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3 Maintenance an Efficiency Control of Thermal Power Plants

3.1 Maintenance management of aged thermal power plants


Introduction
The time (nominal life) when degradation in function and performance of the major equipment constituting a
thermal power plant appears remarkably and recovery of function and performance requires costs overstepping the
bounds of maintenance for ordinary operation is about 30 to 40 years.
For small- to medium-capacity machines constructed from the 30s to the 40s of the Showa period, almost 30
years have elapsed since they begun commercial operation, and, with respect to large-capacity machines
constructed and brought into operation from the middle of the 40s, 20 years or more have elapsed, whereby aging
of thermal power plants as a whole is proceeding.
On the other hand, although we are pushing ahead with the development of new sources responding to the
growth of electricity demand (maximum electricity demand), we have problems such as difficulty of site selection,
more distant locations, longer periods for development, etc.
For this reason, renovating and renewing these aged thermal power plants efficiently and having them show
continuous activity as valuable leading sources in areas of high demand constitute important issues from the
viewpoint of securing supply capacity and cost reduction.

3.1.1 How to carry out maintenance of aged thermal power plants (increasing longevity)
How to carry out maintenance of aged thermal power plants leads to studies and judgments being carried out
from comprehensive viewpoints such as a source program into the future including nuclear, hydro, etc.,
positioning and role in terms of a power generation program, outlook regarding the renovation costs required to
upkeep function and soundness, trends in fuel costs according to power generation efficiency and fuel class,
outlook for the introduction of alternative sources, trends in technological development, etc. to define the direction.
However, the current course of action is broadly divided into the following two items (Fig. 3.1.1):
(1) Maintaining operation through the renewal of deteriorated plant equipment (increasing longevity)
This is a direct extension of matters that we have implemented conventionally as measures against age
deterioration, and plans continuance of operation (increasing longevity) for about 60 years (within the
range where substantial renovation of civil and construction equipment such as piles and foundations is
not required).
(2) Maintaining operation through repowering, replacement, etc. (increasing longevity)
(3) Planning the continuance of operation (increasing longevity) through repowering, replacement, etc.
allowing an increase in the scale of output, improvement of power generation efficiency, improvement
of operational function, environmental betterment, etc. is to be carried out in conjunction with the
renewal of deteriorated plants (The target is mainly small- to medium-capacity plants).

3.1.2 Maintaining operation through the renewal of deteriorated plant equipment (increasing
longevity)
The actual service life of plant equipment differs from its nominal design life and it is significantly dependent
on good or poor operation and maintenance. With respect to thermal power plants, for the purpose of keeping
their function and performance at an established level, the scope of inspection, method and frequency are defined
on an equipment-by-equipment basis as a standard, and patrols, routine checks, periodic inspections, and service
and maintenance (repair, replacement, etc.) are performed according to such standard.
Further, as to aged thermal power plants, in addition to these items, precise inspection for the pressure part of
the boiler, turbine rotor, casing, major valves and rotor power generator, remaining life assessment, renewal of
deteriorated equipment and portions, addition of equipment function to respond to demand-supply operation, and
strengthening and enhancement of durability are planned simultaneously.
[Measures to
[Background] [Background] [Needs] increase longevity] [Destination]
Maintaining operation
Developing Long-term operation increasing longevity through the renewal of
program program (prolonging life) deteriorated equipment
Power generation [Measures to Stable supply
increase longevity] Cost reduction
Repowering
Replacement
(addition)

Fig. 3.1.1: How to carry out the maintenance of aged thermal power plant (increasing longevity)

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Maintenance of [Example]
aged thermal power Operation control • Monitoring of life consumption of high-
Operation temperature thick part of boiler and turbine
plant Monitoring of • Diagnosis of boiler combustion
operation status • Monitoring of vibration of large rotating
machine
Enhancement of operation control • Trip test of safety device
Routine inspection/test
and supervisory function • Routine replacement of auxiliary machine
Reduction of load on equipment • Vibration of auxiliary rotating machine
Early detection of problems Patrol • Operation status of auxiliary machine
• Opening of control valve
Daily simplified
maintenance

Maintenance Inspection & repair Periodic inspection, [Example]


program service, maintenance • High-temperature pressure-
resistant part of boiler and
turbine
Securing of soundness of • High-speed rotor of turbine
Experience of and information on Precise inspection,
plant equipment • Insulation of generator
Upkeep of function and maintenance for aged thermal power diagnosis of plant
Long-term reliability level plant
Securing of economics (Problems, renewal of equipment,
operation program renovation)
Renovation technology (modernization
technology)
Inspection technology, remaining life
assessment technology [Example]
Increasing longevity program
• Renewal and renovation of
administration support system
Improvement of deteriorated equipment and parts
proof stress [Example]
• Improvement of control
Renovation program performance, strengthening of
Improvement of supervisory function
function • Automation, improvement of control
performance
Track record of operation

Fig. 3.1.2: Maintenance of aged thermal power plant


(continuance of operation through renewal of aged equipment (increasing longevity))

For this reason, even if the plant reaches its nominal design life, there is still considerable practical operation
life of a major plant, and, as to the reliability of the entire plant as well, it is understood from long-term experience
of operation and maintenance that continuance of operation (increasing longevity) may be possible at relatively
low cost.
Basically, although this is a direct extension of matters that we have implemented conventionally as measures
against aged deterioration, for the purpose of maintaining stable operation while securing the economics, it is
necessary to push ahead with understanding and preserving (recovering from deterioration) the function,
performance and soundness of plant equipment more efficiently than conventionally, and it is requested that plant
diagnosis (deterioration diagnosis, remaining life assessment) technology, renovation technology, trouble
information, etc. be used to further push ahead with critical classified renovation according to the operation period
and operational method. [Fig. 3.1.2]
From here, we introduce developments in operation and maintenance of aged thermal power plants in the past,
renewal conditions of aged machines, devices and portions, inspection technology and remaining life assessment
technology, examples of large renovation for maintaining operation (increasing longevity), acceleration of the
time necessary for periodic inspection that tends to become longer with aging, a work program support system for
critical classified renovation, status of efforts to cope with the increase in longevity of aged thermal power plants
in U.S.A., etc.

3.1.2.1 Operation & maintenance status of aged thermal power plants (from the 50s to the early 60s of
the Showa period)
Aged thermal power plants were originally designed to operate continuously (operation to cover the base load).

1992
(September) 50 Showa period = 1975
10 thousand kW

1970 (September)

1960 (January 36)

Time
Fig. 3.1.2.1-1: How electricity is used in a day (example)

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Equalizing pool type Table 3.1.2.1-1: Precise inspection (representative
Pumped-storage
Water reservoir-type hydro
hydroelectric power example)
Plant Portion to be Inspection method
inspected
Pumped-storage Oil Steam Rotor Visual inspection with bore scope
power turbine Ultrasonic testing
Magnetic particle testing
Moving blade Ultrasonic testing
Measurement of lifting amount of
LNG, LPG and
stud part
other gases
Casing Structure examination of
Coal representative point (macro)
Boiler Superheater Ultrasonic testing (weld point)
Nuclear and reheater Tube removal examination from a
power tube representative point
Drum Radiographic test
Main steam
Run-off river-type hydro pipe Ultrasonic testing
Reheat steam
(Time) pipe
Generator Rotor Visual inspection with bore scope
Fig. 3.1.2.1-2 How electricity is used in a day Ultrasonic testing
(representative example) Magnetic particle testing
Transformer Main body Oil leak test
Dissolved gas analysis
Electric Rotor Liquid penetrant detection test
motor Insulation diagnosis

Base load operation was carried out at the initial stage of construction. However, because of subsequent changes
in the demand-supply structure, that is to say, an increase in demand (maximum electricity demand), a widening
of the gap in demand-supply between day and night, and an increase of the segment share of nuclear power
generation, base load operation handed over its role to nuclear power and large-capacity thermal machines. As a
result, the operation pattern has changed to the operation of a middle-sized thermal power plant positively bearing
adjustment between demand and supply, i.e., the operation pattern under which load change, reduction of
minimum load, frequent start up and shut down, etc. are performed.

Table 3.1.2.1-2 Remaining life diagnosis


Remaining life diagnosis
Plant Portion to be inspected Diagnosis portion
technique
Boiler Boiler tube Select the portion whose design Destruction inspection
• Furnace evaporation tube temperature is 450℃ or more and (Conduct a creep breaking test to
• Superheater tube the harshest (shortest design life) evaluate the result by means of the
• Reheater tube portion in terms of design out of Larson-Miller method.)
Boiler header the target portions shown on the Structural examinations
• Furnace evaporation header left.
• Superheater header (Take the time when cumulative
• Reheater header operation time reaches 100,000
hours as a guideline.)
Steam turbine Axle Select the portion whose design Non-destructive inspection
• High-pressure axle temperature is 450℃ or more and Hardness measurement
• Medium-pressure axle the harshest (shortest design life) Material degradation measurement
Casing portion in terms of design out of Metallic structure test
• High-pressure internal casing target portions shown on the left.
• High-pressure external casing (Take the time when cumulative
• Medium-pressure internal casing operation time reaches 100,000
• Medium-pressure external casing hours as a guideline.)
Major valves
• MSV • CV
• RSV • ICV

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Table 3.1.2.1-3: Examples of improvement in medium-capacity machines
[Improvement in durability of plant]
• Improvement of suspended superheater of boiler (Fig. 3.1.2.1-3)
• Improvement of shape of disk base part of steam turbine rotor (Fig. 3.1.2.1-4)
• Reduction in stress of steam turbine casing (improvement of shape) (Fig. 3.1.2.1-5)
• Improvement of spray at exhaust chamber of steam turbine (Fig. 3.1.2.1-6)
[Expansion of operation controllability and supervisory function]
Improvement and enhancement of supervisory function for those
that have high frequency of control at start up and shut down
that have simultaneous operation
that have difficulty in adjustment
• Making the control of the boiler burner remote or automatic
• Making the control of the drain valve and auxiliary machines of the boiler and turbine remote
• Automatic start up of turbine from central operating panel (TSC)
• Making the oil temperature control on the turbine bearing automated from a central operating panel
• Making the injection of feed water and chemicals automatic from a central operating panel
• Installation of furnace gas thermometer
• Installation of turbine bearing a metal thermometer
For the purposes of securing the reliability and performing strict demand supply adjustment operation such as
DSS (daily start up and shut down), etc. of the plant equipment designed originally based on the premise of base
load operation given that aging progresses, we have basically planned :
• An operation pattern that will contribute to demand-supply adjustment sufficiently and where start-up and shut-
down loss is minimized
• Securing of strength and allowance of a plant sufficient to cope with thermal stress, repeated stress arising from
start up, shut down, load change, etc. and creep damage associated with secular use
• Improvement of operability and enrichment of supervisory function so that the operator can cope with the
situation within limited time and simultaneous operation
• Early detection and handling when there is an abnormal condition in the plant
• Establishment of optimum operation pattern through operation testing
• Precise inspection and remaining life assessment for plants whose cumulative operation time has exceeded
100,000 hours (Table 3.1.2.1-1, 2)
• Improvement of plant durability (Table 3.1.2.1-3, 4)
• Improvement of operability and controllability, enhancement of monitoring function (Table 3.1.2.1-3, 4)
Disk
Curvature Curvature
Processed point
radius radius
Big
Big
Small

(a)Processing example (b) Example of new shape

Fig. 3.1.2.1-3: Improvement of suspended superheater Fig. 3.1.2.1-4: Improvement of shape of disk base part
of boiler of steam turbine rotor

Casing corner part


Steam guide

Processing diagram of corner part

Casing
Diaphragm
Nozzle
Packing casing cone
Final-stage blade
Fig. 3.1.2.1-5: Reduction in stress of steam turbine Fig.3.1.2.1-6: Improvement of spray at exhaust chamber
casing (improvement of the shape of casing) of steam turbine

3.1.2.2 Renewal status of plant equipment in aged thermal power plants


The Thermal and Nuclear Power Engineering Society (Kanto affiliate) conducted a survey on the renewal status of
plant equipment for thermal power plants (commercial thermal, joint thermal and private thermal) whose
cumulative operating hours exceeded 100,000 hours in 1991 on a nationwide scale, and the results of such survey
have been summarized as the “Report of a fact-finding survey on the renewal of thermal plants that have for a
long time (January 1993).”

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Table 3.1.2.2-1: Examples of improvement in large- [Before improvement] [After improvement]
capacity machines (Constant-pressure supercritical once-
through system)
[Improvement of plant durability]
• Improvement of superheater header part of boiler (Fig. 9)
• Processing of membrane-end part of boiler (Fig. 10)
• Improvement of structure of surrounding wall tie-bar of boiler (Fig.
11)
• Improvement of passing-through part at boiler tube wall (Fig. 12)
• Improvement of support system for main piping of boiler (Fig. 13)
• Reinforcement of start system valve of boiler (Fig. 14)
• Reinforcement of feed water control valve of boiler (Fig. 15)
[Improvement of controllability and enhancement of supervisory .
function] (a) Bringing header tube nozzle to flexible structure
Improvement of controllability to plan the improvement of
controllability at start up/shut down and when the load changes • Corner R processing
• Digitization of APC control
• Automation of boiler automatic burner
• Expansion of automatic start-up control range of turbine
• Improvement of controllability on the drain level of feed water
heater
Nozzle
• Bringing auxiliaries to group control (master)
• Addition of life supervisory function for thick pressure-resistant part (b) Corner R processing of header tube nozzle part
of boiler
• Automation, enhancement of supervisory function and man-machine
Fig. 3.1.2.2-1 Improvement of superheater header
communication part of boiler
Membrane bar Membrane bar
Water-cooling
Tie-bar clip wall tube

Tie-bar Tie-bar

R processing of membrane bar stop-end part


Fig. 3.1.2.2-3 Improvement of structure of surrounding Fig. 3.1.2.2-2 Processing of membrane-end part of
wall tie-bar of boiler boiler • U band
Header
• Stop-end refresh processing
Outlet header of reheater (padding + R processing)
Header
Tube leg

Old toe
Wall

Tube leg
Torque bracket New toe

A-part
Improvement of structure of tube leg at wall passing-through part
Fig. 3.1.2.2-4: Improvement of passing-through
part at boiler tube wall
Shear lag

(a) Current structure (b) Improved structure


Fig. 3.1.2.2-5 Improvement of support system for main
piping of boiler

Z-type valve Angle valve

Fig. 3.1.2.2-6: Reinforcement of start system valve


of boiler

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The following are the reasons for renewal according to the equipment of each plant, renewal rate and equipment
whose renewal due to “deterioration and damage” exceeds 20% extracted from such report:
(1) Boiler plant related (Fig. 3.1.2.2-8)
1 Furnace tube
Renewal rate: About 36%
Renewal time: From less than 40,000 hours to 200,000 hours
The renewal peak falls within the range of 100,000 to 200,000 hours.
2 Superheater 1st
Renewal rate: About 25%
Renewal time: From less than 40,000 hours to 200,000 hours or more
The renewal peak falls within the range of 120,000 to 140,000 hours.
Reason for renewal: As many renewals have been performed after 120,000 hours, conceivable reasons for
renewal are creep damage, external high-temperature corrosion and ash erosion.
3 Superheater 2nd to 4th
Renewal rate: 2nd About 56%
3rd About 66%
4th About 70%
Renewal time: 2nd: From less than 40,000 hours to 200,000 hours or more
The renewal peak falls within the range of 100,000 to 120,000 hours.
3rd and 4th: From 60,000 hours to 160,000 hours
The renewal peak falls within the range of 80,000 to 100,000 hours.
Reasons for renewal: As there are many renewals for those whose main steam temperature is 550°C or
more, for those for WSS (weekly start up and shut down) operation and for heavy
oil-fired ones, conceivable reasons for renewal are creep damage and high-
temperature corrosion.
4 Superheater weld joint with dissimilar materials
Renewal rate: About 47%
Renewal time: From less than 40,000 hours to 180,000 hours.
The renewal peak falls within the range of 80,000 hours to 160,000 hours.
Reason for renewal: As there are many renewals for those whose main steam temperature is high and for
heavy oil-fired ones, conceivable reasons for renewal are creep damage, thermal
stress fatigue and high-temperature corrosion.

Multistage pressure reducing

Single-seat globe valve Multistage pressure-reducing valve

Fig. 3.1.2.2-7: Reinforcement of boiler feedwater control valve


5 Reheater 1st & 2nd
Renewal rate: 1st About 60%
2nd About 62%
Renewal time: Renewals are distributed widely at 60,000 hours or more.
The renewal peak falls within the range of 120,000 hours to 160,000 hours for the 1st
superheater and within the range of 100,000 hours to 120,000 hours for the 2nd
superheater.
Reasons for renewal: From the viewpoint of the number of start ups, steam temperature, conceivable
reasons for renewal are creep and thermal stress fatigue.
6 Reheater weld joint with dissimilar materials
Renewal rate: About 60%
Renewal time: 1st From 60,000 hours to 180,000 hours
The renewal peak falls within the range of 100,000 hours to 120,000 hours.
2nd From 60,000 hours to 120,000 hours

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The renewal peak falls within the range of 80,000 hours to 120,000 hours.
Reasons for renewal: From the fact that there are many renewals of those whose steam pressure is high for
both the 1st and 2nd reheater, and in the case of the 1st reheater, there are many
renewals of those for DSS operation, a conceivable reason for renewal is thermal
stress fatigue.
7 Valves
Renewal time: Form less than 40,000 hours to 180,000 hours
The renewal peak falls within the range of 100,000 hours to 120,000 hours.
Reasons for renewal: From the fact that there are many renewals of those with many start ups, a
conceivable reason for renewal is seat leak.
8 Electrostatic precipitator (discharge electrode, collecting plate, hammering device, charging equipment
(P/P))
Renewal rate: Discharge electrode About 57%

Degradation Damage Performance


damage prevention Regulation upgrading
Economizer tube
Furnace tube
Superheater – 1st
Superheater – 2nd
Superheater – 3rd
Superheater – 4th
Superheater – Mixed fitting
1st reheater – 1st
1st reheater – 2nd
1st reheater – Mixed fitting
2nd reheater – 1st
2nd reheater – 2nd
2nd reheater – Mixed fitting
1st superheater inlet header
1st superheater outlet header
2nd superheater inlet header
2nd superheater outlet header
3rd superheater inlet header
3rd superheater outlet header
4th superheater inlet header
4th superheater outlet header
1st reheater inlet header
1st reheater outlet header
2nd reheater inlet header
2nd reheater outlet header
Economizer inlet header
Names of renewed equipments

Economizer outlet header


Main steam pipe
Main steam pipe T・Y piece
Reheat steam pipe
Reheat steam pipe T・Y piece
Boiler circulation pump
Drum safety valve
Furnace outlet safety valve
Superheater outlet safety valve
Reheater outlet safety valve
Start-up system line safety valve
PCV
High-pressure system valves
Start-up system valves
Fuel oil pump
Coal pulverizer
Stoker
Mill exhauster
Fuel oil tank heater
Fuel oil tank bottom plate
Forced draft fan
Induced draft fan
Gas recirculation draft fan
Gas-mixing draft fan
Discharge electrode for electrostatic precipitator
Electrostatic precipitator collecting plate
Electrostatic precipitator hammering device
Electrostatic precipitator charging equipment (P/P)
EP ash-handling ash flow pump
EP ash-handling blower
EP ash-handling ash feed pipe
Air compressor for control
Auxiliary air compressor
Air compressor for soot blower
NOx removal plant catalysis
Bottom ash-handling jet pump
Bottom ash-handling ash flow pipe
Duct expansion
Desulfurization system absorber
Desulfurization system oxidation tower
Desulfurization system G/G heater
Desulfurization system pump
Desulfurization system fan

Renewal rate (%)


Fig. 3.1.2.2-8: Reason for renewal and renewal rate by boiler system equipment

148
Collecting plate: About 46% Renewal time: From less than 40,000 hours to 180,000
Hammering device: About 39% hours or more
Charging equipment (P/P) About 29% The renewal peak falls within the range of 100,000
hours to 120,000 hours.
9 Duct extension
Degradation Damage Performance
damage prevention Regulation upgrading
High-pressure external casing
Medium-pressure external casing
Low-pressure external casing
High-pressure internal casing
Medium-pressure internal casing
Low-pressure internal casing
High-pressure external casing high-temperature bolt
Medium-pressure external casing high-temperature bolt
High-pressure internal casing high-temperature bolt
Medium-pressure internal casing high-temperature bolt
High-pressure rotor
Medium-pressure rotor
Low-pressure rotor
High-pressure-stage rotating blade
Medium-pressure-stage rotating blade
Low-pressure-stage rotating blade
High-pressure-stage stationary blade
Medium-pressure-stage stationary blade
Low-pressure-stage stationary blade
Main steam stop valve valve box
Control valve valve box
Reheat steam stop valve valve box
Intercept valve valve box
Names of renewed equipments

Combined reheat valve valve box


Main steam stop valve high-temperature bolt
Control valve high-temperature bolt
Reheat steam stop valve high-temperature bolt
Intercept valve high-temperature bolt
Combined reheat valve high-temperature bolt
High-pressure rotor thrust bearing
Medium-pressure rotor thrust bearing
Low-pressure rotor thrust bearing
High-pressure rotor journal bearing
Medium-pressure rotor journal bearing
Low-pressure rotor journal bearing
Mechanical governor-mechanism set
BFPT external casing
BFPT internal casing
BFPT high-temperature bolt
BFPT rotor
BFPT rotating blade
BFPT stationary blade
Booster feed water pump
Feed water pump
Condenser tube
Condenser body expansion joint
Condenser electrochemical protector
Condenser cleaning device
Vacuum pump
Ejector
Condenser pump
Circulating water pump
Sea water cooler
High-pressure feed water heater
Low-pressure feed water heater
Feed water system valve
Main steam system valve
Reheat steam system valve

Renewal rate (%)


Fig. 3.1.2.2-9: Reason for renewal and renewal rate by turbine system equipment
Renewal rate: About 63%
Renewal time: From less than 40,000 hours to 180,000 hours or more
The renewal peak falls within the range of 100,000 hours to 120,000 hours.
There are many renewals of those with DSS, WSS and high-sulfur heavy oil.

(2) Turbine system related (Fig. 3.1.2.2-9)


1 Internal casing High-pressure internal casing
Renewal rate: About 12%
Renewal time: As the number of renewed units is few, a peak does not appear clearly.
In the range of 120,000 hours to 180,000 hours, there is small growing trend.
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2 High-temperature bolt (bolt that tightens horizontal flange of casing)
Renewal rate: For high-pressure internal casing: About 58%
For high-pressure external casing: About 39%
For medium-pressure internal casing: About 51%
For medium-pressure external casing: About 22%
Renewal time: For high-pressure internal casing
Many renewals were performed within the range of 80,000 hours to 140,000 hours.
High-pressure external casing
Many renewals were performed within the range of 80,000 hours to 140,000 hours.
For medium-pressure internal casing
Many renewals were performed within the range of 60,000 hours to 160,000 hours.
For medium-pressure external casing
As the number of renewed units is few, a peak does not appear clearly.
Reason for renewal: As many renewals were performed for those with many start ups and shut downs,
conceivable reasons for renewal are high-temperature creep and fatigue.
3 Rotor (high-pressure, medium-pressure)
Renewal rate: High-pressure axle About 14%
Medium-pressure axle About 34%
Renewal time: As the number of renewed units is few, a peak does not appear clearly.
There are many renewals associated with improvement of performance.
4 Rotating blade
• High-/Medium-pressure-stage rotating blade
Renewal rate: High-pressure stage About 40%
Medium-pressure stage About 64%
Renewal time: Many renewals were performed within the range of 80,000 hours to 100,000 hours.
There are many renewals associated with performance upgrading.
• Low-pressure-stage rotating blade
Renewal rate: About 35%
Renewal time: Many renewals were performed within the range of 80,000 hours to 160,000 hours.
5 Main steam valve valve box
Renewal rate: Main steam stop valve About 15%
Control valve About 15%
Renewal time: Main steam stop valve
Many renewals were performed within the range of 100,000 hours to 160,000 hours.
Control valve
Many renewals were performed within the range of 120,000 hours to 180,000 hours
6 High-temperature bolt (bolt that tightens upper bonnet of steam valve)
• Main steam stop valve
Renewal rate: Main steam stop valve About 53%
Control valve About 52%
Combined reheat valve About 69%
Reheat steam stop valve About 72%
Intercept valve About 63%
Renewal time: Main steam stop valve
Many renewals were performed within the range of 80,000 hours to 100,000 hours.
Control valve
Many renewals were performed within the range of 80,000 hours to 100,000 hours.
Combined reheat valve
Many renewals were performed within the range of 80,000 hours to 100,000 hours.
Reheat steam stop valve
Many renewals were performed within the range of 80,000 hours to 120,000 hours.
Intercept valve
Many renewals were performed within the range of 80,000 hours to 140,000 hours.
Reasons for renewal: Many renewals were performed for those whose steam temperature is high, and those
with many DSS and WSS, so conceivable reasons for renewal are high-temperature
creep and fatigue.
7 Turbine bearing
Renewal rate: Low-pressure rotor thrust About 22%
High-pressure rotor journal About 37%
Low-pressure rotor journal About 25%
Renewal time: Low-pressure rotor thrust
As the number of renewed units is few, a peak does not appear clearly.
High-pressure rotor journal, low-pressure rotor journal
Although renewals were performed within a wide time period range, relatively many
renewals were performed within the range of 80,000 hours to 140,000 hours.
8 Condenser Tube, body expansion joint
Renewal rate: Tube About 66%
150
Body expansion joint About 36%
Renewal time: Tube
Many renewals were performed from the initial stage of after operation start.
Body expansion joint
Many renewals were performed within the range of 80,000 hours to 100,000 hours.
9 Feed water heater
Renewal rate: High-pressure feed water heater About 33%
Low-pressure feed water heater About 24%
Renewal time: High-pressure feed water heater
Many renewals were performed with the range of 100,000 hours to 120,000 hours.
Low-pressure feed water heater
Many renewals were performed with the range of 80,000 hours to 120,000 hours.
(3) Electric plant related (Fig. 3.1.2.2-10)
1 Generator Rewinding of rotor
Renewal rate: About 27%
Renewal time: Relatively many renewals were performed within the range of 100,000 hours to
160,000 hours.
There are many renewals of those with DSS.
Reasons for renewal: A conceivable reason for renewal is insulation degradation of the winding.
2 Exciter Motor, AVR
Renewal rate: Motor About 23%
AVR About 53%
Renewal time: Motor:
Relatively many renewals were performed within the range of 100,000 hours to
160,000 hours.
AVR:
The number of renewed units increases suddenly from 80,000 hours and continues to
180,000 hours.
Reasons for renewal: Generally, many renewals were performed on large-capacity units and those for DSS.
Conceivable reasons for renewal are insulation degradation of the winding or aging
of the equipment.
3 High-voltage motor Rewinding of stator coil
Renewal rate: Outdoors About 43% Indoors About 39%
Renewal time: Relatively many renewals were performed within the range of 80,000 hours to
140,000 hours.
There is a trend of increasing renewal of those for DSS.
Reasons for renewal: Conceivable reasons for renewal are insulation degradation of the winding.
4 Control center
Renewal rate: About 28%
Renewal time: Many renewals were performed at 100,000 hours or more.
There is a trend of increasing renewal of those for DSS.
Reasons for renewal: A conceivable reason for renewal is deterioration of major parts (NFB, thermal relay,
conductor, etc.)
5 Supervisory control panel Central electric supervisory panel, protective relay panel
Renewal rate: Central electric supervisory panel About 19%
Protective relay About 25%
Renewal timing: With respect to the protective relay panel, there is a trend of increasing renewal from
120,000 hours.
Reasons for renewal: Conceivable reasons for renewal are aging of the relay, drop in reliability and type
change for the purpose of improving operation accuracy (from the
electromagnetic/mechanical to stationary type).
6 Power supply system Storage battery, rectifier, uninterruptible power supply system
Renewal rate: Storage battery About 81%
Rectifier About 48%
Uninterruptible power supply system About 22%
Renewal time: The number of renewed units increases suddenly from 80,000 hors or more.
Reasons for renewal: For the storage battery, a conceivable reason for renewal is deterioration of the
electrode plate, separator, etc.
For the rectifier, renewal was performed due to deterioration and in conjunction with
replacement of the storage battery.
For the uninterruptible power supply system, conceivable reasons for renewal are
deterioration and renewal associated with capacity increase, and system change
(making the control system redundant , making the control system free from
instantaneous disconnection) for improvement of reliability

151
Degradation Damage Performance
damage prevention Regulation upgrading
Replacement of generator stator
Rewinding of generator stator
Replacement of generator rotor
Rewinding of generator rotor
Generator hydrogen gas cooler
Generator stator cooling system
Generator hydrogen gas shaft seal oil system
Generator lead bushing
Exciter
Generator for exciter
Motor for exciter
Rectifier for exciter
Exciter AVR
Cooling system for exciter
Isolated-phase bus support bushing
Isolated-phase bus wall passing-through bushing
Outdoor high-voltage motor
Rewinding of outdoor high-voltage motor stator coil
Outdoor high-voltage motor rotor
Names of renewed equipments

Indoor high-voltage motor


Rewinding of indoor high-voltage motor stator coil
Indoor high-voltage motor rotor
Set of metal-clad panel
Metal-clad circuit breaker body
Set of power center panel
Power center circuit breaker body
Set of control center panel
Central electricity supervisory control panel
Protective relay panel
Power supply system storage battery
Power supply system rectifier
Uninterruptible power supply system
Main transformer lead bushing
Main transformer-cooling system
House transformer main lead bushing
House transformer-cooling system
Starting transformer main lead bushing
Starting transformer-cooling system
Special high-voltage switch circuit breaker
Special high-voltage switch disconnecting switch
Special high-voltage switch support bushing
Special high-voltage switch wall passing-through bushing
Special high-voltage OF cable
Special high-voltage CV cable
High-voltage power cable
Low-voltage power cable
Control cable

