabata Y. 2008. Kumagai H. Sector Analysis and Policy Branch. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). ab: P<0. Shah MK. 4. Hayashi Y. Nepal. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 9: 143-145. Shah SK. nutritional status and milk production of dairy cattle and buffalo in small-scale farm in Terai. 2. Livestock Information. REFERENCES 1. Maharjan KL. Kumagai H. 776 Proceedings 9th World Buffalo Congress . 2005. Livestock Sector Brief.Ruminal nutrition. 19405041) from the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).01. Feeding trait and body dimension of growing buffaloes raised by small-scale farms in Tarai. Kumagai H. Nepal. Body weight and body size of growing buffaloes raised in Nepal.aspx#ancor 3.org/site/ 569/default. [cited 28 December 2009] URL: http://faostat. Oral. Italy. Nepal. Asian-Austral Asian Journal of Animal Sciences 19: 189-197.fao. Hayashi Y. Hayashi Y. 2008. 5.PRODUCTION SYSTEM Table 1: Bodyweight ratio (BWR) in the buffaloes less than 24 months old Acknhowledgements: The study was supported by a fund for research project in 2007 from Meijo Asian Research Center and a grant-in aids for scientific research (No. Shah SK.

B. with bigger values in May (38 movement/minute) and lesser in June (31 movement/minute). 38.Tv. respiratory frequency and index of tolerance to the heat of buffaloes of the Murrah race. The average values of the ITH only showed differences between the turns of the morning (2. in the turn of the afternoon. what it becomes very sensible to the direct solar radiation. Tv.UFRA. Ceara State. Av. Para State.05) between the months. Belém. was superior to temperatures takes in the morning. in Group WS. pertaining to this group.A. Viana.) in the rectal temperature. 1700 .UFRA . A.6.S). Belem. in two periods of the day (7 A. Para State.05) between the turns. entirely randonized distributed. respectively of Groups WS and S.24) and the afternoon (2.A. A. Para State. 38.5 Researcher Embrapa Eastern Amazon. Buenos Aires.M.4ºC. Student in Zootecnic. The statistical analysis presented differences significant (P<0. The buffaloes of Group S (n=10) had remained in pasture shadings for the leguminous Acacia mangium. respiratory frequency. reduced amount of sweat glands and density of hair.UFC.4. J.Tv.46). in rotationed grazing.WS and Group With Shading .5.R. Dr. The period of adaptation of the animals to the systems was of 14 days. 1 Graduate degree of Rural Federal University of Amazonia . Para State. Dr. with Brachiaria humidicola.6 and 38. the RT of the turn in the afternoon. Federal University of Ceara UFC. B. Belém. Paranjana.1.CEP 66. have specific structural characteristics. Lourenço Júnior. The buffaloes.Campus do Itaperi. Brazil. N. Rural Federal University of Amazonia .M. ABSTRACT The effect of the climatic conditions of the Brazilian Eastern Amazon on the rectal temperature (RT).B. The physiological variable was taking in two turns in the morning (7 AM) and in the afternoon (13 PM).R.Benezra was evaluated. 4 Postgraduate degree of Federal University of Para State UFPA and Federal Rural University of Amazonia .CEP 66. Nahúm.8ºC.A. Santos. 20 female buffaloes of the Murrah race. in the climatic conditions of the Eastern Amazon Region. Fortaleza. Eneas Pinheiro s/n.UFRA .. Brazil. s/n.F. s/n.UFRA . DSc. s/n. Tancredo Neves. J. R.095-100.5. 6 Graduate degree of Rural Federal University of Amazonia . Brazil . Eneas Pinheiro s/n. Belém. Being thus. Tv. was different (P<0. Student in Agricultural Sciences. Brazil. Tancredo Neves.S. Belem. Brachiaria humidicola.095-100. Para State. in silvopastoral system.PRODUCTION SYSTEM Effect of the climatic conditions of the brazilian eastern amazon in the tolerance to the heat in buffaloes (bubalus bubalis) created on the shading and sun Silva. physiological variable. respiratory frequency (RF) and index of tolerance to the heat (ITH) . Araújo. and 1 P. Abril 2010 777 .3. for the two treatments. silvopastoral system.4 and 38.Tv. The RF. Garcia. rectal temperature. Brazil. e-mail: jamileandrea@yahoo.2. this research aims to evaluate the effect of the availability of shade of trees (leguminous Acacia mangium). while of Group WS (n=10) was kept in pasture without access to the shade. 3 Postgraduate degree of Federal University of Ceara . Tancredo Neves. All the animals had access to the water to drink and mineral salt "add libitum".com. with raised concentration of melanin in the skin. Keywords: Bioclimatology. in two experimental groups (Group Without Shading . These climatic conditions are a challenge for the homoeothermic animals that has difficulties in wasting heat to restore its thermal balance corporal.br 2 DSc. INTRODUCTION The climate of the Eastern Amazon Region is characterized for presenting high temperatures and relative humidity of the air. Brazil .

778 Proceedings 9th World Buffalo Congress .26'. Para State. The studied physiological variable. in Eastern Amazon.) and to the afternoon (1:00 P.03" W).4) + 4. annual average relative humidity of air 85%. Belem.6 and 38.8 x T + (RH/100) x (T-14.M. according to Köppen.05% of significance.M..M. of January to June 2009. non-lactating.400 hours of annual insolation 2.001 mm. with scale until 44ºC. of morning (7:00 A.26'. Table 1.) and to the afternoon (1:00 P. In Figure 1 is illustrated the variation of the RT in the experimental period.33 + RF/23. 38. while Group WS (n=10) was kept without access to the shade.03" S and 48°. and from them. of morning (7:00 A. where: T = temperature (ºC) and RH = relative humidity of air (%). rectal temperature (RT) and respiratory frequency (RF) was surveyed two times per week.M.). Figure 2: Variation of respiratory frequency of buffaloes created without shade (WS) and shade (S).4]. pertaining to the Embrapa Eastern Amazon. with the aid of clinical thermometer veterinarian.4 and 38.Were used 20 Murrah buffaloes.4ºC. in the experimental period. Group S (n=10) remained in rotation pasture. The local climatic type is the Afi. with access the water to drink and mineral salt ad libitum. per the morning and to the afternoon. Descriptive analyses and of variance were made.0) indicate that the animals are adapted to the environment. randomized.without shade). The pluvial precipitation annual average is 3. was calculated the Index of Temperature and Humidity (ITH) 8: ITH: [0. of January to June of 2009. The climatic variable referring to the temperature of air (AT) and relative humidity of air (RHA) were gotten in the Meteorological Station of the INMET . with 38.05) between averages of the turns and treatments had been observed. The averages of climatic variable and the index of temperature and humidity. in poles with shade of trees of the leguminous Acacia mangium. average weight 359kg. also. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Figure 1: Variation of rectal temperature of buffaloes created without shade (WS) and shade (S). to 7:00 A. The period of adaptation was of 14 days. in rotation pasture. per the afternoon. The animals were distributed. in Groups WS and S.M. cyclical. Average values of the relative humidity of air (HRA).M. Brazil. in Belem/Para State. and for the inspection and counting of the thorax-abdominal movements. where RT: rectal temperature and RF: respiratory frequency. during one minute (movement/minute). and 13:00 P. values next the two (2.2º DISME. 0. The calculation was effected using the formula: ITH = RT/38. version 12.8ºC. in silvopastoral system. The feeding was of the pasture "quicuio-da-Amazônia" (humidicola Brachiaria). annual average temperature 27ºC and 2. located the 500 meters of the experimental area.PRODUCTION SYSTEM MATERIALS AND METHODS This Work was lead in the Unit of Research "Senator Alvaro Adolpho" (01°. superiors to the the morning.with shade and Group WS . Brazil. between four and five years old. Significant differences (P<0. in Eastern Amazon. in two experimental groups (Group S . temperature of air (AT) and index of temperature and humidity (ITH). in the SYSTAT. The Index of tolerance to the heat of Benezra 3 was used. are in Table 1.).

). In them. These results are in accordance with literature 9. in order to keep the body temperature in normal levels. March and April had differences (P<0. between Groups WS and S and turns.1ºC.4 mov./min. Research in Rondônia State. in elapsing of the period of collection of data. The averages of the index of tolerance to the heat of Benezra. where the RT passed of 38. In both the studied groups. per the morning and late. the RT was significantly superior in the turn of the afternoon. when the ambient temperature if found higher. The daily average value of the index of tolerance to the heat of Benezra was 2. that it can have occurred due to adaptation acquired for the animals. In Table 2 are the average results of the rectal temperature. in mud puddles formed by the water of rain. respiratory frequency and index of tolerance to the heat of Benezra.05) was only between turns.05) between the months. Similar results had been gotten in Eastern Amazon 4. in Belem. had presented resulted similar. Per the morning and to the afternoon.05) occurred between the months. when they presented differentiated behavior. Para State. buffaloes created to the shade and the sun.7ºC for 39. in 70% of the carried through comments./min. what it proves the importance of the shade in the animal ambience. Table 2: Averages of the rectal temperature.05) had been only between the turns. with buffaloes created in silvopastoral system 6.05) in all months.) and minors in June (31 mov. Brazil. per the morning and to the afternoon. 2. May and June the differences (P<0. Brazil.55ºC). in buffaloes created to the shade and the sun. per the morning and to the afternoon. is presented in Figure 2. May and June the difference (P<0.6 for 48. as form to waste the excess of corporal heat. Brazil 1. respectively.PRODUCTION SYSTEM In the experimental period had significant differences (P<0.05) between Groups WS and S and turns. the animals lay down.3 for 39. in both the turns.05) of the index. Buenos Aires. as of the Brazilian Amazon. when they desire to thermorregular. had significant difference (P<0. In Group WS.50 (Group WS). during the experimental period. the buffaloes present significant rise in the RT. buffaloes has preference for water for bath.32. February.25 and 2. the average results were. that it harms its productive performance 7. tropical climates. Figure 3: Index of tolerance to the heat of Benezra. in Group S. probably due to rise of the ambient temperature and the direct solar radiation on the skin of the animals.. to the afternoon. The variation of the RF of the animals studied. in Group WS.0.2ºC.22 and 2. In January. The variance analysis disclosed differences significant (P<0. with bigger values in March (38 mov. in result of thermal stress. This behavior was waited. to the afternoon.38. in Group WS.41 (Group S) and 2. In Group WS. and 2. the difference (P<0. In pasture without shade. in the experimental period. therefore as research executed in São Paulo State. In March and April had significant differences (P<0. where it was observed that the ITH of the animals kept in the system with shade is next the 2. In January. in the experimental period. with lesser values in June (38. respiratory frequency and index of tolerance to the heat of Benezra (ITH). are in Figure 3. since they did not have availability of shaded areas to be protected. what demonstrates that the rise of the ambient temperature influences in this physiological variable. of 22. In February./min. and in the RF. Abril 2010 779 . considering it that in this group it did not have shade availability. of 38. respectively.05) between Group S and WS and turns.

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The systems that allow access to the shade, as the silvopastoral, promote better tolerance of the buffaloes to the tropical heat, in comparison to the kept in area without shade. The simple shade in the pastures can have positive consequences in the productivity of the buffalo, although the temperature, relative humidity of air and index of temperature and humidity to affect the physiological variable and the index of tolerance to the heat, mainly, in the period of the afternoon. Acknowledgements. To the Supervision of Development of Amazon - SUDAM, for the financial resources. To the Embrapa Eastern Amazon, for the availability of the area and experimental animals. To the National Institute of Meteorology - INMET/2º District of Meteorology, for the supply of the climatic data. REFERENCES
1. Ablas, D.S.; Titto, E.A.L.; Pereira, A.M.F.; Titto, C.G.; Leme, T.M.C. 2007. Comportamento de bubalinos a pasto frente a disponibilidade de sombra e água para imersão. Ciência Animal Brasileira (UFG), Goiânia, v. 8, n. 2, p. 167-176. 2. Bastos, T.X.; Pacheco, N.A.; Nechet, D.; Sá, T.D.A. 2002. Aspectos climáticos de Belém no últimos cem anos. Belém: Embrapa Amazônia Oriental. 31 p. (Embrapa Amazônia Oriental. Documentos, 128). 3. Benezra, M.V. 1954. A new index measuring the adaptability of cattle to tropical conditions. Journal of Animal Science, v. 13, n. 4, p. 1015. 4. Lourenço Júnior, J.B.; Costa, N.A.; Garcia, A.R.; Nahum, B.S.; Araujo, C.V.; Dutra, S.; Matos, J.C.S.; Matos, L.B. 2006. Sistema silvipastoril e pastejo rotacionado intensivo na produção leiteira de búfalas na pequena propriedade da Amazônia Oriental. In: Congreso Latino Americano de Agroforesteria para la Producción Pecuaria Sostenible, 4; Simposio sobre Sistemas Silvopastoriles para la Producción Ganadera Sostenible, 3, 2006, Varadero, Cuba. Anales. Varadero: EEPF "Indio Hatuey"/ICA/IGAT/IIF. p.16-22. 5. Magalhães; J.A.; Takigawa, R.M.; Tavares, A.C.; Townsend, C.R.; Costa, N.L. 1997. Temperatura retal e frequência respiratória de bovinos e bubalinos em Rondônia. In: Congresso Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária, 25; Congresso de Medicina Veterinária do Cone Sul, 2, Gramado, RS. Anais. Gramado: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária. p.264. 6. Magalhães; J.A.; Takigawa, R.M.; Tavares, A.C.; Townsend, C.R.; Costa, N.L.; Pereira R.G.A. 1998. Determinação da tolerância de bovinos e bubalinos ao calor do trópico úmido. In: Reunião da Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia, 35. 1998, Botucatu. Anais. Botucatu: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia. p.70-2. 7. Paranhos Da Costa, M.J.R. 2000. Ambiência na produção de bubalinos destinados ao abate. In: Encontro Anual de Etologia, 2000, Florianópolis, SC. Anais. Florianópolis: Sociedade Brasileira de Etologia. v.18, p.26-42. 8. Thom, E. C. 1959. The disconfort index. Weatherwise. v. 12, p. 57-59. 9. Towsend, C.R.; Magalhães, J.A.; Costa, N.L.; Pereira, R.G.A. 2000. Condições térmicas ambientais sob sistemas silvipastoris em Presidente Médici - Rondônia. EMBRAPA-CPAF Rondônia. 4p. (EMBRAPA-CPAF Rondônia. Comunicado Técnico, 188).

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Effects of the silvopastoral systems in the environmental comfort of buffalo calves (bubalus bubalis) in the eastern amazon
Moraes Júnior, R.J.1; Alexandre Rossetto Garcia, A.R.2; Santos, N.F.A.3; Lourenço Júnior, J.B.4; Nahúm, B.S. 5.
1 MSc in Animal Science, Federal University of Para State - UFPA Tv. Dr. Enéas Pinheiro s/n. Belém, Pará, Brasil. 2 Researcher Embrapa Eastern Amazon. Tv. Dr. Enéas Pinheiro s/n. Belém, Pará, Brasil - CEP 66.095-100. nia - UFRA. Tv. Tancredo Neves, s/n - 4 Postgraduate degree of Federal University of Para State - UFPA and Federal Rural University of Amazonia - UFRA - Tv. Dr. Eneas Pinheiro s/n. Belem, Para State, Brazil - 5 Researcher Embrapa Eastern Amazon. Tv. Dr. Eneas Pinheiro s/n. Belem, Para State, Brazil - CEP 66.095-100. e-mail: juniormorais1@gmail.com

ABSTRACT This study aimed to examine the effect of two different silvopastoral systems on environmental comfort and changes in physiological parameters of buffalo calves in Embrapa Eastern Amazon, Belém, Pará State, Brazil (Afi climate type), in two periods of the year: period 1 - April to Sep/2007; and period 2 - Oct./2007 to March/2008. Ten calves were included in the silvopastoral system 1 (SSP1), which useful shaded area on pasture was 18 to 21%, and nine calves were inserted in the silvopastoral system 2 (SSP2), which included no shaded area, but a lake for swimming. Animals kept in the two SSP's were measured for physiological status (rectal temperature-RT; respiratory frequency-RF and skin temperature-ST); it was calculated the temperature and humidity index (THI) and the Benezra´s animal comfort index (ACI), in two phases of the year, and they were compared by Tukey test (P <0.05). The THI ranged from 73.5 ± 1.3 to 82.2 ± 0.8, to "level of alert." The extent of RT was 38.3 ± 0.26 to 39.3 ± 0.38°C, but within the normal range for buffalo. The RF ranged from 32.2±9.2 to 56.5±19.0 mov/min, above the levels considered normal, and ST ranged from 23.6±8.3 and 31.7±5.4°C. In both periods of the year and the two SSP's, the ACIs were considered higher than ideal, ranging from 2.46±0.33 to 3.31±0.62 (SSP1) and 2.42±0.30 to 3.45±0.66 (SSP2). Nevertheless, animals presented no clinical signal of stress or discomfort, which can be indicative of buffalo environmental adaptability or necessity to adjust comfort indexes when calves are evaluated. Keywords: ambience, animal production, comfort index, farming system. INTRODUCTION The silvopastoral systems are studied and applied in the agriculture tropical, aiming to optimize the use of the areas, therefore allows the adaptation of some grass species to the culture in trust with forest species. Makes possible, therefore, combine the production of forest plants with animals and grass, simultaneously or sequentially, in the same area, aiming to diminish the negative ambient impacts proper of the livestock traditional. When the silvopastoral system is associated with intensive rotation grazing, exists a system of production alternative, capable to present higher productive rates and to confer, in function of the available shade in the pastures, greater comfort to the animals. This type of arrangement is based on the rational use of the natural resources and on the augmentation of the development of the animals, and raises the productivity:2. Bigger incomes for area can help to make possible livestock, in regions of pastures degraded, to prevent the deforestation of dense forests and to promote the recovery of modified areas. Thus, the objective of this work is analyze the effect of two different silvopastoral systems on the physiological variable of buffaloes calves and compare the indices of thermal comfort.
Buenos Aires, Abril 2010

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MATERIALS AND METHODS The experiment was realized in the Embrapa Eastern Amazon, Belem - Para State (1º25'59" S and 48º26'29" W). The experimental area was composed of System Silvopastoral 1 (SSP1), with trees that supplied shade in the pastures and System Silvopastoral 2 (SSP2), without shade in the pastures and a lake to bath. In the SSP1 the poles were of Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst var. nlemfluensis with shade of Khaya ivorensis A. Chev. and Azadirachta indica. A. Juss., with 18 ate 21% of shade in the pasture. The SSP2 was formed for Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle) Schweick. Were used 19 buffaloes calves, evaluated to the birth until six months, in the dry and rainy period. Data of air temperature (ºC) and relative humidity of air (%) were surveyed to 6:00 A.M., 12:00 P.M. and 18:00 P.M. The temperature and humidity index was calculated by the formula THI = TS + 0.55 (1 - UR) (TS - 58), where: TS is the temperature of the thermometer of dry bulb, in degrees Fahrenheit (F), and UR is the relative humidity of air. The physiological variable were surveyed, individually, in installation protected against sun and rain, one time per week, during 26 weeks. The collect was realized, 6:00 A.M., 12:00 P.M. and 18:00 P.M. The rectal temperature (RT, ºC), respiratory frequency (RF, mov/min) and skin temperature were evaluated (ST, ºC). The animal comfort index ACI was calculated = RT/38,33 + RF/23, where RT is rectal temperature and RF the respiratory frequency. In the effected analyses the program Statistical Analysis System was used: 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The averages of THI are in table 1. Table 1: Averages maximum and minimum of temperature and humidity index, during the experimental year. Belem-PA, Brazil 2008.

Different small letters in the lines indicate significant difference between averages (P<0.05, test F). Different capital letters in the columns indicate significant difference between averages (P<0.05, test F). * Period 1: 2007/April ate 2007/September; Period 2: 2007/October ate 2008/March.

The values of the THI, in the experimental period, was similar to determined for: 1. The RT of the calves, in the two experimental periods, varied between 38.3 ± 0.26 and 39.3 ± 0.38 ºC, with difference of 1 ºC, between the extremities. These values are in accordance with the reference for rectal temperature of young buffaloes. In Tables 2 and 3 are the averages of the rectal temperature and respiratory frequency. Table 2: Average rectal temperature (RT,°C) of buffalo calves created in silvopastoral systems in the Eastern Amazon. Belem-PA, Brazil 2008.

Different small letters in the lines indicate significant difference between averages (P<0.05, test F). Different capital letters in the columns indicate significant difference between averages (P<0.05, test F). * Period 1: 2007/April ate 2007/September; Period 2: 2007/October ate 2008/March.

The respiratory frequency varied of 32.2 ± 9.3 ate 56.5 ± 19.0 and, how was foreseen, was lesser to the 6 A.M, reached its maximum to the 12 P.M, and declined to the 18 P.M.
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Proceedings 9th World Buffalo Congress

what demonstrates its adaptability to the Amazonian climatic conditions and/or the necessity of another interpretation of the scale. beyond no impact Amazonian aquatic ecosystems. The averages of ACI (Table 5) calculated for experimental animals. and the skin temperature below of the normal considered. The extreme values of 3.9 and 30. the ST of the calves was superior to the Period 2. As waited.90 ± 0. and 2. as in Period 1. due to bigger incidence of the direct solar radiation in the animals.05.73.00 ± 0.05). of 2.05. as in Period 2.PRODUCTION SYSTEM Table 3: Average respiratory frequency (RF. Different small letters in the lines indicate significant difference between averages (P<0.05. There's significant effect of the hour analyzed.M. Belem-PA.M.05.05) and had the amplitude of 31.45± 0.M..M. for being main form of loss of corporeal heat of this species.°C) of buffalo calves created in silvopastoral systems in the Eastern Amazon. in the two periods. As buffaloes calves have more sped up physiological mechanism than the adult animals is valid consider the possibility of the establishment of new band of values for young buffalos. were. for buffaloes in the Eastern Amazon. and indicates that the shade of the SSP's is as efficient as the water for bath. in Period 1. test F). Buenos Aires. The Benezra's index was similar in SSP1 and SSP2.6°C.1 ºC). the lesser values of ST occurred to the 6 A.M. in Period 1. in Periods 1 and 2 of the experimental year. test F).74. Brazil 2008. Brazil 2008. test F).9 and 25. the phase and interaction SSP with the hour (P<0. Different small letters in the lines indicate significant difference between averages (P<0. Although the raised THI.80 ± 0.66 ACI. * Period 1: 2007/April ate 2007/September. Different capital letters in the columns indicate significant difference between averages (P<0. There's no difference significant statistics between the silvopastoral systems. and 18 P. in the maintenance of the homoeothermic. In Period 1.72 and 3. The rectal temperature was inside of the normal standards.30 and 2. (30.4 ± 9.0 ºC). in the two periods.7°C to 23.M. for SSP1 and SSP2.3 ± 5. Period 2: 2007/October ate 2008/March. the intermediate to the 18 P. Abril 2010 783 . Period 2: 2007/October ate 2008/March. 12 P.9 and 29. The skin temperature (Table 4) presented effect of the hour and the period of the experimental year (P<0.74 and 2. both surveyed in the animals of the SSP2.5 ± 4. Table 4: Average skin temperature (ST.M.90 ± 0. (25.. test F).8 ± 6. above ideal band for animals of production in the tropics. (29. to 6 A.M. respectively.8 ºC) and the greater to the 12 P. The respiratory frequency was raised in the periods most critical of the day. and 12 P. in the 6 A. * Period 1: 2007/April ate 2007/September.42± 0.2 ± 6. Belem-PA. the calves had not presented stress. in Period 2.5 ± 8. Different capital letters in the columns indicate significant difference between averages (P<0. in the three analyzed hours. mov/min) of buffalo calves created in silvopastoral systems in the Eastern Amazon.

0. Universidade Federal do Pará. J. SAS. Produção animal no bioma amazônico: atualidades e perspectivas. Tese de Doutorado. 3. Version 6.00. João Pessoa. Embrapa Eastern Amazon (code 02.05. Garcia. Belem-PA. 784 Proceedings 9th World Buffalo Congress . * Period 1: 2007/April ate 2007/September. 2006. test F).12. Statistical Analysis System. Cary: SAS. Period 2: 2007/October ate 2008/March. Acknowledgements. In: Simpósios da 43ª Reunião Anual da SBZ. User's guide: Stat. Brazil 2008.PRODUCTION SYSTEM Table 5: Benezra´s Animal Comfort Index (ACI) of buffalo calves created in silvopastoral systems in the Eastern Amazon. Pará. test F).06. A. J.05). Different small letters in the lines indicate significant difference between averages (P<0.04) and Embrapa Rondônia (code 04.06.B. Lourenço Júnior.11. B.00. fisiológicas e de comportamento de zebuínos e bubalinos e fatores do ambiente físico em pastagem cultivada da ilha de Marajó.. REFERENCES 1. Variáveis produtivas. Lourenço Júnior. 1998. R. 1996. 2. 159 pp. PB.019.05.05. Different capital letters in the columns indicate significant difference between averages (P<0. Belém.

L.9 million heads in the country (Economic Survey. season of the year. lactation number. M.9 percent of the total recorded obstetrical problems of buffalo.4 percent (Verma et al. milk production.. including genital prolapse. Pakistan Akhtar. A study in India reported the incidence of vaginal and uterine prolapse combined together to be 13. Buffalo population is scattered in herds of various sizes ranging from few heads to several hundred. . season of the year. Abril 2010 785 . lactation number. 1986).3 percent of the GDP. 1987). 1991). Z. management effects (Mishra et al. Buffalo below the age of five years had the highest incidence of pre-partum vaginal prolapse in both the irrigated and rain fed zones. Pakistan. This study therefore was designed with the objective to conduct a field survey on the incidence of pre-partum vaginal prolapse in irrigated and rain fed agro-ecological zones of Punjab. The area for sample collection comprised of the District of Bahawalpur from the irrigated zone (Zone-1) and the District of Muzaffargarh from the rain fed zone (Zone-2). This problem occurs before.8 percent of agricultural value added 11. Although. buffalo holds an important position and there are approximately 29. 2008-2009). hormonal imbalance (Galhotra et al.1998) and hereditary predisposition (Campbell et al. Animals fed cotton seed cake only had a significantly higher incidence of vaginal prolapse in both irrigated and rain fed zones. pre and post-partum vaginal prolapse having been reported 67. during 2005-2006.7 percent. Pakistan. The study was conducted. Ahmad. I. The survey revealed that the incidence of pre partum vaginal prolapse was lowest in animals fed commercially available concentrate. incidence.. where as the remaining 11 percent exhibited post partum uterine prolapse (Samad et al. The genital prolapse accounted for 42.. Pakistan *University of Agriculture. This has been a long standing observation that various factor's may contribute to the occurrence of pre-partum vaginal prolapse including month of gestation. The buffalo carrying male calves had significantly higher incidence of pre partum vaginal prolapse compared with those carrying female calves in both the zones.S. Buenos Aires. sex of calf are the contributory factors in the incidence of vaginal prolapse in buffalo in Punjab. The highest incidence of pre-partum vaginal prolapse was recorded during the months of summer and the lowest incidence was recorded in the months of spring in both the agro-ecological zones. Faisalabad ABSTRACT The objective of present study was to know the incidence of pre partum vaginal prolapse in irrigated and rain fed agro-ecological zones of Punjab through field survey. Lodhi.*.3 and 21. pre-partum vaginal prolapse. seasonal (Gurcharan et al. milk production. Keywords: buffalo. the reproductive performance is poor due to various diseases of reproductive system. respectively. Among livestock. To the author's knowledge the contributions of these factors have not been recorded or reported in literature. 2003).I.PRODUCTION SYSTEM Incidence of Pre-Partum Vaginal Prolapse in Nili-Ravi Buffalo Under Two Different Agro-Ecological Zones of Punjab.* The Islamia University of Bahawalpur. sex of calf etc.Muhammad... 2003). G. buffalo is of high economic importance for farmers in Pakistan.. Qureshi.. It was concluded that the incidence of vaginal prolapse is influenced by the agro-ecological zone and the month of gestation. Etiological factors of pre-partum vaginal prolapse in buffaloes are multiple and include malnutrition.* . INTRODUCTION Livestock plays an important role in the economy of Pakistan contributing approximately 51. in two agro-ecological zones of Punjab. or immediately after parturition and severely affects ensuing productivity and future reproductive performance.A.