Renewal rate (%)

Fig. 3.1.2.2-10 Reasons for renewal and renewal rate by electric plant equipment

7 Main transformer Cooling system


Renewal rate: About 30%
Renewal time: The number of renewed unit increases suddenly from 80,000 hors or more.
Reasons for renewal: Conceivable reasons for renewal are corrosion of elements and oil leak.
8 Cable High-voltage cable
Renewal rate: About 49%
Renewal time: There are many renewals performed at 100,000 hours or more.
Cable with high renewal rate
Breakdown by insulation class by class: Butyl rubber 70%
Cross-linked polyethylene 27%
Breakdown by plant condition: Air/Culvert 48%
Pipe line 35%

152
Degradation Damage Performance
damage prevention Regulation upgrading
Unit interlock
Auxiliary machine interlock
Combustion control unit
Feed water control unit
Steam temperature control unit
Burner control unit
Governor control unit
Tb monitor vibration diagnosis system
TB monitor shaft vibration meter
Tb monitor shaft eccentricity meter
Tb monitor shaft position meter
Tb monitor revolution meter
Tb monitor difference expansion meter
Tb monitor cam position meter
Unit computer
Data logger computer
Environmental data-processing computer
Fuel control computer
Water quality control analyzer
Fuel analyzer
Exhaust gas NOx analyzer
Names of renewed equipments

Exhaust gas SOx analyzer


Exhaust gas O2 analyzer
Exhaust gas CO analyzer
Exhaust gas dust analyzer
Leak oil monitor analyzer
Flammable gas monitor analyzer
NH3 monitor analyzer
Waste water COD analyzer
Waste water PH analyzer
Feed water system actuator
Fuel system actuator
Starting bypass system actuator
Air system actuator
Exhaust gas system actuator
Air dryer for control
Air pressure-reducing system for control
Feed water flow transmitter
Main steam flow transmitter
Spray flow transmitter
Fuel oil flow transmitter
Fuel gas flow transmitter
Main steam pressure transmitter
Fuel oil pressure transmitter
Fuel gas pressure transmitter
Drum-level transmitter
Deaerator-level transmitter
Feed water flow element
Main steam flow element
Fuel oil flow element
Fuel gas flow element
Conveyor scale

Renewal rate (%)

Fig. 3.1.2.2-11 Reasons for renewal and renewal rate by instrumentation control plant

(4) Instrumentation control plant related (Fig. 3.1.2.2-11)


1 Control unit
Renewal rate: Unit interlock About 18%
Auxiliary machine interlock About 14%
Combustion control unit About 68%
Feed water control unit About 66%
Steam temperature control unit About 67%
Burner control unit About 44%
Governor control unit About 32%
Renewal time: Renewal of any of equipment was performed within the range of 60,000 hours to
160,000 hours.
Reasons for renewal: For renewal due to degradation damage, conceivable reasons for renewal are failure

153
due to deterioration of the signal conversion unit, indication mechanism, etc. of each
controller and increasing difficulty in procuring parts because of discontinuance of
production of similar equipment.
For the renewal due to performance upgrading, many renewals were performed due
to nationalization of imported products or due to change from an air or mechanical
system to an electric or digital type, and it is conceivable that many renewals had the
objective of conversion to APC or full automation, etc.
2 Turbine monitor
Renewal rate: Vibration diagnosis system About 57%
Shaft vibration meter About 67%
Shaft eccentricity meter About 65%
Shaft position meter About 57%
Revolution meter About 49%
Difference expansion meter About 60%
Cam position meter About 56%
Renewal timing: Renewal of any equipment falls within the range of 40,000 hours to 180,000 hours.
Reasons for renewal: There are many renewals due to degradation damage and damage prevention.
Conceivable reasons for renewal are failure attributable to the deterioration of each
sensor, conversion amplifier, reorder, etc. or increasing difficulty in procuring parts
because of discontinuance of production of similar equipment.
3 Computer
Renewal rate: Unit computer About 59%
Data logger computer About 32%
Environmental data-processing computer About 41%
Fuel control computer About 22%
Renewal time: Unit computer
Within the range of 60,000 hours to 180,000 hours
Reasons for renewal: Conceivable reasons that there are many renewals due to degradation damage are
failure attributable to the deterioration of the calculation unit, each sensor, memory,
typewriter, etc. or increasing difficulty in procuring parts because of discontinuance
of production of similar equipment.
4 Analyzer
Renewal rate: Water quality control analyzer About 71%
Fuel analyzer About 48%
Exhaust gas NOx analyzer About 79%
Exhaust gas SOx analyzer About 78%
Exhaust gas O2 analyzer About 82%
Exhaust gas CO analyzer About 29%
Exhaust gas dust analyzer About 34%
Leak oil monitor analyzer About 9%
Flammable gas analyzer About 49%
NH3 analyzer About 35%
Waste water COD analyzer About 30%
Waste water pH meter About 35%
Renewal time: The renewal of the water quality analyzer, fuel analyzer and exhaust gas NOx
analyzer falls within the range of 20,000/30,000 hours to 180,000 hours.
The renewal of exhaust gas SOx analyzer, exhaust gas O2 analyzer, exhaust gas CO
analyzer, flammable gas analyzer, NH3 analyzer, waste water COD analyzer and
waste water pH meter falls within the range of 40,000 hours to 80,000 hours.
Reasons for renewal: Conceivable reasons that there are many renewals due to degradation damage are
failure attributable to deterioration of the calculation unit, each sensor, memory,
typewriter, etc. or increasing difficulty in procuring parts because of discontinuance
of production of similar equipment.
5 Actuator
Renewal rate: Feed water system actuator About 37%
Fuel system actuator About 29%
Starting bypass system actuator About 17%
Air system actuator About 36%
Exhaust gas system actuator About 37%
Renewal time: The renewal of feed water system, air system and exhaust gas system actuator falls
within the range of 60,000 hours to 180,000 hours.

154
Reasons for renewal: Conceivable reasons that there are many renewals due to degradation damage are
occurrence of many failures attributable to deterioration of the control mechanism,
positioner, etc. or increasing difficulty in procuring the parts because of
discontinuance of production of similar equipment.
6 Air source for control, air dryer, air pressure-reducing system
Renewal rate: Air dryer About 42%
Air pressure-reducing system About 17%
Renewal time: The renewal falls within the range of 40,000 hours to 140,000 hours.
Reasons for renewal: Conceivable reasons for renewal are occurrence of many failures as a result of
deterioration owing to change of the control mechanism, tower, etc. or increasing
difficulty in procuring parts because of discontinuance of production of similar
equipment.
7 Transmitter
Renewal rate: Feed water flow transmitter About 65%
Main steam flow transmitter About 61%
Spray flow transmitter About 61%
Fuel oil flow transmitter About 50%
Fuel gas flow transmitter About 45%
Main steam pressure transmitter About 63%
Fuel oil pressure transmitter About 54%
Fuel gas pressure transmitter About 44%
Drum-level transmitter About 60%
Deaerator-level transmitter About 57%
Feed water flow element About 12%
Main steam flow element About 8%
Fuel oil flow element About 22%
Fuel gas flow element About 7%
Conveyor scale About 33%
Renewal time: Renewals of feed water flow, spray flow, fuel oil flow, fuel oil pressure, drum level,
and deaerator-level transmitters fall within the range of 60,000 hours to 180,000
hours.
Renewals of main steam flow and main steam pressure transmitters fall within the
range of 40,000 hours to 200,000 hours.
Reasons for renewal: With respect to degradation damage and damage prevention, conceivable reasons for
renewal are occurrence of many failures due to deterioration of each sensor, signal
converter, etc. or increasing difficulty in procuring parts because of discontinuance of
production of similar equipment.
With respect to performance upgrading, conceivable reasons for renewal are
performance upgrading of equipment and shift of control equipment to the electric
type or digital type.

3.1.2.3 Inspection technology/remaining life assessment technology


Although the strength design of a boiler’s pressure part to be used under
high temperature and high pressure is performed based on the 100,000-hour creep strength of the material to be
used, from the facts that units whose cumulative operation hours reach 100,000 hours are starting to appear, and
problems with thermal power units with years of service such as breakage of the steam turbine rotor, cracks in the
steam turbine casing, etc. were reported in U.S.A., etc., from about the beginning of the 50s of the Showa period,
interest in the assessment of soundness, recovery from deterioration and renovation technology for the major
structural portions of major equipment in thermal units with years of service has grown.
For thermal power generation technology, technical advances such as upsizing, higher temperature and pressure,
etc. moved forward rapidly after World War II, and the age deterioration phenomenon itself was worldwide
unknown area. For this reason, at present, virtually every technology developed and having become operational,
such as deterioration characteristics of the material with years of service, mechanism of age deterioration,
inspection technology and inspection equipment for deterioration diagnosis, remaining life assessment technology,
renovation technology for recovery from deterioration, deterioration progress supervisory technology, etc., is
unknown and not yet developed, constituting technical issues that we must address. From the 50s of the Showa
period toward the 60s, inspection and assessment technology and remaining life assessment technology coping
with deterioration phenomena that became obvious with time were developed and became operational, and at the
present time, the focus of its development has shifted to labor saving, automation, broader use of robots, etc. In
addition, development and practical use of operation supervisory/diagnosis technology for the purposes of
strengthening and enhancing the operation supervisory aspect is being pushed forward.

155
[1] Boiler equipment
Age deterioration phenomena that became obvious in major structural parts of boiler plants (representative
examples)
(1) Long-duration high-temperature creep, high-temperature oxidation/steam oxidation
• Final SH, RH pipe damage
In particular, downgraded portion of points subjected to material change, in-furnace points subjected to
material change
(2) Repeated fatigue due to thermal stress
• Damage of evaporation pipe
Cracks originating from weld zone of fittings adhered to pipe
Damage originated from weld zones of burner, wind box, inspection hole mounting frame
Cracks originating from weld zone of slit-type fin
Crack due to corrosion fatigue from internal surface of pipe at nose, deflection arch and deflection parts.
• SH, RH pipes
Crack originating from weld zone of fixing spacer fixture
• Evaporation pipe, SH and RH pipes (non-heated part)
Crack originating from toe part of stub weld
• Leak of boiler combustion exhaust gas
Seal structural part at intersection part between boiler nose part wall and furnace back wall-suspended pipe
Corner part of side wall part of front and rear wall pipes at heat recovery part
Header guard of RH, Eco, etc. of heat recovery part
Header around furnace bottom and seal structure part of ceiling wall passing-through part at GR port guard
Tube bending part such as TV, inspection hole, burner, manhole, etc.
(3) Repeated fatigue due to long-duration high-temperature creep, thermal stress
• Superheater, reheater header
Crack at weld zone of nozzle
• Main steam piping
Crack originating from internal part of weld zone
Crack at weld zone of branch piping nozzle
Inspection technology and assessment technology having became operational (representative example)
• Boiler tube diagnosis UT system
(Target: Superheater, reheater)
• Major piping diagnosis robot (target: major steam pipe)
• Stack casing inspection robot
• Remaining life assessment by means of destruction test
(targets: evaporation pipe, economizer tube, superheater tube, reheat tube)
• Remaining life diagnosis by means of stress analysis
(Targets: T & Y pieces of major piping, weld zone of tube-adhered fixture, fin-mounting area of tube, support
lug part of tube, header stub)
• Remaining life assessment by means of non-destructive test (A parameter method, void area rate, crystal grain
deformation)
• (Targets: drum, header, header stub)
[2] Turbine equipment
Age deterioration phenomena that became obvious in the major structure of turbine plant (representative
example)
• Breakage of high-pressure rotor
• Surface crack at base R part of high-pressure rotor 1st-stage wheel
• Bending of medium-pressure ROBIN rotor
• Crack at low-pressure rotor wheel stud part
• SCC of low-pressure rotor shrink-fit wheel part
• Lifting of high-pressure part rotating blade
• Erosion and crack on rotating blade of low-pressure part
• Crack on final-stage rotating blade racing wire
• Nozzle erosion
• Crack on rotating blade tenon
• Surface crack on corner part of high- & low-pressure housings
• Crack on medium-pressure housing (origin: repaired weld zone)
• Breakage of the high temperature bolt and damage to the bolt screw thread.
• Crack on major valve casing (origin: repaired weld zone, internal defect)
Inspection technology having became operational (representative example)
• Rotor center hole ultrasonic flaw detection technology
• Rotor center hole magnetic particle flaw detection technology
156
• Rotor center hole hardness-measuring technology
• Rotor center hole replica-sampling technology
• Rotor & casing embrittlement diagnosis technology
• Blade stud part inspection technology
• Tenon ultrasonic flaw detection technology
• Rotor wheel ultrasonic flaw detection technology
• High-temperature bolt (stud bolt) ultrasonic flaw detection technology
Remaining life diagnosis technology having been commercialized
• Rotor, casing, major valve body (crack occurrence assessment, crack propagation assessment)
• Rotating blade (lifting)

Hydraulic jack Fig. 3.1.2.4-1


Concept in
Side top header support structure
Step rod
dismantling of
Oil jack
Boiler, front
(φ85)
Support
Boiler steel
furnace wall by
beam
frame means of jack
Hoisting Collector
bar (φ140) beam down construction
U bolt
Side wall top
method
Rear wall

(φ100) header Jack down

In furnace
Side wall
Front wall

Burner wind box

(3) Electrical equipment


Age deterioration phenomena having become obvious (representative example)
• Crack on end ring (18Mn-5Cr steel) of generator rotor
• Wedge crack on generator rotor
• Generation of copper powder of generator rotor coil
• Drop in insulation of generator rotor coil
• Drop in insulation of generator stator coil
• Water leakage from generator stator coil
Inspection technology and life diagnosis technology having become operational (representative example)
• Ultrasonic flaw detection technology for end ring of generator rotor
• Measurement of looseness of wedge of the generator rotator
• Generator stator-winding diagnosis
• Generator rotator diagnosis
• Analysis on dissolved gas in oil of major transformer
• High-voltage motor insulation diagnosis
• High-voltage cable insulation diagnosis
(4) Measurement & control equipment
Diagnosis technology having become operational (representative example)
• Control system diagnosis system
• Standard maintenance tool
(5) Operation supervisory, diagnosis technology (representative example)
• Operation support system (alarm guidance)
• On-site problem detection system
• Boiler combustion diagnosis system
• High-pressure feed water heater tube leakage detection system
• Patrol support by means of trend supervisory on operation data and alarm
• Simplified vibration diagnosis of rotating auxiliary machines (pump, blower)
• Valve control by means of handy terminal
• Portable ultrasonic leak detector (high-pressure heater, drain valve)
• Leakage detector by means of infrared camera (boiler casing)
• Boiler wall thick part life diagnosis (main steam pipe T piece, circulation pump casing)

3.1.2.4 Large-scale renovation examples (renovation of boiler furnace)


For the purpose of responding to electric power demand-supply adjustment, from about the mid-50s of the
Showa period, modification of machines designed for the base load to the DSS model was made, and full-scale
high-frequency start-up & shut-down operation has been performed.
As the number of start ups and shut downs increases, many cracks on the boiler tube and leakages started to

157
appear in all areas of boilers, and, for this reason, inspection and repair result in longer time and higher cost. In
particular, heavy damage is found in the metallic substance weld zone of furnace pipe walls, furnace headers and
nozzle weld zones at the reheater header due to fatigue and creep, and fundamental measures are becoming
necessary.
In the future, as these portions are important components of boilers, it is impossible to take fundamental
measures through partial renovation. In addition, from the viewpoint that cost and work will be enormous,
complete blanket renovation of furnace evaporation pipes, headers, etc. is starting to be carried out.
2nd superheater Reheat pipe
pipe (replaced) (replaced) Steam separator
• Generator output (added)
• Main steam temperature
• Main steam pressure

Furnace
evaporation pipe 1st superheater
Fig. 3.1.2.4-2 (replaced)
Outline drawing of Control unit
r(replaced) Evaporator
renovation work for Change of control system
Furnace-side
Himeji No.2 casing Economizer
(replaced)
thermal power Unit
No.2 boiler.
Fuel
Furnace
Burner
Feed water Boiler circulation
valve
pump (added)
Air

Together with this renovation, partial renovation of an accessory plant was performed so that such boilers also
have cutting-edge performance. Further, for the purposes of shortening the renovation construction work period
and securing safety in construction work, the development and introduction of new construction such as jack
down construction (Fig. 3.1.4.2-1) are sought.
(1) Examples of structural improvement measures associated with renovation
(1) Modify the boiler from the skin casing structure to the membrane wall structure to plan a reduction in
thermal stress.
(2) Modify the boiler from a weld construction consisting of the furnace wall and tension plate to a slide
structure to plan the reduction in thermal stress.
(3) Cause the header nozzle part to have sufficient flexibility to plan the reduction in thermal stress.
(4) Modify the furnace wall passing-through part to the double-sleeve structure to avoid a concentration of
stress.
(5) Make the root of the nozzle and weld zone at the fine end smooth to relieve the concentration of stress.
(2) Renovation work examples
In the KANSAI Electric Company’s Himeji No.2 thermal power plant Unit No.2 (325 MW), a subcritical pressure
boiler that began commercial operation in 1964, from 1992 to 1993 blanket replacement of the boiler was carried
out. This unit was originally oil fired; however, in 1980, modification to convert it to LNG fired was made and
since then, this boiler has served as base thermal power. Since its start of commercial operation, this plant has
operated for about 170,000 hours (number of start ups and shut downs: 662), and in addition to normal age
deterioration, due to the fact that this plant has been used for DSS operation from 1985, life consumption due to
low-cycle fatigue advanced in all areas of the boiler, minor problems occurred frequently, and the time required
for inspection and repair increased. Then, as a result of study of a repair program according to the increasing
longevity program, as it is more advantageous to replace the furnace water wall part completely than to repeat
minor repairs in terms of cost, then it was decided to carry out total replacement. Further, together with
renovation, performance upgrading including improvement of thermal efficiency and acceleration of the time
required for start up is planned through modification from a constant-pressure to a variable-pressure operation
method. (Fig. 3.1.2.4-2).
3.1.2.5 Technology and construction method for shortening of the term of periodic inspection work
In addition to the peak in the summer season, for the purpose of responding to firm growth of demand in the
winter season, the timing of periodic inspections tends to be concentrated in spring and autumn. On the other hand,
the term of periodic inspection work tends to become longer due to the increase in the amount of repairs
associated with aging of plants, and in the future, as the aging of large-capacity machines will also proceed,
further efforts to shorten the term of periodic inspection work are sought.
As a method to plan the shortening of the term of periodic inspection work, in addition to the effective
classification and planning of repair work associated with aging, improvement of construction method that
includes the following are also pursued.
• Improvement of work efficiency through mechanization and broader use of robots
• Improvement of work efficiency through labor-saving tools
• Cutback in amount of works through blanket replacement of large parts (service, repair, etc.)
In addition, measures will be also be implemented from the viewpoint of the plant (Table 3.1.2.5-1), including:
• Earlier start of work through forced cooling stop of the turbine
• Improvement of workability through scale-up of manholes

158
Table 3.1.2.5-1 Improvement examples for shortening of the term of periodic inspection work
Examples Outline
Adoption of forced cooling system for turbine Introduce the outside air into high- and medium-pressure casings through the injection of cooling
air or by means of vacuum pump to shorten the cooling time.
Adopt a high-performance oil-flushing system. Use the flushing system with a fine-mesh filter.
Have gas turbine rotor spares. Have the gas turbine rotor of the combined-cycle generator as a spare to replace it at periodic
inspection.
Have steam turbine rotor spares. Have the steam turbine rotor for geothermal heat as a spare to replace it at periodic inspection.
Adopt a gas turbine static blade-sealing alignment system. Although alignment at replacement was performed at the manufacturer’s factory, alignment has
become available through installation of the system at site.
Adopt a casing-tightening hydraulic bolt. Change the high-pressure turbine casing-tightening bolt from the shrink-fit type to the hydraulic
tension type.
Modify from MHG to EHG. —
Have one set of EHG parts spares. Have one set of EHG parts as spares to replace them at inspection.
Additionally install an overhead traveling crane. Install an overhead traveling crane additionally.
Making the overhead traveling crane faster. Make traveling and hoisting speed faster to plan effective use of the crane.
Develop scaffolding at the furnace bottom part. Carry in one set of folded stages from the furnace bottom to extend it on the furnace bottom.
Adopt a mobile clinker hopper. Change the clinker hopper to the mobile type to facilitate carry-in of scaffolding.
Adopt a turbine rotor dry horning unit. Change the work form from manual work to work with the horning unit to plan greater efficiency of
work.
Adopt a hydraulic torque wrench. Adopt the hydraulic torque wrench for crossover pipe flange-tightening work at low-pressure casing.
Install a lifting unit for dismantling of major valves. Adopt a simplified lifting unit for lifting work of the main check valve, etc. to plan greater
efficiency of work.
Adopt a hydraulic bolt for coupling. Tighten the coupling by means of a hydraulic tension bolt.
Improve in-furnace scaffolding. Change the scaffolding from steel pipe scaffolding to steel fit scaffolding.
Install a floor for carry-in of boiler materials. Install an out-furnace stage for carry-in of in-furnace scaffolding and for material storage space.
Install a shutter at the boiler sound isolation wall opening. Install an opening at the sound isolation wall of the boiler to facilitate carry-in of materials, etc.
Conduct dismantling and inspection work on the electric valve with greater efficiency. Change the power supply connection of the electric valve to the connector system.
Contrive dismantling and assembling jigs for the coil-end cover of the generator. Fix the bottom cover to the jig and then cause it to rotate to facilitate removal.
Adopt an ultrasonic expansion-measuring instrument Measure expansion of bolts by means of the ultrasonic measuring instrument.
Turbine blade clearance-measuring device Insert the sensor into the clearance between the turbine blades to perform automatic measurement to
process its data.
Adopt a laser-type centering measuring device. Measure turbine alignment by means of a laser to calculate the corrected value automatically.
Adopt a turbine casing lifting-level supervisory unit. Monitor parallelism of the housing to be lifted by installing an ultrasonic-type distance sensor at 4
corners to measure it.
Install a crane for light parts. In addition to an overhead traveling crane, install a crane for lifting light parts.
Rotor center hole horning unit Unit that performs horning of the turbine rotor center hole automatically.
Adopt a hydraulic jack for dismantling of housing. Cause the measuring sensors installed at 4 corners of the housing to synchronize with the hydraulic
jack to lift it horizontally.
Adopt a jig for groove alignment of the boiler-cooling wall pipe. Jig for groove alignment of boiler water-cooling wall pipe.
Upsize the boiler manhole. Upsize the bore of the boiler manhole to plan greater efficiency.
Develop an internal surface inspection system of the boiler header part. Insert it through the header inspection hole to make observation by means of TV and observation
with an optical microscope.

159
3.1.2.6 Support system for creating a work plan for increasing longevity
In order to continue stable operation of an aged thermal power plant after 20 years or more from its construction
and start of operation. While maintaining the economics and its function, identifying the function, performance
and soundness of equipment and presentation (recovery from deterioration) are performed more efficiently than
conventionally.
For this reason, a support system to create a work plan for increasing longevity that takes plant reliability and
economics into account has generally been introduced and made use of.
Creation of a work plan for increasing longevity is performed along each step of flow in Fig. 3.1.2.6-1.
1 Selection of critical equipment (Fig. 3.1.2.6-2)
Assuming that the service period will be 60 years, the operation time, 400,000 hours and the number of start
ups and shut downs, 5,000, select equipment for which remaining life control is believed to be necessary out of all
equipment comprising the unit. Assess the probability of the occurrence of failure, effect of failure on output when
it occurs, term of recovery work and cost, safety (social influence level), etc. comprehensively by means of the
FMEA technique.
2 Investigation of the background of accidents and failures
Collect and organize the records of accidents and failures regarding the selected critical equipment, and
investigate the failure mode, life consumption factor, etc. during a long-term service period.
3 Breakdown and defragmentation of equipment (selection of critical points)
Select critical equipment.

Investigate history of accidents and failures.

Break down and defragment equipment.

Select the critical portion.

Select remaining life calculation measures.

Calculate the unit life consumption rate.

Operation history
Future operation conditions
Marginal processing value

Calculate remaining life.

Unit price table

Create a long-term maintenance program list.

Carry out profit calculation.

Create a work program list for increasing longevity.

Fig. 3.1.2.6-1 Flow in creation of work program plan list for increasing longevity work
Equipment
Measuring device
Electric device
Boiler system
Turbine system
Effect-level assessment

Life Initial Final Effect on Degree of difficulty of General assessment


Probability
recovery from failure Safety
Equipment consumption failure failure of failure output
Term of Recovery Critical
occurrence recovery Score
factor mode mode cost equipment
(100 points or
more)
Creep, low- Progression of
Rotor manufacturing Burst
cycle fatigue defect
High-pressure turbine

Creep, low- Crack Leakage


External casing cycle fatigue
Creep, low-
Internal casing Crack Leakage
cycle fatigue
Creep, low-
Nozzle chamber Crack Leakage
cycle fatigue
Axial inclination
1st blade ring Creep Deformation Abnormal
vibration

Fig. 3.1.2.6-2: Example of critical equipment selection

160
Break down the selected critical equipment to the group that conceivably has the same structure, function, and
design condition, and then defragment them based on the detailed structure to select “Point to which maintenance
control should be performed based on life assessment.”
4 Selection of critical portion (Fig. 24)
Critical point :
Dummy groove
Critical portion :
Heat group groove Critical point : Center hole
bottom Critical portion : Control stage bottom
Initial failure mode : Crack Initial failure mode : Crack Critical point : Rotor body
Life consumption factor: Life consumption factor: Critical portion : Central part and others
Low-cycle fatigue Creep + Low-cycle Initial failure mode : Deformation
Low-cycle fatigue + fatigue Deterioration of
High-cycle fatigue characteristics
Life consumption factor :
Creep, softening,
embrittlement

High-pressure stage Ultrahigh-pressure stage


Governor side
GEN side
Control stage

Critical point: Ultrahigh-pressure 1st-stage blade grove


Critical point :
High-pressure final- Rotating blade
(a) Critical portion : Blade groove shoulder
stage blade groove corner
Critical portion :
1st tooth blade groove Outlet side
Inlet side Initial failure mode : Crack
shoulder corner
Life consumption factor: Creep, High-cycle fatigue
Initial failure mode : Crack
creep + high-cycle fatigue
Life consumption factor:
(b) Critical portion : Contact surface at rotating
Stress corrosion crack,
blade root
corrosion fatigue Initial failure mode : Crack
Life consumption factor : Fretting fatigue
(a) (b)

Fig. 3.1.2.6-3 Example of critical portion in high-pressure turbine rotor


Expand the critical points to the portion level further to extract the portions where occurrence of failure is possible
during a long-term service period to select the portions that are the target of remaining life control as a critical
portion from them.
5 Selection of remaining life calculation method
Remaining life calculation methods can be divided broadly into following 4 methods:
• Theory analysis method (non-destructive diagnosis method)
• Destruction test method
• Statistical method
• Trend control method
Out of these 4 methods, select the most adequate method corresponding to the initial failure mode and life
consumption factor.
6 Calculation of life consumption unit rate
Using the respective methods, obtain the amount of life consumption per 1,000 hours of operation (φc) or amount
of life consumption per one start up and shut down (φf).

Calculate unit life consumption rate.

Calculate remaining life.

Processing
Output

limit
Limit processing
Computer

value
Consumed life
Temperature
difference

Future Consumed life


operation
conditions Remaining life
FEM analysis Life assessment curve
Stress

Life (Year)
consumption
unit life
Repetitions

Fig. 3.1.2.6-4: Calculate remaining


Operation
Life consumption unit life
history life.

161
Table 3.1.2.6-1 Example of plan list for increasing longevity (Unit: million yen)
Fiscal
System 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010
Boiler related 2226 83 62 15 35 10 268 3356 17 44 17
Turbine related 712 85 1 35 37 83 95 1203 103 21 70
Electric related 12 14 2 406 828 374 54 116
Measurement related 12 20 70 300 320
Total 3002 168 77 50 74 93 789 5457 494 419 523

Optimum renewal fiscal year


Uniform annual cost of maintenance cost

Uniform annual cost of renewal

Fiscal year in A.D.

Fig. 3.1.2.6-5 Example of profit calculation result

7 Calculation of remaining life (Fig. 3.1.2.6-4)


(1) Calculation of consumption life
Cumulative operation time
φ = φc + φf × Cumulative number of start ups and shut downs
1000
(2) Establishment of marginal processing value
The marginal processing value is a consumption life value that determines:
・start timing of inspection
・implementation timing of re-diagnosis
・implementation timing of repair and replacement
And it is established in accordance with the equipment and portion.
(3) Establishment of future operation conditions
Based on the power generation plan, the annual estimated operation hours (Ta) and estimated number of
start ups and shut downs (Na) are assumed to calculate the future operating conditions by multiplying such
number by life consumption unit.
(4) Calculation of remaining life
Remaining life indicates the years until the unit reaches limit processing value and is calculated by means
of:
Limit processing value − consumption life
Remaining life (years) =
φc × Ta/1000 + φf × Na
8 Creation of long-term maintenance program list
A long-term maintenance program list represents the maintenance cost within the assumed service period on a
year-by-year basis, and the maintenance cost is calculated from the cost required for inspection, diagnosis, repair
and replacement on a portion-by-portion basis and the quantity of the corresponding portion.
(1) Entry of unit price
Study the most adequate inspection, diagnosis, repair and replacement methods on a portion-by-portion
basis to select its unit price from unit price list that this system has to enter it.
(2) Creation of long-term maintenance plan list
There are 2 types of long-term maintenance plan list, on a portion-by-portion basis and equipment-by-
equipment basis, and clearly shows the fiscal year when inspection, diagnosis, repair and replacement are
required and the respective costs.
9 Implementation of profitability calculation (Fig. 3.1.2.6-5)
Study the selection whose renewal of equipment or partial repair is required, and select the most economical
renewal timing in the case of equipment renewal, as well as the optimum replacement range combining mutual
equipment.
Creation of longer life work plan list (Table 3.1.2.6-1)
With respect to all critical equipment, calculate the maintenance cost required within the future assumed service
period, and an increasing longevity work plan list is obtained by summing such costs.

162
3.2.1 Causes of damage to boiler equipment
(1) Trend of damage
An example of analysis of the ratio of aged deterioration damage for each component of a boiler and the
damage ratio of its pressure-retaining parts by each cause are shown in Fig. 3.2.1-1. Such pressure-retaining
components as the furnace wall, super-heater, re-heater, economizer, piping, etc. account for 67% of the entire
boiler equipment. Thermal fatigue, corrosion fatigue, and creep damage account for 83% of the causes of total
damage. As measures to improve the reliability of thermal power generation plants, it is important to prevent such
fatigue, corrosion fatigue, and creep damage from occurring to such pressure-retaining components.
Others
7%

Others Corrosion
14% 5%
Non-pressure-retai Wear
Furnace 5%
ning components
4%
wall
31%
Fan Ratio of occurrence Cause of damage to Thermal
Creep pressure-retaining
10% of failure for each fatigue/
15% components
component of boiler corrosion
equipment fatigue
Valves 68%
5%

Piping SH/RH/ECO
16% 20%

Fig. 3.2.1-1 Ratio of the components becoming defective/ratio of cause of damage


• Drop in bearing force
Deterioration caused by use for a long
period of time Swelling out Creep Rupture by
of materials Deformation rupture spouting
• Change in material quality
• Defective materials

• Clogging inside the piping


caused by foreign
materials
Overheating • Imbalanced flow of fluid
within the piping
• Adherence/growth of scale
within the piping

• Corrosion by high
temperature

Corrosion • Corrosion by low Excessive increase


temperature in load stress Rupture
• Corrosion of the inner caused by the caused by
surface of tank caused by decrease in static stress
filled water effective thickness
Leakage
• Erosion by ash
Wear • Wear by high-velocity air
flow within the component

• Thermal fatigue Rupture


Fatigue Occurrence/growth caused by
• Mechanical fatigue of crack(s) fatigue

• Fatigue occurring under Rupture by


Corrosion the environment of the Occurrence/growth corrosion
fatigue inner surface of the tank of crack(s) fatigue
caused by filled water

Fig. 3.2.1-2 Cause of damage to boiler equipment

(2) Cause of damage


The types of damage generally experienced with the pressure-retaining components of the boiler equipment are
shown in Fig. 3.2.1-2 for convenience.

3.2.2 Example of damage and measures to improve bearing force


Examples of typical damage experienced so far and measures taken to improve the bearing force are explained
below.
163
(1) Creep and creep rupture
Each pressure-retaining component of boiler equipment has been designed to have a creep rupture strength of
100,000 hours or longer. However, should the component be overheated beyond the designed temperature range
for any reason, or should any decrease in thickness advance, creep damage may advance within a very short
period time resulting in rupture. Typical causes of damage found in the examples are summarized as follows:
• Overheating due to an extreme decrease in flow rate within the piping caused by clogging with of
foreign matters or by peeling off or accumulation of steam oxidation scale.
• Temperature rise at the piping wall caused by the growth of scale adhered to the inner surface of the
pipes of the furnace evaporation piping, or the growth of porous-type scale with low heat
transmission efficiency
For the accumulation of steam oxidation scale within the stainless steel piping of the super-heater, etc. and
accumulated at the U-bend, it is considered effective to suppress the scale from growing if fine-grade steel is
employed or the inner surface of the piping is shot blasted. Creep damage includes creep created over
considerably long hours because the inner-pressure stress increases by the decreased thickness caused by
high-temperature corrosion, etc. A lot of damage has been found caused by the scale adhering to the inner surface
of the pipes of furnace evaporating piping. Standard water quality control of the supply water and tank water and
implementation of proper acid cleaning is an important task. To determine the timing of acid cleaning, monitoring
of the pipe wall temperature by a pulling-out check of the pipes at the time of regular inspection or by using a
Cordal-thermocouple (embedded thermocouple) is available.
(2) Thermal fatigue
Thermal fatigue occurs by the repeated effects of high thermal stress that is generated by the temperature
differences among the member materials. The thermal fatigue generated by the start/stop operation of boiler
equipment or by load fluctuation is a type of low-cycle fatigue in general. The surface of the broken part by
thermal fatigue is uneven and rougher than that caused by mechanical fatigue where high-cycle fatigue is
accompanied by vibration, etc. The surface of the cracked part is normally open to some extent. The causes
generating thermal stress vary depending on the structure of each component of the boiler equipment. Examples
of portions where thermal fatigue occurs and measures to reduce the stress are shown in Table 3.2.2-1 in a
concrete fashion.
(3) Corrosion fatigue
In the case of the inner water supply system of furnace, economizer, etc., such corrosion fatigue as cracking
generated not only from the outside of the piping but also from the inside has been experienced. Corrosion fatigue
is a phenomenon in which fatigue cracks are generated and grow because the strength against fatigue declines
remarkably to a larger degree than the same in an air atmosphere, when the metal receives stress repeatedly in a
corrosive environment. It is basically generated on the portion where thermal stress, etc. is large.
As a typical example of the relationship between thermal fatigue and corrosion fatigue, the tension plate and
welded portion of the furnace wall are shown in Fig. 3.2.2-1.
At the portion where the tension plate has been welded directly to the furnace wall, thermal stress is generated
by the temperature difference between the tension plate and the furnace wall in the direction of the piping axis and
to right angles of the piping axis. The maximum stress is generated on the welded portion of the tension plate on
the external face of piping. Thermal fatigue cracks are generated on the toe of the weld where stress concentrates.
On the other hand, stress is generated on the rear side of the weld on the inner surface of the piping. The stress
on the inner surface of the piping is smaller in general than that on the outer surface.

164
Table 3.2.2-1 Portions where thermal stress is generated and measures to reduce the stress
Portion where fatigue damage Mechanism of generation of
Portion Measures to reduce stress
occurs stress
① Furnace wall If the boiler water temperature Arrange the fin edge in a large
should change upon boiler arch shape
start/stop operations, temperature R-machining of fin edge
difference occurs between the

Cool water
furnace wall and the sub-wall or
between the sub-wall and the rear
smoke duct wall, which generates
stress on the fin edge of the R-machining
(9) 2 A h Arch
furnace wall.
② Furnace wall seal box weld If the boiler water temperature Change the shape of the seal box
should change upon boiler corner to an arch.
Concentration
of stress
start/stop operations, temperature Bend the seal box side in 2 steps.
difference occurs between the
furnace wall piping and the seal 2-step
bending
box, by which stress concentrates
R corner
Tool box at the corner.

③ Fixtures mounted on furnace If the boiler water temperature Change the structure of the
wall should change upon boiler furnace wall piping and mounted
Tension plate start/stop operations, temperature fixture to a sliding structure.
difference occurs between the Tension plate

furnace wall piping and the


mounted fixture, which generates
stress on the welded portion.

Slide

④ End bar and skin casing for The entire portion tends to deform Change the structure of the
End bar due to the temperature difference ceiling piping and end bar to a
the hole of the ceiling Welded portion
between the front- and rear-end sliding structure.
the ceiling
Piping on

bards at the ceiling hole, but is Change the skin casing to a 2-step
locked by the ceiling piping, bent type.
resulting in the generation of 2-step-type skin
stress on the welded portion. Due casing
End bar
to the temperature difference
Deformation between the end bar and the skin Piping on
the ceiling
casing, cracking occurs on the
skin casing.
⑤ Skin casing below Due to the temperature difference Change the skin casing to 2-step
economizer between the wall piping projected bellow type.
surrounding the rear smoke duct
and hopper, stress is generated on
the skin casing, resulting in
cracking.

165
Damage caused by heat fatigue Damage caused by corrosive fatigue

Generation of Generation of
high stress high stress

Low expansion Low expansion

Tension plate Tension plate


High
High expansion
expansion

Fig.9 Typical example of Fig.10 Generation status of


heat and corrosive fatigue incompatiblility at the end
portion of straight-finned
economizer

Table 3.2.2-1 Portion where thermal stress is generated and measures to reduce the stress
Portion where fatigue damage Mechanism of generation of
Portion Measures to reduce stress
occurs stress
⑥ Nozzle of super-heater and Temperature difference occurs • Change the nozzles to the
re-heating pipe head between the nozzles during flexible type.
start/stop operations, and bending
stress is generated on the welded
Piping on
portion that has been locked Flexible
the ceiling between the nozzles and ceiling
hole.

⑦ Joint welded by dissimilar Due to the difference in the By using Inconel-family welding
metals carbon content, carbon migrates electrodes and by reducing the
to the metal to be welded from linear expansion difference,
linear thermal
Coefficient of

Inconel welding
low-alloy steel, yielding a reduce the stress. Prevent the
expansion

electrode
Present
decarbonized layer as a result, strength from declining by
Improved
style
style
and the strength on the low-alloy preventing the carbon from
side declines. By the difference in migrating.
thermal expansion between the
SUS rod austenitic stainless steel to be
welded and the low-alloy base Welding at factory
SUS steel steel, thermal stress is generated using Inconel welding
Cr-Mo steel electrodes
on the portion welded. Because of
its high temperature, creep
damage also occurs.
⑧ Saddle spacer welding Within a structure supported by a Employ a flexible spacer.
portion spacer fixed by welding to the Slide
Fixed
Welding-type hanging pipe of the
saddle Fixed
horizontal-type
super-heater/re-heater, thermal
stress is generated on the Flexible saddle
spacer
spacer-welded portion due to the
temperature difference between
the upper and the lower pipes.
⑨ Welded portion of If the air vent pipe and drain pipe Change the small-diameter pipe
small-diameter nozzle of pipe of pipe header are the type of to a flexible type. The form of
Deformation
header (29) Pi i ti such structure as being locked in nozzle of pipe heater should be
Piping the housing hole, thermal stress is butt welding type.
reaction Flexible bending
force
generated at the welded portion of piping
the nozzle of pipe header.
Hole to
be fixed

166
Portion where fatigue damage Mechanism of generation of
Portion Measures to reduce stress
occurs stress
⑩ Welded portion to fix the Due to the temperature difference Separate the anchor plate to fit it
anchor plate Portion where
between the anchor plate and by full arc welding and make the
cracking occurs furnace wall piping occurring by size smaller.
Filler plate Anchor plate
start/stop operations of a boiler,
Tie bar Stand-off
stress concentrates at the welded Stopper
portion of the anchor plate. Filler plate
Driber
Anchor plate
Stand-off

⑪ Membrane-edge connecting Due to the temperature difference Refresh the connection membrane
waterwall and cage walls between the waterwall and cage edge and provide R-machining to
Membrane piping occurring by start/stop the welding stop end.
Portion operations, stress concentrates at
Waterwall where Membrane
pipe cracking the connection and membrane
occurs edge. Waterwall
pipe

Desuper-heater main Spray


⑫ Welded liner of Stopper
body nozzle By the ON/OFF injection from Change the structure of the spray
super-heater/desuper-heater Liner the spray nozzle of the nozzle and improve the method of
super-heater/desuper-heater, the fixing the liner by changing to the
Forepart of

Weldi liner is bumped and stress pin type.


the tank

Support Support
Improved
Base pipe ring concentrates at the liner-welded Desuper-heater main body Spray structure
Protection cylinder Support Protection nozzle (pin type)
portion. cylinder

Fitting of liner
(Welding type) Pin
Portion where
cracking occurs Stopper Pin

⑬ Measures against damage to Main Portion where


Temperature difference occurs on Change the support lag to shear
piping cracking occurs the supports inside and outside lag.
main piping support lag
the thermal insulator, and excess Shear Hanging
bolt
Main
piping
lag
Support stress concentrates at the
lag
support-welded potion.
Thermal
insulation
material Thermal
insulation
Band material

⑭ Ceiling hole Due to the temperature difference Use a sleeve through the ceiling
between the crown and the hole and avoid direct welding of
Crwon
piping, stress concentrates the crown to the piping.
causing cracking to occur. Crown
To add a
sleeve
Ceiling
piping

Ceiling
piping

⑮ Connection of loop pipes When there is a temperature Use a sliding spacer at the portion
difference at operation start, where high temperature is
Tie rod Sliding spacer
cracking occurs at the portion transmitted and to avoid any
where a linkage fixture has been locking. Change the tie lag in the
installed due to stress rear heat transmission portion to
concentration. an oval-shaped lag to soften the
Hanging loop
pipe concentration of stress.

(Single lag) (Oval lag)

⑯ Inner casing of ceiling The corner casing cannot absorb Use a corrugated-type expansion
enclosure the expansion force from 3 sides, at the corner.
Corrugated-type
and cracking causes gas leakage. expansion

Pipe header Pipe header


at furnace at furnace
front wall side wall

167
However, in a corrosive environment, strength against fatigue declines, which causes cracking at the inner face
within a pipe by corrosion fatigue.
As a characteristic of a cracked surface caused by corrosion fatigue, many cracks are accompanied by pits
caused by the corrosion along the cracks.
As basic countermeasures, such actions to soften the thermal stress are considered important. In such a case, it
is required to change the tension plate support to a sliding type and improve the structure so that the thermal stress
may be softened.
Examples of other corrosion fatigue are introduced below:
① Straight fin end of economizer piping (Fig. 3.2.2-2)
The occurrence of cracking was experienced at the straight fin end of the economizer piping, caused by thermal
stress accompanied by intermittent water supply in order to keep the drum at a constant level at the operation start
of the boiler.
Cracking has started from the inner surface of the piping. Corrosive fatigue is the cause.
② Ligament of the pipe header at the inlet of the economizer (Fig. 3.2.2-3)
The occurrence of cracking was experienced at the ligament of the pipe header at the inlet of the economizer
due to the same cause as above. This was also caused by corrosion fatigue.
(4) Mechanical fatigue
In the case of mechanical fatigue, the cracking is a type of transgranular cracking in general. The ruptured face
has a fine fatigue face, and no extension by rupture was detected.

Pipe header at the


inlet of economizer

Nozzle at outside furnace Pipe header at


outside furnace

Fig. 3.2.2-3 Example of corrosion fatigue of the inner ligament of the pipe header nozzle at the inlet of the
economizer
(5) High-temperature corrosion
The surface stainless steel pipe affected by high-temperature corrosion has been damaged by corrosion in a
pockmarked fashion. The corroded portion is composed of an oxide layer – a polysulfide layer – a carbonized
layer – base metal from the outer piping surface. From the viewpoint of microstructure, the corroded and
carbonized structure of grain boundary is found. A drop in expansion as well as a drop in strength can be
detected.

168
Table 3.2.2-2 Classification of measures to improve bearing force
Phenomenon Cause Measures Subject portion

Creep Aged strength drop Assessment of Pipe header of super-heater/re-heater,


by creep at welded remaining life by replica, main-/high-temperature longitudinal
portion ultrasonic testing, TDFD, re-heating steam piping, around welded
ELFOSS, UT inspection portion, elbow/Y-piece-welded portion

Restriction on Add flexibility Pipe header stub, finish of sealing


elongation by heat
Expansion of casing
Piping-supporting fixture, back-stay
Sliding
Fatigue prevention fixture
(including creep Shape the stress R-machining, chamfering, Fin-end portion, pipe header lid at the
fatigue) concentrates change of shape corner of the burner wall box, expansion
for the smoke duct
Thermal shock Change of shape, improvement Desuper-heater spray, small-diameter
of material, improvement of the piping with main piping (drain pressure
shapes of seat and piping tank)

Dissimilar metal Inconel solvent Joint of different piping material, fixture of


welding (SUS/Cr-Mo) different material

Corrosion fatigue Change of structure and Fixture welded to furnace wall piping,
shape, water quality ligament at the inlet of the economizer
control

High-temperature Improvement of bearing Super-heater, re-heater


fatigue, oxidation force of material, addition Furnace wall
Corrosion of extra welding

Oxidation of steam Fine-particle SUS material Super-heater, re-heater


(SUS piping) Inner face shot blast

Wear Coal ash, soot blow Protector, pipe thermal Furnace wall, super-heater, re-heater
spraying

(6) Low-temperature corrosion


The AH element, seal plate, etc. are main damaged caused by low-temperature corrosion. It has been reported
that the expansion at the AH outlet, damper, etc. were affected by sulfuric acid corrosion when HS oil had been
used.
In addition, such an example was reported where corrosion was generated on the outer surface of the furnace or
the furnace wall of the rear smoke duct caused by condensed sulfuric acid in the steam-condensed water while the
boiler was kept at standstill.
(7) Measures to improve bearing force
As explained above, the components composing the boiler equipment receive various types of damage
depending on the environment of use, most of which are combinations of several damaging factors. With respect
to such damage, various measures to improve the bearing force, which are classified and detailed in Table 3.2.2-2,
have been taken.

3.2.3 Technology to assess the remaining life


The methods to assess the remaining life of boiler equipment can be divided into the following 3 types:
• Stress analysis method such as the finite element method, etc.
• Destructive test method
• Non-destructive test method
Except the stress analysis method, it is not possible to assess the remaining life if you use only any one of above
methods. Assessment of remaining life is carried out by combining the methods.
(1) Stress analysis method
This is a method of obtaining the life consumption by calculation based on the equipment subjected to
169
assessment, the geometric shape of the part, the operation history such as temperature, stress, etc., the strength
against creep rupture, and the properties of the materials. The finite element method using a computer makes it
possible to analyze the stress of a complex structure.
With respect to the properties of the material to be used for the analysis, it is required to include the safety ratio
in the laboratory data to some extent considering possible variations of the properties. Therefore, the assessment
result leans towards the safe side.
With respect to such operation history as the temperature, stress, etc. to be used for the analysis, calculation is
performed by dividing the operation history into several typical patterns. In order to cope with the recent complex
operation history, the remaining life is sometimes assessed by installing a life-monitoring device at the pipe
header at the outlet of the super-heater, water separator, boiler circulation pump, etc.
(2) Destructive test method
This is a method of estimating the remaining life through various types of destructive tests by taking out test
specimens from the components actually put under operation. This test method is usually employed for
components (typically, the boiler tube) from which test specimens can be easily taken out. The advantage of this
method is that the remaining life of a given material can be assessed directly, including its history at the time of
manufacture, even if the temperature or stress history of the material in the past is not made clear. The
disadvantage is that sampling is required, the portion where the test specimen has been taken out needs to be
repaired, and time and expense are required for creep rupture testing, fatigue testing, etc.
As a measure making it possible to perform destructive testing by using much smaller test specimens,
destructive testing through a miniature test is available. As shown in Fig. 3.2.3-1, its effectiveness has been
verified.
Conventional test specimen

Miniature test specimen

Miniature test specimen

Conventional test
Stress (MPa)

specimen

Time of rupture
Comparison of strength against creep rupture between a conventional
test specimen of 1 Cr 0.5 Mo Steel and a miniature test specimen

Fig. 3.2.3-1 Miniature creep rupture test

(3) Non-destructive test method


The advantage of the non-destructive test method is that any critical component with respect to the stress can be
assessed in a short time without sampling. This test is used together with the assessment of remaining life through
stress analysis.
This method varies depending on the material quality or state of damage to the subject component. In Table
3.2.3-1, the non-destructive assessment method for creep damage and fatigue damage is shown.

170
Table 3.2.3-1 Non-destructive method of assessing the remaining life of components affected by creep/fatigue damage
Method as described Low-alloy steel Steel
Subject in Attachment 3 of the
Method of assessing remaining life
damage Electricity Utilities Welded Welded
Base metal Base metal
Industry Law portion portion
Creep Deposition intergranular distance
{ { ⎯ ⎯ ⎯
damage method
Hardness-measuring method { ⎯ ⎯ { ⎯
Structure comparison method { ⎯ { ⎯ ⎯
AC electric resistance method { ⎯ { ⎯ {
Void (cavity) area ratio method { ⎯ { ⎯ {
Void density method { ⎯ { ⎯ {
A-parameter method { ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯
Crystal grain deformation method { { { ⎯ ⎯
Carbide structure-measuring method { ⎯ { ⎯ ⎯
Ultrasonic method { ⎯ { ⎯ ⎯
Structure-quantifying method ⎯ ⎯ { ⎯ ⎯
CMA density spectrum method ⎯ ⎯ { ⎯ ⎯
Fatigue Microscopic-crack method ⎯ { { ⎯ ⎯

① Creep damage
(a) Deposition intergranular distance method
This method is used for the assessment of creep damage of low-alloy steel base metal. Low-alloy steel is a
material whose strength against creep has been raised by depositions and shows ductile creep damage. When used
for many hours in a high-temperature atmosphere, the intergranular distance of this disposition becomes larger
and, at the same time, resistance against deformation declines, causing the creep to accelerate. This phenomenon
is represented by the creep distortion–time curve in general. The change depends on the temperature and stress of
the subject component. By measuring the intergranular distance between particles of disposition, the creep
distortion at the time of assessment can be obtained. Therefore, the behavior of creep distortion thereafter can be
predicted, and the creep remaining life can be assessed. The intergranular distance of disposition is obtained by
image processing of the replica taken out from the subject component using an electrolytic discharge-type
scanning electron microscope (Fig. 3.2, 3-2).

Disposition
Scanning
Replica line
Point

Mean free-path
Creep rate constant

Scanning-type electron
microscope Average intergranular
distance (µm)
Fig. 3.2.3-2 Disposition intergranular distance method

171
(b) Hardness-measuring method
The crystal grains of 9 Cr base metal steel are very fine, and this base metal has a hard structure of initial
hardness. Different from low-alloy steel, no metallic structural change can be detected even when creep damage
grows. However, its hardness tends to drop gradually.
Therefore, by measuring the hardness and referring to the master curve that indicates the relationship between
the hardness and the amount of damage, the life consumption ratio can be assessed (Fig. 3.2.3-2).

Vickers
hardness

The amount of creep damage

Fig. 3.2.3-2 Hardness-measuring method

(c) Structure comparison method


This method is very effective for the assessment of components affected by low-alloy steel welding heat that
indicates fragile creep damage. Comprehensive assessment of life is carried out by comparing the standard
structure corresponding to the life consumption ratio by taking out the replica/extracted replica from the
component subjected to assessment and by using 3 parameters of deposition distribution pertaining to mechanical
damage such as creep voids or microscopic-cracks generated as the creep damage grows, optical microscopic
structure pertaining to the change in the distribution of the metallic structure, or carbide using various types of
microscopes and the change in the shape or size of the deposed carbide.
As shown in Fig. 3.2.3-3, the factors for assessment of respective damage are divided into 3 steps or 4 steps. By
combining them, the life consumption ratio is estimated comprehensively within a range of 8 categories. For
example, when mechanical damage is IID, the microscopic structure is IIIM, and deposition distribution is IIP, the
comprehensive damage category of the life consumption ratio by creep rupture is estimated to be E, namely 50 –
60%.
By combining various factors for assessment of life, assessment with high precision becomes possible in the
entire range covering the first half and second half of life.

172
Replica Extracted replica

Component surface
(etched surface)

Scanning-type electron Optical microscope Analysis electron


microscope microscope

Creep cavity Micro-crack Metal structure Disposition

Life consumption
Damage factors Comprehensive ratio by creep
Microscopic Deposition
damage breakage (%)
Mechanical
distribution
category
damage structure

Fig. 3.2.3-3 Structure comparison method

(d) AC electric resistance method


This method is effective for the assessment of creep damage of components affected by welding heat
(hereinafter referred to as the HAZ portion) of low-alloy steel and 9 Cr steel.

Material not Material damaged


used yet by creep
Voltage drop ratio defined by
initial value

Life consumption ratio by creep breakage (%)

Fig. 3.2.3-4 AC electric resistance method

The creep damage of the component affected by welding heat from these steels is a type of fragile damage and
generates creep voids at the grain boundary. As the generation of voids increases, the electric resistance tends to
become stronger (Fig. 3.2.3-4). The amount of damage is assessed by using the electric resistance ratio of unused
material and the electric resistance ratio of the component being assessed, and by referring to the master curve
indicating the relationship with the amount of damage. Assessment accuracy has been improved by making it

173
easier to grasp the level of damage proximate to the surface by using an alternative current. In addition, it is
required in this method to spot weld a platinum wire to the subject component. If an electrode has once been
installed, building of a scaffold, thermal insulation, removal/restoration of the exterior plate, and polishing of the
subject component for inspection are not required thereafter. Therefore, the costs for inspection can be reduced. In
addition, it is possible to make measurement at any time during operation. This method can also be used for
monitoring the main piping, etc.
(e) Void (cavity) area ratio method
As shown in Fig. 3.2.3-5, voids are generated at the grain boundary when the HAZ portion of low-alloy steel or
9 Cr steel is affected by creep damage. The number of voids increases as the damage grows. The voids become a
crack after growing/combining (namely, the area of voids increases), and finally result in the rupture of the
component material. In this method, the ratio between the total area of voids generated within the observation
visual field and the total observation visual area is defined as a void (cavity) area ratio. Using this ratio together
with the master curve prepared by its correlation with the degree of creep damage, the life is assessed in this
method (Fig. 3.2.3-5).
Replica

Scanning-type
electron microscope

W elding metal (570°C)


Cavity area ratio S0

Regression curve
99% reliable section
99% reliable section of
creep damage ratio

Creep damage ratio φc

Fig. 3.2.3-5 Void (cavity) area ratio method

Incidentally, the behavior to generate voids is different in such low-alloy steels as 2.25 Cr-1 Mo steel, etc. and 9
Cr steel. It is required to use the master curve suitable for the respective type of steel.
(f) Void density method
The ratio between the number of voids in the observation visual field and the observation area is defined as
cavity density. Referring to the master curve indicating the relationship between the cavity density and the amount
of damage, assessment of the life of the component subjected to assessment is carried out in this method.
(g) A-parameter method
This is a method to be used for the assessment of creep damage at the HAZ portion of low-alloy steel. This
method was developed by English researchers. Creep voids generated as creep damage grows are generated at the
grain boundary. Draw an optional scanning line in the metal structure of the subject component. The ratio of the
number of grain boundaries where voids have been generated against the number of grain boundaries that
intersect this scanning line is defined as the A-parameter. The life of the component subjected to assessment is
assessed in this method by referring to the master curve indicating its relationship with the amount of damage (Fig.
3.2.3-6).

174
Amount of creep damage (%)
Relationship between A-parameter and life
consumption ratio by creep rupture

Fig. 3.2.3-6 A-parameter method

(h) Crystal grain deformation method


The base material of low-alloy steel used for boiler equipment has been made considerably soft considering
easiness of machining and welding. Therefore, level of generation of voids when receiving creep damage is lower
than that of the HAZ portion, but instead plastic deformation generates easily. Under such circumstances, the
crystal grain is expanded gradually to be long and narrow in the applied stress direction and becomes uniform.
The level of this uniform style is quantified by the standard deviation of the frequency distribution of the
maximum-diameter angle (an angle created by the direction of the maximum diameter of the crystal grain and the
direction of applied stress). This is a method of assessing the life using this standard deviation and the master
curve prepared by the correlation with the degree of creep damage (Fig. 3.2.3-7).

Maximum
diameter
Deformation count Sm (degree)

Crystal
grain
Frequency

Direction of stress
• Applied to the assessment of creep damage of Cr-Mo steel
base metal
(a) New material • Method of assessing the remaining life focusing on the fact
Piping material (500-650°C) that the crystal grain deforms as the creep damage grows
Heat transmission pipe material (570-600°C)

Direction of stress Deformation Regression curve


coefficient Sm 99% reliable section
(standard deviation) 99% reliable section of creep
damage ratio +/- 0.09
Frequency

Formal
distribution

Creep damage ratio φc


(b) Material damaged
by creep [Relationship between deformation
coefficient and creep damage ratio]

Fig. 3.2.3-7 Assessment of creep damage to Cr-Mo steel base metal through the crystal grain deformation method

(i) Carbide structure-measuring method


The base metal of low-alloy steel used for a boiler and the HAZ portion makes such structural changes as
deposition of carbide, condensation/large sizing, etc. as the creep grows. The structure of carbide also changes. At
the initial stage of life, there is a lot of Cr-enriched carbide represented by M₂₃C₆. However, as the damage grows,
it changes to Mo-enriched carbide such as M₆C. This method focuses on such structural changes of carbide. In
this method, life is assessed using the master curve prepared in the correlation between the weight ratio of Mo/Cr
and the degree of creep damage.
The Mo/Cr weight ratio is obtained by taking out very a small amount of specimen from the component
subjected to assessment, extracting carbide by dissolving it in a suitable device, and measuring the weight of Cr
and Mo by high-frequency plasma emission-analyzing apparatus. Figure 3.2.3-8 shows an example of the master
curve of this method, which shows stress dependency.
(j) Ultrasonic method
Upon the incidence of ultrasonic waves into the component, rear scatter noise is generated. Because the noise
characteristics correspond to the number of generated voids and/or microscopic-cracks of the damaged component,
it is quantified to specify this as a parameter to assess creep damage (noise value). Taking the noise wave after the
175
incidence of ultrasonic waves from the component surface to the 1st bottom echo, and by carrying out power
spectrum analysis, the area within a certain frequency range is calculated to define it as the noise value. The
assessment flow in the ultrasonic method is shown in Fig. 3.2.3-9.
steel
HAZ-reproduced component with SR
σ: Application of reaction

Mo/Cr weight ratio


Creep life ratio t/tr
(Carbide structure-measuring method)

Fig. 3.2.3-8 Carbide structure-measuring method

(a) New material (unused)


Amplitude (dB)

Data measurement of Noise


Noise value Life assessment
component for assessment analysis

• Comparison of noise between


component for assessment
Frequency (MHz) No fine cracks are detected. and unused material
Oscilloscope PC
Pulse receiver (b) Material damaged by creep
Certified curve
Amplitude (dB)

Noise value

Noise value ratio


Search Frequency (MHz) Fine cracks are
unit detected.