Alipur. Jatoi and 25 respondents from each Tehsil were interviewed making it a total of 100 respondents. a significantly higher incidence of pre partum vaginal prolapse was recorded in buffalo in their 1st lactation compared to those in 2nd (P<0. 7th.01) during the months of summer and autumn. 9th and 10th month of gestation in the buffalo raised in irrigated or rain fed zone. 4th. the difference though non-significant (P>0. lactation number. In the rain fed zone. 8th and 10th month of gestation. 5th and 6th lactation. sex of calf. A total of 1. There was also no difference in the incidence recorded among the buffaloes in 2nd. 8th. In the irrigated zone. The data was subjected to statistical analysis by proportion analysis (Steel and Torrie 1980). The survey proforma was used to get the information through face to face interviews. 3rd.01). a significantly higher incidence was recorded during 9th month of gestation compared to 6th. there was no significant difference (P>0. Hasilpur. Yazman and 25 respondents from each Tehsil were interviewed making it a total of 125 respondents.01).PRODUCTION SYSTEM MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted during 2005-2006 in two agro-ecological zones (Irrigated and Barani) of Punjab. season of the year. The incidence of vaginal prolapse was significantly lower in buffaloes in 4th lactation compared to all other lactations except those in 5th lactation. The area for survey comprised of the District of Bahawalpur from the irrigated zone (Zone-1) and the District of Muzaffargarh from the rain fed zone (Zone-2). winter and spring. Bahawalpur. However.397 buffaloes from two agro-ecological zones i. there was no difference in the incidence of pre partum vaginal prolapse in buffaloes in 1st.e. 7th and 10th month of gestation. The comparison of the incidence of vaginal prolapse between the two zones in relation to lactation number revealed no significant difference (P>0. 7th.e. 4th. the highest incidence was recorded during 9th month of gestation followed by those buffaloes in 8th month of gestation and the difference between the incidence during these two months was non-significant (P>0. Pakistan.01). Muzaffargarh. The District of Bahawalpur comprises of 5 Tehsils i. the incidence during 6th. 639 from irrigated zone and 758 from rain fed zone falling under four buffalo production systems comprised this study. 3rd. the highest incidence was recorded during summer season followed by autumn. 5th. Incidence of pre partum vaginal prolapse in relation to month of gestation All the cases of pre partum vaginal prolapse reported and recorded during the survey occurred between 6th to 10th month of gestation in both the agro-ecological zones. Khairpur Tamewali.01) lactation. 6th and 7th lactation. 786 Proceedings 9th World Buffalo Congress . milk production.01) among all lactations.01) than the incidence of vaginal prolapse during 6th. In the rain fed zone. Ahmadpur East. Incidence of pre partum vaginal prolapse in relation to lactation number In the irrigated zone. Incidence of pre partum vaginal prolapse in relation to season of the year In the irrigated zone comparatively lower incidence of vaginal prolapse was recorded in buffalo during spring and winter seasons. There was significantly higher incidence of vaginal prolapse in buffaloes in 1st lactation compared to other lactation except the 7th lactation.01) between these two seasons but differed significantly (P<0. 5th and 6th lactation. The comparison between the two zones did not reveal any significant difference during all seasons of the year. The data was collected from all Tehsils (a subdivision of district) of both the districts under study.01) in the incidence of vaginal prolapse in buffalo in 2nd. A significantly higher (P<0.01) incidence of pre partum vaginal prolapse was recorded during summer season compared with that in during autumn. Kot Addu. 3rd. The incidence during 8th and 9th month of gestation were significantly higher (P<0. The information about vaginal prolapsed was recorded in relation to the month of gestation. namely District of Bahawalpur (Irrigated Zone) and District of Muzaffargarh (Rain fed Zone). The District of Muzaffargarh comprises of 4 Tehsils i.e. RESULTS The survey was carried out to gather information about the incidence of vaginal prolapse in two districts of Punjab. 7th and 10th month of gestation being non-significant (P>0. In the rain fed zone.05) and 7th (P<0. The comparison of the incidence between the two zones in relation to month of gestation indicated no significant difference during 6th. the difference among all four seasons being significant (P<0.

Verma et al.PRODUCTION SYSTEM Incidence of pre partum vaginal prolapse in relation to average milk production The incidence of pre partum vaginal prolapse was recorded in relation to current lactation in case of lactating buffaloes and previous lactation of dry buffalo on the basis of their per day average milk yield. (2002) also reported similar findings. The predominant breeds of buffalo in Pakistan are Nili-Ravi and Kundi buffaloes.11% of the animals in the irrigated zone and 97. Incidence of pre partum vaginal prolapse in buffalo in relation to survivability of Dam The incidence of survival of the dam experiencing the ailment of pre-partum vaginal prolapse was high and in that 98.01). the highest incidence was recorded in buffalo producing above 10 liters of milk followed by those producing 6-8 liters and 8-10 liters of milk per day. Buffalo below the age of five years had the highest incidence of pre-partum vaginal prolapse in both the irrigated and rain fed zones. The area is clearly divided into two agro-ecological zones i. the buffalo are in the later part of their gestation as it has been revealed in the study that most of the buffalo suffered from this condition during 9th month followed by 8th month of gestation and both the months of gestation in majority of the buffaloes would fall during the months of summer. Animals fed cotton seed cake only which is a traditional concentrate in the country for large animals. buffalo under five years of age are either heifers or have produced one calf. a numerically higher percentage of buffaloes carrying male calves experienced vaginal prolapse compared with those carrying female calves. the highest incidence was recorded in buffalo producing above 10 liters of milk followed by those producing 8-10 liters and 6-8 liters of milk per day. Abril 2010 787 . the difference among all three groups were non-significant (P>0. The summer in these areas starts from May to September and the environmental temperature goes as high as 114° F. popularly known as black gold of Pakistan.01). rain fed (zone-2) and non rain fed or irrigated area (zone-1). The survey revealed that the majority of the farmers with small holdings fed their animals available green fodder of the season. a significantly higher (P<0. so no comparable data is there for reference. It is possible that in heifers the reproductive tract is still not mature enough to contain the stress of pregnancy in conjunction with sever summer stress. The calving season of buffalo in Pakistan starts in July and continues till early September. The highest incidence of pre-partum vaginal prolapse was recorded during the months of summer and the lowest incidence was recorded in the months of spring in both the agro-ecological zones. Where as in rain fed zone. So. had a significantly higher incidence of vaginal prolapse in both irrigated and rain fed zones.01) incidence of vaginal prolapse was recorded in buffaloes carrying male calves compared with those carrying female calves. In the rain fed zone. (1986) and Tomar et al. The comparison between the two zones revealed a similar trend in the incidence with reference to the average milk production. Water buffalo wallow in the water now don't find the wallowing places as they have become fewer with scarcity of land. Buenos Aires.e. hence the incidence of pre partum vaginal prolapse was lowest in animals fed commercially available concentrate. DISCUSSION The Current study was carried out in the Punjab province of Pakistan which harbors the highest number of water buffaloes (56%) comprising in Pakistan. The farmers who were raising their animals under commercial farming system fed their animals with commercially available concentrate which provided their animals with a balanced ration. Some of these farmers were unable to compensate their animals with any concentrate where as majority fed cotton seed cake to their buffaloes in moderate quantities in addition to the green fodder.86% of the animals in the rain fed zone survived after delivery of the calf. Incidence of pre partum vaginal prolapse in buffalo in relation to sex of calf In the irrigated zone. The majority of farmers in the areas of study are small land holders or landless farmers raising buffaloes as a means of subsistence farming. While comparing the incidence in relation to sex of calf between the two study zones revealed a similar trend and there was no difference recorded in the incidence of buffaloes carrying male calves or female calves between the two zones. In the irrigated zone. This study was therefore carried out in parts of both zones. Since no such study has been undertaken earlier. the difference among all three groups being non-significant (P>0. Since the age of puberty and maturity in water buffalo is much longer compared to cows.

Incidence of reproductive disorders of buffaloes in different zones of Punjab state. U. 10. Scotland. Gill. R. In: Proceed. Vet. Webb. 23 (1): 18-20. It was concluded that the incidence of vaginal prolapse is influenced by the agro-ecological zone and the month of gestation. R. Verma. Vet. U. Dairy Sci. Ali. 40 (1): 79-80. Incidence of prolapse of genitalia in Murrah buffaloes in relation to season. UK. REFERENCES 1. A biometrical approach. 37(1): 11-15. S. Surinder. 2002. Saxena and R. 27-36. McGraw Hill: New York. J. Sidhu and H. K. pregnancy. Doberska. 4. Pandit. 2. FSH. (1984).. Steel. 1980. Principles and Procedures of Statistics. K. S. Ind. Ahmad and N. J.. R. Mishra. J.. Crieff.. Dobson and C. 8. G. 2nd ed. Genetic and non-genetic factors affecting utero-vaginal prolapse in buffaloes. A similar finding has been reported by Tiwana et al. Pak. R. M. Islamabad. S. Samad. Uni. lactation number. R. Galhotra. 75 (3): 254-255. Ahmad. K. Dhillon and S. 5. Mishra.H. C. J. S. Dixit. Health :79-80.P. Rehman. P. Gurcharan S. Seasonal variation in certain reproductive disorders of dairy cattle.. 2007. 7. J. This might be due to the greater body weight of the male calves at birth.. J. 3. Bhalaru. Punjab Agri. Ind. Clinical incidence of reproductive disorders in the buffalo. LH and prolactin in antepartum vaginal prolapse of buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in relation to cortisol and degree of stress. Tiwana. Anim.G. Torrie. M. Acknowledgment. 1984. Seasonal variation in reproductive problems of buffaloes under field conditions. of the 6th International Symposium on Reproduction in Domestic Ruminants. S. Saeed Akhtar (DLO Muzaffargarh) for providing required facilities and helpful suggestions. S. Government of Pakistan. 2003. 1991. 1987. 1986. Res. K. S. N. Ind.PRODUCTION SYSTEM An interesting finding of this study was that the buffalo carrying male calves had significantly higher incidence of pre partum vaginal prolapse compared with those carrying female calves in both the zones. A. Vet. and J. P. Campbell. season of the year.. Economic Survey. Anonymous. J. K. sex of calf are the contributory factors in the incidence of vaginal prolapse in buffalo in Punjab. Pawan Singh.. 9. S. K. Tomar.. J. 1998. 788 Proceedings 9th World Buffalo Congress . 6. H. C. Rajinder Singh and Sajjan Singh. B. 7 (1): 16-19. M. 68 (4): 332-335.D. Pakistan. Enhancing reproductive performance in dairy buffalo: major constraints and achievements. Verma. Georgie and V. The authors would like to thank Dr. 2003. S. A. milk production. M. G. Shafique (DLO Bahawalpur) and Dr. Ind. Repord. Agrawal and R. parity and management. Ind. Anim.

which are related to reproductive precocity and shortening time to slaughter. s/n.3. Phone: (91)3201-7000.PRODUCTION SYSTEM Morphometric Characterization and Ponderal Performance of Buffalo Calves Raised on Brazilian Amazon* Garcia. mainly to obtain precocious. rump height (RH). Rua Augusto Corrêa. dams were fed exclusively on pasture (Braquiaria humidicola and Cynodon nlemfuensis) and received mineral supplementation ad libitum. MATERIALS AND METHODS The experiment was carried out at the Animal Research Facility "Senator Álvaro Adolpho". Enéas Pinheiro. Pará. Nineteen suckling buffalo calves.embrapa. Thus. JB2 1 Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation-Embrapa Eastern Amazon. 2 Federal University of Pará State. Pará. Brazil. Belém. Keywords: Amazon. Buenos Aires. withers height (WH). Brazil (1º25'S and 48º26'W). Corporal measurements and body weight associations were previously reported to bovine2. AR1. INTRODUCTION Production efficiency depends on higher weaning weights. Brazil.05) was performed using SAS 4. from April/2007 to March/2008. Growth indexes and overall gains presented by calves were considered excellent. Phone: (91)3204-1000. ischiatic distance (ID). thoracic girth (TG). 3 argarcia@cpatu. rump length (RL). the research aimed to assess the morphometric evolution. NFA2. BS1. biometry. Santos. Calves were weighed each seven days. calf. silvopastoral system. body size. Nahúm.br ABSTRACT The study of body conformation and frame size is an important component of animal production evaluation. absolute and daily weight gain of buffalo calves. productive and profitable animals. but there is no information about morphometry using on Amazon buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Milk production controls were realized monthly. from birth to weaning. profitable production requires zootechnical control and a solid database that can be used to animals selection. Body length (BL). and surpass averages frequently observed in buffalo calves raised on Brazilian Amazon. Statistical analysis (P<0. absolute and daily weight gain of buffalo calves raised on Eastern Amazon. Embrapa Eastern Amazon. from the 1st to 26th week of age (182 days). especially on young calves. Belém. after fourteen hours of fasting. Nineteen suckling buffalo calves were weekly monitored. weight gain. n 01. metacarpal girth (MG) and scrotal circumference (SC) were monitored. Animals were divided into two groups and kept with their dams on silvopastoral systems for intensive rotating grazing (SPS1 or SPS2). raised on Eastern Amazon. RJ2. when they were weaned. Lourenço Junior. Tv. Moraes Júnior. thoracic depth (TD). Morphometric measurements can be used to evaluate some animal features and to suggest their carcass yield1. Belém. measured and weighed. The objective of this research was to assess the morphometric evolution. rump width (RW). The calves' morphometry was performed weekly. Abril 2010 789 . conceived by fixed timed artificial insemination with semen of proved bull for weight gain3 were evaluated. with soft tape and Lydtin´s stick.Pará. On the other hand.

790 Proceedings 9th World Buffalo Congress .05).40 and 1.6 ± 4. growth indexes and overall gains also surpassed averages frequently observed in buffalo calves raised on Brazilian Amazon8.40 ± 5. respectively. Brazil. rump width (RW).30 ± 23.05) Birth weight were 41. ischiatic distance (ID). Daily weight gains on SPS1 and SPS2 were 1. Belém.100 kg/day)7. rump length (RL). (P<0. metacarpal girth (MG) and scrotal circumference (SC) of buffalo calves at 1st and 26th week of age created on silvopastoral systems (SPS). P>0.27 kg (SPS1 vs SPS2.2 kg) 6. thoracic depth (TD). Brazil. thoracic girth (TG). Weaning weight were 203. Pará. Means followed by different letters in the same line differ by F Test (P<0. P>0.05). and most productive cows achieved 13. Pará.60 ± 27.05).PRODUCTION SYSTEM RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Average milk production ranged from 6. Belém. and surpassed previous values related for buffalo calves with 205 days (168.01 ± 0.3 kg) 5 and 240 days of life (170.2 to 9.230 ± 0.05). and slightly declined after 10th week. Morphometric measurements of calves (Table 2).95 kg/day on pasture (Table 1).61 kg/day (P>0. Table 1: Milking production (kg/day) of buffaloes created on cultivated pasture at Eastern Amazon.58 kg and 40. rump height (RH). withers height (WH).86 kg (SPS1 vs SPS2.67 kg/day. Table 2: Averages (±SD) for body length (BL).10 ± 0. higher than previously related from birth to weighing (0. Individual dams' production reached the peak between 4th and 8th week post-partum.75 and 216.