Frequency
analyzer st
1 bottom echo Life ratio
Component for
assessment

Fig. 3.2.3-9 Life assessment flow in ultrasonic method

(k) Other methods to assess creep remaining life


In the remarks column of Attachment 3 as explained above, it is stated that the “Application of any other
method than the above is permitted on the condition that it is recognized (by a committee with participation of
people of experience or academic standing) to have accuracy equivalent to the above methods. Various methods
other than the above have been developed. The names of such methods are mentioned below.
a) Structure-quantifying method
The following 2 means are included:
• M₆C deposition ratio
• Spheroidizing ratio of carbide
b) CMA (Computer-aided X-ray Microscopic-analyzer)
Density spectrum method
② Fatigue damage
(a) Microscopic-crack method (Replica method, MT copying method, etc.)
The methods for life assessment against creep damage as explained above are the methods of assessing the life
against fatigue damage to the carbon steel, base metal, or HAZ portion.
If these components receive fatigue damage, microscopic-cracking of a level that can be observed by replicas
only at the initial stage of fatigue life occurs, grows, and finally grows to a crack that can be detected by a
non-destructive test such as PT, MT, etc. Therefore, the life can be assessed by detecting such microscopic-cracks
by a replica. Figure 3.2.3-10 shows life assessment curves.

176
Magnetic powder
copying film

Magnetic powder

Oxidation scale
Magnetic
field

Maximum length of crack measured by


Carbon steel welding stop end

MT copying method (mm)


Average value curve

99% reliability curve

Crack detection
boundary

Life consumption ratio by the generation of


macro-cracks (%)
Maximum length of crack measured by

Low-alloy steel welding stop end


Average value curve
MT copying method (mm)

99% reliability curve


boundary
detection
Crack

Life consumption ratio by the generation of


macro-cracks (%)

Fig. 3.2.3-10 Microscopic-crack method (MT copying method)

3.2.4 Development and automation of inspection technology


With respect to the regular inspection of boiler equipment, the use of high efficiency, high-precision assessment
devices has been required under such circumstances where the inspection process needs to be simplified,
inspectors are getting old, 3K jobs (dirty, dangerous, and tough jobs) need to be eliminated, and damage needs to
be quantitatively assessed corresponding to a requirement to rationalize aged boiler maintenance in line with the
liberalization of electric power. In Table 3.2.4-1, various types of inspection methods and related automation are
shown.
(1) Type IV cracks of high-temperature thick wall pipe of large diameter
Cracks occurring to the boiler pipe header and to the welded portion of the thick wall main piping of large
diameter are classified according to the locations of occurrence and are shown in Fig. 3.2.4-1. The cracks
frequently experienced as creep damage are Type III and Type IV damage and are respectively characterized as
damage to the rough-grain areas and fine-grain areas of the HAZ portion.

177
Table 3.2.4-1 Various types of inspection methods and related automation
Method of inspection and
Subject Damage to material Automation
detection
Furnace waterwall (1) Thermal fatigue of PT, MT Automatic inspection
piping piping external metals UT from outside furnace device using a
(2) Inner piping corrosion High-frequency array UT multi-sensor within the
fatigue Spiral UT furnace
Coil of (1) Creep Replica method, hardness Void recognition device by
super-heater, method image processing
re-heater, and (2) Fatigue PT, MT
economizer Replica method
(microscopic method)
(3) High-temperature Inner piping UT Automatic-measuring
corrosion, wear, and robot
thickness decrease
(3) Steam oxidation scale High-precision UT
method
(4) Wear of horizontal High-velocity laser Automatic inspection unit
heat-transferring method
piping Inner piping UT
UT thickness gage for
narrow portion
Pipe header and (1) Type IV crack, inner TOFD method Image-processing device
main piping crack Electronic focus sector
scanning
Ultrasonic noise method

W elding material
Base material Base material

Transmitter Surface Diffracted Receiver


wave wave

Wave diffracted on
the crack top

Wave diffracted on
the crack bottom
Type I: Crack in welded metal
Type II: Crack classified as Type I, which has expanded from Wave reflected
on the bottom
the welded portion to the portion affected by heat
(HAZ) Crack
Type III: Damage to the rough-grain area of the portion Diffracted
affected by heat (HAZ) wave
Type IV: Damage from the fine-grain area of the portion
affected by heat (HAZ) to the range of the partially Direct reflection wave (same as conventional one)
transformed area

Fig. 3.2.4-1 Fig. 3.2.4-2 Principles of TOFD method


Classification of damage to a welded portion

Type III damage (damage in a rough-grain area) appears on the external surface of a pipe, whereas Type IV
damage (damage in a fine-grain area) occurs within a thick wall pipe and expands toward the surface. Impure
substances contained in the steel play an important role in Type IV cracks.
(2) Inspection method for Type IV cracks
Typical inspection methods for Type IV cracks occurring within a pipe having a thick wall are explained below.
The inspection method is used alone or jointly with other methods.
① TOFD method
As an inspection technology able to assess Type IV cracks occurring from the inside of a thick wall precisely
and quantitatively, the TOFD (Time of Flight Diffraction) method has been developed and put to practical use,
which is an ultrasonic wave flaw detection method using 2 search units for transmission and receipt. A comparison
with the conventional angle beam method is shown in Fig. 3.2.4-2.
The conventional method was in principle designed so as to catch reflecting echoes from a defect. Therefore,
there were some cases where inspection was not possible depending on the direction of the crack. It was also

178
difficult to capture the defect size in a quantitative manner.
On the other hand, the TOFD method catches the wave diffracted from the tip end of a crack. Therefore, it is
not affected by the direction of the defect. In addition, it can assess the length (depth) of a crack based on the
transmission time of the diffracted wave. As a result, inspection in a precise and quantitative fashion has become
possible.
② Electronic focus sector scan ultrasonic testing
The principles of measurement by ELFOSS UT are shown in Fig. 3.2.4-3. This device can perform wide-angle
scanning by focusing an ultrasonic wave beam through the delay circuit to improve resolution and defect
inspection accuracy. Two search units are used for the TOFD method, whereas this device has such a characteristic
that inspection of the narrow portion is made possible because wide-angle flaw detection is performed by only 1
search unit.

Trigger pulse
for activation

Delay circuit

Vibrator

Angle of
deflection

Focus
Electronic focusing by Sector scan by delay Electronic focus sector
delay circuit circuit scan
If the activation timing of If the activation timing of If the timing and duration
the vibrator is the vibrator is changed at of the activation of the
changed with the the same interval, the vibrator is changed from
same interval in the ultrasonic wave beam is time to time, the direction
right and left deflected. In addition, the can be changed
directions, an deflection angle can be continuously by focusing
ultrasonic wave freely set by the duration an ultrasonic wave beam.
beam focuses. In of the timing.
addition, the focal
depth can be freely
set by the duration of
the timing.

Fig. 3.2.4-3 Principles of ELFOSS UT

③ Ultrasonic noise method


As explained in the section on the method of assessing remaining life pertaining to creep damage, such features
as noise intensity rises in the case of a material with voids or microscopic-cracks being utilized in the ultrasonic
noise method. Early assessment has become possible for Type IV damage occurring within the welded joints of
high-temperature thick wall pipes of large diameter. In addition, by scanning the search unit in the right-angle
direction against the weld line and by installing a time gate in the direction of plate thickness, map images of the
damaged portion can be obtained through divided measurements as shown in Fig. 3.2.4-4.

179
Scan a search unit and apply gate by Clarification of the points of damage
splitting the corresponding time width. for image processing

Scanning Direction to move search unit (mm)

Time split gate


Plate thickness
direction (mm)

Deposited metal Base material


Base material portion
Portion affected by Portion affected
Portion affected
weld heat by weld heat by weld heat
Deposited metal Base material
portion Example of flaw detection result
The noise value is displayed on a color map.

Fig. 3.2.4.-4 Image processing of flaw detection results through the ultrasonic noise method

3.2.5 Chemical cleaning


(1) Purpose and timing of chemical cleaning
① Purpose of chemical cleaning
The purpose of carrying out chemical cleaning of boiler equipment is to remove any and all foreign materials
and scale adhering to inner face of the evaporation piping during construction or operation of the boiler, thereby
preventing any problems from occurring to the boiler, to recover its efficiency and maintain it under good
conditions.
The purpose of chemical cleaning performed during the construction of boiler equipment is to remove any and
all mill scale adhered during the manufacture of the boiler piping and fat and oil adhered during installation, to
remove any foreign materials entered such as sand, etc., and to prevent any problems from occurring during
operation thereafter.
Although impure substances brought into the boiler equipment when installing a condensate demineralizer or
improving water treatment are reduced, these substances still remain as scale adhering to the inner piping due to
the following causes:
(a) Intrusion of corrosive substances through the water supply system and their adherence to the water supply
system
(b) Condensation and deposition of dissolved salts
(c) Corrosion of the materials of the boiler piping
Such impure substances cause overheating of the piping materials, generation of scaling, formation of local
cells, or corrosion due to condensed salts and lead to future swelling out or explosion of the piping.
As shown in Table 3.2.5-1, the thermal conductivity of scale largely varies depending on its chemical
ingredients. Because the size of scale is smaller than that of piping materials, adhered scale blocks thermal
conduction causing overheating or heat loss of piping materials.

Table 3.2.5-1 Thermal conductivity of metal and scale


Type Thermal conductivity (W/m・K)
Mild steel 45 ~ 70
Scale containing silicate as its major ingredient 0.2 ~ 0.5
Scale containing iron oxide as its major ingredient 0.9 ~ 2.3
Fat and oil 0.1
Water 0.6

The water vapor oxidized scale generated in the steam system peels off during operation and accumulates in the
U-shape pipe of the super-heater piping, resulting in its explosion. Its fragments may fly over to the turbine and
damage the blade.

180
② Timing of chemical cleaning
For the timing of chemical cleaning after the start of operation of boiler equipment, the boiler manufacturer
specifies the standards of cleaning depending on the amount and thickness of adhered scale. On the other hand,
the operators at electric power companies also specify their own respective standards. The standards commonly
used for cleaning are shown in Table 3.2.5-2. The value mentioned there is only a general guideline. Therefore, it
is desirable if an independent cleaning timing is established. In addition, this value should be determined based on
the portion where the maximum amount of scale adheres to individual boiler equipment. Full care should be paid
to any change in the portion where the maximum amount of scale adhered due to a change in the boiler operation
method or fuel change.

Table 3.2.5-2 Amount and thickness of adhered scale for which chemical cleaning is required
Normal pressure
Beyond boundary
8Mpa class 12Mpa class 18Mpa class
pressure
Type
⎯ 90 ~ 135 75 ~ 105
Coal-fired boiler ⎯
⎯ 400 ~ 450 250 ~ 350
Coal/oil 90 ~ 120 75 ~ 105 60 ~ 90
mixture-fired ⎯
boiler 300 ~ 400 250 ~ 350 200 ~ 300
75 ~ 105 60 ~ 90 45 ~ 75 24 ~ 36
Oil-fired boiler
250 ~ 350 200 ~ 300 150 ~ 250 80 ~ 120
Gas-fired boiler Same as above Same as above Same as above Same as above
Note 1) The upper row in each column indicates the amount of adhered scale (mg/cm²), the and lower row indicates the scale
thickness (µm).
Note 2) The amount of adhered scale is the value at the flame side (180°) of the inner evaporation piping.
Note 3) The amount of a once-through boiler of 18 Mpa class or smaller shall be 2/3 of the value shown in above table.
Note 4) Even if the actual values are less than above, it is recommended to carry out chemical cleaning when the boiler has been
operated for 50,000 hours or longer.

(2) Nature of scale


The scale adhered to new boiler equipment is mostly mill scale (magnetite: Fe₃O₄) generated during the course
of pipe manufacturing. On the other hand, the nature of scale largely varies depending on the quality of the supply
water or refill water, treatment of the supply water or boiler water or materials of low-/the high-pressure supply
water heat transmission piping of a heater between the steam condenser and the boiler. Even with the same boiler,
the amount and ingredients of scale vary depending on the sampling position or whether it is the flame
side/furnace material side. Table 3.2.-3 shows examples of analyzed scale ingredients in the evaporation piping
and steam system. Its characteristics are outlined below:
(a) With respect to boilers A, B, and C using a heater of copper alloy steel in the water supply system, the scale
contains copper.
(b) With respect to boilers B and C, such refractory scale as white ZnAl₂O₄ (zinc aluminate) or NiFe₂O₄ (nickel
ferrite) called spinel scale may be generated if zinc (Zn), Aluminum (Al), and/or nickel (Ni) is contained.
(c) The scale of boilers D, E, and F using a heater for the steel piping in the water supply system is mostly iron
oxide (Fe₃O₄).
(d) Boilers D, E, and F are of same high-pressure, once-through type, but the boiler water treatment for boilers D
and E is AVT (all volatile treatment) to remove Fe₃O₄ (magnetite). As shown in Photo 3.2.5-1, the scale has
a corrugated surface.

181
Table 3.2.5-3 Examples of chemically analyzed scale ingredients
Average
adhering Chemical content
amount
Boiler Pipe specimen (mg/cm2)

Refractory
Fe3SO4

by acid
Al2O3

Cr2O3
MgO

MoO

MnO
P2O5
ZnO

CaO
NiO
Cu
A Right-side wall pipe 65.3 58.3 1.9 1.1 <0.1 <0.1 10.3 13.3 10.6 - - - 2.1
B Front wall pipe 25.4 33.0 34.5 15.1 0.7 14.5 <0.1 <0.1 0.3 - - - 0.2
C Front wall pipe 20.4 73.0 2.8 10.0 0.9 <0.1 0.8 1.7 4.9 - - - 1.9
D Front wall pipe 24.1 97.5 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0.1 - 1.8 - 0.7 <0.1
E Front wall pipe 23.4 97.9 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 - - - - - - 0.7
F Front wall pipe 9.6 97.9 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0.2 - - - 0.5 <0.1
G Secondary 38.4
65.9 <0.1 <0.1 - 11.3 - - <0.1 17.8 1.5 1.7 0.3
super-heater
H Re-heater 125.0 95.4 <0.1 <0.02 <0.1 <0.2 - <0.4 - 1.8 0.9 0.4 1.3
I Main steam pipe 125.3 88.1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 3.3 0.8 <0.5 -
Note 1) A: Boiler for own power generation (VU-60) 6.8 MPa 60 t/h
B: Forced circulation boiler (Mitsubishi) 19.2 MPa 860 t/h
C: Natural circulation boiler (Hitachi) 17.2 MPa 1,135 t/h
D: Once-through boiler 26.3 MPa 1,640 t/h
E: Pressure-variable once-through boiler (AVT) 25.0 MPa 2,300 t/h
F: Pressure-variable once-through boiler (CWT) 25.0 MPa 2,300 t/h
G: Once-through boiler (super-heater piping: SUS316HTB) 26.9 MPa 1,500 t/h
H: Pressure-variable once-through boiler (re-heater piping:STBA24) 25.0 MPa 2,300 t/h
I: Once-through boiler (main steam piping:STBA24) 25.0 MPa 1,900 t/h
Note 2) A –F: Adhered amount on flame side
G – I: Adhered amount around entire circumference

Outer
layer

Inner
layer

Base
material

Photo 3.2.5-1: Corrugated scale of AVT treatment Photo 3.2.5-2: Steam-oxidized scale
boiler (x 100 magnification)
With respect to boiler E, fine-grain Fe₂O₃ from CWT (combined water treatment) adheres to the magnetite, and
the scale has smooth surface.
(e) Boilers G, H, and I generate vapor-type scale. Cr-Mo steel (low-alloy steel) has been used for these
boilers. Two-layer scale, called steam-oxidized scale; one in the neighborhood of piping materials with a
high content of chromium and the other at steam side with a high content of iron oxide are generated as
shown in Photo 3.2.5-2.

182
Table 3.2.5-4 Operation of a boiler and required cleaning process

Cleaning with

Cleaning with

Final washing
Washing with

Washing with

neutralization
Prevention of
Cleaning by
degreasing

with water
ammonia
Flushing

rust by
water

water
acid
During construction { ⎯ U U { { { U
Copper content: high { { ⎯ { { { { U
After
operation
Copper content: low { ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ { { { U
Copper content: none { ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ { { { U
Remarks {: Implement. U Implement if necessary.

(3) Cleaning method


① Cleaning process
The cleaning method varies depending on the operation of the boiler equipment or the ingredients of the scale.
Typical cleaning processes are shown in Table 3.2.5-4.
(a) Boiler during construction
The main purpose of cleaning is to remove mill scale, oil and fat, and/or foreign materials. In these years, the
degreasing process is mostly omitted by adding degreasing agent during acid cleaning.
(b) Boiler after operation
i) Starting from acid cleaning of the scale mainly containing ferrous, hardening ingredients and/or a small
amount of copper, copper-dissolving/-enclosing agent is added during acid cleaning if copper is
contained.
ii) Before acid cleaning, ammonia cleaning is performed as pretreatment in order to dissolve the copper
content.
In lieu of the above i) and ii) cleaning, chelating cleaning is sometimes carried out. Its cleaning process is:
Ferrous removal Æ cooling Æ copper removal/rust prevention Æ washing with water
(4) Planning and implementation of cleaning
Planning of cleaning includes understanding the overall structure of the subject boiler, studying the cleaning
specifications through investigation of scale, selection of a method of treating wastewater, and planning the
implementation method. The planning procedures are shown in Fig. 3.2.5-1.

183
Investigation of the subject of cleaning

z Specifications and materials of the unit


z State of evaporation amount, pressure, Planning of cleaning specifications and
operation hours, etc. requirements
z State of water treatment control such as
quality of supply water, quality of boiler z Planning of cleaning process
water, chemicals used, etc. z Planning of treatment of wastewater and
z Practical experiences in cleaning exhaust gas
z Type of fuel z Approval of power source, water supply
source, heat source, etc.
Investigation of scale z Preparation of cleaning flow and work
procedures
z Scale ingredients z Checking of the safety and sanitary level
z Amount of adhered scale related to construction and training
z Scale generation rate
z Deterioration level of the material Implementation

Inspection

z Visual inspection
Dissolution test z Amount of corrosion to be checked
by a test piece
z Scale dissolution test z Amount of scale removed by
z Material deterioration test cleaning
z Investigation of customer’s
environmental conditions such as
wastewater standards, etc. Summary
z Availability of wastewater treatment
equipment at customer side z Report of cleaning implemented
z Experimental wastewater treatment z Advice regarding maintenance and
water treatment method
Study of wastewater treatment system z Checking of operation after cleaning

Fig. 3.2.5-1 Flow of chemical cleaning planning for boilers

① Guideline for implementation


Items to be considered when planning a guideline for implementation are given below:
(a) Outline of the unit subjected to cleaning
(b) Scope of cleaning and amount of cleanser
(c) Handling of components not subjected to cleaning
(d) Relationship between actual construction and temporary construction, size, quantity
(e) Types of cleaning chemicals, density and cleaning conditions
(f) Cleaning process and criteria for determining the completion of cleaning
(g) Method of checking and inspecting the effect of cleaning
(h) Method of receiving waste cleaning fluid and procedures to treat it
(i) Utilities (pure water, steam, power, air, etc.)
(j) Flow of each process, temporary storing place, and piping route
(k) Outline and detailed process
An example of the cleaning system for typical-type boiler equipment is shown in Fig. 3.2.5-2.

184
N2 gas Actual construction line
Temporary Temporary construction
Steam drum level gage Pressure gage

Front/rear
Flow meter
supply line

walls
Side wall

Side wall
Sampling
Water

Thermometer
Mixing header
Mixing heater

Inspection nipple

Draw Hydrazine pump


pump
Pure water
Circulation pump
Steam
Chemicals
injection pump
Tank

Blower

Ejector

Fig. 3.2.5-2 Flow of cleaning system of the natural circulation-type boiler

Actual construction line


Main steam piping Temporary construction line
Level gage
Pressure gage
Main closing
valve of turbine Flow meter
Thermometer

SH Water-filling pump N2H4 tank Sampling


Cage

Steam N2H4 pump


separator
Water-sealing pump for the components not subjected to cleaning
separation
Steam

Evaporator
tank

Test piece seat

Ceiling wall Blow line


Steam
Mixing heater
Chemicals
Ejector tank
Cold
water Circulation pump
Chemicals From tank-lorry
injection pump

Economizer

High-pressure supply Main supply water piping


water super-heater
Pure water

To blow line

Fig. 3.2.5-3 Flow of cleaning a once-through boiler

185
3.2.6 Circulation Pump
(1) Preventive maintenance of circulation pump
Circulation pumps for boilers have been employed for boiler equipment having a capacity of 150 MW or more
since around 1955. The circulation pump is divided into the injection type and the glandless type (canned motor
type, submerged motor type). Currently, about 400 units of these 2 types of pumps are operated for domestic
thermal power generation. Many non-conformance events occurred at the initial stage of introduction. As a result
of structural improvement and completion of the details for inspection items thereafter, such non-conformance
events have been drastically reduced and the reliability has been largely improved. However, 30 years have
already passed since the installation of some circulation pumps as shown in Fig. 3.2.6-1. Some of them are being
replaced gradually, but more than half of them have been used for 15 years or longer. The preventive maintenance
of such units has become a critical issue. (The descriptions from the next section are examples of circulation
pumps made by Fuji Electric.)
Number of delivered units (unit)

Total number
of units

30 years or 25 ~ 29 20 ~ 24 15 ~ 19 10 ~ 14 5~9 0~4


longer years years years years years years

Fig. 3.2.6-1 Years of operation after delivery

Pump case Motor case


(Renewal cycle: 35 – 40 years) (Renewal cycle: 35 – 40 years)
Generation of Expansion of in-low
Abnormal sound →
cracks clearance
Abnormal vibration
Deformation of gasket
Steam leakage, water
Uneven tightening
leakage
Warming shortage
Cavity abnormal
Impeller (Renewal cycle: 25 – 30 years) Overlapping of thermal
temperature rise
insulation materials
Generation of
Abnormal vibration
cracks
Renewal cycle of journal bearing
Sleeve plate: 8 – 12 years
Pad: 16 – 20 years
Heat exchanger Abnormal wear Abnormal
(Renewal cycle: 35 – 40 years) Lift/peeling off of sound/abnormal
Accumulation of bearing material vibration
Cavity temperature
scale
rise
Fatigue/corrosion
Water leakage
of welded portion Stator (Renewal cycle: 25 – 30 years)
Wear of press ring
Rotor (Renewal cycle: 25 – 30 years) Abnormal sound →
Loosening,
Popping out of Deflection of Abnormal vibration
dislocation,
rotor bar ammeter Shortened life of
corrosion, or wear
Corrosion/wear of Abnormal sound → of steel core
coil
steel core Abnormal vibration
Renewal cycle of coil winding
Renewal cycle of thrust bearing PVC: 8 years
Thrust plate: 8 – 12 years XLPE: 12 – 16 years
Pad: 16 – 20 years Wear of coil wire
• Slipping down of coil Insulation drop →
Abnormal wear Abnormal • Loosened cleat wire Ground
Lift/peeling off of sound/abnormal • Deterioration of
fault/unstable life
bearing material vibration insulation materials

Fig. 3.2.6-2 Deterioration of main parts and renewal cycle

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① Non-conformance events
As explained above, non-conformance events have been reduced to date, and the reliability of the circulation
pump of boiler has been largely improved. However, there still remain many plants for which no structural
improvement has been implemented so far. It is required therefore to recheck the non-conformance events in the
past and reflect their results in the completion of details of inspection items and on the plan for repair.
Non-conformance events of major parts are outlined in Fig. 3.2.6-2, which shows the deterioration phenomena
and renewal cycle of major parts (renewal cycle with addition of the effect of the bearing force improvement plan
to the past experiences).
② Guideline for implementation of preventive maintenance and inspection
Inspection items are divided into “general inspection items” and “special inspection items.” General inspection
mainly involves visual inspection, whereas non-destructive testing is the main item of special inspection, which
should be started from the 10th year after the start of operation to obtain remaining life assessment data.
Concretely, the target regular inspection cycle should be set at 4 years, and a long-term plan of “details for
checking/inspection items” and “details for repair items ”should be developed Items to be implemented should
be confirmed at the start of the respective regular inspection.
③ Concept of measures for improvement of bearing force and examples of implementation
Measures for improvement of bearing force of the circulation pump of boiler equipment are promoted under the
2 concepts below, aiming to respond to any change in the operation method of power generation plants
(conversion to WSS/DSS), extension of the inspection cycle, and prolongation of operation life:
(a) Improvement of structure, materials, and work method
(b) Enrichment of inspection items (early detection of non-conformance and early countermeasures)
Typical examples of implementation are shown below:
i) Forged pump case
The conventional pump case was a cast product of the volute type. As a measure to improve the bearing
force of the pump case, a spherical-shape forged pump case has been employed for about 15 years.
Compared with the volute-type cast pump case, the spherical-shape forged pump case is simple in its
configuration and the reliability of its materials is high. It is suitable for a plant with frequent start/stop
operations in a high-temperature, high-pressure atmosphere (plants using DSS, etc.)
ii) The motor stator coil has been changed to cross-linked polyethylene wire.
Coils manufactured before 1980 were made of PVC wire, which involved the issue that the rewinding
cycle was short because hardening/fragility of the insulation coat was accelerated due to reduction of
the plasticizer.
iii) Employment of a single-basket-shaped stator of the closed slit type
The double-basket-shaped stator of the open slit type was used as a standard stator in the past. DSS
operation (repeated transient vibration torque and/or thermal stress at the start of operation) was not
considered in its structure. As a measure for DDS operation, a single rotor of the closed slit type has
been employed.
iv) Implementation of special precise inspection
Visual inspection is more than enough for the initial stage of plant operation (within 10 years). However,
after 10 years when the renewal cycle timing of parts approaches, special precise inspection mainly
composed of non-destructive testing is carried out in addition to visual inspection. Through early
detection of and early action against any non-conformance by determining the timing of renewal, the
life of parts can be prolonged.

187
3.2.7 Fan
(1) Measures to improve reliability and guideline for maintenance and inspection
The present time is called a maintenance age. The number of social systems and production systems subjected
to maintenance are accumulating at a continuously increasing speed. According to a certain trial calculation, the
ratio of costs for maintenance was 10% of social capital investment during the 1970s, whereas it increased to 30%
during the 1990s and to 50% by 2020. Under these circumstances, maintenance costs keep increasing; how to
cope with this in a quantitative manner, how to improve cost efficiency keeping improvement of reliability, and
how to select the type of acceptable maintenance have become serious issues.
Because the fans installed at power generation plants are kept in operation for a long period of time from the
start of operation until the time they are disposed of, the accumulated number of units has been increasing. It is
required to make clear what inspection items are to be applied to these fans and to implement them under a
controlled cycle and implement feedback and feedforward without any reserve. Because efficiency and
rationalization of maintenance costs is directly linked to the management, it is required to develop a general image
of maintenance, determine what is presently missing, and implement these items in a well-planned manner.
① Axial fan
As boiler capacity becomes larger, the rotating-type variable axial fan suitable for large-capacity boilers with
reduced power consumption under partial load has been widely used as a ventilating fan for power generation
equipment other than FDF, IDF, PAF, BUF, and high-temperature GRF. Control for improvement of reliability is
further required, because the structure of the rotating-type variable mechanism is complex and the number of parts
is larger than the same of the centrifugal fan.
As a result of measures taken for the improvement of reliability [1] with consideration paid to the problems
with axial FDF experienced over a period of 15 years since 1970, the employment of axial fans started, and the
problem occurrence ratio has been suppressed to its minimum. However, in view of the facts that the installation
of axial fans increased from 1985 onward when many thermal power generation plants were constructed, and that
its usage has expanded, it is desirable to carry out precise inspection of fans used for many years in order to
further secure their reliability.
② Centrifugal fan
Although the reliability of centrifugal fan has been improved, many fans have already been in use for 20 years
or longer. It is required to plan and implement measures to improve their reliability further taking into account any
aged deterioration or any change in operation from what was expected at the start of operation.
Because the operation of thermal power generation plants corresponds to the peak power generation capacity,
the number of start/stop operations has increased, which, as a result, requires the improvement of the bearing force
of impellers, bearings, and couplings.
(a) Stress change occurs at the impeller caused by the change in RPM due to start/stop of operations.
Especially with GRF, low-cycle fatigue occurs due to repeated thermal expansion caused by temperature
fluctuation. If you start the operation of GRF at room temperature, the temperature of the intake gas
rapidly changes and the vibration becomes several times larger for some time than the vibration
experienced under stable, steady operation. This is an effect of the difference in thermal expansion
caused by the temperature difference among the components of the impeller. When the temperature of
the impeller becomes stable after continuing operation in a stable gas temperature atmosphere, the
amplification of vibration gradually lowers and the operation becomes stable. In particular, when a
riveted joint is used, this phenomenon frequently appears. Therefore, if a riveted structure has been used
for the impeller, it is recommended to change it to a welded structure and remodel the connection of the
impeller to the shaft/hub to a reaming bolt connection structure from the rivet-fixed type. Because the
effect of thermal distortion concentrates on the riveted structure, non-destructive testing needs to be
carried out for the components concerned when the fan is not in use or regular inspection is carried out.
In the case of the structure of the axis–boss shrink fit, any vibration that may be caused by the decrease
in the shrink-fit margin or loosening due to the transitional difference in temperature distribution is of
concern. It may be required to increase the shrink-fit margin or change to an integrated rotor of the
axis–boss.
If the level of adherence of the mating portion of the axis–boss shrink-fit structure changes as the time
passes, that the vibration may become stronger or the torque transmission ability may drop are concerns.
Ultrasonic waves can be used to test the level of such adherence. Figure 3.2.7-1 shows the inspection
principles when a clearance is available for testing.
(b) Any fatigue damage that occurs to the face of the tooth at the gear coupling due to start/stop operations
is also a concern. Complete inspection is required. It is recommended to change to a tooth face with
improved bearing force or to a flexible coupling having no contact with the face of the tooth.