Anais da XXXIII Reunião Anual da Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia.05) to weaning weight. as withers height. Santana. Version 6. UNESP/FMVZ. Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia. Pereira. Seixas. Magnabosco. Comportamento produtivo de búfalos para carne em Porto Velho-RO. P<0. Tavares. 2004. 64p. Andrighetto. NC. 2005. 35(2):417-421.. Ciência Rural. Costa. 5.2-5. 2000. User's Guide. 3. Desenvolvimento ponderal de bubalinos da raça Murrah criados em pastagem de Brachiaria brizanta no Centro-Oeste do Estado de São Paulo. 7. REFERENCES 1. Rondônia. Bras. Estudos de medidas corporais e peso vivo em animais jovens da raça Nelore. Correlações entre peso e medidas corporais em ovinos jovens da raça Santa Inês. Determinação de parâmetros para a avaliação de carcaça em bubalinos machos no Estado do Pará. Abril 2010 791 . Carry. which can be useful to predict other relevant characteristics8. 846p. AFM. Saúde Prod. 4. CU. MTV. Jorge. AF. 2001. VNC. Oliveira HN. 183. p. 1(3):74-77. rump height and thoracic girth. GB. Buenos Aires. Promebul: Sumário de Touros Bubalinos. 37p. p. Dissertação (Mestrado). Comportamento de amamentação em bubalinos (Bubalus bubalis) em relação à produção de leite e o desenvolvimento do bezerro. PROMEBUL. LS. Rev. Universidade Federal do Pará. Anim. SAS Institute Inc.97 to 0. Josahkian.110.99. Scarpati. particularly that easiest to establish. Lôbo. Dissertação (Mestrado). 2004. Campos dos Goytacazes. Botucatu. 82p. It highlights the importance of zootechnical measurements on production routine. Brasil. LA. BC. Belém. Oliveira Júnior. 2006. 6. Performance results were excellent and indicative of success in production system. Castro. Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense. RGA. Embrapa-CPAF. Circular Técnica n. 4ed. AM. Fonseca. 2. C. Fortaleza. 1996. RB. 2003. Results also showed the importance to establish early morphometric measurements as management tool at buffalo farms. VS.PRODUCTION SYSTEM All morphometric characteristics presented high correlation (0. AC. 8. Oliveira.

The major variation cause for these measures was the year of birth (partial r2 from 61 to 66%) which influenced with variations between 35 and 39 kg for weight at birth and from 95 to 130 kg for the weight at weaning in this same farm.436 buffaloes in 2010. Annual changes in weight at birth and weight at weaning showed differences in management practices and feeding during this period that should be studied in order to make them more stable and create more efficient production methods. Brazil. weight at birth. In other herds we found that the season and birth order may be important (44 and 54% respectively) to the weight at birth if there are no adjustments to the age at first birth of mothers. while the same effect on weaning weight influenced values fluctuating from 110 to 135 kg. and the number or cycle of latency had higher incidence (12-75%) in the explanation of the variability of different measures. This enables us to consider the importance that this species is getting in this country and its perspectives considering the international perspectives that take the water buffalo as a primer species for this millennium. it was created a computerized database with the primary collected data. milk production. Results from the environmental effects that affected the weight at birth and at weaning of calves and it was shown that the effect of native herd. but it was only considered such in the 80's. then they were incorporated in the SAS (2002 version 9. 5 farms in this experiment (partial r2 of 19-29%). in order to improve the elements that have already been established by the National genetic improvement program for this species that is little known in this country. Maritza Gutiérrez1.436 buffaloes in 2010. ABSTRACT The wáter buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) was introduced in Cuba as a solution. S.unesp. The results of this 6-year-study is connected to the adjustment proposal for the selection scheme concerning the criteria and methodology. It was gathered productive and reproductive information from different farms in the country from four provinces (Habana. de las Lajas. season of birth. While the milk yield and reproduction were assessed.br 3 Granma University. weight at weaning. Carr. Later it reached a constant and full-throttled development as a result of the species characteristics throughout almost 25 years. Villa Clara and Granma).com. number of births). E-mail: fragabenitezlm@yahoo. Matanzas. The seasonal effects varied according to the herd. Animal Production Department. São Paulo. in 2007 the herd reached 59. Later it reached a constant and full-throttled development as a result of the species characteristics throughout almost 25 years. but it was only considered such in the 80's. Granma. According to MINAG estimations. Bayamo-Manzanillo Km. Cuba. calving interval. Its development and increase in number show the great value of its importation if considered the index reached by this species in conditions of limited resources. Yenny García1. in 2007 the herd reached 59. 1 Animal Science Institute. offspring gender.br 2 UNESP/FMVZ. Alcides de Amorim Ramos2. Latency curves were studied according to different mathematical models and it was found the best adjustment with the logarithmic square function. even though it has been observed a negative effect when calving occurred out of season. caused differences in the weight at birth (from 36 to 38 kg). 792 Proceedings 9th World Buffalo Congress . many environmental effects (year of birth. In each of these farms. La Habana.908 buffaloes and it is expected that this number increases to 88. Gladys Guzmán1 y Marta Mora1. Keywords: births. INTRODUCTION The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) was introduced in Cuba as a solution. According to MINAG estimations.908 buffaloes and it is expected that this number increases to 88. Bayamo.0) from which new characters were generated and depurated. E-mail: aaramos@fca. Carr. Botucatu. Central Km 47 ½.PRODUCTION SYSTEM Preliminary Results of Productive and Reproductive Behavior of Water Buffaloes (Bubalus Bubalis) In Cuba Luis M. Year of birth. 17 ½. Fraga1. Mildred Méndez3. J.

caused differences in the weight at birth (from 36 to 38 kg). It is seen the aspects related to the inbreeding. offspring gender. Studies were developed concerning the buffalo behavior tests aiming to improve its practicality. with 5 theirs (partial r2 of 19-29%). Villa Clara and Granma). Table 1: Effect of year of birth upon the variations of the weight of calves at birth and at weaning Graphic 1: Annual birth frequency of ICA.d. after this the data were incorporated in the SAS (2002 version 9. while the same effect on weaning weight influenced values fluctuating from 110 to 135 kg. The seasonal effects varied according to the herd. Reference was made to the inheritance of skin color and albinism as well as the recommendation for the control of inbreeding and undesirable genes.e. Here follows some results that represent the productive history and the possible causes that influenced the results in the farm.b.PRODUCTION SYSTEM MATERIALS AND METHODS The results of this 6-year-study is connected to the adjustment proposal for the selection scheme concerning the criteria and methodology. In each of these farms. Abril 2010 a. While the milk yield and reproduction were assessed.c. Information was provided by a productive history study of buffalo herds from four provinces (Havana. Villa Clara and Granma) samples representing different soil and climate where the work was conducted with genetic counseling that began with the establishment of a database from dairy and reproductive behavior. Averages with different superindexes in each column they differ in P<0. El Cangre and the Naranjos. Matanzas. respectively). 1955) 793 . It was gathered productive and reproductive information from different farms in the country from four provinces (Habana. Latency curves were studied according to different mathematical models and it was found the best adjustment with the logarithmic square function. but they could only be addressed briefly. Buenos Aires. many environmental effects (year of birth. Apart from that it was performed an individual assessment of the buffalo cows for milk yield according to protocols that takes into consideration the adjustment of information to controlled environmental effects in models that have the Predicted option in the SAS. since it is warned about the existence of an F coefficient over 9% of the herd. Matanzas. it was created a computerized database with the primary observations. season of birth. even though it has been observed a negative effect when calving occurred out of season.0) from which new characters were generated and depurated. In other herds we found that the season and birth order may be important (44 and 54% respectively) to the weight at birth if there are no adjustments to the age at first birth of mothers.05 (Duncan. in order to improve the elements that have already been established by the National genetic improvement program for this species that is Little known in this country. number of births). Criteria to approach future studies of genotype x production system are discussed. The major variation cause for these measures was the year of birth (partial r2 from 61 to 66%) which influenced with variations between 35 and 39 kg for weight at birth and from 95 to 130 kg for the weight at weaning in this same farm. which indicates wide variations that should be corrected before their ingression within the cattle. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Results from the environmental effects that affected the weight at birth and at weaning of calves and it was shown that the effect of native herd.it was also evaluated the monthly proportion of birth and stabilization of the species (Graphic 1) Partial determination coefficients for the sources of the studied variation for such measures highlighted the fact that year of birth and the number or cycle of latency had higher incidence (12-75%) in the explanation of the variability of different measures even though the herd also had an important influence upon the % and total fat quantity at 244 days of age (26-27%.

showed the interest in the breeding of water buffalo in Cuba. Taking the frequency of deliveries with the availability and quality of pasture into consideration. Acknowledgements. The birth seasonal distribution requires special attention to allow the calves to intake sufficient colostrum for enough time until their weaning. However. 794 Proceedings 9th World Buffalo Congress . Annual changes in weight at birth and weight at weaning showed differences in management practices and feeding during this period that should be studied in order to make them more stable and create more efficient production methods.CNPq of Ministry of Science and Technology for financial support received. An unnecessary extension of such practice may also affect breeding management hence the need to determine the appropriate extension of it is of great importance. feeding and management specific for each company. is also considered advisable if in parallel it is adopted better practices like the ones mentioned previously in order to pursue the highest productive potential for the future animals. it was observed a decrease in milk production over time and that could have been overcome if it had been implemented an adequate improved selection. births around the month of June for this region of the northern hemisphere and a planned mating might be a more reasonable and feasible solution among the practices to be incorporated. The authors express their thanks to FMVZ/UNESP/Botucatu/SP and the Brazilian National Council of Research . The possibility of introducing new genotypes (Ex. Mediterranean breed).PRODUCTION SYSTEM The productive and reproductive indicators that were obtained (Graphics 2 and 3).

Departamento de Zootecnia. 55 to 17.38 to 4. Economic losses due to mastitis are reported throughout the world and treatment of this condition is difficult. s/n.Brasil 3. buffalo milk is susceptible to poor quality and requires hygiene practices during milking in order to ensure the quality of the end product and prevent mastitis. Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco. bolsista do CNPq. protein.21%. UFRPE. The farms were located with help from the Builders Association of Buffalo and Defense Agency and Supervisory Agricultural State of Pernambuco.39 to 8. Av. Brasil CEP 52171-900. lactose 4. Keyword: production system. Elisa Cristina Modesto2. The production and composition of milk varied between the farms. 5. Fabiana de Araújo Lopes5 1-Aluna do Programa de Doutorado Integrado em Zootecnia. health status of the mammary gland and milk quality. Buffalo milk has characteristics that differentiate it from bovine milk. Rodovia BR 465. To assess the presence of mastitis was used the test CMT (california mastitis test) and somatic cell count (SCC). In the state of Pernambuco (Brazil). E-mail: keylasant os@gmail. and is perfectly adapted to environmental conditions in the region. Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco. fats and minerals. somatic cell count. Mastitis is directly related to the number of somatic cells.Aluna do Programa de Doutorado Integrado em Zootecnia. A high somatic cell count reduces production. Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco. fat from 5.400 cells/mL and CMT presented 53. However. bolsista de Produtividade em Pesquisa do CNPq. Brasil.110 to 111. at the beginning of the 1970s. UFRPE.99 and total solids of 15. such as a greater content of proteins. Dois Irmãos.67 to 5. Marcelo José Ferreira Batista da Silva4. Av. The data were analyzed by means of the GLM procedure of SAS. Abril 2010 795 . Ângela Maria Vieira Batista3. de novo milk fat synthesis and activity of the mammary tissue.1 The aim of the present study was to assess the quality of buffalo milk at dairy farms in the state of Pernambuco (Brazil) by means of somatic cell counts and the California Mastitis Test and evaluate the production and chemical composition of the milk. Dom Manoel de Medeiros. Brazil* Keyla Laura de Lira dos Santos1. alters milk components and reduces lactose -lactalbumin. Were evaluated milk yield. Buenos Aires. Recife -PE. However. Dom Manoel de Medeiros. Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco. RJ . The quantities of these components make this milk an excellent raw material for the production of byproducts. information on the acquisition and handling processes of buffalo milk produced in the state remains scarce. Dois Irmãos.82 to 4. chemical composition of milk.75%. km 07 s/n Seropedica.25 L/day. milk yield. but information on the production of these animals are still scarce. s/n. Recife -PE. s/n. Dois Irmãos. but this did not affect the quality of milk produced. 4-Aluno do programa de pós-graduação em Zootecnia. Were collected 149 buffalo milk samples in five different farms from January to October 2009. UFRPE. The CCS was low and ranged from 22. INTRODUCTION Buffalo raising has been gaining importance throughout the world. Dom Manoel de Medeiros. Av.24%. The objective of this study was to evaluate quality of the buffalo milk produced in the state of Pernambuco. Recife-PE. percentages of fat. 2-Professora do Departamento de Zootecnia. Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro. For the percentage of protein these values were 3.06% was sample negative. buffalos were introduced in the 1970s and have adapted well to the environmental conditions of the region. UFRPE. Brasil.com ABSTRACT The buffalo was inserted in Pernambuco.Professora Adjunta. like bovine milk. The milk yield between the farms ranged from 2.PRODUCTION SYSTEM Quality of Buffalo Milk at Dairy Farms in the State of Pernambuco. lactose and total solids.

4. protein and lactose values varied little between farms. The mean chemical composition values are in agreement with those described by Lopes (2009).18 to 17. According to Macedo (2001)..01%. birth order and individual factors and becomes all-the-more complex when assessing different production systems. the interpretation of the results was based on the manufacturer's recommendations and the method proposed by Schalm (1957). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In the evaluation of clinical mastitis.5 In the present study. The herds were formed by mixed-breed animals Murrah raised in extensive systems with feed supplementation in the dry season. the strip cup test was negative for all animals. protein. Minnesota. These findings are in agreement with the literature. protein. Fat and total solids ranged from 5. At Farm 5.75%. Hygiene practices such as washing of the teat prior to milking. The farms were located with the assistance of the from the Builders Association of Buffalo and Defense Agency and Supervisory Agricultural State of Pernambuco. the pasture was Braquiaria decumbens and supplementation was sugarcane leaves and elephant grass. The milk was homogenized and 50-mL samples were collected in flasks containing bromopol (one pill) as a conservative. to which 2 mL of the commercial CMT reagent (CMT-FATEC®) was added. the animals were raised on pastures of pangola grass (Digitaria decumbens) and received supplementation with manioc husk and elephant grass. At Farm 4.06% of the animals (Table 1). the results of the CMT test are questionable. as these animals had low somatic cell counts. genetic. This finding may be related to different environmental. respectively. Somatic cells were counted in an electronic counter (Somacount 204 500). whereas no hygiene practices were carried out at the other farms. Table 1: Result of the California Mastitis Test. At Farm 3. as fat content is more influenced by environmental factors. The samples were placed in a thermal container with recyclable ice and immediately sent to the Milk Laboratory of the Northeastern Daily Herd Monitoring Program in the Animal Science Department of the Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco for the determination of milk components and somatic cell count.2 Milk samples were collected individually after milking.49%. Milking was performed twice a day at Farm 1 and once a day at all other farms. The strip cup test was performed after stimulation from the calf for the release of milk. lactose and total solids were performed using an infrared analyzer (Bentley 2000. respectively. 4. lactation stage. 4 and 5. Mechanical milking was performed at Farms 1 and 2 and manual milking was performed at Farms 3.6 796 Proceedings 9th World Buffalo Congress . no feed supplementation was carried out. the use of an iodine solution and the strip cup test were performed at Farms 1 and 2.30 to 8. lactose and total solids of 6. which pertain to the Zona da Mata and Agreste regions of the state of Pernambuco (Brazil). approximately 2 mL of milk from each mammary gland was placed on the test plate. For the California Mastitis Test (CMT).4 The production and chemical composition of the buffalo milk varied depending on the management system used on the farms (Table 2). Sairé and Canhotinho. Analyses of fat. At Farm 1. The data were submitted to descriptive analysis using the GLM procedure of the SAS program.21% and from 15. Quipapá. whereas the results of the CMT for the identification of subclinical mastitis were negative in 53. fat and fatty dry extract are the most susceptible milk components to the influence of lactation stage and number of lactations. who assessed the chemical composition of buffalo milk produced in the southern coastal zone of the state of Pernambuco and found proportions of fat. USA). Ribeirão. feeding. Bentley Instruments Inc. However. supplementation was elephant grass.85%. At Farm 2. the animals were raised on pastures of Braquiaria decumbens and umidícola and supplemented with sugarcane leaves and wheat meal.PRODUCTION SYSTEM MATERIALS AND METHODS One hundred forty-nine samples of buffalo milk were collected from January to October 2009 at five farms in the municipalities of Vitória de Santo Antão.72% and 16.