188
(c) Stress occurring at the impeller is strong. When carrying out non-destructive testing at regular
inspection, such a case is found where the portions and number of occurrences of damage increase as
time passes. In case there is concern that complete reliability may not be secured through regular
inspection or repair only, it is required to change to an impeller of a type whose generated stress has
been reduced by increasing its wall thickness or improving its welding quality.
③ Precise inspection of large-sized fan
Large-sized fans are disassembled and maintained at each regular inspection. Items subjected to precise
inspection of the respective parts of the centrifugal fan that can be implemented for such aged deterioration
phenomena as corrosion, wear, cracking, etc. are shown in Table 1. Because problems with large-sized fans can
lead to operation stop of the unit or to load limit, it is recommended to carry out full assessment at respective
regular inspection, etc.
The fan is equipped with attachment devices other than the main unit such as the lubricating device, silencer,
measuring apparatus, etc. It is required to secure the reliability of these devices as well as securing the reliability
of the main unit. For inspection of the main unit, disassembling, which requires many processes, is necessary.
Because fewer processes are required for disassembling inspection of attachment devices, it is recommended to
carry out regular maintenance once a year.
Impeller

Impeller hub

Shaft

Mating portion Assess the output of the echo from


the hub bottom (Bn) and from the
Hub shaft bottom (W).
Sensor
Transmitted

Shaft
wave

Fig. 3.2.7-1 Assessment of the degree of adherence of hub/shaft

(2) Cause of life consumption


As the causes of consumption of life of the fan, corrosion, wear, fatigue, etc. can be mentioned.
Because power generation plants are located near the sea, corrosion caused by salt needs to be taken into
consideration. For the intake of atmospheric air by FDF and PAF, it is required to assess the strength of the
silencer against corrosion. Caution is required to be paid to the pit generation of aluminum alloy used for the
rotating blade of the axial fan caused by salt corrosion and clogging created between slide clearances. With
respect to IDF and BUF, because drain with strong corrosive features is generated when the moisture contained in
the gas condenses while the gas temperature drops when the fan is not in use, it is required to make assessment in
this respect.
With respect to wear, there is a record of a survey conducted in USA. As a result of a large-scale survey to
clarify the cause of problems conducted by EPRI ⁽²⁾ ⁽³⁾ in order to improve the reliability of coal-fired thermal
power generation plants, it was found that IDF was one of the most serious causes for drops in operation
efficiency.
The main cause of problems with IDF was wear caused by the fly ash contained in the exhaust gas. Researches
of the following items are presently under way in order to improve the wear resistance of IDF:
(a) Characteristics and level of wear of the fan at power generation plants and related costs required for
countermeasures against it
(b) Improvement of computer models to estimate the wear damage to the fan
(c) Assessment of the effect of relative wear by various types of fly ash
189
(d) Assessment of the cost for the armor system of the blade-shaped centrifugal fan that can be replaced on
site
The researches are mainly focused on the centrifugal blade-type fan, which cannot in most cases be applied
directly to the axial fan, which is the mainstream in Japan.
Axial-type IDF, many of which have been introduced in Japan from around 1985, have already been used for
10 years or longer. It is considered that such study will become necessary as the same EPRI conducted for wear.
Fatigue is divided into low-cycle fatigue caused by start/stop operations and high-cycle fatigue occurring during
normal operation. It is required to fully assess the rotating blade of the axial fan because damage to it is highly
expected. A study is required to be conducted for low-cycle fatigue if the frequency of start/stop operations has
increased in the course of the change in the operation method to more than when the unit was initially installed.
3.2.8 Corrosion of boiler equipment occurring in its water zone and countermeasures against it
Introduction
The purposes of controlling thermal power generation plants by establishing a reference value for each item of
water supply, boiler water, and steam is to prevent any problems from occurring to the equipment composing the
thermal power generation plant caused by corrosion and/or scale due to the quality of water used and to continue
the operation of the plant in a safe and smooth manner. As the pressure and temperature of the main steam rise
higher, the thermal efficiency of the plant becomes higher. However, the plant is likely to be affected by corrosion
or scale, and the level of such effect becomes higher. Therefore, water quality control is an important task that
affects the thermal efficiency and operation efficiency of the unit.
While the water treatment engineering of boiler equipment has remarkably advanced in these years, accidents
often occur from thermal power generation plants caused by the water used by aged equipment or DDS
operation. Those staff responsible for water quality and the staff in charge of operation and maintenance of the
plant are required to understand the importance of water quality control and endeavor to improve it.
Problems arising from water are roughly divided into issues of corrosion, fragility, (cracking) and scale. As
shown in Fig. 3.2.8, most of the problems relating to water occur when multiple causes are combined. Upon
occurrence of any problem, its cause must be analyzed and assessed in detail to establish adequate
countermeasures.
An outline of various types of problem and their causes, handling, and preventive measures is given below.

Defective design and construction { Attack by ammonia


{ Inadequate materials { Erosion of turbine
{ Defective design of orifice { Oxidization of steam { Clogging
{ Clogging with foreign { Insufficient flow rate { Rise in differential
materials pressure Drop in efficiency
{ Adherence of scale
{ Uneven thermal load { Thermal conduction
{ Corrosion of entire unit was blocked Opening by
{ Corrosion of partial unit swelling-out
{ Alkali corrosion
Defective operation maintenance breakage
{ Carry over { Fragile crack caused by
{ Defective storage
{ Leakage of seawater hydrogen
{ Defective water treatment
{ Crack caused by stress
{ Defective control of
combustion

Fig. 3.2.8 Problems and related causes

(1) Problem caused by adhered scale and countermeasures against it


① Problem caused by overheating
In the period in which raw water was used for refilling, hard contents contained in the raw water were deposited
on the evaporation unit as white scale of calcium carbonate, which caused overheating problems of the
evaporation piping due to its thermal resistance. Currently, due to advanced technology in the manufacture of pure
water, dissolved contents from the materials in the condensed water supply system change to scale and adhere to
the evaporation unit.
The main ingredients of the scale are magnetite (Fe₃O₄), copper, etc. By carrying out chemical cleaning of the

190
boiler equipment at an adequate timing, it is very seldom that the evaporation piping is damaged by overheating
due to the thermal resistance of the scale itself.

Cross section of scale

Appearance of the portion


of leakage
Photo 3.2.8-1 Example 1 of problem caused by overheating due to adherence of scale
The causes of problems by overheating due to scale adhering to the evaporation piping occurring in these years
are considered to be as follows:
(a) Due to improper water control, very soft magnetite scale is generated and grows to form a steam layer in
the clearances among the scale layers.
(b) A steam layer is formed in the portion in which the scale has been peeled off from the steel face and
lifted due to the temperature fluctuation caused by start/stop operations of the boiler equipment under a
condition where a relatively large amount of scale has adhered.
(c) If the amount of Cu, ZnO, CaO, etc. has become very large within a given scale layer when the
composition of scale largely fluctuates due to the change in quality of the supply water, the scale is
peeled off from that portion, film boiling occurs there, and a steam layer is formed as a result.
(d) When any scale remains in the chemical cleaning process of boiler equipment and any clearance is
created between the piping materials and the scale, that portion becomes a hot spot and a steam layer is
formed there. Almost all of these problems occur after the operation of the plant has started.
Photo 3.2.8-1 shows an example in which the scale has swelled out and broken open in an oval shape within the
furnace of the evaporation piping (STB42) located on the upper side of the burner. This is a case where heat
conduction is blocked when soft-type scale (200 – 250 μm) has adhered to the inner face of the piping, peeled off
within the layers, and lifted and opened due to the excessive rise in the metal temperature of the piping. In the area
surrounding the opening, many cracks are generated in the pipe shaft direction. As countermeasures against this,
the generation of soft-type scale is suppressed by the removal of scale through chemical cleaning, reduction of
melted oxygen in the condensed water and in the drain system of the low-pressure supply water heater,
deoxidization at the time of starting operation, etc.

[Metal]

(Scale thickness 0.33 – 0.49 mm)


Appearance of the portion
of leakage Cross section of scale
Photo 3.2.8-2 Example 2 of problem caused by overheating due to adherence of scale

Photo 3.2.8-2 is an example of a case the scale was overheated, swelled out, and opened within a very short
period of time (creep breakage in a short time); as a result, the unit was operated under such a condition that the
amount of scale adhered to the inner piping exceeded the amount for which chemical cleaning was required
(thickness 450 μm, amount of adherence 85 mg/cm²), the scale layers adhered to the inner piping were peeled

191
off and lifted, and heat conduction was blocked by the steam layers generated between the scale layers. As
countermeasures against this, it is required to capture the level of scale growth by regular pipe sampling
inspection and determine the adequate timing of chemical cleaning.
② Corrugated scale
At a plant where volatile matter treatment is undertaken as a method of treating supply water, there are many
experiences where the scale adhered to the inner evaporation piping of a furnace shows a corrugated pattern.
Especially with respect to the supercritical sliding-pressure once-through boiler, the average rate of flow in the
piping becomes higher. Therefore, scale with this corrugated appearance increases the break-through resistance of
the furnace, which may cause problems in operation. The cause of the generation of such corrugated scale has not
yet been clarified. The scale is considered to be generated under such a condition that chemical factors and fluid
dynamics factors have been combined. Namely, dissolution and deposition of the component materials in a
high-temperature, high-pressure atmosphere as chemical factors and cyclic structural change of turbulent
boundary layers as fluid dynamic factors are considered combined, whereby such corrugated scale was generated.
Photo 3.2.8-3 shows an example of the corrugated scale generated within a supercritical sliding-pressure
once-through boiler. In this case, the amount of adhered scale is not so great that chemical cleaning is required,
but problems in operation have occurred because the break-through resistance became stronger due to the shape of
such scale. As countermeasures, the scale is removed by chemical cleaning in order to reduce the break-through
resistance. Thereafter, it was clarified that the generation of such corrugated scale could be suppressed by
changing the supply water treatment to oxygen treatment, according to certain European literature ⁽⁹⁾⁽¹º⁾and the
test results of oxygen treatment verification carried out in Japan ⁽¹²⁾. This oxygen treatment method has the
advantage of a reduction in running costs, including the prevention of such corrugated scale from being generated.
Therefore, this oxygen treatment method is currently being rapidly introduced to once-through boilers in Japan.

Direction
of flow

Adhered scale (inside of furnace)

Photo 3.2.8-3 Adherence of corrugated scale

③ Scale adhering to the components


There is such a case where an increase in break-through resistance and fault movement is caused by the
considerable amount of magnetite scale partially adhering to such components as the orifice for flow rate
adjustment at the inlet of the evaporation piping of the forced circulation boiler, the spray water control valves of
the super-heater and re-heater, the drain control valve of the supply water heater, the flow meter for the supply
192
water (flow nozzle), and the high-pressure supply water system (strainer of the water supply pump, rectifying
cylinder of the high-pressure supply water heater, heater piping), etc. This scale adheres to portions where there is
no thermal load, which however is present in the evaporation piping. It is considered that the adherence of scale is
a phenomenon that occurs when chemical factors, fluid dynamic factors, and static electric factors (charged
grains) are combined.

Iron concentration (µg/l)

Temperature (°C)
Fig. 3.2.8-1 Solubility curve of magnetite

Because the main ingredient in the chemical factors is magnetite and scale is generated at portions with such
high temperatures as 180℃ or more, and as one can reason by analogy from the solubility curve ⁽¹²⁾ in Fig.
3.2.8-1, the portion where scale has adhered becomes oversaturated by the degree of solution of magnetite under
such temperatures and becomes an area where fine grains of magnetite are created. As fluid dynamic factors, the
scale has adhered to the portion whose boundary layers proximate to the metal surface are thinner than other
portions in the high rate of flow in the area in which the flow path has become narrower. This indicates that the
scale adheres to such portions with high probability of the created magnetite fine grains colliding with the metal
surface. As static electrical factors, when such oxide as magnetite is submerged into water, the surface of the oxide
is charged and comes to have electrical potential (zeta potential) by certain type of static electrical phenomenon.
The intensity level of this electrical potential is related to the characteristics of the grain surface. If the grain size
becomes smaller, the characteristics of the surface become stronger. Namely, the activity of the surface becomes
especially strong immediately after the fine grains of magnetite are created. Because scale is generated to such
portions where the various factors above are combined, the scale does not always adhere to the same portions of
similar plants.
Photo 3.2.8-4 shows an example of a unit that has become uncontrollable due to adhered and solidified
magnetite scale in the high-velocity portion of the stem throttle of control valve for the spray water of the
super-heater.
Photo 3.2.8-5 shows an example of scale containing copper as its main ingredient selectively adhered and
solidified at the orifice inlet of the water drum where the flow rate has been reduced. In this case, the copper
content dissolved from the supply water heater equipped with copper alloy piping due to a failure in the supply
water treatment was brought into the boiler and selectively adhered to the orifice.

193
Photo 3.2.8-4 Example of scale adhered to control valve

Scale
Orifice

Photo 3.2.8-5 Example of scale adhered to orifice

Such a failure in supply water treatment can be avoided by improving the treatment system. The adherence of
magnetite scale as mentioned above occurs even in such area where supply water treatment has been carried out
properly. Even by changing the conditions of the portion to which the scale has adhered (for example, change in
the pH, hydrazine density, etc.), only the adhering portion changes its location to some extent, and it does not lead
to any satisfactory solution. As a measure to resolve this issue of scale adherence, oxygen treatment, which has
been employed as a countermeasure against corrugated scale, is effective.
Photo 3.2.8-6 shows an example of improvement for the removal of magnetite scale adhered to the rectifying
cylinder of a high-pressure supply water heater at a power generation plant where oxygen treatment has been
adopted. Such problems as efficiency drop, vibration, etc. caused by magnetite scale adhered to the impeller of the
water supply pump have also been resolved by oxygen treatment.

194
Volatile matter treatment Oxygen treatment

Photo 3.2.8-6 Example of scale adhering to rectifying cylinder of high-pressure supply water heater
(1) Corrosion at the furnace water-wall tube of coal-fired boilers
① Corrosion
It has been known from long ago that strong corrosion occurs at the furnace wall of coal-fired boilers by flame
impingement (flames hit the waterwall piping directly in the neighborhood of the burner zone)⁾¹⁴⁾.
In such a case, it is considered that the area exposed to flames is locally placed under low oxygen partial
pressure, because a lot of unburned carbon, FeS₂, etc. are contained in the adhered ash. As shown in the chemical
formula below, FeS₂ contained in the adhered ash reacts with the Fe contained in the waterwall piping to yield
FeS. Because FeS contains more grid defects than such oxides as Fe₃O₄, the protective capability of the coat
becomes poorer, causing strong corrosion.
Recently, many cases are found such as the 2-step-type combustion process being employed for many boilers
for power generation as a measure to satisfy low NOx yield. In such a process, the area in the neighborhood of
burner zone becomes an atmosphere of low oxygen partial pressure containing H₂S. Figure 3.2.8-2 shows the
impact of air ratio on the balanced structure of gas when Datong (Chinese) coal containing 0.63% S is burned at
1300℃. When the air ratio is 0.8 or less, it is obvious that a lot of reduced contents such as H₂, CO, H₂S, etc. is
contained in the combustion gas. In particular, when such coal containing a lot of S content is used as fuel, the
H₂S density becomes higher, creating a severe corrosive environment. Corrosion of the furnace waterwall piping
caused by high-temperature sulfide becomes a critical issue. Coal combustion gas is composed of CO₂, CO, H₂O,
H₂S, COS, N₂, etc. As a result, the environment has become a family of so-called C-H-O-S. The critical factors of
corrosion are oxygen partial pressure and sulfur partial pressure in the atmosphere. In an atmosphere where the
oxygen partial pressure is high, oxidation plays a leading role in the corrosion of materials, whereas in an
atmosphere where the sulfur partial pressure is high, sulfuration plays a leading role. In an atmosphere where
oxidation is the leading player, the protective characteristic of the oxidized coat becomes excellent, resulting in a
negligible level of corrosion. On the other hand, in an atmosphere where sulfuration is the leading player, the
protective characteristic of the sulfide coat becomes remarkably poor, resulting in strong corrosion.
With respect to the corrosion occurring in an atmosphere of low oxygen partial pressure and high sulfur partial
pressure, it is considered that the reaction mentioned below is the leading player.

195
Datong coal (S content: 0.63%)
Combustion gas temperature: 1300°C

Air ratio
Fig. 3.2.8-2 Impact of air ratio on the balanced structure of combustion gas at 1300℃

H2S + Fe → Fes + H2 ...........................................................................................................(7)


2CO + SO2 + Fe → FeS + 2CO2 ..........................................................................................(8)

This corrosion gradually grows to complete corrosion in general. At a portion where repeated thermal stress is
strong, the corrosion may grow in a groove shape in the direction of the circumference (which is called
“elephant-hide alligator-skin cracking”).
Other than the above corrosion, it has been reported that corrosion involving such vitriols as X₂SO₄, X₂S₂O₇
(X: Na or K), etc. contained in the adhered ash or pyrosulfate can occur when the SO₃ density in the combustion
gas is high ⁽¹⁵⁾. However, cases of corrosion of the waterwall piping by these alkali compounds are not reported
very frequently.
In UK where coal containing lot of Cl is used, acceleration of corrosion of waterwall piping caused by HCl
contained in the combustion gas has been reported. Because the coal currently used in Japan contains a very small
amount of Cl, no corrosion caused by HCl contained in the combustion gas has been reported to date. From the
standpoint that poor-quality coal may be used in future as fuels to be used diversify, it will be required to capture
well the influence of HCl on corrosion.

196
② Examples of corrosion and countermeasures
A cross section of corrosion of the furnace waterwall piping of a coal-fired boiler that occurred in which the
2-step combustion process has been employed in order to reduce NOx is shown in Photo 3.2.8-7. The flame side
has been evenly corroded, and the amount of corrosion was 0.15 – 2.00 mm/year.

Flame side

Photo 3.2.8-7 Cross


section of corroded
potion of furnace
waterwall piping

Photo 3.2.8-8 includes EPMA photographs of corrosive scale. The scale in the outer layer is composed of FeS,
whereas the inner layer is composed of a mixture in which Fe₃O₄ is the main content. It is typical corrosion in an
atmosphere of low oxygen containing a considerable amount of H₂S. In the neighborhood of the waterwall piping
surface where strong corrosion occurred, it is indicated that the content of H₂S in the combustion gas was 300
ppm, H₂ was 1.5%, and CO was 6.1%, and the air ratio at the moment of combustion was 1 or less.
An example of groove-shape corrosion of the waterwall piping is shown in Photo 3.2.8-9. The appearance of
the corrosion is similar to that occurring at heavy oil-fired boilers. The causes of such groove-shape corrosion
are considered to be follows. Namely, the oxidized coat on the piping surface has cracked by repeated thermal
stress arising from any combination of adhered substances to the inner piping (Fe₃O₄), condensation of air
bubbles, or local falling off of scale from the surface of the furnace piping. It is considered that corrosive gas
entered through the cracks and that the corrosion was accelerated at this gas-entered portion ⁽¹²⁾.
Considerable actions to prevent corrosion of waterwall piping are as follows:
(a) Measures to be taken in the design
(b) Selection of materials
(c) Employment of surface treatment
The most effective action is the use of coal with a lower S content. Such actions as employment of low-NOx
burners, use of fined coal to promote complete combustion, increase in the oxygen partial pressure on the piping
surface by filling boundary air (to create an air curtain along the waterwall piping) over the waterwall piping
surface, etc. are also considered effective ⁽¹⁸⁾ ⁽¹⁹⁾.
Photo 3.2.8-10 shows the EPMA observation result of the scale on the piping surface before and after filling of
boundary air. By filling of air, the scale mainly containing sulfide has changed to scale mainly containing oxide.
As measures against groove-shape corrosion, suppression of the generation of substances adhering to the inner
portions through thoroughgoing water treatment or prevention of air bubbles from condensation by employing
rifle pipes is considered effective ⁽²º⁾.

197
Na: X-ray image

Fe: X-ray image S: X-ray image

C: X-ray image Cl: X-ray image

O: X-ray image K: X-ray image


Photo 3.2.8-8 EPMA observation result of corrosive scale on waterwall piping

Photo 3.2.8-9 Appearance of groove-shape corrosion of waterwall piping in the neighborhood of the burner

With respect to the materials, use of the double piping system composed of an outer pipe made of materials
excellent in corrosion resistance such as SUS 347 H, SUS 310 S, etc. and an inner pipe made of carbon steel is
considered ⁽²¹⁾. These materials have been already put to practical use where the materials are exposed to severe
combustion gas containing H₂S and HCl ⁽²²⁾.
For surface treatment, chromizing treatment by raising the Cr density by having Cr diffuse and penetrate is
effective for prevention of corrosion also. In addition, thermal spray coating of corrosive materials by plasma
thermal spray is effective for prevention of corrosion. Thermal spray process using 50 Cr – 50 Ni as its material
has been put to practical use.
In the case of thermal spray, however, entry of gas into the layer of the metal/thermal spray cannot be avoided.
This process has not yet been put to practical use as a permanent countermeasure.

198
O: X-ray image
Before filling
boundary air

Fe: X-ray image S: X-ray image

After filling
boundary air

O: X-ray image

Fe: X-ray image S: X-ray image

Photo 3.2.8-10 EPMA observation result of corrosive scale adhering to waterwall piping before and after filling
boundary air

199
3.3 Water Chemistry for the Boiler
3.3.1 Transition and Summary of Water Treatment Technology
The current water treatment technology we use in Japan derives from the U.S., introduced together with the
so-called ‘new type of thermal power’ system.
3.3.1.1 Transition of 170K-Class Water Treatment
A 170K-class unit was imported and installed at Osaka Power Plant. The boiler used was a forced circulation
type made by Combustion Engineering. Water treatment using the 170K-class unit showed a series of problems,
and the method used for water treatment changed several times.
(1) Initial Criteria for Water treatment
The initial criteria under which water quality was controlled in Osaka Power Plant are shown in Table 1.
Caustic treatment was used, in which sodium hydroxide and sodium phosphate were injected into the boiler water.
(2) Hide-Outs and Turbine Scales
Power generating efficiency decreased due to the hide-out of phosphate ions in the boiler water (and subsequent
increase in pH), and also due to deposition of sodium phosphate scales to the turbine blades (See Table 3.3.1-1).
Consequently, the downwash of the scale at the time of turbine start up contaminated the condensate water . To
eliminate the hide-out, disodium salt was used and the phosphate ion concentration was maintained at 0.2 - 2.0
ppm, which was the upper limit that Osaka Power Plant was able to manage.
However, hide-outs still existed and it was relatively difficult to control pH at an appropriate level.
1) Low Phosphate Treatment
In early 1961, a test for treating water with low phosphate treatment started. Following the results, monobasic
sodium salt was used, but since it failed to reduce the pH to the threshold limit value of GA1, i.e. 8.5 to 9.5, the
value remained to be 9.5 to 10.0.
In September 1961, Mr. Grabowski of C.E. made a presentation at the New Nagoya Power Plant and Thermal
Power Division of Kansai Electric Power Company, Inc. and showed that reducing boiler corrosion does not
necessarily require increasing pH, but the key is to protect the magnetite protection coating. He also pointed out
that Coordinated Phosphate Treatment requires the pH value to be maintained at the 9.5 to 10.0 level only (as
experienced by a boiler manufactured by C.E.) and suggested keeping the concentration of phosphate ions on the
concentration curves of trisodium salt and pH.

Table 3.3.1-1: Example of Analysis of Depositions on the Turbine Blades at Osaka Power Plant (Unit: %)
Ignition Loss SiO2 Fe2O3 Na2O CuO PO4
High Pressure Moving Blade 1st to 4.1 1.5 36.4 38.2 3.1 45.6
4th stages
* Medium Pressure Static Blade 10.0 16.0 14.5 49.0 - 23.8
1st to 4th stages
* Medium Pressure Moving Blade 20.3 23.7 15.1 58.4 6.4 0.2
3rd to 5th stages
Medium Pressure Moving Blade 24.2 23.9 19.8 49.7 1.7 0.5
6th to 8th stages
Medium Pressure Static Blade 8th 17.0 12.3 48.7 41.8 2.6 0.2
to 9th stages
Medium Pressure Static Blade 10th 10.4 2.9 61.3 40.1 3.7 0.8
stage
Medium Pressure Static Blade 11th 13.3 3.1 53.5 42.3 1.7 0.2
stage
Medium Pressure Moving Blade 22.1 9.0 34.8 63.9 1.4 0.1
13th stage
Low Pressure Static Blade 1st to 2.1 1.9 84.7 5.8 5.0 0.2
3rd stages
Low Pressure Moving Blade 2nd 2.2 1.9 54.5 6.7 7.2 0.1
stage
(Blade composition: 12 stages for High Pressure and 13 stages for Medium Pressure and 6 stages for Low Pressure)
* As shown in the original document

200
2) All volatile Treatment
Mr. Grabowski also showed a method involving the use of volatile chemicals to treat boiler water. He noted (1)
the use of volatile chemicals requires thorough monitoring of any condenser leakage and assurance of pre-boiler
system operation, (2) if a leakage occurs, phosphate salts must immediately be injected, (3) the phosphate salts
work effectively against the leakage of sea water at a concentration of 5ppm or above, below which they are
ineffective and (4) after reaching the cationic conductivity of 0.5µS/cm, the phosphate salt must be kept at 10 to
15 ppm.
He also instructed that the cationic conductivity of boiler water be maintained at 2 to 3µS/cm during normal
operation and to feedwater at a pH of 8.8 to 9.2.
Ratio of silica contained in steam to that in water (%)

Water Quality
Requirements
Average pH Silica (ppm.)

Pressure (psig)
Fig. 3.3.1-1: Impact of Pressure, pH and Concentration of Silica in Water to the Ratio of Silica under the Steam
Generation Volume of 5lb/h and in Static Condition

1 Distribution ratio by Jacklin & Bronar


Acceptable Concentration of Silica in Boiler

5 Coulter, et al: pH 7.8 - 9.0


Water (SiO2, ppm.)

(Silica Concentration in Steam:


0.02 ppm.)

Drum Pressure (kg/cm2G)

Fig 3.3.1-2: Curve of Acceptable Silica Concentration in Boiler Water

201
Acceptable silica concentration in boiler water in
order to retain silica concentration in steam to 0.02
ppm or below

Silica (ppm.)

All volatile
treatment: pH:
approx. 9.0

Pressure (psig)
Fig. 3.3.1-3: Acceptable Silica Concentration in Boiler Water (by C.E.)
(3) Shift of Criteria for Condensate water and Make-up water
The reference pH value shown by Gilbert for condensate water and make-up water at Osaka Power Plant was
8.6 to 8.8. The value depends on the volume of ammonia generated by the decomposition of hydrazine. However,
an increase of hydrazine injection caused a surge of pH to nearly 9.0. Gilbert explained that ammonia would
attack the copper alloy condenser tube if the pH value of ACD was high. In this case, the value should be kept to
8.8. However, the company also explained that if the pH of ACD were below 9.8, the pH of the condensed and
make-up water might be around 8.6 to 9.0.
So as criteria for pH and hydrazine concentrations, the ceiling was set to 0.05 ppm for hydrazine and 8.9 for pH
respectively, so that they can be maintained at these levels, even when there is a load variation. As it is difficult to
limit the hydrazine concentration to 0.01 ppm or below in a stable manner, and as there is concern regarding the
accuracy of the analysis, the lower limit of hydrazine concentration was set as 0.01 ppm.
(4) Silica and Silica Purge
In order to avoid bad influence to a turbine by silica scales, it is necessary to limit the volume of silica
contained in steam. As for the limit, the following three reports were issued in the U.S.:
1) Experience shows silica in steam should be contained to 0.03 ppm or below to avoid any scales being
deposited to the turbine.
2) No deposits was found in the low- and medium-pressure turbine blades of a turbine with 150MW, 170k and
550°C when the silica concentration in the high pressure turbine exhaust was retained to approx. 0.01 to
0.02 ppm.
3) Experience shows no silica is deposited on turbine blades when the silica concentration is kept at 0.02 ppm or below.

Indicates silica concentration should be kept


below this line during normal operation to
Silica Concentration (SiO2 ppm)

avoid any deposits.


Indicates silica concentration can reach this
line when a turbine is restarted after regular
repair or when it is rapidly operated.
However, the concentration should be
closer to the real line and close attention
should be paid to the concentration of silica
in moisture.

Drum Pressure (kg/cm2°C)


Fig. 3.3.1-4: Boiler Pressure and Maximum Permissible Silica Concentration Limit in Boiler Water

202
Table 3.3.1-2: Maximum Permissible Total Soluble Solid Material in Steam (Unit: ppb)
Permissible Permissible Permissible
Material Concentration for Concentration for Concentration for
Continuous Operation Conditioned Operation Intermittent Operation
NaCl 400 2000 4000
Na2SO4 400 2000 4500
Na3PO4 60 150 300
NaOH 30 60 150
SiO2 8 20 45
Total 898 4230 8995
Table 3.3.1-3: Example of Measurement for Drum Carry-Over in the U.S.
Name of Power Plant Chestexfield Ashtabula
Load 170 MW
Drum Pressure 2600 psig 2500 psig
Na Concentration of Boiler Water 7.5 ppm 10.6 ppm
Concentration in Steam 0.0021 ppm 0.0029 ppm
Carry-Over Ratio 0.028% 0.027%
NaCl Concentration of Boiler Water 9.4 ppm 15.3 ppm
Maximum Carry-Over Ratio 0.057% 0.047%
Referring to the above reports, the concentration of silica was set to 0.02 ppm or below.
The tolerance of silica concentration in boiler water depends on the ratio of silica distribution in saturated steam.
It also depends on pressure and pH, as shown in Fig. 3.3.1-1. Based on the distribution ratio, Fig. 3.3.1-2 is drawn
and C.E used Fig. 3.3.1-3.
In Fig. 3.3.1-2, the silica concentration is 0.18 to 0.19 ppm under the pressure of 186 to 188k and a pH of 7.8 to
9. From these data, the silica concentration was set as 0.2 ppm.
As the silica concentration in boiler water tends to rise when the boiler starts operation, due to the silica scale
deposited on the turbine low-pressure blades being washed away by wet steam, a silica purge must be
implemented to raise pressure by blowing the boiler, while ensuring the silica concentration is limited to within
the designated value. This is the main cause of delays and increased load when starting the drum type boiler.
Therefore, looser values were set, as shown in Fig. 3.3.1-4, for the concentration of silica when starting a boiler.
The silica-washing device installed in a drum manufactured by Babcock-Hitachi K.K. showed a remarkable
ability to reduce the silica concentration in steam, doubling the permissible concentration of silica in the boiler.
(5) Total Soluble Solid Materials
As for the total soluble solid materials, the following reports were issued in the U.S.:
1) Fig.3.3.1-2 shows the permissible concentration for continuous operation (the maximum concentration that
does not cause significant silica deposit after operating a turbine for 8,000 hours), the permissible
concentration for conditioned operation (the maximum concentration after repeated stopping and restarting
or under such operation conditions as variable pressure operation) and the permissible concentration for
intermittent operation (the maximum concentration that does not cause any silica deposits for a relatively
short turbine operating period). The permissible concentration for continuous operation is approx. 1 ppm.
2) No significant silica deposits were observed in the concentration range of 0.1 to 0.2 ppm.
3) In order to operate a turbine without any washing for an extended period, the silica concentration must be
controlled to 0.05 ppm or below.
Experience at Himeji No. 2 Power Plant showed that deposits were rarely seen when a turbine was operated
with cationic conductivity of 0.3µS or below. This corresponds to a silica concentration of 0.05 ppm.
Based on the above, the cationic conductivity and the silica concentration were determined as 0.3K-µS/cm or
below and 0.05 ppm or below, respectively.
In order to determine the limit value for the total solid materials in the boiler water, the carry-over ratio of the
drum should be considered. With this in mind, the following data is issued:
1) The design value is 0.25%.
2) The value measured in the U.S. is 0.05% or so, as shown in Table 3.3.1-3.
3) The value measured in Himeji No. 3 Power Plant was approx. 0.15%.
Based on the above, the value was determined as 0.2%, taking safety into consideration, and the total solid
materials in boiler water was set as 25 ppm.
As the measurement of water quality under the all volatile treatment is 5K-µS/cm, or 10K/µS/cm at worst, the
total solid materials in boiler water was determined as 10 ppm.

203
First stage low temperature reheated steam
Second stage low temperature reheated steam
Ignition Fourth steam
Combined Normal values
feeding

Time (h)
Fig. 3.3.1-5: Trend of Hydrogen Concentration
after chemical cleaning

No. 2 bearing vibration increased


by three-hundredth.
Loads decreased by 3MW.
Time

High temperature reheated steam (ppb)

Fig. 3.3.1-6: Hydrogen Concentration when Two First


Stage Blades of Curtiss Turbine Flied Apart

Permittivity of
Cation-Exchange Resin
Time

Condensate
t Exit of WW
Entrance of ECO
Second stage low temperature

reheated steam

KC-floc used

Fig. 3.3.1-7: Electrical Conductivity and Hydrogen when


Water Starts to Pass Through a Filter
OH- in Boiler Water (ppm) (as CaCO3)

Throttle Pressure (kg/cm2)


{: Crater-shaped corrosion observed at least once
×: No crater-shaped corrosion observed
This is a chart indicating the relationship between the alkali level of
hydroxy-ions in boiler water and pressure. The safe and unsafe domains for a
boiler showing crater-shaped corrosion are indicated as a dotted line.

Fig. 3.3.1-8: Relationship of Alkali Level and


Crater-shaped Corrosion

204
(6) Hydrogen
As for hydrogen, it only indicates the corrosion condition of a tube and no measures can be taken based on it .
The generation of hydrogen can be determined as stable, because it remains commensurate with the surface
area, regardless of the volume of steam generated. Thus, it seems normal that the hydrogen concentration doubles
when the flow decreases by half.
As seen in the example where the hydrogen concentration is 2 to 4 ppb under stable operation, the chemical
reaction of iron and water continues to a certain extent, even under stable operation. This means the magnetite
coating undergoes a cycle of damage and recovery to a certain extent.
Increased hydrogen generation tells that the following events are happening:
1) The magnetite coating incurs significant damage. : E.g.: After chemical cleaning, the magnetite coating is
removed and thus hydrogen increases, returning to the normal level as the coating is formed (Fig. 3.3.1-5).
2) A new steel surface has appeared. : E.g.: Iron powder is generated by the flying apart of turbine blade; a
new metal surface appears on it, on which a chemical reaction progresses rapidly (Fig. 3.3.1-6).
3) The metal temperature has surged abnormally. : There is a report that the hydrogen concentration increased
by about 10 ppb when a reheating pipe caused creep damage for a relatively short period.
4) Organic materials (sugars) inputted have been decomposed (Fig. 3.3.1-7): There is a report that fine resin
leaked out from a condensate demineralization tower when water was introduced into it immediately after
replenishing the resin.
(7) Malfunctioning of Boilers in the U.S.
Table 3.3.1-4 indicates the result of investigations by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
on 116 boilers in the U.S. from 1950 to 1959. As stated in the table, 40% of boiler showed some pipe damage,
while 28% of boilers caused crater-shaped corrosion, which is considered alkali corrosion. Fig. 3.3.1-8 shows the
relationship between crater-shaped corrosion and hydroxy-ions, expressly showing how the concentration of the
latter may decline as pressure goes up.

205
Table 3.3.1-4: Outline of 116 Boilers in Use
No. of Boiler % No. of Boiler %
Manufacturer Deaeration unit
A 42 36 Used 89 77
B 49 42 Not used 27 23
C 14 12 Final treatment of makeup
D 8 7 water
E 3 3 Deionizer is used. 50 43
Pressure (kg/cm2) Steam evaporator is used. 66 57
63 or below 13 11 Boiler water treatment
64-91 21 18 Sodium sulfite 80 69
92-126 53 46 Hydrazine 41 35
127-155 26 22 Caustic soda 81 70
156 or above 3 3 Phosphate 111 96
Capacity Potassium salt 3 3
90 or above 6 5 Organics 13 11
90-225 33 28 Condensate water treatment
225-337 26 23 Morpholine 76 65
337-450 28 24 Cyclohexylamine 12 10
450 or above 23 20 Ammonia 12 10
Overheat Temperature (°C) Problems
427 or below 0 0 No corrosion losses 70 60
427-496 15 13 observed to pipes
496-552 80 69 Crater-type corrosions 32 28
552 or above 21 18 (20 to 23% are of
fluidity
Reheating Temperature (°C) hindrance.)
496 or below 0 0 Burnout due to overheat 5 4
496-552 68 59 Bubbles observed 2 2
552 or below 3 2 Overheat at the top of 1 1
No reheating 46 39 pipes
Fuel Orifice 13 11
Fine charcoal powder 72 62 Others
Gas 36 31 Pitting corrosion of 2 2
Oil 4 3.5 header
Others 4 3.5 Pitting corrosion of 3 2
(chain grate-fed charcoal and coal)
suspending metals
Year of Operation Corrosion of separation 2 2
Before 1950 7 6 tube
1950 4 3 Attachment to header 5 4
1951 5 4 Corrosion of feed heater 13 11
1952 7 6 Turbine attachments 9 8
1953 18 16 (Water-soluble
1954 28 24 9)
1955 18 16 Carry-over of silica 3 3
1956 11 9 Acid washing
1957 7 6 With acid washing 34 29
1958 8 7 No acid washing 82 71
1959 3 3 With initial acid washing 45
Economizer No initial acid washing 37
Used 101 87 Total number of acid
Not used 15 13 washings
Once 44
(Initial acid
washing 22)
Twice 14
(Initial acid
washing 7)
Three times 21
(Initial acid
washing 13)
Four times 2
(Initial acid
washing 2)
Five times 1
(Initial acid
washing 1)
For users, chemical cleaning to prevent any damage, for manufactures, designs to avoid hot spots or fluidity
hindrances, for consultants, the removal of dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide from the
pre-boiler, curtailment of dissolving iron and copper and research into controlling the pH level are requested.

206
Temperature of Boiler Water and Pipe

Concentration of NaOH (ppm)


Materials (°F)

Concentration

Mother Water of
Boiler Water
Temperature

Concentrated
boundary Film

Fig. 3.3.1-9: Heat Transmission Film and Concentrated


Film at the Heat Transmission Surface
Alkali Corrosion
Brittleness against
Hydrogen
Stress Corrosion
Corrosion
Ash
Corrosion
Fatigue
Corrosion
Ash
Overheat

of Cases
Number
Example

Year

Fig. 3.3.1-10: Accidents Occurring to Power Generation Boiler Pipes


(8) Alkali Corrosion
Sodium hydroxide was used to control pH in the boiler water. As Fig. 3.3.1-9 indicates, a boundary film was
formed around the boiler pipes of the heat transfer surface where boiling occurred. The sodium hydroxide in the
boiler water increased in concentration because it was left on the heat transfer surface as the water boiled up. As
sodium hydroxide has high solubility, it was not deposited on the surface, but instead, a film of highly
207
concentrated sodium hydroxide formed. According to an example of calculation , a 100k-class boiler containing
100 ppm of sodium hydroxide shows the temperature of inner surface of a pipe is increased by 5°F when it is
heated at comparatively low heat flow rate of 25,000 BTU/ft2・h, boosting the sodium hydroxide concentration by
10%.
Another report shows that the temperature of the inner surface of the pipe is increased by 30°C at some hot
spots . The occurrence of such hot spots is considered attributable to film boiling that is likely to occur due to the
enlargement of heat flux in a large-sized boiler, steam blanket, lack of flow rate, inappropriate burner positioning,
contact of flame due to insufficient combustion control, biased combustion and gas flow, inclusion of slabs in the
welded parts, blow holes and lack of fusion.
Sodium hydroxide can result in corrosion of steel at a concentration of 5%. When the concentration reaches 5%
or above, it dissolved the protective oxide layer, causing the inner metal surface to become exposed and corroding
it due to the reaction of water and steel. The hydrogen generated by the reaction penetrates into and damages the
steel.
In Japan, alkali corrosion cases were also reported. As Fig. 3.3.1-10 shows, statistically speaking, this has been
responsible for the highest proportion of boiler accidents having occurred to date.
The alkali corrosion is otherwise known as a caustic attack, or in the U.S., as crater-shaped corrosion, due to its
shape. These differ from conventional caustic embitterment.
After such accidents, the injection of sodium hydroxide was stopped. Thereafter, a new finding was reported:
namely that hideout of phosphate ions causes not trisodium phosphate but 2.65-sodium biphosphate at 689F and
2.85-sodium biphosphate at 572F respectively. This means 0.35 to 0.15 of trisodium phosphate in the system is in
the form of sodium hydroxide. It thus emerged that phosphate containing sodium less than 2.6 sodium
biphosphate should be used.
However, even if such phosphate is used, it was found that pH in boiler water increased past this level due to
trisodium phosphate. The cause was identified as a leakage of sodium from a deionized water system. In order to
avoid leakage, a double-bed operation was used to place the deionized water system just after regeneration to the
latter stage. Due to the fact that the movement of the system used at the latter stage to the front stage resulted in a
more significant leakage, a mixed type system was installed at the latter stage to use it dedicated to a polisher.
Thanks to such measurements, no further alkali corrosion has been reported since 1963.
(9) Shift to All volatile treatment
The No. 2 boiler of the Karita Power Plant (a 170k forced circulation boiler) started its operation in June 1959
showed alkali corrosion to evaporator tube at the 3,700th hour. This was attributable to sodium hydroxide and the
use of the chemical was stopped. The investigation showed that powder scale was attached to its turbine blades,
especially the final stage of the medium-pressure turbine, mainly consisting of sodium bicarbonate. Gilbert
suggested the use of sodium acid phosphate to maintain the pH level of boiler water and make-up water at around
8.5 to 9.5. The phosphate ion was dramatically reduced two days after feeding phosphate ions into the drum. As
this resulted in heightened conductivity of saturated steam and carryover to the turbine, the use of phosphate ions
was terminated in February 1960.
As the volume of hydrazine was maintained, the pH level of boiler water was lower by 0.4 to 0.5 than that of
make-up water, which was well below 8.5 and maintained at that level.
Regarding the risk of leakage within the condenser, trisodium phosphate is fed and a drum blow operation is
started. After repairing the leakage, the concentration of phosphate ions decreased to 0.0 ppm.
In the U.S, all volatile treatment was used due to the heavy carryover having occurred, and an ambiguous trial
just to maintain turbine operation started. For them, there was no choice other than the use of the treatment
method.

208
Table 3.3.1-5: pH Control Methods of the Pressure Boiler of 130kg/cm2 or above by C.E.
How to Adjust pH No. of Boilers
(1) Caustic Based pH10.5 to 11.0
37
(Caustic alkali and phosphate ions are used.)
(2) Low Caustic Control pH10.0 to 10.5
8
(Same as above)
(3) Cordinated Phosphate – pH Control pH10.0 to 10.5
29
(Coordinated phosphate treatment is used and caustic alkali is not used.)
(4) All volatile treatment: pH 8.5-9.0
21
(Hydrazine and ammonia treatment is used and no solid chemicals are used.)

(10) Chemicals Fed into the Drum


To avoid alkali corrosions, no free sodium hydroxide should exist and the pH should be minimized. However,
decreasing the pH level is not desirable in preventing oxygen corrosion and sodium hydroxide helps the removal
of magnesium as sludge during leakage into a condenser. To maintain pH at a certain desired level, the phosphate
ion concentration should be increased, but doing so can stain turbine blades. Therefore, where the increase of pH
is not abandoned, sodium hydroxide should be used to prevent the turbine blades from deposit. In order to avoid
both turbine scale and alkali corrosion, only volatile chemicals should be used, although doing so is not safe for
preventing the seawater leakage of the condenser.
There is no single medicine to cure all such difficulties. Thus, it was decided to implement a comprehensive
examination of conditions surrounding the boilers to decide which priority should be chosen and favored. Table
3.3.1-5 shows the experience of the U.S. in 1959.
(11) Problems in All volatile treatment
At the Kansai Electric Power Company, the use of volatile chemicals was applied to all units of 250KW or
above. However, there were reports of white laminated scales deposited in a boiler, as shown in Fig. 3.3.1-11, with
total thickness of 0.4mm and a total of around 11 to 12 white laminations. Each ingredient, especially the 11 to 12
layers of copper and zinc, corresponded to the number of white laminations. There were some 86 instances of
seawater leakage within the condenser, of which 10 were serious. This also corresponds to the number of white
layers. The total calcium and magnesium content was 1 to 4% in the form of CaO, which is several times larger
than other boilers. Rice associated the generation of hydrogen to decreased pH, due to leakage of the condenser,
causing accelerated corrosion. He also determined that the corrosion became uncontrollable when volatile
chemicals were used, and that no hydrogen corrosion would occur when coordinated phosphate treatment was
used. O’Neal also commented that coordinated phosphate treatment was used in lieu of volatile chemicals to avoid
any hydrogen embitterment.

Scale Thickness Base Material of Scale

Approx. 15% All volatile


Approx. 80%
treatment
Ingredient
strength

Approx. 10%

Scale Thickness (when scanned in an oblique directions)


(Source: Kurosawa et al.)

Fig. 3.3.1-11: Microscopic Diagram of Scales on the Burner Side

209
Total

Number of Boilers in Operation


125K Class

170K Class
140K Class

Year
Fig. 3.3.1-12: Trend of High Pressure Boilers
Percentage in the Entire Treatments %

Sodium
Sodium phosphate
hydrate

All volatile treatment

Potassium salt
treatment

Year
Fig. 3.3.1-13: Trend of Boiler Water Treatment

Dick revealed that all volatile treatment is not a panacea against water damage accidents, because there were
reports of significant water wall tube trouble occurring in some boilers subjected to all volatile treatment.
Decker disagreed with the use of all volatile treatment on drum type boilers, stating that such treatment was
rarely beneficial to them.
Every few years, an accident involving increased differential pressure to a forced circulation boiler with all
volatile treatment happens due to the attachment of scales to the orifice installed at the inlet of water pipes. This is
likely to occur just after chemical cleaning and the likelihood of such incident is based on how the initial
crystallization occurs. The scale present consists of mainly magnetite. As anti-scale measures, (i) removal and
cleaning, (ii) modification of the orifice shape, (iii) change of the orifice material to soft steel, and low phosphate
treatment were carried out.
Subsequently in 1970, of four heavy oil boilers of virtually the same design, two treated by volatile chemicals
were involved in an accident, while another, although not involved in an accident, was affected by a zinc scale
attachments on a considerable scale. On the other hand, boilers subjected to low phosphate treatment showed no
such zinc scale deposits. It was considered that the use of low phosphate treatment not only stops zinc deposits but
also decomposes part of the zinc oxide deposits into zinc phosphate.
Thus, conventional method of all volatile treatment was switched to phosphate treatment at boilers used mainly
by Electric Power Development Co. Ltd. Table 3.3.1-6 shows a comparison performance comparison featuring the
scale generation behaviors of 23 boilers before and after changing the mode of water treatment. As the table
shows, 4 units showed that phosphate treatment worked well in reducing the generation of scales. No unit showed
an increase of scale when phosphate treatment was used in lieu of all volatile treatment. Even taking into
consideration the change in operating conditions, phosphate treatment showed a reduction of scale generation. It
was therefore considered that phosphate treatment was applicable for restricting scale deposits in the generating
tubes of a boiler.

210
Table 3.3.1-6: Survey on Boilers whose Water Treatment Method was Switched from
All volatile treatment to Low Phosphate Treatment
Start of When Phosphate Materials for the Condenser Materials for the Feed Heater
Unit Capacity Furnace Circulation Operation Treatment was
No. (MW) Type Method (Year/ Started Condensate water Part Air Cooling Part Low Pressure Part High Pressure Part
Month) (Year/Month)
36 375 Single Natural 47.11 53.3 Aluminum brass Nickel-plated Aluminum brass Monel metal
aluminum brass
65 156 Divided Natural 39.8 48.1 Aluminum brass Cupronickel Copper arsenate Monel metal
66 156 Divided Natural 41.2 45.3 Aluminum brass Cupronickel Copper arsenate Monel metal
67 350 Divided Natural 44.1 51.5 Aluminum brass Monel metal Aluminum brass Carbon steel
70 156 Divided Natural 39.6 53.2 (50.6P→A) Aluminum brass Cupronickel Copper arsenate Monel metal
78 156 Divided Natural 48.4 53.5 Aluminum brass Titanium Aluminum brass Alloy steel
Carbon steel
86 250 Divided Natural 42.7 49.4 Aluminum brass Cupronickel Aluminum brass Alloy steel
87 250 Divided Forced 43.7 52.6 Aluminum brass Nickel-plated Aluminum brass Alloy steel
aluminum brass
88 250 Divided Forced 44.1 52.2 Aluminum brass Nickel-plated Aluminum brass Alloy steel
aluminum brass
89 265 Divided Natural 42.5 47.5 Aluminum brass Titanium Copper arsenate Carbon steel
90 265 Divided Natural 44.9 50.10 Aluminum brass Titanium Copper arsenate Carbon steel
106 350 Divided Natural 47.2 54.1 BKCB Titanium Aluminum brass Carbon steel
108 265 Divided Forced 35.10 54.11 Aluminum brass Nickel-plated Copper arsenate Monel metal
aluminum brass
109 265 Divided Forced 37.9 54.10 Aluminum brass Titanium Copper arsenate Monel metal
112 350 Divided Forced 41.7 53.6 Aluminum brass Titanium Copper arsenate Alloy steel
Titanium
113 350 Divided Natural 42.1 55.12 Aluminum brass Titanium Copper arsenate Alloy steel
118 350 Divided Forced 43.1 53.7 Aluminum brass Aluminum brass Aluminum brass Alloy steel
Cupronickel
122 250 Single Forced 45.6 54.1 Aluminum brass Cupronickel Aluminum brass Alloy steel
147 350 Divided Natural 44.9 53.6 Aluminum brass Titanium Aluminum brass Alloy steel
Carbon steel
148 350 Divided Natural 45.1 55.12 Aluminum brass Titanium Aluminum brass Carbon steel
168 250 Divided Natural 46.1 51.3 Aluminum brass Cupronickel Aluminum brass Carbon steel
169 350 Single Forced 48.1 53.12 Aluminum brass Cupronickel Aluminum brass Carbon steel
181 400 Single Forced 52.9 56.3 Aluminum brass Titanium Aluminum brass Carbon steel

Table 3.3.1-7: Corrosion Damage Reported in the U.S. on Drum Boilers (125k Class or above)
New damage Number of units in Ratio of annual
Periods
reported operation damage occurred
1955-1960 48 219 3.6%
1961-1965 39 385 2.0
1966-1970 27 481 1.1
* Corrosion newly discovered

(12) Water Treatment and Boiler Accidents in the U.S.


Fig. 3.3.1-12 shows statistics concerning high pressure boiler damage reported in the U.S. up to 1970. Fig.
3.3.1-13 also shows a shift of boiler water treatment methods. It shows that the use of sodium hydroxide keeps
declining, while that of sodium phosphate is on the rise. All volatile treatment peaked in 1963 (25%) and declined
thereafter, falling as low as 5% in 1970.
Table 3.3.1-7 shows the trend of boiler corrosion, in terms of year on year decline. However, even recently, 1%
of boilers used today are prone to corrosion damage. As Table 3.3.1-8 shows, 170k-class boilers tend to corrode,
even when volatile chemicals are used to treat the boiler water. This ratio is relatively high compared with other
classes, indicating why this type of treatment was declined.
However, a few cases of damage allegedly occurred due to the all volatile treatment not showing any evidence
of boiler water contamination. The users believed that the all volatile treatment maintained the deionized water at
the specified level. Experience supports the theory that it was the boiler design making it prone to corrosion)
although Klein considers such an idea to be illogical.
Boiler corrosion cases in the U.S. peaked in the early 1960s, when various reports were submitted by both users
and consultants. They reported that corrosion was caused by (i) basically inappropriate boiler design, (ii) contact
of flames, (iii) insufficient circulation of boiler water and (iv) excessive evaporation speed. A few users suggested
that strict control should be imposed to the heat load exposed to furnaces.
3.3.1.2 Appearance of Subcritical Pressure Once-through Boilers and the Necessity of Condensate
Water Treatments
As the type of boiler evolves from natural circulation to forced circulation to once-through types, stricter water
treatment technologies have been called for.
A once-through boiler requires departure from the conventional type of water treatment technology, because all
foreign matter introduced to the boiler, together with the feed water, tend to become deposits on boiler tube and
turbine blade.
A once-through boiler requires ultra pure water, which contains a concentration of solid substances as low as
211
just 5 to 500 ppb. In order to obtain such low concentrations, it is necessary to avoid mixing solid substances into
the feed water.
Generally speaking, the following are considered sources of solid substances into feed water :
x Solid substances derived from construction phase
x A mixture of cooling water into the system, due to leakage of the condenser
x Corrosion products derived from the feed water system
x Solid substances in supplementary feed
x Solution of resin from the deionized water system
Among them, leakage of the condenser occupies the largest part. To eliminate this, condensate purification
equipment is installed. This unit is relatively effective in removing dissolving metal.
When an equilibrium between the protective coating on the metal surface and the water contacting it is lost, due,
for example, to load fluctuation, and system start-up and stoppage, the volume of corrosion products contained in
feed water rapidly increases.
In order to maintain the stability of the metal surface during a system stoppage, the system should be carefully
protected while not in use, with the use of hydrazine water of high pH and nitrogen sealed in tubes.
At the same time, a clean-up operation should be implemented before the system restarts operation. As for the
solution of resin from the deionized water unit, resin slightly dissolves into water during the initial phase of the
unit start-up, until it reaches a stable condition, meaning fine-powdered resin mingles into the supplementary feed.
The effects thereof were not the subjects of research in 1959. In those days, it was considered that installation of a
fine pore filter before and after a condensate purification equipment was effective in removing fine powder resin.
As chemicals capable of solidifying must not be used, hydrazine, ammonia and amines should be used.
However, amines are not recommended because they decompose at high pressure.

Table 3.3.1-8: Damages to Boilers by Pressure and by the Water Treatment Method
Pressure 125k Class 140k Class 170k Class Total
All volatile treatment 5 7 11 23
Sodium Phosphate Treatment 12 3 8 23
Sodium Hydroxide Treatment 41 18 4 63
Potassium Salt Treatment 5 5 - 10
Total 63 33 23 119

The No. 2 Boiler of the Himeji No. 2 Power Plant was imported from the U.S. and commenced comercial
operation in 1964. Table 3.3.1-9 shows the water quality standards, set based on actual operation performance.
This boiler uses hydrazine and ammonia injected into the outlet of its condensate purification equipment and
ammonia into the outlet of its deaeration unit.
(1) Condensate purification equipment
Condensate purification equipment normally consists of a mixed bed condensate demineralization tower and
filters placed in front of it. Some act as a polisher of supplementary feed.
The following three major objectives are associated with the use of condensate purification equipment:
1) To prevent damage to the entire system due to the leakage of a condenser
2) To purify the supplementary feed
3) To remove corrosion products from the feed water system
The secondary objectives include:
1) to purify various drain water before it enters into the system, and
2) to purify the system during the initial start-up and shutdown operations.
Contamination of ion-exchange resin by metal oxides and pressure loss of the condensate demineralization
tower impose significant impacts to the system when a high-speed ion exchange takes place. Due to this, a filter is
installed just before the tower to remove them and prevent the ion-exchange resin from deterioration.
As for appropriate materials to use for the filter, cellulose, diatomite, leaf-type and other fine pore filters are
recommended.
As for the condensate water condensate demineralization tower, although the impact of dissolved resin to the
tower has not yet been clearly identified, some say that the use of a filter, which puts after the demineralization
tower, can eliminate leakage from the tower. Himeji No. 2 Power Plant employs a combination of filters made by
United Filters, Inc. and Permutite Company. The label said the design conductivity was 0.2µS/cm, and that design
silica, iron and copper concentrations were 7 ppb, 5 ppb and 5 ppb respectively, although these are not guaranteed
values.
The imported item of Himeji No. 2 Power Plant uses a horizontal leaf type pre-coat filter and Solka floc

212
BW-100 and -40 were used at a ratio of 1 to 1 as filtering agents. The agents heavily leaked out, were deposited on
the resin surface of the condensate demineralization tower caused pressure loss of the tower. The reasons for the
leakage were attributed to leaf-end gaps, the distance of leaf hubs, the non-parallel arrangement of the same,
variations in the water flow, an excessive design flow rate and the screen structure. The pressure loss exceeded the
design value, after pre-coating, it was attributable to the excessive flow rate and an overly small shaft and shaft
hole diameter. To eliminate the pressure loss, the system underwent renovation, but the loss still exceeded the
design value. So, other filter unit was added.
It is believed that the black carbon precipitated to the boiler tube when the filtering agent leaked in large
amount.
The condensate demineralization tower showed resin leakage, which was attributable to the gap of the disc
strainers, the distances between a disc strainer and the strainer plate and between the strainer plate and a bottom
plate.
In addition, sending resin to the regeneration tank led to massive amounts of residual resin accumulating at the
bottom of the tower, resulting in an insufficient regeneration process and imbalances between the cation and anion
resins. This was due to a structural defect at the bottom of the tower.
As the pressure loss of the condensate demineralization tower became abnormally high, resin with less than 60
mesh was filtrated using a filter (Permatite Q and S-1). The total annual fraction ratio came to approx. 45%, with
the ratio of damaged anion resin particularly high. As for the cause of the fractured resin, this was found to be
attributable to the relatively high design flow rate of 119m/h (51). Due to such experiences, a flow rate of 80m/h
was recommended.
However, despite such measures, the water purity showed no improvement. Even after investigation by a
Japanese condensate demineralizer manufacturer, no causes were identified. So, the staff was so desperate for help
that they used a sieve to remove small resins, whereupon the water purity showed improvement.

Table 3.3.1-9: Criteria for a Once-through Boiler


Subcritical Supercritical
Pressure
Pressure Pressure
Condensate water Cl- ppm 0 0
O2 ppb 40 40
Demineralized Electrical Conductivity µS 0.2 0.2
Condensate water
Feed Water pH 9.0-9.5 9.2-9.7
O2 ppb 5 5
N2H4 ppb 5-30 5-30
Cationic conductivity µS/cm 0.2 0.2
Fe ppb 10 10
Cu ppb 5 3
SiO2 ppb 20 10
Values not shown in the form of a range (a ~ b) are the maximum allowable values.