Jurado-Gámez H.000 cells/mL1 was found in 1630 buffalos. P. J. Amaral. J. p. 2007. Abril 2010 797 . Experimental and observation leading to development of the California Mastitis test.. Leite. Dairy Science.A.P. J.SAS.C.B. REFERENCES 1.Bras. Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco. 5. F.000 cells/mL.7 Thus.R. Cerón-Muñoz M. Contagem de células somáticas como ferramenta para avaliação. v. v. American Veterinary Medicine Association. Ruegg. 3. 7. p. de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia.130. Ramos. chemical composition and somatic cell count (SCC) of dairy buffalo herds in the state of Pernambuco. R. Lange.P.. p.A.000 cells/ml.. However. v. Inc 2007. as demonstrated by the low somatic cell counts. Lopes. Rev. but did not affect the quality of the milk. 1957. Recife.Reseende. In: Novos enfoques na produção e reprodução de bovinos. n. Carvalho. v.-1084-1088. A.A.D. 30. Arquivo Bras. 2009. Duarte J. Tonhati H.C. controle e tratamento de mastite. M. Contagem de células somáticas e isolamento de agentes causadores de mastite em búfalas (Bubalus bubalis). 2007. Statistical Analyses Sistem Institute. N. J.. SAS user's guide: Statics Version.W.85. C. Muñoz-Berrocal M. n. Anais: CONAPEC. Brito. B..2885-2889. 43p. Caracterização da produtividade e da qualidade do leite de búfalas na Zona da Mata Sul de Pernambuco. Oliveira. Buenos Aires..PRODUCTION SYSTEM Table 2: Milk production (MP). M.242-245. C.V.S.1. milk production and composition varied between farms.59.F. 2001. Souza. F. Schalm. p.. F.L. 6. F. Composição Físico-Química e Produção do Leite de Búfalas da Raça Mediterrâneo no Oeste do Estado de São Paulo.. 4.Brito. Uberlândia.R. 2001. J. 2. Factors affecting somatic cell counts and their relations with milk and milk constituent yield in buffaloes.. Dissertação (Mestrado em Zootecnia). Ruegg (2001) describes losses in milk production when the somatic cell count is above 50. Cary. which the number considered indicative of mammary infection.V. Brazil Somatic cell counts were below 200.C. A mean value of 79. .25-33. Brasil p. Macedo.3. Zootecnia. WechsleR. Noorlander.199-204.. O. 2002. L.

Singh. Buffalo is still considered as difficult breeder due to association of several reproductive problems i.06 percent in spring and rainy seasons. the present study was conducted. on the basis of season.10 and 10. To overcome this problem most (89. Ravinder 1. Proceedings 9th World Buffalo Congress 798 . delayed puberty. Department of Animal Husbandry.e. the lack of systematic study on these aspects. What are the disorders responsible for reproductive failure and how they could be overcome to enhance the buffalo reproduction? Which are cost effective locally available resources using by buffalo owners to improve the reproductive efficiency of buffaloes? Keeping in view. respectively. Highest numbers of buffaloes were found in problems as 6. V. 10.com 2 Professors.41 percent of respondents for the same purpose. Rajbir 2. parity. Neelam 3 S. Lucknow (UP) SUMMARY Present study was carried out on 2160 respondent and observations were pooled to study the reproductive problem retention of placenta. season. Tel +919412830646(Cellular) +91 121 2888505 (Fax) +91 121 2888508 (Office) Email: ravinder774@rediffmail. of UP.PRODUCTION SYSTEM Retention of Placenta in Buffaloes and Its Management through Locally Available Resources Kumar. Statistically. season and parity orders were found to have highly significant effect on this trait. 3 Small Animal Laboratory. The infections of reproductive tract further lead to infertility and poor reproductive efficiency. parity order. repeat breeding. Keywords: retention of placenta. 8.58. P.P.81 percent) of the buffalo owners provided Kada (250 gm Gur (Jagery) + 10-15 gm.77 percent among the 2701 observations. metritis. University of Agriculture and Technology. of Animal Husbandry. 2 and Singh.75 and 11. field conditions.29 percent among the buffaloes belonging to large & small farmers categories. Y. locations and managemental practices using locally available resources. Department of Animal Husbandry. These problems also influence the calving pattern of buffaloes and consequently fluctuation in milk production round the year in Indian scenario. Govt. post-partum utero-veginal prolapsed and abnormal calving that lead to huge economic losses to the farmers. Feeding of mango (Mangifera Indica) leaves was practiced by 22. farmer categories INTRODUCTION India is the origin of center of diversity of the world's best dairy buffalo breeds.44 percent in 3rd & more then (>) 3rd calvers and 7. Deptt. farmer's categories. It was observed that the overall incidence of retention of placenta was 6.83 percent respondents were feeding Gur (Jagery) + Mustards seeds + Cotton seeds to dropout the retained placenta. Singh. anoestrus. Ajwain (Carum copticum) + Ghee or mustard and 82. Meerut-250 110 (UP) INDIA 1 Assistant Professor.

2. dystocia.77 percent in 2701 observations (table -1). Abril 2010 799 . 17 for Murrah buffaloes in NDRI herd. non-significant effect of season on this trait had been reported by 7. highest incidence (10. Ajwain + Ghee or mustard and 82. Feeding of mango leaves was practiced by 22.37 percent respondents and only colostrums feeding also was practiced by 3.16 reported similar trends that the incidence of retention of placenta increased with the advancement of number of parities of lactation.81 percent owners provided. Effect of parity order The incidence of retention of placenta was significantly higher in more than 3rd calver buffaloes compared to earlier parity (table no. Further more. 12 observed significant effect on the retention of placenta under the field conditions in Karnal district of Haryana state. Ambala. Locally resources used in case of retention of placenta As depicted in table-3 that most of the common buffalo 89. 3. repeat breeding. 3rd calver and more than 3rd calver.06 percent) of retention of placenta was from in rainy season. The findings are inline with the 1. 1st calver. small and large. 3. 4 for Surti buffaloes and 3 for buffaloes at Jabalpur farm.-2). Summer (May to June). Rainy (July to September) and Autumn (October to November).29 percent) among the buffaloes kept by small farmers followed by marginal (6. Surprisingly it was found that 14. Results and Discussion The over all incidence of retention of placenta among the buffaloes under study was found to be 6. 11.25 percent respondents were allowing their animals to walk along with Buenos Aires.83 percent respondents were feeding Gur + mustards seeds + cotton seeds to dropout the retained placenta. However. Dharwad. Effect of season Subjecting the data to statistical analysis it was found that season had highly significant effect on the incidence of retention of placenta (table -2). 15. Kada (250 gm Gur + 10-15 gm.10.84 percent of respondents. the effect of farmer categories was found to be non-significant on the retention of placenta. these may be due to extreme hot and humidity in environment. The most prevalent ITK(Indigenous Technical Knowledge) / herbal treatments relevant to retention of placenta disorders are collected and documented in the study. comparatively higher incidence has been reported by 11. it was found that buffalo owners were using cost effective and easily available resources to overcome this problem in the villages of study area. the highest (8.58 percent) farmer categories buffaloes.8 for Murrah buffaloes at IVRI.17 for Murrah buffaloes.6 for buffaloes. Significantly lowest incidence (4.8 for Murrah buffaloes. Izzatnagar. The data were collected and classified according to: 1) classes of parity: heifer.81 percent) was found in summer season calvers compared to other seasons.13.11.41 percent of respondents for the same purpose. Whereas. respectively. Almost equal incidence of retention of placenta was reported by 13. The highest incidence of retention of placenta in more than 3rd calver buffaloes may be due to more relaxation of genitalia and weak muscle tonicity which subsequently lead to buffaloes failed to expel it from genitalia.13. It was found that Gur (Jaggery) with colostrums were feeding just after the calving of buffaloes practiced by the 43. 2) categories of farmers: landless. retention of placenta and metritis during the years 2003-04. pre-partum and post partum prolapse. Spring (March to April). marginal. Whereas.6 also reported significant effect of season on this abnormality. 2nd calver.89 percent) among the buffaloes of landless category farmers. such as anoestrus. 4 also reported that retention of placenta disorder was significantly increased from the first parity to fourth parities for Surti buffaloes herd in Agricultural University.PRODUCTION SYSTEM Materials and Methods The present study was carried out in 27 villages of western Uttar Pradesh on 2160 respondent buffalo owners with 2701 observations characterized by several reproductive problems. This finding corroborated with the results of 5. Lower incidence of retention of placenta compared to this study was reported by 5. However. 3) seasons (the year was divided into five seasons based on climatologically conditions): winter (December to February). Effect of farmer's categories The incidence of retention of placenta was found to be lowest (5.14 percent) and large (7. abortion. 14at MDF.

whereas. Therefore for multi-disciplinary research activities on ethno-veterinary medicines. for scientific evaluation and validation of such practices are suggested to overcome the reproductive problems in buffaloes so that the farmers can use these easily available and cost effective resources.89 percent of the respondents tying small pieces of bricks with placenta so that retained placenta could easily be removed. 1. as they explained is that it produce heat inside the buffaloes and resulting dropping to the placenta. Table 1: Average incidence of Retention of Placenta in buffaloes in relation to different factors: Table 2: ANOVA showing the effects of different factors on Retention of placenta disorder (M. As per discussion with buffalo owners. the above said practices give positive response. 9 also reported allowing animals to walk for treatment of retained placenta.S.PRODUCTION SYSTEM the logic behind this thing. Value): Table 3: Locally resources/ITK used in case of retention of placenta 800 Proceedings 9th World Buffalo Congress .

K. 81(1) : 48-50 5. Indian Vet.S. Tomar. 15th inter. 62(7) 663-664. Tomar. R. 17 (2) : 27-29 7. Indian Journal of Animal Science.N. Tomar. Genet. A. A. Anim. Taraphder. 1991. Tomar. India. 12. and Tripathi. Estimates of heritability of utero-vaginal disorders in a herd of Murrah buffaloes. 1983. P. A gender prospective. NDRI (Deemed University).S. S.S. pregnancy. Incidence and inheritance of utero-veginal disorders in a herd of Murrah buffaloes.Sc. M. 3. Murugeppa. B. Mishra.K. Incidence and association among certain reproductive problems in Murrah buffaloes. Tomar. parity and management. 1999.. K. Study of the livestock feeding and health management system in Mayurbhanj district of Orissa.V. Third World Buffalo Congress.P. Sah. 47(12) 1050-1052. Reproductive problems in buffaloes under field management conditions.N. (Dec. 1999. Indian J. CCSHAU.K. Dairy Sci.K. Buffalo Bulletin. S. and Gupta. M. Inheritance of calving problems in Murrah buffaloes. S. thesis (unpublished) NDRI. Indian J. and Tripathi.. Tomar. thesis. Agarwal. and Prasad. 2005 9. 1998.B. Karnal. 2. C. and Dubey.C. 1998. 1994.V. S. 14. The Indain Journal of Animal Reproduction: 26(2): 153-158 Dec. Studies on pathological termination of pregnancies in Surti buffaloes. An analysis of dairy animal breeding and management practices in hill zone of U. 506-511 15. 43 (1). Tomar. Sah. S. Singh Jaspreet. Measures of reproductive estimates in rural buffalo herds of Meerut district of Uttar Pradesh (Indian). 1996. Genetics of utero-vaginal disorders in Murrah Buffaloes. Puerperal period reproductive disorders in Surti buffaloes during different parity. 12-22) held at New Delhi. Karnal. Mohanty. and Ram. and Singh. Incidence of retention of placenta in buffaloes.S. 16. Indian J. Impact of management practices on reproductive disorders of dairy animals.B. 1992. M. 2005. BuffaloBulletin. May 1991. and Singh K.S..G. 17. A comprehensive study on crop and dairy farming practices in north Bihar.PRODUCTION SYSTEM REFERENCES: 1. and Tripathi.Sc. R. Reprod. U. Buenos Aires. 61 (8) : 841-842 8. NDRI. 10.K.N. Indian J.N. Vol.Sc. R. U.. Rawal. 1998. Verna. Prasad. R.D thesis (unpublished). Ph D. S. Murugeppa. Factors affecting replacement rate and its components in a herd of Murrah buffaloes. S.S. Hisar. S. thesis (unpublished) NDRI.P. Anim. 11. Karnal. 1991. Incidence of prolapse of genitalia in Murrah buffaloes in relation to season. 17(3) : 51-52 6. 1997. 13. Jha. and Trpathi V..K. 2004. 67-71. M. Gandotra V. Thesis. V. Descriptive study of existing dairy framing practices and constraints in adoption of improved dairy practices among dairy farmers in Bihar. V. Journal. 1993. 48: 340-342. Bulgaria. Cong. Ph. Karnal. Indian Journal of Animal Science. A. R. 1991.S.M. 75 (3) : 254-255 4. II.S. Dairy Sci. A. K. Abril 2010 801 . Health. Verma H. 1998. and Pandit. V. 1998. Proceedings.