213
(2) Cleanup
(Inlet of an economizer in front of a
boiler unit of Himeji No. 2 Power Plant)
Lowest Range

Highest Range
Start of switchover to a high

Time
pressure heater (second time)
B-Line Feed Water

Feed water rate increased


(200t/h → 260t/h)

Fig. 3.3.1-14: Example of Flow-Out of Suspended Particles after Increase


in the High Pressure Heater Flow Rate and Switchover of Lines

Picture 3.3.1-1: Suspended Particles in Condensate water


(during the clean-up process in supercritical pressure boiler)
The cleanup process basically aims to remove foreign matter from the lines swiftly, stabilize the metal surface
and regulate water quality to ensure the normal operation of the unit. In order to realize this, each system must be
separated and it must be cleaned up from condenser to the boiler, achieving and maintaining satisfactory water
quality level.
There are the following two ways of purifying water:
x Blowing down
x Condensate purification equipment
The aim of the blowing is to uplift water quality, when boiler water quality has deteriorated to such an extent
that it would damage a condenser.
After the blowing process, the water passes through a filter, bypassing a condensate demineralization tower, to
reduce the iron concentration at the outlet of the filter to 30 ppb or below. Subsequently, the water can be fed to
the condensate demineralization tower.
Suspended particles must be removed as far as possible via flushing before discharging them from the lines.
The flow rate is a decisive factor during flushing and cleanup. For this purpose, the flow rate should be
increased by using a single line system, or by adding shocks to the flow rate by switching lines reciprocally. Fig.
3.3.1-14 shows examples of a large volume of suspended particles flown out of the system via the addition of
shocks after switching to the high pressure heater.
The temperature of the boiler should be monitored to raise it in a phased manner by considering the relationship
between the temperature and the maximum allowable iron concentration. The flow rate must be retained as high
as possible.
(3) Analysis of Iron Concentration using a 0.45µm Millipore Filter
Analysis of iron concentration must be done as swiftly as possible, as it is an indicator to determine the
appropriateness of each cleanup process. The accuracy is relatively unimportant. A technique involving filtrating a
certain volume of sample water to visually inspect the residues and compare its color with a standard specimen
was introduced by Gilbert.
The technique was developed by B&W. Firstly, a filter of 0.1µm was used, but it soon emerged experimentally
that more than 90% of particles that cannot be removed via filtration of condensed and feed water can be
214
eliminated by a 0.45µm filter. In Japan, as shown in Table 3.3.1-10, it was found that, when except a deaerator
tank, iron particles of 0.45µm or above in size occupied more than 60% at the position requiring final assessment
and at the time measurement required just after starting up the plant.
These results were based on the plant being in continuous operation mode, with shutdown rarely occurring. The
successful results were attributable to the fact that large-sized particles detached from the boiler surface, etc., were
flown out temporarily into water in the lines when the plant started operation.
However, stopping the system frequently during the DSS operation gradually reduces the volume of such
particles of larger size. On the other hand, it was reported that the size of the needle-shaped corrosion products
generated in a condenser during plant stoppage and restart consisted of FeOOH of 0.02 to 0.1µm and that other
products, such as magnetite, also detached from the boilers of which the size and shape were apparent in the form
of thin films of approx. 0.02µm and square-shaped products of approx. 0.1µm respectively. As the ratio of fine
particles of 0.45µm in size or below newly generated from the system letup to restart tended to increase, it was
necessary to examine whether a filter of 0.45µm should be continuously used or not.
Recently suggestions include, given the variability in the optical properties of FeOOH, Fe2O3 and Fe3O4, that
the color strength of these three products should be measured and quantified.

Table 3.3.1-10: Particle Diameter Distribution of Suspended Iron Oxides in System


Water when the System is Started
No. 4 Unit of Himeji No. 2 No. 2 Unit of Takasago No. 4 Unit of Kainan *3
Specimen Sampling Iron Collected by a Millipore Sampling Iron Collected by a Millipore Sampling Iron Collected by a
Time*1 Filter*2 Time*1 Filter*2 Time*1 Millipore Filter*2
0.45 0.22 0.025 0.45 0.22 0.025 0.45 0.22
Outlet of the 1 180 179 189 1 288 293 309 1 83 35
Condensate 86 85 90 92 94 99 88 93
pump 2 43 60 60 2 189 196 207 2 41 42
72 100 100 91 94 100 96 97
3 261 273 277 3 63 64
93 98 98 94 95
4 228 238 239
94 93 99
Deaerator tank 1 17 23 23 1 13 16 27 1 3 4
2 30 40 40 43 53 90 37 50
30 30 30 2 17 16 26 2 6 6
100 100 100 59 55 90 73 73
3 18 18 30 3 4 4
58 58 97 54 63
4 8 18 29
26 58 94
Inlet of an 1 86 116 126 1 33 37 47 1 11 12
Economizer 57 77 84 62 70 89 73 80
2 31 31 31 2 12 16 31 2 11 12
100 100 100 35 47 91 83 87
3 17 17 27 3 6 6
45 49 77 88 96
4 28 32 40
61 70 87
Outlet of 1 86 116 126 1 25 28 43 1 44 45
Furnace 57 77 84 58 65 100 94 96
2 31 31 31 2 19 27 40 2 58 58
100 100 100 48 68 100 95 96
3 24 24 24 3 3 3
100 100 100 72 72
4 23 23 23
100 100 100

* Sampling Time
[No. 4 Unit of Himeji No. 2] [No. 2 Unit of Takasago] [No. 4 Unit of Kainan]
1973.6 1973.5 2: Furnace fluid: 120°C 1973.8
1: After boiler inspection 1: Acceptance of cleanup before 3: Furnace fluid: 190°C 1: Immediately before the ignition of the boiler
2: Cleanup at 117°C the ignition of the boiler 4: Furnace fluid: 300°C 2: Inlet of Primary SH: 200°C
3: Inlet of Primary SH: 350°C
*2 The upper line of each column shows the concentration of iron collected by 0.45µm, 0.22µm *3 The iron concentration values are rounded
and 0.025µm filters, while the bottom line shows the percentage of iron oxides of more than off to the nearest whole number.
0.45µm, .22µm and 0.025µm in size relatively to the total iron.
3.3.1.3 Emergence of a Supercritical Pressure Unit
The first supercritical pressure unit commenced commercial operation at Anegasaki Power Plant in Chiba
Prefecture in December 1967, followed by the No. 4 unit in the Himeji No. 2 Power Plant in March 1968. In the
U.S, the first supercritical pressure unit to commence commercial operation was the 315k Class Philio No. 6 unit
(125MW) in 1957. Based on the experience of this unit, a 246k Class, 538°C unit was developed after 1964, and
in 1966, such units occupied almost half of all power generation capacities developed for steam-power generation.
215
As in the U.S. a supercritical pressure unit started operation without identifying the movement of impurities in
water under supercritical condition, many troubles of copper scales to a high pressure turbine was reported due to
the copper dissolved in steam. The troubles became a synonym of a trouble peculiar to supercritical pressure unit,
that had not been experienced in subcritical pressure units. For example, Avon No. 8 unit experienced a copper
scale deposit of 1.5 to 2.3mm in thickness and 5.5 lbs. in weight during its three-year operation, and the load of
250 MW was decreased to 216 MW.
Subsequently came the introduction of a supercritical pressure unit aiming to meet the increased power demand
during periods of high economic growth. As the new unit handles supercritical pressure, completely different from
subcritical pressure, the latest water treatment system was employed to handle the latest water treatment
technology at that time.
There remained some challenges to be overcome in water treatment after the introduction of a supercritical
pressure unit. The following are the experiences of the No. 4 unit in the Himeji No. 2 Power Plant.
(1) Copper and Condensate purification equipment
As explained above, the concentration of copper must be minimized, as it deposits on turbine blades. Referring
to experiences in the U.S, 2 ppb was determined as a target for the copper concentration.
To eliminate copper, there are two methods; namely removing copper alloys from plant and using condensate
purification equipment.
For the former, steel pipes were used for the feedwater heater in lieu of copper alloy pipes. The No. 4 unit of
Himeji No. 2 Power Plant only used copper alloy for its low-pressure heater No. 1 and 2.
There was no alternative to the use of aluminum brass and copper dissolved from a condenser can be removed
by condensate purification equipment. However the condensate purification equipment manufactured by Graver
and installed as the No.4 unit of Himeji No. 2 Power Plant met the guaranteed value of 0.3µS for electrical
conductivity, while the iron, copper and total dissolved solid material concentrations of 10 ppb, 3 ppb and 35 ppb
respectively were only the target values. The condensate demineralizer used was an external regeneration system.
With this in mind, the criteria for the copper concentration of the No. 4 unit of Himeji No. 2 Power Plant was
set to 3 ppb, although the actual concentration could be contained at almost 2 ppb. All the units installed in the
Power Plant thereafter used steel pipes for all feed heaters and the criteria was changed to 2 ppb, which was
successfully met thereafter.

Temperature
Fluid Temperature (°F)
Iron Deposition Volume (g/ft2)

Deposition

Length of Generating Tubes (ft)


(Source: B&W reports)
Fig. 3.3.1-15: Iron Deposition to Generation Tubes
(2) Cold Cleanup at a Temperature of 177°C
The following two were preconditioned for boiler cleanup activities:
1) To minimize foreign substances slipped into boilers to minimize deposit generation and hence reduce chemical
cleaning
2) To shorten the cleanup time
The flow ratio of WW maintained by a BCP is said to accelerate the cleanup because the contaminant reverts to
the form of suspended particles and flows out from the boiler .
A cold cleanup refers to the initial cleanup process of a boiler previously used, which can literally also be cold.
For the No. 4 unit of the Himeji No. 2 Power Plant, C.E suggested that a cleanup be done while keeping the boiler
216
ignited. As Fig. 3.3.1-15, a result of experiments at B&W, shows, the iron starts depositing in a generating tube at
a temperature of 450°F (232°C). Therefore at this temperature or below, iron deposited at the inlet of an
economizer need not be considered. In actual practice, a boiler is cleaned by keeping its temperature at 350°F
(177°C) at the outlet of the WW to suspend foreign matter deposited on the wall of pipes, which is then removed
using a condensate purification equipment. The temperature at the outlet of the WW may be risen up to 400°F. It
is reported that Breed and Philo experienced circumstances whereby most iron oxide contained in feed water went
through the boiler at an outlet temperature of 260°C to 288°C, and all of it was deposited on the pipe wall at a
temperature of 316°C or above.
The following are the criteria for giving final approval to a boiler that cleanup be completed at a temperature of
177°C:
Inlet of an economizer: Iron 50 ppb
Copper 20 ppb
Silica 30 ppb
Oxygen 10 ppb
Outlet of a WW: Iron 500 ppb
If the iron concentration is 500 ppb or below at the outlet of WW when the deaeration feed water contains 50
ppb of iron, the contamination on the WW surface is minute. This is because it is said that experiences indicate
that iron will not separate out at the WW when the temperature at the outlet of the WW is 218°C at the highest.
Experiences also indicate that the permissible level of iron concentration at the outlet of WW may be up to 500
ppb, rather than 50 ppb, without sacrificing cleanup effects or boiler performances.
Lax water quality is allowed after cleanup so that units can be installed in juxtaposition to obtain a reasonable
flow rate. Moreover, since the cleanup does not take long, slightly deteriorated water quality will not cause any
scales to be deposited.
Based on experience, when the iron concentration comes to 50 ppb, both copper and silica concentrations
satisfy the limit values, and the acceptance of cleanup is determined by measuring the iron concentration at the
inlet of an economizer only.
If the iron concentration at the inlet of the economizer reaches 50 ppb, both copper and silica concentrations at
the same location should satisfy the limit values.
After the cleanup at 177°C, the temperature may be uplifted. During the temperature rise, the iron concentration
at the inlet of the economizer should be kept at 50 ppb or below. Beyond 177°C, even if the spillover of the
economizer is closed, the iron concentration can be maintained at this concentration or below. In the case that the
concentration exceeds this value, the spillover should be increased, whereupon, the iron concentration can be kept
at this level till combined input.
(3) Steel Pipe Heater and pH Rise
As a result of a test , when the pH of the feed water at the inlet of the economizer was uplifted to 9.5, the iron
separated out into the feed water system was significantly reduced. As for copper, no significant change was
observed after the pH uplifted to 9.5. So the value of 9.5 was determined for pH.
The reason that the pH was limited to 9.5 was because more ammonia should be used if the value exceeds this
level and because of curtailing chemical costs due to an increase in the number of regenerations and due to a
deterioration in the water intake capacity of a desalination tank.
3.3.1.4 Advancement of Condensate purification equipments
(1) Ammonia-Type Resin
Though the cation and anion resins contained within a condensate demineralization tower do not lose the
function of removing ions such as sodium, iron and copper for the former and chloride ions and silica for the latter,
they are prone to break down due to the ammonium ion exchange caused by a pH regulator.
Based on experience, an idea was proposed to use NH4 type ions as exchanger bases for cation resin to
optimally utilize the resin functions. In the U.S, a series of simulation tests was conducted at the end of 1966,
followed by the practical implementation of the method.
At the No. 4 unit of the Himeji No. 2 Power Plant, a series of tests using an actual unit was conducted from
1969 to 1970, following an experiment using a small-sized unit.
Consequently, it emerged that this method can withstand even a leakage occurring within the condenser.
However, the findings were attributable to the fact that during the test, the unit was handled with extreme care, the
ratio of regeneration was almost 100% and that due to this, the water quality at the inlet was excellent. With this in
mind, the design of actual units required thorough consideration of various points. This consideration was made
after the test and the method was implemented.
(2) Electromagnetic Filter
217
A pre-coat filter was in use for 20 years. The shortcomings were the fact that it took 2 hours to regenerate and
that dissolving a pre-coat agent requires handling by operators, because this did not take place automatically. In
addition, the pre-coat filter requires a pre-coat agent, resulting in a high running cost, and effluent sludge needs to
be treated.
An electromagnetic filter was first used in a Kiel Power Plant (320MW). At the Power Plant, condensate water
and a low pressure drain were treated at a temperature of 130°C, while the capacity of the electromagnetic filter
was disclosed in 1966, as shown in Fig. 3.3.1-16. As the system water temperature rose at startup, the magnetite
volume also increased. Alongside the same, the ratio of removing foreign matter was on the rise; 90% of total iron
and 97% of magnetite were removed successfully. However, as the concentration of total iron fell to 10 ppb, the
ratio was reduced to 80%.
After an electromagnetic filter had been developed in Japan, it rapidly spread to all newly installed units. The
filter generates a high gradient magnet field by subjecting a solenoid coil to a direct high density current. It shows
high removal performances against ferromagnetic and paramagnetic iron oxides when a filler is charged into the
tower, making it an electric magnet, in combination with the mechanical filtration of the filler. The water feed
filtration velocity (LV Value) is approx. 10 times higher for an electromagnetic filter than that for a conventional
filter, and the whole unit can be miniaturized. As it facilitates regeneration relatively easily, this helps save
significant amounts of both energy and labor. Moreover, no stand-by unit is required because flushing the unit
takes as little as 15 minutes, including the preparation time. In addition, no meticulous operation control is
necessary, the volume of effluents from of the unit is modest, no filtration auxiliary agents or other chemicals are
required and the volume of sludge can therefore be minimized.
However, the shortcomings, according to a report, include its inability to remove high levels of paramagnetic
α-Fe2O3 and α-FeOOH of fine powders and amorphous bodies, while its capacity to remove irons is slightly
worse .

Normal Operation
Ratio of Removal (%)

(0.3m/s)

Magnetite
Total iron
Heat up of a plant

Iron (pbb)
(Source: Condensate water of
the Kiel Power Plant)
Fig. 3.3.1-16: Performance of an Electromagnetic Filter

(3) Hollow Fiber Membrane Filter


The first thermal Power Plant to use a hollow fiber membrane filter was Goi Thermal Power Plant No.2 in April
1988 . In operating DSS, as the conventional pre-coat filters fell short in terms of responding to the requirement of
high speed condensate water purification and enhancement of boiler water quality, one of the three existing
pre-coat filter was replaced by a hollow fiber membrane filter so that all condensate water generated at system
start-up could be treated. The hollow fiber membrane filter is of polyethylene resin, with filtration holes of less
than 0.1 micron in diameter on its surface and removes foreign matter on the external surface of the fiber. The
foreign matter it captures is discharged from the membrane surface by backwashing filtrated condensate water
from the inside of the filter by vibrating the membrane fiber using air pressure.
As the operation needed only involves drawing water and backwashing, they can be remotely controlled from
the central control room.
Although the report states that the concentration of iron at the inlet reached 200 ppb, that at the outlet was kept
below the detectable limit, as always and the cleanup time was successfully curtailed by half to a third of the
original.
The bottleneck of this system, however, is the substantial initial cost required.
3.3.1.5 Introduction of an Oxygen Treatment Method
As indicated by the arguments thus far, water treatment technologies after the WWII have been solely reliant on
the U.S. However, on a global basis, methods of water treatment employed may also originate from outside the
218
U.S., e.g. from Europe, where methods unique to this continent are used.
In Germany, an oxygen treatment method was developed in the latter half of 1960s and registered in VGB in
1972. Due to the lack of any ammonia attack on the condensate water pipes, the iron concentration in feed water
can be retained, at least at a level equivalent to that of volatile chemicals and other benefits, and this oxygen
treatment method has penetrated all over Europe. Indeed, the former Soviet Union employed the method in the
mid-1970s for practical use. In Japan, the method has been applied to all boiling water reactors (BWR), in systems
where chemical treatment cannot be applied to the primary cooling system, and a good operational record has
been accumulated to date.
It was considered that, in order to apply the oxygen treatment method to thermal power plants in Japan, it was
necessary to more clearly identify its impacts on reducing scales, the effects of curtailing boiler differential
pressure, the influences on turbine materials, water treatment conditions when stopping and starting the system
and other aspects. For this purpose an ‘oxygen treatment method assessment committee’ was established,
featuring the membership of 10 electric power companies and the Central Research Institute of Electric Power
Industry (CRIEPI). CRIEPI aimed to identify the above issues and commenced basic research into the practical
use of oxygen treatment method to a once-through boiler in April 1988. The research period was 2 years.
Joint basic research carried out by the 10 electric power companies and CRIEPI was primarily focused on the
following three examination items, and the committee was used as a venue for discussing and assessing in a
comprehensive manner.
(i) The impacts of oxygen on the anti-corrosive performance of boiler pipes against high temperature water
(ii) Impacts of oxygen on SCC and the corrosion fatigue of steam turbine materials
(iii) Assessment as to how the oxygen treatment method is used in plants outside Japan and the provision of
temporary guidance for the practical application of this method to an actual system
Various types of these tests, as well as a case assessment of how the method is used in overseas plants, were
summarized as shown below.
The oxygen treatment method was found to have at least equivalent scaling and anti-corrosion performances to
the all volatile treatment method. Case assessment showed that the oxygen treatment method had the effect of
curtailing a surge of boiler differential pressure and decreasing the generation of scales as well as no new system
reports being reported. With such affirmative results, it was confirmed that the oxygen treatment methods could
represent an ideal feed water treatment method to a once-through boiler.
3.3.1.6 Introduction of the Oxygen Treatment Method
The Chubu Electric Power Company Limited conducted an experimental research involving the application of
the oxygen treatment method to the No. 1 unit of its Chita No. 2 Thermal Power Plant jointly with Hitachi, Ltd.
(boilers) and Toshiba Corporation (turbines) in 1990. This was the first of its kind in Japan.
Some favorable results were obtained, including the curtailment of the differential pressure surge of boilers,
decreased BFP powers and prolongation of the chemical cleaning intervals of boilers. As no adverse effects of
corrosion and erosion were observed, the system was assessed as being applicable for practical use.
With such favorable assessments, the system will be introduced mainly to 18 once-through boilers of
supercritical pressure class or above.
The following chapters explain the result of the research, final assessments and introduction plans.

Application of the Oxygen Treatment


Method

Change of scale Decreased iron concentration in


characteristics the feed water

Curtailment of wave-shaped Decreased iron volume fed to


scale production the pumps
Curtailment of
overheating to the
Curtailment of the differential Decreased scale generation
pressure surge of boilers generating pipes
velocity

Curtailment of Decreasing
pressure surge at the
outlet of a feed water
power Prolonged chemical cleaning
pump consumption of intervals
the feed water
pumps
Enhanced reliability Enhanced cost
performance

219
Fig. 3.3.1-17: Expected Effects of the Oxygen Treatment Method

Table 3.3.1-11: Research Plan


Item FY1990 FY1991 FY1992 FY1993
Facility Design
and Construction
(Regular Inspection)

Feasibility Test Test to determine optimum Long-term running test


(Inspection of operating conditions
Facility)

Analysis and Intermediate


Assessment assessment Analysis Comprehensive
Analysis
assessment

3.3.1.6.1 Characteristics of the Oxygen Treatment Method


The oxygen treatment method aims to prevent corrosion by generating a protective layer of trivalent iron oxide
(Fe2O3 or hematite) by infusing a minute volume of oxygen (20 to 200µg/l) under an ultra pure water environment
(0.2µS/cm or below) with pH between 6.5 to 9.0. Compared to an AVT protection layer of magnetite, hematite has
relatively lower solubility, finer particles and generates sleeker protection layers, meaning the performance as
shown in Fig. 3.3.1-17 can be expected.
There are two ways to use the oxygen treatment method; one is the neutral water treatment method and the
other, the combined water treatment method (CWT), where the pH environment is 8.0 to 9.0. During this research,
CWT was employed because it was once used before in Germany and because of its excellent performance in
terms of curtailing the separation of iron and copper.
3.3.1.6.2 Outline of Research
(1) Research Periods
April 1990 to September 1993
The work schedule is as shown in Table 3.3.1-11.
(2) Unit Subject to the Research
No. 1 unit of the Chita No. 2 Thermal Power Plant
(Supercritical pressure conversion and the once-through type with the output of 700MW)
(3) Research Items
a. To establish optimum water quality conditions
b. To establish an optimum mode of switching from AVT and CWT and vice versa
c. To establish optimum operation methods of condensate water and the desalination unit.
d. Assessment test of impacts on other units
(4) Research Facilities
a. Oxygen injection unit (Oxygen is fed from a cylinder to the outlet of a condensate water desalination unit
and of a deaeration unit.)
b. Low pH ammonia injection unit
c. Water quality monitoring system
3.3.1.6.3 Results of the Research
In line with the regular inspection for FY1990 (February 4 to 6, a series of facility installation works was
conducted, including an oxygen injection unit.
For approx. 1.5 months from the start of the units and after regular inspection, AVT was conducted to smoothly
transfer to CVT after the start of CWT.
Subsequently, on August 15, the system was completely transferred from AVT to CWT, whereupon, a series of
tests was conducted, including optimum water quality conditioning tests, long-term running tests and impact
assessment test to other units.
(1) Iron and Copper Concentration in Feed and Condensate water
a. Iron Concentration

220
(Legend)
(Legend)

Oxygen Oxygen

Outlet of a Outlet of an Outlet of a Outlet of a Outlet of an Main


Condensate Electromagnetic Condensate Deaeration Economizer Steam Outlet of a Condensate water Outlet of an Economizer
water Pump Filter water Booster Unit Pump
Pump
Fig. 3.3.1.19: Relationship between pH, DO and Iron
Fig. 3.3.1-18: Shift of Iron Concentration under the
Concentration
Long-Term Running Test (pH: 8.5, DO: 100µg)

(Legend)
During the research
period
Differential Pressure (kg/cm2)

During the past AVT


period

Regular Inspection
(Chemical cleaning)

Regular
Inspection Regular
Inspection

Number of Months
Chemical Start of CWT
cleaning
Fig. 3.3.1-20: Shift of Boiler Differential Pressure
1) When Converting to CWT
Just after the conversion to CWT, the iron concentration surged by more than 8 times or 24µg/l at the inlet of an
economizer, compared to AVT. This transit phenomenon was also seen in copper concentration (tripled to 2µg/l).
Both phenomena, however, disappeared within a few weeks.
The reason for this may be attributable to the fact that protection layers were not formed smoothly because of
decreasing pH (AVT9.6→CWT8.5) and the fact that the injection of oxygen was performed simultaneously when
the CWT was first started. In future, first oxygen should be injected to monitor the behaviors of dissolved oxygen
(DO) and iron while reducing pH step by step.
2) Long-Term Running (pH: 8.5, DO: 100µg/l)
As shown in Fig. 3.3.1-18, compared to AVT, the iron concentration doubled to 8.8µg/l at the outlet of a
condensate pump before injecting oxygen, due to the decreased pH, while after injecting oxygen, it reduced to
between a third and a half (3.1µg/l→1.6µg/l at the inlet of an economizer). The CWT thus seems relatively
effective in reducing the iron concentration of feed water and the volume of iron fed into boilers.
3) Relationship between pH and DO
As shown in Fig. 3.3.1-19, at the outlet of a condensate pump, as the pH increased, the iron concentration
tended to decrease, with a level equal or slightly higher than AVT. The same trend was observed in low pressure
feed heater drain, although no significant effects were observed in other systems.
There were also no significant relationships observed between pH and DO.
b. Copper Concentration
The copper concentration in CWT was at the same level as AVT, i.e. 0.6µg/l. No significant relationships were
observed between pH and DO as well.
(2) Differential Pressure of Units
a. Differential Pressure of Boilers
The boiler differential pressure refers to the difference in the pressure lost between the inlet of an economizer to
221
a steam separation drain tank.
As shown in Fig. 3.3.1-20, the pressure surged by approx. 8kg/cm2 in 1.5 months for AVT, before the start of
CWT. It then became a decrease one month after the start of the CWT, whereas in 9 months, the differential
pressure had decreased to the same level as that after chemical cleaning was applied to the unit (30kg/cm2). The
trend continued thereafter, before ultimately reaching differential pressure equivalent to that at the commissioning
of the unit, i.e. 27.5kg/cm2).
Compared to AVT, the differential pressure showed a significant decrease to approx. 15 kg/cm2, which was the
same level as that of a unit 15 months after chemical washing.
Due to such reduced differential pressure of boilers and other factors, the BFP outlet pressure was reduced. The
volume of steam required for operating the BFP was reduced by 6.7 t/h for low pressure steam and 5.3 t/h for high
pressure steam, compared to AVT, as shown in Table 3.3.1-12.
This effectively shows that CWT is relatively effective in reducing the differential pressure of boilers and the
BFP power loss.

Table 3.3.1-12: Comparison of Steam Volume for Operating BFP (Unit: t/h)
1 AVT 2 CWT 1-2
Low pressure steam 125.3 118.6 6.7
High pressure steam 9.2 3.9 5.3
Note 1: For AVT, the figures are the mean values from Jan. 1987 to April 1990.
Note 2: For CWT. The figures are the mean values from Jan. 1991 to Jan. 1992.

(Legend)
The unit used for this
research
No. 4 unit of the Ulsan
Thermal Power Plant
Generation Speed (mg/cm2, 1,000h)

(2.5 years)

(1 year after the 4 years 9.5 years


start of CWT)

Fig. 3.3.1-22: Water Pipe Scale Generation Speed of the Unit used for This Research and
the No. 4 Unit of the Ulsan Thermal Power Plant

(Legend)
Generation Speed (mg/cm2, 1,000h)

Upper Lower Furnace Furnace Furnace Furnace Upper Lower


part part side material side material part part
side side
(Coal economizer) (Water pipe: front (Water pipe: side wall) (Generation unit)
wall)

Fig. 3.3.1-21: Scale Generation Speed of Water Pipes, etc.


222
b. Differential Pressure of High Pressure Feed Heater
The differential pressure of a high pressure feed heater refers to the total differential pressure from the inlet of
No. 1 unit to the outlet of No. 3 unit respectively.
It shows the same trend as the differential pressure of boilers and in 10 months, it came down to 7kg/cm2 ,
namely, the same level as the unit immediately after chemical cleaning. Thereafter, the trend continued until the
differential pressure stabilized at approx. 6kg/cm2.
(3) Corrosion and Scale Deposition on the Units
Inspections for corrosion and scale deposition on boilers and turbine-related units were performed in line with
regular inspections.
The inspections were performed in three stages, the first involved inspecting the conditions of the AVT as a
basis of the assessment, and the second covered its conditions 1 year after the switchover to the CWT (CWT-1),
while the third was done approx. 2.5 years after the switchover to the CWT.
a. Major Units Related to Boilers
(a) Economizer and Evaporation Part (pipe observation test)
(i) Volume of Scales Deposited (Generation Speed)
As shown in Fig. 3.3.1-21, the speed of scale generation showed a time course decrease after switching over to
the CWT. In approx. 2.5 years, it reduced by between two thirds to a half (1→0.7mg/cm2, 1,000h at the front
wall of the water pipe on the furnace side). Compared to AVT, the decrease was relatively significant i.e. by a
between a half and a third (1.7→0.7mg/cm2, 1,000h at the front wall of the water pipe on the furnace side).
The trend for decreased scale generation speed is, as shown in Fig. 3.3.1-22, the same level as that shown at
the No. 4 unit of the Ulsan Thermal Power Plant of Korea Electric Power Corporation. Based on this, the
ultimate scale generation speed of a CWT is 0.5mg/cm2, 1,000h.
(ii) Scale Thickness
The scale thickness after switching to CWT showed a decrease in the same manner as the volume of scale
deposited. In approx. 2.5 years, it decreased to a level almost equivalent to that around a year after the
switchover. Compared to AVT, it showed a significant decrease by approx. a half to a quarter (0.06→0.03mm
at the front wall of the water pipe on the furnace side).

223
(iii) Surface Conditions of Scale
As Picture 3.3.1-1 shows, for AVT, the scale was in a waveform of crystals of 10 to 20 µm in diameter.
Around a year after the switchover to CWT, the surface conditions of the scale changed into a shape of fine
powders of several µm in diameter, and no waveform shape scales were identified. After approx. 2.5 years,
further progress was made in terms of miniaturization of the fine powder diameter.