Murrah and Mediterranean race. fasted for 14 hours and water diet. 25% soybean meal and 12% wheat bran.C. food supplementation. A. 4Researcher Embrapa Eastern Amazon.S. were managed in a single group. they can better express their genetic potential for growth. with mineralization ad libitum and food supplementation scheme. Enéas Pinheiro s/n. and less rainy season from June to November. protein. At the end of the fattening period. when given a diet with adequate levels of energy. C. from December to May.2. Lourenço Júnior. Brazil. s/n. Student in Animal Science.R. Dr. Scholarship of CAPES. Garcia. the increased demand for quality protein derived from an animal reared on pasture and the requirements for more ecological production systems have presented a challenge to Brazilian beef and milk production. Thus.com. b) promote technical training and management c) promote programs for the dissemination and technology transfer. Brazil (1º 28 'S 48º 27' W). with six days of occupation and 24 days of rest. ABSTRACT This paper aims to suggest alternatives for sustainable food production of buffalo meat in silvopastoral system-SPS. Pará State.3. Tancredo Neves. 11% bran wheat and 19% ground corn. Joele. Fifteen male buffaloes. Tv. Treatment B = Pasture with diet supplement with 70% of coconut cake. Dr. Federal Rural University of Amazônia-UFRA.5. 3Researcher Embrapa Eastern Amazon.R. K. and treatment C = Pasture with diet supplement with 70% palm dendê cake. Afi climate. with rainy season. The experimental area has five paddocks in duration grazing. The average of daily gain achieved 1. 13% wheat bran and 2% ground corn. for this reason better digest food in low quality. The buffaloes are rustic animals. 15% soybean meal. with diet containing 19% crude protein (CP) in three treatments: Treatment A (Control) = Pasture with diet supplement with 63% ground corn. Keywords: Buffalo. Brazil. 6DSc.4. Dr. Belém. nº1.S.6 1MSc. in individual stalls to control consumption by weighing the feed offered and remains at the rate of 1% of body weight. minerals and vitamins. Belém. The development of a sustainable farming buffalo in the Amazon faces multiple challenges. 2Adjunct Professor. Brazil. A completely randomized design with three treatments and five replications was used. Federal University of Pará State-UFPA.1. Augusto Corrêa. obtaining an average of carcass yield of 58%. Faturi. Belém. in Embrapa Eastern Amazon. Belém. M. reproduction and lactation. Scholarship of FAPESPA kellyconor@hotmail. with African mahogany (Khaya ivorensis) and neem (Azadirachta indica) and Panicum maximum grass. Tv.P. Av. Enéas Pinheiro s/n. Nahúm.PRODUCTION SYSTEM Supplemental feeding for buffaloes with agroindustry by-products on silvopastoral system in brazilian eastern amazon Oliveira. which require to be listed: a) the need to increase technical and economic productivity. Professor Graduate in Animal Science and Agricultural Sciences. Pará State.B. in order to obtain more precocious and quality animals through new technologies for the viability of a modern animal husbandry. 802 Proceedings 9th World Buffalo Congress . silvopastoral system INTRODUCTION Currently. Federal Rural University of Amazônia-UFRA. J. Av. Tv. Pará State. every morning. B.007 kilograms. The country is going to have great market to conquer. the experimental animals were slaughtered to evaluate the characteristics and carcass composition. 5 Postgraduate degree of Federal University of Pará State-UFPA and Federal Rural University of AmazôniaUFRA. The weight of experimental animals were made at the end of each grazing cycle. Pará State. Enéas Pinheiro s/n. Student in Agricultural Sciences.C.

neem (Azadirachta indica) and Panicum maximum grass. The experiment used 15 male buffaloes. The experimental design was completely randomized design with three treatments and five repetitions. Brazil. Figure 1A: Murrah and Mediterranean buffaloes in silvopastoral system. divided into six days of occupation and 24 days of rest (Figure 1A). with mineralization ad libitum and food supplementation scheme. The research method system used was the silvopastoral system . Belém. 11% of wheat bran and 19% of ground corn. at 5% probability rate. intending to improve the animal environment and add value to the property. where are planted African mahogany (Khaya ivorensis) and Indian neem (Azadirachta indica). with constant raining throughout the year. 13% of wheat bran and 2% of ground corn. 15% of soybean. with an average of 450 kg. in a single group. that came from Embrapa's herd. containing zootechnical facility consists of the arena. Pará. relative air humidity of 85% and insulation 2. with waterfountain and trough covered for mineral supplementation and double electric fences (by perimeter and thick partition walls). the males were slaughtered to determine the characteristics and carcass composition. The SPS was composed by Panicum maximum grass. Murrah and Mediterranian races. at the proportion of 1% of body weight. At the end of the fattening period. especially during the months of May to December.1 mm/year. The animals were managed in the pasture. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 1 shows the averages of consumption of the diet supplement and daily weight gain of experimental animals during the period May to July 2009. Pará State. Buenos Aires. al. It was observed that the control diet. in the Afi climatic type. Treatment B = Pasture + Diet supplement with 70% of coconut cake. with grazing cycle of 30 days. 25% of soybean and 12% of wheat bran. Brazil (1º28'S e 48º27'W). The animals were submitted to three different treatments: Treatment A (Control) = Pasture + Diet supplement with 63% ground corn. fasted for 14 hours and water diet. with African mahogany (Khaya ivorensis). Data were submitted to analysis of variance and rate comparisons.PRODUCTION SYSTEM MATERIALS AND METHODS The research was conducted at the Embrapa Eastern Amazon. and less rainy from June to November. annual temperature rate 26ºC/year. The weight of experimental animals are made at the end of each grazing cycle.400 hour/year (BASTOS et.SPS. pluviometric precipitation 3000. Figure 1B: Stable. managed in intensive rotation. Abril 2010 803 . for supplementary feeding in individual pens. in individual stalls to control consumption by measuring the feed offered and remains in stable located next to the pasture (Figure 1B). from May to October 2009. 2002).4 ha. utilizing the Statistical Analysis System (SAS. probably related to the replacement effect of diet on the grass. with ration containing 19% of crude protein (CP). every morning.. in Belém. using the "T" test. divided in five paddocks. and Treatment C = Pasture + Diet supplement 70% of palm dendê cake. despite being the most consumed did not provide greater weight gain compared to diets containing palm dendê cake or coconut cake. 1993). intercalated by four meters. in which the experimental area is of 5.

code 01. 2001. Treatment A . 2.09. 128). (Embrapa Amazônia Oriental. 1993. SAS Institute. T. which may be related to lower palatability of this ingredient. D. 243 p. 25% soybean meal and 12% wheat bran. Language reference: Version 6..Control = Pasture with diet supplement with 63% ground corn.57% for the animals supplemented with different levels of energy.6. p. Silva.. an average of 1. 31 p.88 to 51. Sá. Experimental animals were slaughtered.07.007 kg. USA. N. v. probably due to its susceptibility to rancidity.R. A. with an average of 650 kg. Características de carcaça. The daily weight gain of animals. Since animals were raised in SPS. X. the availability of shade between 20% and 25% consisted in an important factor to physical environment management in tropical conditions. in Belém. Acknowledgements. Níveis de energia na dieta para bubalinos em crescimento alimentados em confinamento. Lower consumption was observed in buffaloes treated with diet containing coconut cake. was considered exceptional and highlights the potential of buffalo for meat production.02. and treatment C = Pasture + 70% palm dendê cake 15% soybean meal.PRODUCTION SYSTEM Table 1: Mean values of consumption of supplemental feed and daily weight gain of experimental animals during the period May to July 2009. A. Authors thank to Embrapa Eastern Amazon (Animal Biotec Network. Cary. T. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia. Pacheco. R. 804 Proceedings 9th World Buffalo Congress .1880-1885.01. 2002. and Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq. process 481837/2007-8) for financial support. Pará State. Belém: Embrapa Amazônia Oriental. Aspectos climáticos de Belém no últimos cem anos. 11% bran wheat and 19% ground corn. Brazil..30.09. which can avoid wasting energy to animal thermoregulation. 13% wheat bran and 2% ground corn. Bastos. Franzolin. and presented an average carcass yield of 58%.05). Federal Rural University of Amazônia-UFRA. J. n. specially for buffaloes created in the Eastern Amazon. D. REFERENCES 1. Treatment B = Pasture with diet supplement with 70% of coconut cake. Nechet. Documentos. Franzolin and Silva (2001) found a rate of carcass yield from 50. 3. Federal University of Pará-UFPA.

Brazil.).Tv. being.WS). Abril 2010 805 . 38. respiratory frequency (RF). Keywords: Silvopastoral system. show intensification of mannering and physiological answers. cardiac frequency (CF) and temperature of the corporal surface (TCS) and were surveyed in the turns in the morning (7:00 a. Belem. Garcia.095-100. The variance analyses showed differences (P<0. 38. Para state.S and group without shading . Belém. The months of February and March had differences between turns to TSC. low amount of sweat glands. therefore. Tv.F. The RF. Viana.A.R.M. had significant difference (P<0. 5 Postgraduate degree of Federal University of Para State . in the climatic conditions of the Eastern Amazon Region. Enters the months of the experimental period.3. Ceara State. get to keep constant its body temperature.2. e-mail: jamileandrea@yahoo. the turn of the morning.CEP 66. low density of hair and the dark skin.05) between the turns. of 34 and 36ºC. respectively for group S and WS. 1Graduate degree of Rural Federal University of Amazonia . being the CF. sun and shading.4 and 38.A.) and in the afternoon (13:00 p.com. The CF.UFRA . respectively of Groups S and WS. the buffalos possess specific structural and functional particularitities. Tancredo Neves. of the turn of afternoon. B.Campus do Itaperi. superior to the morning. Federal University of Ceara . Rural Federal University of Amazonia .UFPA and Federal Rural University of Amazonia . Belem.1. being the RT. The physiological variable studied were: rectal temperature (RT). J.UFC. also. J.M and 13:00 P. In both groups the animals use Brachiaria humidicola with access to water for drink and mineral salt "add libitum". INTRODUCTION The homoeothermic animals. Lourenço Júnior. On the other hand. Buenos Aires. Nahúm. Thus. inside of narrow limits. with bigger values in May (38 movement/minute) and less in June (31 movement/minute). of the turn in the afternoon. April.br ABSTRACT To evaluate the thermoregulatory answers of 20 females buffaloes. intensive rotation grazing.PRODUCTION SYSTEM Thermoregulatory answers in buffaloes (bubalus bubalis) created on the shading and sun. with bigger values in January. the turn of the afternoon. in shade conditions. 65 and 71 beat/minute.CEP 66. was different (P<0. Fortaleza.R.A.8ºC. Dr. in two periods of the day (7:00 A. 3 DSc. in conditions of raised ambient temperatures. respectively of Groups S and WS. Student in Zootecnic. Tancredo Neves. 4 Postgraduate degree of Federal University of Ceara . in silvopastoral system.m. significantly superior to the morning. created on the sun and on the shading in the Embrapa Eastern Amazon. Student in Agricultural Sciences.Tv. Tv. Eneas Pinheiro s/n. for the two treatments. ambience. Araújo. Para State. the buffalo acts as a typical "black body" heat radiator. s/n. N.6 and 38. the objective of this work was to evaluate the thermoregulatory answers of buffaloes submitted to the sun and the shade of trees of the leguminous Acacia mangium. of 27 and 28ºC. Para State. R. However. Belém.05) of the TCS between treatments and turns in the months of January.UFC. although the variations in the ambient temperature. Under thermoneutral ambient conditions. in the climatic conditions of the brazilian eastern amazon Silva.m. The buffalos of Group S (n=10) had remained in rotation grazing. has ability to keep the balance between production and loss of heat. 2 DSc. Were used in completely randomized design. physiological variables. A. Brazil . Av. Belem. shadings for the leguminous Acacia mangium. 2. Brazil.B.5. Although the adaptability to the most varied ambient conditions. the turn of the afternoon. Paranjana. in rotation grazing. Eneas Pinheiro s/n. 6 Researcher Embrapa Eastern Amazon. as high concentration of melanin in the skin and the hair. Para State. May and June.095260. 59 and 65 beat/minute. Brachiaria humidicola.6.UFRA. Murrah race.S. in Group WS. 1700 . A.). Para State. Dr.4. as the buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).6. Brazil . while of Group WS (n=10) was managed in poles without access to the shade. Brazil. The results of the variance analysis had disclosed differences significant (P<0. Brazil.05) between the months. and less in May.05) between the turns. for the two treatments. had differences of the TSC.B. s/n. therefore it recoups its thermal balance quickly 8.095-100.UFRA . Santos. two experimental groups (group on shading .4ºC. very sensible when displayed to the direct solar radiation. CEP 66.

to 7:00 A.without shade).05% of significance. in poles with shade of trees of the leguminous Acacia mangium. similar behavior to the observed one in other localities. The CF was measured for auscultation of the beatings. where the RT was of 38.03" S and 48°. therefore in this group it did not have shade availability. cardiac frequency (CF) and temperature of corporal surface (TCS).4ºC). with scale until 44ºC.001 mm.4) + 46. Para State. when using mud puddles formed by the water of rain. in elapsing of the collection of data. The feeding was exclusively the grass of the grassy "quicuio-da-Amazônia" (humidicola Brachiaria). The averages of the RT. average weight 359kg. The animals were distributed. the animals lay down. with a veterinarian stethoscope. are illustrated in Figure 1. during one minute. between turns and treatments. In them. per the afternoon (38. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The averages of climatic variable and the index of temperature and humidity.400 hours of annual insolation 2. in buffaloes created in silvopastoral system. defendant in maximum distance of 1 meter of the points of measure in the animal: front. Belem. per the morning and to the afternoon. in every month of the experimental period. where the buffalos look water for bath. in both the turns. The pluvial precipitation annual average is 3.with shade and Group WS . It had significant differences (P<0.7ºC and 39.4]. located the 500 meters of the experimental area. non-lactating.4 and 38.Were used 20 Murrah buffaloes.26'. 0.PRODUCTION SYSTEM MATERIALS AND METHODS This Work was lead in the Unit of Research "Senator Alvaro Adolpho" (01°. where: T = temperature (ºC) and RHA = relative humidity of air (%). according to Köppen. The local climatic type is the Afi. on this physiological variable. Brazil.M.2ºC. pertaining to the Embrapa Eastern Amazon. with access the water to drink and mineral salt ad libitum. in the SYSTAT. right side of the thorax and left side. For attainment of the RT veterinarian clinical thermometer was used.03" W). in silvopastoral system. version 12. while Group WS (n=10) was kept without access to the shade. also. in two experimental groups (Group S . are in Table 1. 806 Proceedings 9th World Buffalo Congress . The period of adaptation was of 14 days. with lesser values in June (38. per the morning and afternoon. annual average relative humidity of air 85%. temperature of air (AT) and index of temperature and humidity (ITH). Brazil. This fact can have occurred due to adaptation acquired for the animals.ITH 10 was calculated: [0.26'. surveyed two times per week. had significant difference (P<0. Brazil. in rotation pasture.05). aiming at its thermoregulation 1.Was made descriptive and variance analyses. Had significant differences (P<0.05) between Groups WS and S and turns. The referring climatic variable to the temperature of air (AT) and relative humidity of air (RHA) was gotten in the Meteorological Station of the INMET. Group S (n=10) remained in rotation pasture. From them the Index of Temperature and Humidity . for groups S and WS. in the experimental period.8 x T + (RHA/100) x (T-14.M. In Group WS. The TCS was gotten with a laser thermometer. Table 1: Average values of the relative humidity of air (HRA). per one minute. in the direction of rumen. when they presented differentiated behavior. randomized. and 13:00 P. respectively. significantly superior to the observed per the morning (38.55ºC). of January to June 2009. what it demonstrates the influence of the ambient temperature. Similar results were observed in Rondônia State. in order to keep the body temperature in normal levels. annual average temperature 27ºC and 2.8ºC). respiratory frequency (RF).2º DISME. The RF was gotten by inspection and counting of the thorax-abdominal movements. getting averages of these values. Were determined rectal temperature (RT). in Belem/Para State. between four and five years old. in the experimental period. of January to June of 2009. cyclical.05) between the months. respectively 6.6 and 38.

M. this physiological variable.6 for 48. increases and reaches 66 beatings/minute. In the others months the differences (P<0.PRODUCTION SYSTEM In Figure 2 was observed variation of the RF. in the wasteland of Pernambuco State. for the supply of the climatic data.3 for 39. Are illustrated in the Figure 3 the averages of the CF.). May and June. This effect can have the peripheral vasodilatation.05) to the afternoon. for the financial resources.05) between treatments and turns had been observed. of morning (7:00 A.) and to the afternoon (1:00 P. as form to waste the excess of corporal heat. as reply to the rise of the ambient temperature and consequent increase of the sanguine flow for the surface of skin 4. had significant difference (P<0.1ºC. in Groups WS and S. the difference (P<0. the temperature of the corporal surface of heifers buffaloes and buffaloes in gestation were bigger (P<0.05) between the months. of morning (7:00 A. what confers thermal sensation of lesser temperature and. In pasture. deviating energies that could be being used to get bigger productivity.). In the months of March and April./min./min. Brazil 3. However.).) and to the afternoon (1:00 P.. To the National Institute of Meteorology INMET/2º District of Meteorology. in January. in comparison with the morning.SUDAM. in the experimental period. the buffaloes present significant rise in the RT. In the same way. also. as the Silvopastoral System. respectively. The averages observed in Groups WS and S were.M. The averages of the TCS. in Eastern Amazon.). with bigger value in March (38 mov.05) was only between the turns. for the availability of the area and experimental animals. in result of thermal stress.1 and 34. in all months of the experimental period. Variation of rectal temperature of buffaloes created without shade (WS) and shade (S).1). When the buffalos are created in systems without access to the shade or water. When are considered the systems of creation. in order to keep the thermal balance. in the experimental period. Acknowledgements: To the Supervision of Development of Amazônia .05) occurred between the months. in Eastern Amazon. to the afternoon. It had significant differences (P<0. of 38.4 mov. Differences (P<0. respectively. 59 and 65 beat/min. are illustrated in Figure 4. superiors to averages in the morning.) and minors in June (31 mov.05) between Groups WS and S and turns.M. superiority (P<0. per the afternoon. of 22.5°C. better promotes tolerance of the buffalos to the tropical heat.M. In Group WS.05) in the averages of the turn of the afternoon is observed (33. In Group WS. the systems that allow access to the shade. in both the turns. The availability of shade in this system protects the animals of the direct incidence of the solar radiation. independent of period. during the experimental period. the cardiac frequency of the buffaloes is less intense. In February and March only had differences between turns. the cardiac frequency are significantly lower in the animals created in Silvopastoral System. had significant differences (P<0./min. To the Embrapa Eastern Amazon. Buenos Aires. with lesser values in June (56 beat/min. Variation of respiratory frequency of buffaloes created without shade (WS) and shade (S). In all the experimental period. 807 .05) between Groups WS and S and turns. when the temperature of air reaches 29°C 5. without shade. from the moment where the average temperature of air exceeds 26. April. Thus. its thermoregulatory system immediately are activated. Abril 2010 Figure 2. Figure 1. consequently. and in the RF.. 65 and 71 beat/min. that harms productive performance 9. Under temperatures of air lesser. between 60 and 61 beatings/minute. propitiates greater thermal comfort 7.

12. Furukawa. A.M. In: IV Congresso Brasileiro de Biometeorologia . Plantas e Animais. 1989. p.A.B.. 2002....M. RS.. 1997. Gramado. ed. n. N. 2007. 262 p.X. L. J. Kanai. 2008. E.M. Institute of Agriculture and Forestry. Bastos. Santos. Variation of temperature of corporal surface of buffaloes created without shade (WS) and shade (S). Sá. D. Dissertação (Mestrado). 2000.A. Chikamune.M. K..F. Ciência Animal Brasileira (UFG). D.18. Ablas. M. A. 808 Proceedings 9th World Buffalo Congress . in Eastern Amazon. Weatherwise. Congresso de Medicina Veterinária do Cone Sul. Ibaraki. SC.) and to the afternoon (1:00 P. of morning (7:00 A. Castro. Townsend. PA.. Goiânia. T.S. Alves. REFERENCES 1. Thom. R. Anais. Magalhães. in Eastern Amazon...). of morning (7:00 A.) and to the afternoon (1:00 P. Nakajima.S. Thermoregulatory responses of swamp buffaloes and friesian cows to diurnal changes in temperature. Matos.M. v. Japan. 8. UFRPE. Takigawa. Variation of cardiac frequency of buffaloes created without shade (WS) and shade (S)..PRODUCTION SYSTEM Figure 3.264. Monteiro.C. 2007. 2006.. Figure 4.F.A. Porto Alegre: Sulina. T.C.B. 3. 4.C. E. Leme..L. Kurata.J. In: Encontro Anual de Etologia. Anais.. Documentos.M. Koga. Comportamento de bubalinos a pasto frente a disponibilidade de sombra e água para imersão.A. 1959. Conforto térmico e eficiência da inseminação artificial em tempo fixo em búfalas leiteiras mantidas em sistemas silvipastoris na Amazônia Oriental. P. v. M. Y. p. Pará.A. p. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência Animal. 6. 2. em Belém. N.26-42. 5.M. C. Bioclimatologia aplicada aos animais domésticos. 25. Ambiência na produção de bubalinos destinados ao abate. Efeitos das variáveis climáticas sobre a fisiologia de bubalinos criados em sistema silvipastoril. C. Núcleo de Ciências Agrárias e Desenvolvimento Rural. 7. Temperatura retal e frequência respiratória de bovinos e bubalinos em Rondônia. 31 p. Ribeirão Preto.L. 3. 9. Recife.M. Lourenço Júnior. R. J.R. 1999. Belém: Embrapa Amazônia Oriental.). (Embrapa Amazônia Oriental.Mudanças Climáticas: Impacto Sobre Homem. Índices de conforto térmico e adaptabilidade de fêmeas bubalinas em pastejo no agreste de Pernambuco. Tavares. E. The disconfort index. Pacheco.A. Dissertação (Mestrado) UFPA.. 167-176. Dantas. Florianópolis: Sociedade Brasileira de Etologia. Titto. C.R. 52p.G. L. Nechet. 57-59. 2000. N. 2. Titto. T. J. Costa. 8. e atual.B. A. T. rev. Tsukuba-shi.1273-1276.M. 2006. 128). Aspectos climáticos de Belém no últimos cem anos. Pereira... 2. Costa.A. p. Anais.. Belém. A. p. Ribeirão Preto-SP. University of Tsukuba. Paranhos Da Costa.B.S.D. Florianópolis. 10. O.. Müller. v. Gramado: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária. In: Congresso Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária.

3 liters. C. Keywords: Buffaloes. In the production subsystem: days in milk production. reproductive and population parameters in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) at Buffalo Farm Called La Suiza located at the Magdalena Medio in Colombia and make the analysis and interpretation of the indicators and their interactions by subsystems to build a comprehensive understanding of the target farm and perform a control of buffaloes farm operating processes. Average production of buffalo milk per day is 3. Zuluaga. from January 2006 to December 2007. 2 1Universidad de la Salle. without taking into account differences in conditions of production in Colombia. average production buffalo / day. ending 18-24m and adults). Some Brazilian studies report parameters that are usually applied in buffalo rearing. Colombia. lactation duration. productive and population behavior were establish. R. Growth II 12-18m.000 heads of livestock. Bogotá. and results from TaurusWebs Software. Corresponding autor: Marcela García Cortés. The parameters generated by subsystems include: population: an inventory of animals on the farm. parameters. growth curve. Strategic planning was finally used for decision-making and actions by the buffalo company. Colombia. Colombia. length of lactations averaging 284 days. Colombia.L. Abril 2010 809 . Total population analyzed was 3350 animals.5 months (975 days).PRODUCTION SYSTEM Use of Information Systems to Determine Productive. dry period average length of 128 days. reproductive and productive. located in the Middle of the Magdalena River. The aim of this study was to determine productive. calving interval of 406 days. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics for subsystems and for this purpose was generated productivity trees time series for evaluation and assessment of delivery. annual rate of replacement subsystem reproduction: conception buffalo heifers age. Colombia. Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria. such as quality of land and pastures and the annual variation in the length of hours light according to the station in the center and southern area of Brazil.com ABSTRACT This research was conducted in the Hacienda Bufalera la Suiza. milk production per day. set the need to enter and to improve into the productive system. At the same time indicators about the reproductive. reproductive and population parameters in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) have not been sufficiently studied in Colombia.O1. 2SADEP LTDA. It made possible to determine age buffalo heifers conception average of 32. calving interval conception. age at first calving averaged 44 months (1320 days). G. Buenos Aires. dry period. Survey was conducted in the field information with historical data of population. 205 days weight to 42. Ospina. around 70. calving interval.-Bogotá.1 kilograms. age at first calving. for that reason are taken from the cattle. total milk production. lactation curve. Reproductive and Population Parameter in Buffaloes at Buffalo Farm Called La Suiza Located at the Magdalena Medio in Colombia García. Calle 152 # 55 a 10. From the descriptive analysis was performed a DOFA matrix for each subsystem. Growth I 9-12m. INTRODUCTION The growing interest about buffaloes in our country. Phone: +573125626933 -Email: marcelitagc24@gmail. reproductive and population parameters in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).M 1. divided into five age groups (infants 0-9 m. The aim of this study was to determine productive.C1. The productive. Bogotá.

animals to wean and weaning animals.29. is composed by 3 farms called: Puerto Alicia.s to Puerto Berrío. where there are pregnant females. Corinto farm has a total of 1200 hectares with a population of 1250 animals and Puerto Alicia farm with 1500 hectares and 1100 animals. annual relative humidity is 76 % 15. services. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Population subsystem: It seems a female buffalo population in an expansion process with a surplus in the following categories: Infants. The average temperature is 28 ° . this group was subject to analysis. municipalities of Puerto Nare and Puerto Berrío. There are 1001 female buffaloes in dairy production. Antioquia´s Department. corresponding to 70% Table 1: Final herd structure 810 Proceedings 9th World Buffalo Congress . Vereda la Mina. with a biannual distribution of the rainy period: March-May. pregnant females and calvings. completed lactations.3 ° c 16. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the information by subsystems. It was done a comparison at the farm to the inventory with the information entered to TaurusWebs software and also information updates was done. distributed so: La Espiga Farm has a total of 2300 hectares with a population of 1400 animals. of the total´s population. there are female buffaloes approaching to labor and growing group. The buffaloes population in this farm is comprise by four thousand eight hundred animals.PRODUCTION SYSTEM MATERIALS AND METHODS This research was conducted at Buffalo Farm Called La Suiza located at the Magdalena Medio in Colombia. The production subsystem recorded the following information: current lactations. buffalo cows to dry. which are divided into six milking parlours. the inputs and outputs of animals was recorded in the population subsystem. not pregnant buffalo cows. female in the dry period and calving. from January of 2006 until December of 2007. They were built each one of the stories of individual animals. heifers and buffalo cows current information. for that purpose were generated: productivity trees. the stories of each one of these. entered to TaurusWebs software.m. annotations. males and females without calving and steers. corresponding to 50% Growth II. productive and population information of the group evaluated were collected from notebooks. evaluation for time series and evaluation by calving number. September-November and the dry period: December-February and June-August. This farm is located at the end of La Sierra. corresponding to 86% Growth I . The reproductive. The reproduction subsystem recorded the following information: not pregnant buffalo heifers. the annual average of reported precipitation is 1424 m. females to be palpate per rectum. La Espiga and Corinto. corresponding to 88% Ending. generated listings for the control by subsystems: inventory of animals.

these could be used to expand the herd by an additional 13 per cent or for sale. Abril 2010 811 . to leave in the farm the best animals and the remaining can be selling. there are 129 buffalo heifers surplus. weights.4 months more than the expected according to literature. age. normal inventory Those surpluses could be selected by their phenotypic characteristics.PRODUCTION SYSTEM Figure 1: Real Inventory vs.Initial Age) Reproduction subsystem: Buffalo heifers presented an age at first conception of 7. generating additional income for this. PRODUCTIVITY THREE Normal Inventory= RN/month * (Final Age . Figure 2: Weight and age at first conception in buffalo heifers Buenos Aires. 110 buffalo cows should be ruled out and need 110 buffalo heifers for its replacement. According to the harmonic replacement rate of 11% annual for this farm. which causes decrease in productivity to lower number of deliveries occur by all the population.

The average age and weight at the first calving was of 44 months (1320 days) and 465 kg.9 ± 57. differing from Baruselli reported. Figure 3: Number of heifers vs. this value could be associated with the nutritional deficiencies during the process of growing and ending. may be to reconsider that the weight at the age at first conception can be reduced according to the present investigation. Therefore if to check that there are not deficiency about the heifers breeding. The age at the first calving reported is in connection with the higher age at the first conception. age at first calving is correlated with the weight reached by the heifers than by the age.9 Kg 5. with an average of 35 months (1050 days) and body weight of 506.9 ± 57. an average of 40 months (1200 days) and body weight of 506. The heifers calvings have greater presentation in the months of July to September and a lower presentation in the months of January to March consolidating in this way the seasonal reproductive pattern. The age at the first conception is directly proportional to the age at first calving and was ratified reached weight is less than the reported. The low reproductive productivity occurs in females at first calving.PRODUCTION SYSTEM The weight at the age at first conception is lower than the expected (330 kg) according to 400 kg reported by literature. age at first conception. is reported in literature. The sexual behavior connected to puberty.9 Kg 5. Figure 4: Age at first calving 812 Proceedings 9th World Buffalo Congress . number of calving of heifers.

the trend of this indicator is toward increasing. the production on the 150 day is 3. with the following results: Average lactation duration: 284 days.382 liters 1734 lactations were evaluated. the peak was with 3.PRODUCTION SYSTEM The average intercalving interval found was of 406 days.1 liters on the 60 day.137 liters (Number of Female buffaloes *Days Open (DO) *2. Figure 5: Calving Interval The buffalo cows show problems in the intercalving interval indicator.6 liters.166.1 liters and 240 day production is 2.3 liters Average milk production/day: 1. related with high conception percentages to 90 120 . started with 1 lt on the 1 day.5 liters).598 liters Average total milk production: 1. Average dry period (days): 128 days.150 days and with a higher percentage over 240 days. Figure 6: Conception rate at post .partum days Milk production subsystem: It was found: Average of milking buffalo cows: 480 animals. and the increased length of this interval will be greater the length of intercalving interval. Montiel (2006) reported an average of 390 days. Average completed lactations: 736 liters Average lactation 305 days: 748 liters • The lactation curve for the analyzed period. Buenos Aires. The higher in the intercalving interval affect directly the production so that decrease the number of calvings and a lactation loss and is equivalent to an average lactation production of 638. this increase is directly connected with the length of the calving-conception interval. Average of Milking Days:144 days Average production female buffalo/day: 3. Abril 2010 813 .

this phenomenon it is correlated with the least milk liters per complete lactation quantity produced (500 lts). During this period several significant events occur: Figure 7: Average production female buffalo/ day > The average production female buffalo/day is lower as a result of the habits of this buffalo farm. due to reduced fodder availability. 814 Proceedings 9th World Buffalo Congress . it is believed that those females during this period of time are producing colostrum. there is a greater number of calving buffalo cows with fewer milking days and at the same time the milk production/days average must descend. because.11 buffalo cows calving. • This buffalo farm has a young herd. where.Dec-31-2007. the calving seasonality effect is reflected in a milk production seasonality and at the same time in the milk production/day and in the total milk production. it was observed that a larger amount of milking buffalo cows do not reflect an increase in the amount of produced liters. which extends until February. because. therefore the buffalo cows manteining the farm production are distributed in the 2.PRODUCTION SYSTEM Figure 6: Lactation curve The greatest concentration period of buffalo cows calvings corresponds to Oct-01-2007 . 3 and 4 calving which corresponds to 60 percent of total production and the remaining 40 percent corresponds to 5 . > The buffalo cows are crossing by the beginning of the dry season. the newly buffalo cows calving spent 20 days with their calves at the field. in expansion process.

et al. It is ratified that parenting is poor carried a high age of conception with females with poor development. to 550 days with 68. Meat production subsystem: It was found body weights from the moment of the weaning to 365 days with 42. since the 8 calving the buffalo cows productivity starts to drop. 2008 Buenos Aires.. It is ratified that the breeding is poor.7 kilograms lower than the expected and to 730 days presents 33. Abril 2010 815 . 57 (220): 497-503.8 kilograms lower than expected. 550 68. Zootec. From the moment of weaning 365 days 42. Table 2: Normal growth curve vs real growth curve. Malhado.1 kilograms lower than the expected. carried to a high conception age with females with poor development.1 kilograms lower than expected. Arch.PRODUCTION SYSTEM Figure 8: Number of milking buffaloes • The milking productivity of buffalo cows distributed to their calving number shows than the higher productivity occurs in the 7 calving.8 kilograms lower than the expected. Modelos no lineales para describir el crecimiento de bufalinos de la raza Murrah.7 days kilograms below expected and at 730 days present 33.

1998. A.fmvz.S. Ospina. Córdoba.F: McGraw-Hill. 24. España. CEPADE. Octavio. Sharma. 2007 En: http://asobufalos. Instituto Geográfico Agustín Codazzi. A. contenido de grasa y proteína de la carne de búfalos respecto a la carne de vacuno.pdf 4. Nascimiento. Alexiev. Bubalinocultura: O Búfalo . 30. Modelos no lineales para describir el crecimiento de bufalinos de la raza Murrah. En: Segundo Simposio De Búfalos De Europa y América y III Simposio De Búfalos De Las Américas.. Asociación Colombiana de Criadores de Búfalos. 2002. St. Pasado presente y futuro del búfalo en Colombia. Acero. Johansen.pdf 10. Germany) Memorias XXII World Buiatrics Congress. Grabowski.fao.htm 28. The Water Buffalo. Instituto de Hidrológica.gov.. 2005.br/bufalos/siteesp18. Ptaszynska. Diseño de un Modelo de Análisis de Información para la Producción Equina. Bogotá.es/organiza/departamentos/prodanimal/economia/APOYODOC/libro%20gestion/capi1. EMBRAPA . 2008. 18. Bogotá. 2007. 14. Ramos.. 11. J. J. 8. 20.org. G. O.html 6. C. Redetzky R. una opción de la ganadería 2007 Volumen VIII Número 8 ISSN 1695-7504 Cuba. Valencia. 2006. C. Yepez.in/right. Azevêdo. En: XXII World Buiatrics Congress. H. 2007. Hinojosa. México D. Kliment Ohridski University Press. Sofia. company. España. Fundación General Universidad Politécnica de Madrid Notas de Clase: "La gestión del conocimiento como una nueva técnica de gestión empresarial" Madrid. N. Reproducción e inseminación artificial en animales. Ramos. http://www. 2008. O. (4°: 2006: Medellín) Memorias III Simposio de Búfalos de las Américas. São Manuel Brasil n. P. E. México D. México D. J. Camacho. Van Gigch. Colombia. Carneiro. 1996. J.F. L 1993. (6°: 2006: Medellín) Memorias III Simposio de Búfalos de las Américas. 13..usp.veterinaria. C. México. Sereno. The authors wish to thank SADEP LTDA. Introducción a la Teoría General de Sistemas. Facultad de Zootecnia 29.C. 227:7. Bogotá.. A. Los sistemas de información como herramienta de competitividad. 2002. 27. García... 2008. Bogotá. 1997. www. 2008. Meteorología y Estudios Ambientales Sistema de información Nacional Ambiental. Souza. Teoría general de sistemas. México. 25.A. 270 p.K. to the buffalo farm (Hacienda Bufalera La Suiza) for let us did this investigation at their place. (8°: 2002: Hannover. 2008. Bogotá. R. Almaguer. M. 2002. Luz. 36-43 7. Memorias Expoleche.E. P. 22. Available from Internet: http://www.PRODUCTION SYSTEM Acknowledgements. 607 p. Rodriguez. 1998. Gómez. Zootec. Universidad Nacional de Colombia.F: Trillas. Hafez B. A. L.co 17.org/ revistas/redvet/n080807/080709. J. 2003 Reproducción en Búfalos.uco. Veterinaria Argentina. p.co/ 5. Teoría General de Sistemas.fongacentro. Informativo Cafenoel. 1993..Trabajo de grado (Zootecnista). Arch.. Informe de Práctica Rotatoria (Graduación) Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria Universidad de la Salle. 2006. 16. Scannone. En: Segundo Simposio De Búfalos De Europa y América y III Simposio De Búfalos De Las Américas. D.4. 1996. Explotación del Búfalo en Venezuela. 26.: Unisur. p. R. Baruselli. 2004. 57 (220): 497-503. Gordon. Razas Bovinas en Colombia. 816 Proceedings 9th World Buffalo Congress . Wechsler. F. Zaragoza. Universidad de la Salle 15. Balderas.gov.org 19..15:150 2. P. 110 p. Development of major and minor milk constituents in bovine colostrum and their use as udder health indicators. Hafez. D. M. Editorial McGraw-Hill Interamericana.Diamante negro da pecuária de leite e corte. 1998. p. Introducción de sistemas de información para ganaderos en el departamento de Nariño. Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes (CIRB) In: http://cirb. C. for kind provision of TaurusWebs Software to perform this study. 9 edición. Editorial Acribia. Bogotá.com/ 9. L. Aguirre. Editorial Limusa. 2006. Comparación del perfil de ácidos grasos. D.. Criaçao de bufalos.FONADE In: http://www. Gestión de empresas ganaderas y veterinarias [online]. Krömker. 2006 República de Colombia Ministerio de Agricultura y desarrollo rural fondo financiero de proyectos de desarrollo . Búfalos y Bisontes. 307p. V.igac. 12. Reproducción controlada del ganado vacuno y Búfalos. Sistemas Administrativos.C. 1996. Lista Mundial de Vigilancia para la Diversidad de los Animales Domésticos In: www. J. Acapulco. 1996. En: http://www2. Universidad a Distancia Facultad de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería.SPI 21. Universidad de Córdoba. Compedium de reproducción animal. 7ª edición. 270 p. Editado por Intervet Schering Plough Animal Health. Sanint. España 1996. El búfalo. Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria. Hamann J. 23. D. Trabajo de grado (Zootecnista). importancia de la información en la ganadería. REFERENCES 1. Eler. D. I.F.C. 3. 1997. IDEAM. Malhado. Fundación Universitaria Agraria de Colombia. Fondo Ganadero del Centro.

it ABSTRACT The dairy activity is a successful sector of economy in terms of livestock productivity. Abril 2010 817 . Terzano G.4. Forage determination in all autumn graminaceous crops were harvested at flowering stage. The models evaluated were four (model I. The manure is a waste product of the activity which jeopardize the environments making soil and air pollution. which requires a farming management strictly linked to the use of agronomic inputs... Manure is a secondary product which represents a waste material that jeopardizes the environment making soil. The traits assessed on crops were dry matter. ryegrass. Therefore.. corn and Sorghum bicolor (L. Odoardi M. 4. The comparison among means of treatments and models are tested with LSD at P=0. Pacelli C. ryegrass-corn silage.3. Rossi E2.3. available P2O5. 2CRA PCM.2. Medicago sativa L. in double yearly forage crops model. the livestock farmers which recycle manure as nutrient plant reduce the chemical fertilizers and increase the sequestration of carbon in Ap horizon:2-3. soil fertility and sustainability of cropping system. sorghum) sowing. underground water and air polluted. model III. 4University of Basilicata. barley-sorghum seed). Sabia E. The experiments established on the utilization of manure for dairy purpose evidenced that its use in dairy farmers may substitute the conventional fertilization without reducing the biomass production. The experiment aimed to compare.. S. Bella-Scalo (Potenza). MATERIALS AND METHODS The experiment has been established in the years 2007-08 at Rome.. Vicia faba L. barley. Keywords: manure use.) Moench. Concetti2 S. seed yield and milk forage unit (MFU) and on 30 cm of Ap horizon soil sample: pH. Cropping management performed on correct agronomic use of manure. Roma. 3CRA FLC. Pintus B. **Corresponding author: CRA ZOE. per Napoli Km 12. The manure treatments were two: one run application (before seeding) and two run applications (before seeding and beginning of stem elongation) and conventional treatment with chemical fertilizers. allows the opportunity to increase the flow of nutrients cycling in farms and consequently decoupling livestock and crop production:1. lucerne) and spring (Zea mays L.. lucerne. Buenos Aires. INTRODUCTION Dairy farm is a successful sectors of economy in terms of agronomic and livestock productivity which uses agronomic inputs. the effect of buffaloes liquid manures applications with traditional fertilizers cultivation on productivity. Lolium multiflorum Lam.martiniello@entecra. 71100-Foggia (Italy) Tel=+390881880482. soil fertility and sustainability of the cropping systems. model II.PRODUCTION SYSTEM Utilization of Buffalo's Manure for Forage Production in Sustainable Agriculture Martiniello1** P.S. Lodi. E-mail: pasquale. Annicchiarico G1. It is based on four models of forage crops grown in double crops cycle per year with autumn (Hordeum vulgare L. 1CRA ZOE..M. Potenza. model IV. The observations referred in the tables consider mean of manure treatments. traditional growing system. organic matter.05. exchangeable K2O and C\N. Thus. silage and seed production. faba bean. faba bean-sorghum silage. while the those used for seed production (barley and faba bean) were threshed at physiological maturity of seed. cropping management performed on agronomic use of manure. allows the opportunity to increase the flow of nutrient cycling in farms for forage crop production.

*Significant at P=0.PRODUCTION SYSTEM RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The varieties evaluated in the models are affected by experimental treatments (Table 1). The results suggest that the nutrient applied to crops by manure applications favour development of vegetative rather than reproductive organs:3.05 level of probability. III and IV higher than conventional (Table 3). 11% and 15%. NS = not significant. 818 Proceedings 9th World Buffalo Congress . The mean over varieties of manure treatment increased and reduced by 12. The MFU ha-1 of manure treatment was 9%. NS = not significant. Table 2: Milk forage unit (MFU) and yield MFU ha-1 of the crops in the models. respectively the values of conventional fertilization.05 level of probability. respectively in models II. Table 1: Dry matter and seed yield of manure (M) and traditional (T) treatments.2% dry matter and seed yield.4% and 10. The MFU of varieties used in the models are not influenced by treatments while the MFU ha-1 of silage yield was increased under manure treatment. *Significant at P=0.

. Tattersall FH. Deiezioni zootecniche: da problema a risorsa. Grasses models treated with manure in comparison to traditional crop growing. Macdonald DW. Buenos Aires. NS = not significant. Agronomic and environmental implications of organic farming systems. yield and quality of lentil plants in sandy soil. legume-grass model achieved higher C\N value than those of grass-grass favour carbon sequestration of biomass rhizosphere rather than mineralization of grass-grass model: 4. Aran.. Stockdale FA. Carbon storage and minesoil properties in relation to topsoil application techniques.. Keatinge R. 3. Italy. Effect of organic manure and phosphorus fertilizers on growth. not influence the content of organic matter. pp. 2007.. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Science. The C\N content of manure were more able to sustain the nutritive requirement of plant than those grown with traditional management.A. Lampkin NH. REFERENCES 1. Table 4: Effect of experimental treatments on biochemical traits of topsoil. The content of organic matter of the manure treatments was not statistically significant from those of the crop grown with the traditional management of growing. However.. CONCLUSIONS The manure treatments increase the dry matter yielding productivity of crops. Lal R. Advances in Agronomy. Hovi M. 2005. 3:748-752 4. Than those of other models was due to microbial activity of topsoil able to transform the rhizosphere biomass in organic matter while the reduced C\N values was due to a mineralization of organic matter for provide nutrient for plant growing.PRODUCTION SYSTEM Table 3: MFU ha-1 production in forage crop models in the experimental treatments. The use of manure in the agronomic management reduces the impact on the environment and favours farming economy in dairy farming.. Perelli M. Padel S. Abril 2010 819 . Watson CA. Calzavara R. Soil Science Society of America. 71: 1788-1795. respectively (Table 4).. 2. The higher content of C|N in the model I. Lennartsson EKM. Zeidan MS. Jacinthe P. 2001. **Significant at P=0... 88. 2007.. 70:261-327. Wolfe MS. P2O5 and K2O while the value of N and C\N was higher and lower..01 level of probability.

PRODUCTION SYSTEM 820 Proceedings 9th World Buffalo Congress .

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