Picture 3.3.1-1 Surface Condition of the Scales Deposited


in Water Pipes

224
Resin Resin
Scale Scale

Pipe Pipe
Wall Wall

Picture 3.3.1-2: Cross Section of Scales


Deposited in Water Pipes

Fig. 3.3.1-23: X-ray Analysis of Iron Compounds


(Water Pipes)

(iv) Cross Section of Scales


As shown in Picture. 3.3.1-2, in AVT, uneven distribution of scale thickness and many voids were observed.
The thickness, thereafter, was thinned and the surface was sleeker approx. one year after switchover to CWT and
the same trend was observed after approx. 2.5 years.
(v) Coarseness of the Scale Surface
Compared to AVT, the coarseness of the scale surface approx. one year after the switchover to CWT was
miniaturized by half (77→35µm).
(vi) Chemical Composition of the Scale
As shown in Fig. 3.3.1-23, the X-ray analysis indicated that in AVT, most of the scales were in the form of
magnetite, while in CWT, they were a mixture of magnetite and hematite (α-Fe2O3).
It is considered that due to such qualitative and quantitative changes of scales in CWT, the differential pressure
of the boilers was reduced.
(vii) Solubility of Scales to Chemical cleaning Agents
A scale solubility test was conducted to confirm the solubility of scales generated in CWT into chemical
cleaning agents. Consequently, scales deposited in CWT were totally soluble to agents used for the chemical
cleaning of AVT (1.5% citric acid and 1.5% hydroxyacetic acid), even after approx. 2.5 years had elapsed.
The solubility of scale to chemical agents was the same for that deposited to CWT and AVT. No insoluble
scales were generated some time after the use of CWT was commenced.
(b) Stagnant Water (pipe observation test)
Generally speaking, in CWT, water containing oxygen must be there to supply oxygen. For this reason, there

225
was concern regarding corrosion in sections containing stagnant water.
In order to observe and assess the corrosion, a drain pipe close to the inlet of an economizer and close to the
inlet pipe of a horizontally-set superheater header were chosen as two representative locations where water tends
to be stagnant and oxygen is hardly supplied. Consequently, no significant differences emerged in the corrosion
performance of CWT and AVT.
(Legend)

Thickness and Volume of Scales (CWT/AVT) (Unit: %)

High Pressure Strainer BFP Adjusting


Main BFP Water Supply Valve of
Turbine Turbine Heater Flow at the Rotator High
Rectification Inlet of a Pressure
Tower Water
BFP
Heater Drain

Fig. 3.3.1-24: Thickness and Volume of Scales


Deposited on Major Components of a Turbine (Relative
Comparison)
Table 3.3.1-13: Results of Analysis on Scales Deposited on the Main Turbine (Unit: Fe: %, Others: mg/kg)
AVT CWT-1 CWT-2
Medium-Pressure Low-Pressure Medium-Pressure Low-Pressure Medium-Pressure Low-Pressure
Unit #9 Unit #15 Unit #9 Unit #15 Unit #9 Unit #15
Fe 61.1 64.1 62.1 64.1 61.4 62.9
Cu 4900 9400 4000 8200 800 5900
Cr 12400 9000 10000 9400 8400 9500
Ni 810 1100 2200 1500 330 1000
Mo 3100 3300 2600 3800 2500 3600
SiO2 3600 13800 4100 5900 3800 4800
Na 3300 5400 1100 1500 500 560
Cl 7 120 4 <1 24 17
SO4 210 450 250 940 93 220
(c) Instrumentation and Control Valves
A series of investigations were conducted on 11 types of spray control valves of a superheater.
As for corrosion and erosion performances, no significant changes emerged between AVT and CWT except for
erosion, as explained in 3.3.3.1.6-(3)-d ‘Parts Using Stellite Materials’ observed on the spray control valves of a
secondary superheater.
Scales deposited on the water side showed a change from black magnetite to red-brown hematite, while on the
steam side, black magnetite was observed, although the volume had declined.
b. Major Turbine Components
(a) Main and BFP Turbines
The scales were colored from black or gray to a mixture of slight red or yellow-brown.
Though some scales were seen deposited on various parts of AVT, in CWT they were rarely seen. As shown in
Fig. 3.3.1-24, compared to AVT, the scales deposited on CWT were reduced to two fifths to one fifth for the
overall main turbine and to one tenth to one twentieth for the BFP turbines, as estimated.
The chemical composition of the scale was, as shown in Fig. 3.3.1-13, the same as those found in AVT, but a
significant decrease was observed in NaSO4 and SiO2. The results of an X-ray analysis showed an increase of
hematite, like the scale attached to the boiler generation pipes.
The form of the scale was, due to the use of CWT, observed in smaller crystal shapes.
As for the corrosion and erosion of blades, rotors, nozzles and enclosures, there were no significant differences
when generally compared to AVT. There was also no abnormality in the non-destructive inspection (PT, MT, UT).
(b) Turbine control valve

226
An investigation was conducted on seven kinds of valves including the main steam stop valve. As a result, there
was no significant difference when compared to AVT generally.
The maximum depth of erosion to a sub-valve of a main steam stop valve was 4 to 5 mm, which is equivalent to
that observed in AVT.
(c) Instrumentation and Control Valves
A series of investigations was conducted to 9 types of valves, including BFP overheat prevention valves.
Consequently, the drain control valve attached to a high pressure feed water valve No. 3 showed a significant
decrease in the volume of scales (while in AVT, valve sticks were observed due to the deposition of scales), of
which the thickness was one fifth or below compared to AVT (0.6 to 3.0 mm → 0 to 0.5mm). The scale was soft
and easily removed and maintained.
As for corrosion and erosion performances, no significant changes emerged between AVT and CWT except for
erosion, as explained in 3.3.3.1.6-(3)-d ‘Parts Using Stellite Materials’ observed on the BFP overheat prevention
valves.

Picture 3.3.1-3: Scales Deposited on the Flow Rectifying Tower of the High Pressure Feed Heater

Good

Bad

Fig. 3.3.1-25: Performances of a High Pressure


Feed Heater
Ablation Volume (mm)

Fig. 3.3.1-26: Wear Volumes of the Chrome


Plating

227
(d) High Pressure Water Feed Heater
The color of scales for both the inner water chamber and inner heating pipe, as well as the flow rectifying tower,
changed from black magnetite to red-brown hematite, while X-ray analysis also confirmed an increase in hematite
materials.
Meanwhile, the volume of scales was also subject to decrease. As shown in Picture 3.3.1-3, the hardened scales
that had been removed during regular AVT inspection were rarely observed. As shown in Fig. 3.3.1-25, the
volume of scales in CWT was one tenth or below (1,520→150g/year).
Due to the decreased scale, the differential pressure of a high pressure feed heater was decreased and, as shown
in Fig. 3.3.1-25, the heat transfer performance (TD: Temperature Difference at the End Parts) was increased by 0.3
to 0.5°C, compared to AVT.
As for the corrosion and erosion performances, no significant differences were observed between AVT and
CWT and a similar trend was observed for other types of heat exchangers (condensers and deaeration units).
(e) BFP
A series of investigations was conducted on a rotator and strainer. As shown in Fig. 3.3.1-24, the volume of
scales attached to the rotator was found to have decreased to approx. one fifth of that to AVT (460→100g/year x
unit) and no waveform scales, as observed in AVT, were seen around the CWT periphery. As for the strainer, the
scales were around one sixth that of AVT (250→40g/year x unit).
Regarding corrosion and erosion, as shown in Fig. 3.3.1-26, the wear volume of the chrome plating layer of the
driving part of the rotator showed an increase compared to that of AVT (0 to 0.06mm→0.02 to 0.35mm in terms
of the maximum volume at each stage). It was presumed that feed water containing oxygen had slipped into the
micro pin holes and micro cracks, causing corrosions in the gap between the base materials and their plating
layers and leading to removal of the layer.
In order to reverse the situation, the following corrosion tests were carried out using an actual unit and chrome
plating combined by electroless nickel plating was found to be effective.
[Test Procedures]
Location: Suction strainer of BFP
Materials: Base material (13 Cr)
Cr plating
Composite electroless nickel plating
Cr plating + electroless nickel plating
Thermal spraying of oxidized Cr
Periods: July 1992 to Jan. 1993 (for 6 months)

c. Stress Corrosion Cracking Test of Turbine Materials


In order to confirm the effects of CWT on turbine materials, a stress corrosion cracking test was conducted in
the following procedures. To compare the results, the No. 2 unit using AVT was subject to a similar test.
[Test Procedures]
Location: Low pressure 16th stage extraction steam chamber (dry)
Low pressure 17th stage extraction steam chamber (humidity: 2%)
Low pressure air discharge chamber (humidity; 7.5%)
Materials: Blade materials (12CrNiMoV steel)
Blade materials (12CrMoV steel)
Rotor materials (3.5CrNiCrMoV steel)
Stress added: 40kgf/mm2
60kgf/mm2
Exposure periods: CWT: 761 days
AVT: 674 days
The following results were obtained and no adverse impacts were considered to be imposed on the turbine
materials by CWT:
1) No stress corrosion cracks observed for both specimens
2) No significant differences in stress corrosion cracks were observed between AVT and CWT.
d. Parts using Stellite Materials
As there are some reports in Europe of CWT causing corrosions to stellite materials, a test was conducted to
confirm the corrosion performances of the stellite materials.
(a) Final Stage Blade of Main Turbine
Stellite materials (#6) are used at the tip of the blade to shield it against erosions. Although erosion was
observed there, the extent was not as significant as that previously found in AVT (0.05 to 1mm/year).
228
(b) Main Turbine Control Valve
There was erosion due to the past boiler scale observed at the skirt of a sub-valve of the main steam stop valve,
but its degree was relatively insignificant, like those used in AVT (about 5mm).
(c) BFP Overheat Prevention Valve
Some damage was observed at the seat of a turbine driving the BFP overheat prevention valve (stellite #12)
approx. 1.5 to 2.0 months after the start of CWT. The condition was significant compared to AVT and the interval
over which the damage occurred was significantly reduced. The phenomenon was considered to be due to the high
differential pressure attributable to carbonized stellite materials and erosion due to the high flow rate. Meanwhile,
the selective corrosion was considered to be attributable to the oxygen fed into the system.
To reverse the situation, the valve seat materials were changed from metal to Teflon seat. Thereafter, no
abnormalities were observed and the system has remained in good operating condition.
See the intermediate report (5) attached to this journal for details of the valve damage conditions, structural
comparisons and materials used.
(d) Spray Control Valve of a Superheater
About two years after the start of CWT, the seat of a secondary superheater spray control valve was subject to
some damage (stellite #6). This affected the corners of the stellite and extended all over the area surrounding the
flow path. In AVT, however, such damage was restricted to the base material side without involving the stellite
layer. The cause of the damage was considered to be the same as that affecting a BFP overheat prevention valve.
Picture 3.3.1-4 shows the conditions of the damage and its mechanism.
Methods of preventing such damage have already been established and employed by other power companies.
The author plans to employ multiple coatings on the stellite surface (ceramic coating) and will examine the
method in detail, including other coating methods.

Selective Corrosion of Carbonized


Cr-W due to Oxygen

Carbonized Cr-W Co-Cr-W


crystals
Erosion of Co-Cr-W crystals due to the
Damage Conditions High Flow Rate
Direction of
Flow

Carbonized Cr-W
Co-Cr-W crystals

Damages Caused by Erosion and


Corrosion

Microscopic Picture of a Cross Section of the Damage Mechanisms


Damaged Part
Picture 3.3.1-4: Damages to the Secondary Superheater Spray
Control Valve

(e) Other Instrumental and Control Valves


No other problems were observed, even during PT tests, except for moderately selective corrosion at the stellite
part (#6) of the seat ring at the high pressure feed heater drain control valve.

229
e. Cautions in Operations
(1) How to Operate a Deaeration Unit
Based on experiences in Germany, the vent valve of a deaeration unit was kept closed from the onset of
switchover to CWT. This, however, caused an abnormal surge in the DO concentration (600 ppb or above) at the
outlet of the deaeration unit during the unit operation at low load. This was because, due to the closure of the vent
valve, the high concentration of oxygen, which was deaerated during high load operation, was stagnant in the
upper part of the unit, before expanding in volume, being scattered away and then redissolved in water due to the
decreased pressure inside the unit.
To reverse this situation, the vent valve was left open. This, however, caused deaeration and discharge of DO,
making the environment the same as AVT with low pH and causing the iron concentration at the outlet of the
deaeration unit to surge.
Due to such experiences, the vent valve was again left closed, and only reopened when the DO concentration
surged (intermittent operation).
(2) Increased Differential Pressure of the Electromagnetic Filter (EMF)
Once the use of CWF had commenced, the initial differential pressure after backwashing and regeneration of an
EMF occurred and its post-regeneration operation life was shortened (in 7 months, the operation life was
shortened to one tenth (or 2 days) compared to that used in AVT). The reasons for this are believed to include: (i)
the fact that CWT tends to have higher iron loads than AVT, (ii) an increase in fine particles of FeOOH (the
number of FeOOH particles of 1 µm tripled or quadruplicated), which split into the depth of the element and (iii)
the fact that needle-shaped iron crystals reinforced the iron deposit layer, which could not be removed by a
backwash and regeneration process.
To reverse such conditions, jet washing of elements was employed and the elements were replaced with new
ones.
In order to implement permanent measures, the following items are subject to examination: -
(a) Decreasing iron loads at the inlet of an EMF (pH to be increased to 9.0 : effectiveness confirmed)
(b) Improvement of the regeneration methods
(c) Improvement of elements
f. How to Start and Stop the Unit
For several months after the use of CWT, the unit cleanup time tended to be longer than for AVT, due to
unstable hematite protection layers and for other reasons. This was successfully solved through measures to
improve the cleanup process, such as stabilization of the protective layers, lapping of the boiler and pre-boiler
processes and an improved flow rate and numbers of swinging, as shown in Fig. 3.3.1-14.

Fig. 3.3.1-14: Cleanup Time


Acceptance Assessment

Water
Treatment Hydrazine Cleanup Time (h)
Let-up
Method under Injected or
Time (h)
Normal not -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0
Operation
Deaeration
AVT 24.5 Injected Unit Pre-boiler Boiler
Circulation of Condensate Deaeration
CWT 31.0 Injected Pre-boiler and Boiler
water Unit
Circulation of
CWT 29.0 Not injected Pre-boiler and Boiler
Deaeration Unit

230
Table 3.3.1-15: Optimized CWT Operation Method
Item Controlled Values and Operation Method
Normal Operation
Item Stop
DO (µg/l) *50 to 100
pH *8.5 to 9.0
Cationic conductivity (µS/cm) 0.2 or below
* All control values referred to above are for feed water at the inlet of an economizer.
Start-up and Stop
Item Startup Stop
Water Treatment Conventional method (AVT) Conventional method (AVT)
Method
AVT x Minimum loads or above, and x At least 3 hours before the planned
↑↓ x Electric conductivity of 0.2µS/cm or time for disassembly of the unit
CWT below Reason: All water must be
Switchover Period circulated once during the period
between the switchover from AVT
and before shutdown of the plant.
Storage Conventional method (AVT)
Leakage of seawater When seawater leakage happens, CWT must be promptly switched over to AVT.
Deaeration unit CWT: The vent valve of a deaeration unit must be subject to intermittent operation.
AVT: The vent valve of a deaeration unit must be kept open.
Condensate water ‘H’ shaped operation
desalination unit

An operation test without using hydrazine was conducted by stopping the unit (WSS), but no significant
differences in cleanup time and water quality were observed. However, hydrazine is a reducing substance and its
use renders the hematite protective layer unstable, which means it may be better to avoid this substance.
In addition, the unit was subject to a startup and stop test while CWT was used in DSS, and no deterioration in
water quality was detected.
The author is determined to continue studies and tests to establish optimum system operation when it is subject
to stop and startup.

Table 3.3.1-16: Problems Attributable to CWT and Measures


Problem Cause Emergency Measure Permanent Measure
Damage to the BFP Erosion caused by high differential - x To change to a soft seat
overheat prevention valve pressure and flow rate attributable to (However, a large-sized valve
seat the selective corrosion of carbonized must be developed for
stellite Kawagoe Thermal Power
Plants Nos. 1 and 2.)
Damage to the valve seat Same as above (erosion due to high x The use of stand-by x The use of ceramic coating,
of a secondary superheater flow rate) inner valves etc.
spray control valve
Wear of Cr plating at the Erosion caused by corrosion between x Recoating of Cr x The use of homogeneous and
sliding part of the BFP a plate layer and its base materials, plating during the defectless electroless Ni
rotator attributable to oxygen having slipped regular inspection plating between a Cr plating
from the cracks, etc. of the plate layer period layer and its base materials
Surge of differential High iron load and an increase in iron x Chemical cleaning of x To decrease the iron
pressure of EMF (clogged oxide fine particles having slipped elements concentration at the inlet of an
elements) into the depth of the element x Increase of EMF EMS (pH: 9.0)
bypassing x To improve elements
x Others x Others

3.3.1.6.4 Assessment
Based on the results of these studies and findings in and out of Japan, an assessment was made.
As a result of the assessment, it was found that CWT can be applied to actual units, and is more reliable and
economical than AVT. The assessment details are explained below.
(1) Optimized CWT Operation Method
The author believes Fig. 3.3.1-15 shows the optimized CWT operation method. In this case, no hydrazine will
be used in startup and stop, and neither will any switchover from AVT to CWT take place.
(2) Technical Assessment Comparing to AVT
a. Corrosion of Components

231
Similarly to AVT, the author believes CWT will not have any particularly adverse impacts on the corrosion and
erosion of components.
Moreover, the author also believes that, due to the problems associated with parts using stellite, no basic issues
arise that could deny the CWT applicability. Permanent measures against foreseeable problems are shown in Table
3.3.1-16, while measures for the seat of a BFP overheat prevention valve have already been established. For other
parts, examinations are ongoing.
b. Powers to BFP, etc.
The author believes that the time course increase of steam used for driving BFP found in the acceptance
performance test of the unit using CWT (total amount of heat of low pressure and high pressure steam) can be
substantially decreased to approx. a third compared to AVT, because of the reduced differential pressure of boiler
and of scales deposited.
The author also believes that the functional loss of a high pressure feed heater can be reduced to approx. two
fifths compared to AVT, because of the reduced deposition of scale.
c. Frequency of Chemical Cleaning of Boilers
As shown below, as regards the frequency of chemical cleaning of boilers using CWT, the author believes, in
the case of the No. 1 unit of the Chita No. 2 Thermal Power Plant, that this can be extended from the current 1.5
years to 9.5 years, while for other once-through boilers of supercritical pressure or above, the current 1.5 to 4.5
year period can be significantly extended to 10 to 15 years.
In line with the extension in chemical cleaning frequency, the author believes that regular inspection periods
can be shortened and the disadvantageous transfer of loads eliminated.
(i) Assessment in terms of Boiler Differential Pressure
The interval of chemical cleaning for the unit used in this study, which uses AVT, was 1.5 years due to an
increase in the boiler differential pressure. After switching over to CWT, this increase was eliminated, which
meant the interval of chemical cleaning was extended.
Fig. 3.3.1-27 shows the trend of boiler differential pressure experienced by the Ulsan Thermal Power Plant of
Korea Electric Power Corporation after switching to CWT. The operation time till the pressure rose to the
acceptable limit was 9.5 years, whereupon chemical cleaning took place.
It is considered that the trend of the boiler differential pressure surge of the unit used in this study tends to
follow a path of gradual increase compared to that experienced in Ulsan Thermal Power Plant. However, with
certain allowances taken into consideration, it is estimated that it will take 9.5 years for the unit used by this study
to reach the allowable limit for differential pressure. The author, therefore, believes that the interval of chemical
cleaning for the unit can be extended from 1.5 to 9.5 years.
(ii) Assessment based on the Volume of Scales Deposited on Generation Pipes
The acceptance criteria for the chemical cleaning of boilers employed by this company is around 30 to
45mg/cm2 of scale deposited on generation piles unless other problems, such as abnormal boiler differential
pressure, are observed.
As indicated in 3.3.1.6-(3) ‘Main Components of Boilers,’ the speed of the scales generated will be
0.5mg/cm2・1,000h.
Thus, the chemical cleaning intervals calculated from the scale generation speed are 10 to 15 years, based on
the conditions of the unit utilization ratio of 70% (30 to 40mg/cm2 ÷ 0.5mg/cm2 x 1,000h × 365 days ×24 hours
×0.7).
Based on the above arguments, in the case of other once-through boilers of supercritical pressure or above, for
which no boiler differential pressure need be considered, the author believes that the interval can be extended
from the current 1.5 to 4.5 years to 10 to 15 years.
d. Vibration of BFPs
In the case of the unit used in this study, BFPs were not subject to any vibration, even when using AVT, and
anti-vibration measures remained unconfirmed during the switchover to CWT. However, in the absence of any
waveform scales and the fact that the volume of scales was reduced to approx. one fifth compared to AVT, the
author believes that CWT can represent the ultimate measure against the vibration of BFPs.
e. Environmental Aspects
The use of CWT can eliminate chemicals used to treat feed water and regenerate condensate water desalination
units as well as effluents generated from the chemical cleaning of boilers, thus reducing effluent contamination
loads.
Based on these aspects, CWT can be considered an environment-friendly feed water treatment method.

232
(Legend)
The unit used in this
study
No. 4 unit of the Ulsan

Boiler Differential Pressure (kg/cm2)


Thermal Power Plant

Chemical cleaning

Time

Fig. 3.3.1-27: Differential Pressure of Boilers for the Unit used in this Study
and the No. 4 unit of the Ulsan Thermal Power Plant

(3) Cost Performance Comparison with AVT


The author believes that the use of CWT can help reduce costs significantly for BFP power losses, and function
on the chemical cleaning of boilers and chemicals for the treatment of feed water.
The time course trend of costs for the use of CWT used by the unit under testing is estimated to be around a
quarter of that incurred when AVT was used, as shown in Table 3.3.1-17.
On the other hand, the ratio of profitability (annual earning × investment amount × 100%), an indicator used to
assess investment results, is 86%, and an effective cost-benefit effect can be expected from the use of CWT.

3.3.1.6.5 Introduction Plan


Based on the results and the assessment of this study, CWT was officially used at Chita No. 2 Thermal Power
Plant in October 1993 when this study was completed, and a plan for introducing CWT to other once-through
boilers was formed.
(1) Applicable Units
For the following reasons, there is scope to apply CWT to all 18 units of supercritical and advanced ultrasuper
critical once-through boilers:
a. 14 out of 18 boilers show increased power loss of BFP, due to a surge of differential pressure and problems
such as vibration of BFPs arising from iron scales, for which the CWT can be an anticipated solution.
b. The cost-benefit calculation of using CWT shows that for all units, an effective cost-benefit can be
expected (Ave. ratio of profitability: 66%)
(2) Periods of Introduction
CWT will be introduced starting from FY1994 for periods of 5 to 6 years in a phased manner, from units where
the technical and economical merits of its use will be considerable.

233
Table 3.3.1-17: Annual Cost of the No. 1 Unit of the Chita No. 2 Thermal Power Plant
Item AVT Economization Remarks
CWT Ratio
Cost of Power Loss for BFPs 100 Incremental increase of steam used for driving the
33 67 BFPs (actual)
Cost of Functional Loss for High Pressure 100 Deterioration of heat transfer performance (actual)
Feed Heater 40 60
Cost of Installing a Boiler Chemical 100 AVT: Once in 1.5 years
cleaning System 16 84 CWT: Once in 9.5 years (estimated)
Cost of Loss Transferred in relation to the 100 Transfer days: 4 days/time (actual)
above 16 84
Cost of Chemicals for the Treatment of 100 AVT: Ammonia and hydrazine
Feed Water 17 83 CWT: Ammonia and oxygen
Cost of Operating a Condensate water 100 AVT: 56 times (actual)
Desalination Unit 32 68 CWT: 21 times (actual)
Total 100
28 72

3.3.2 Water Control and Management of Thermal Power Plants


Since the water-steam cycle, the vital artery for a thermal power plant, does not stop instantly in the event of
any abnormality, meaning any accident in the cycle tends expand to become a long-term problem for the system, it
should be served carefully and meticulously while in static condition as well as during daily inspections.
Each type and purpose of use of a plant has its own control criteria, of which the water quality criteria and
treatment methods are delineated in JIS B 8223 ‘Boiler feed water and boiler water,’ (hereinafter referred to as
JIS) although different water treatments are required depending on the environment where a plant is situated and
when it was installed. Each water control staff member strives hard to investigate, test and try to uplift
technologies of the most appropriate water treatment methods.
This chapter describes the current status, challenges and future prospects of water treatment implemented in the
fields based on those perspectives.

Table 3.3.2-1 Raw Water Quality Monitoring Items and Measurement Frequencies
Analyzing Item Frequency Remarks
Daily Weekly Monthly
Turbidity {
pH {
Conductivity {
Ca2+ {
Mg2+ {
Fe2+ {
Alkali ions (Na+ and K+) { By
calculation
Cl- {
SO42- {
HCO3- {
CO32- {
NO3- {
Free carbon dioxide (CO2) {
SiO2 {
Total iron {
Residual chlorine (Cl2) {
COD {
Colloidal silica {
Water temperature {

3.3.2.1 Water treatment of Makeup Water


3.3.2.1.1 Water treatment of Raw Water Sources
Raw water sources used by a thermal power plant include potable water and industrial water, which originate
from rivers, ponds, lakes and underground water. Depending on the location of the thermal power plant, a water
conversion system is used to convert seawater to fresh water, while effluents are also sometimes collected and
recycled as a water source. The types and concentration of impurities contained in raw water depend significantly
on the particular source of the water is taken or the season in question. It is necessary to understand the quality of
raw water, not only in order to design a makeup water treatment system, used to remove impurities in raw water
and maintain water quality suitable for makeup water, but also to use the system in a stable manner. Table 3.3.2-1

234
shows a list of water quality monitoring items generally applied for maintaining and controlling the system, and
their measurement frequencies. The frequency must be increased whenever significant fluctuation is observed in
the quality of raw water, or a new water source is employed.

Table 3.3.2-2: Turbidity Assessment Indicators


Water Quality Measurement Method Characteristics
Indicator
Refers to the time required to filtrate a liter of water using a Easy to use, but vulnerable to water temperature
0.45µm membrane filter (HAWP 047 TYPE HA made by and considerable size differences in filters. No
MF
Millipore Corporation) under reduced pressure of linear relationship with the volume of
500mmHg. contaminants contained in sampled water
Calculated using the following formula after the measuring Has a linear relationship with turbidity, can
times t1 and t2 required to filtrate 0.5l and 1l of water measure consistently from raw seawater to
respectively under the reduced pressure of 500mmHg, and processed water, and is a relatively newly proposed
MFC using the same measurement instruments as those used to indicator.
measure the time of MF.
⎡t ⎤
MFC = 2 ln ⎢ 1 − 1⎥
⎣t2 ⎦
Calculated using the following formula after pressurized Highly sensitive to detect low turbidity and known
filtration of 500ml of sampled water at 2.1kg/m2g using a as an inlet water quality indicator for a hollow
0.45µm membrane filter (HAWP 047 TYPE HA made by fiber reverse osmosis module. As the turbidity
Millipore Corporation) to measure the filtration time (T1). intensifies, its sensitivity tends to drop. For
FI The filtration time (T2) is then measured by continuing seawater, normally T2=∞, or FI=6.67.
(=SDI) filtration for 15 minutes after measuring T1, whereupon the
same filter is used to filtrate a further 500ml of sampled
water.
100 ⎡ T1 ⎤
FI = ⎢1 − ⎥
15 ⎣ T2 ⎦
Calculated by using the following formula after Has the same characteristics as FI. PI=100%
measurement in the same manner as FI. means the filter is totally clogged, and 0% means it
PI ⎡ T⎤ is entirely unclogged.
PI = 100⎢1 − 1 ⎥ = 15 ⋅ FI
⎣ T2 ⎦
Means the total water volume (l) filtrated under a certain Easy to use, but needs a statement that the values
stable pressure environment using a membrane filter. are subject to change depending on the
PN
measurement environment (filtration pressure and
the type and size of filter used).
Measured using a scattering light type or an integrating Can conduct rapid and inline analysis, but tends to
Turbidity
sphere type turbidimeter. be less sensitive for low turbidity.
Calculates the volume of impurities based on a change in Requires considerable sample water for low
SS the volume of sample water filtrated through a 0.45µm turbidity measurement, and is unsuitable for rapid
membrane filter and the weight of the filter. analysis.

3.3.2.1.2 Control of Pre-Treatment Unit to Maintain its Performance


There are two aims of pre-treatment: one is to protect the ion exchange resin, reverse osmosis membrane and
ion exchange membrane, etc., used for the desalination unit and another is to remove colloidal matters that cannot
be removed via an ion-exchange reaction. The methods generally used for the unit include the coagulating
sedimentation filtration method and the coagulation filtration method. In order to maintain the unit in good
operational condition, it is essential to form a stable floc, for which aluminum coagulation agents are generally
used. Although previously, aluminum sulfate was frequently used, quite recently, polyaluminum chloride (PAC)
and electrolytic aluminum have come into widespread use, since they have excellent coagulation performance and
are less inclined to decrease pH. As an auxiliary agent for floc formation, organic polyacrylamide polymers, with
bentonite to make the floc heavier, are used. Floc formation has many elements to take into consideration, such as
the turbidity of the raw water, alkali level, pH and water temperature. It is, therefore, necessary to determine
optimum coagulation conditions, including the volume of coagulation agents used, selection of auxiliary agents
and pH by implementing a jar test, etc. Inappropriate floc formation will cause residual impurities in the raw water,
and colloidal matters and aluminum (residual coagulation agent) infiltrating in the filtrated water. Colloidal silica
is also contained in the boiler makeup water like ionic silica. When it is channeled into the water and steam
systems, it will become scales deposited onto the low-pressure turbine. Similarly, colloidal aluminum tends to be
deposited on high-pressure turbines in the form of aluminum oxide or sometimes zinc aluminate scales, which
cannot be easily washed away by boiler chemical cleaning. Colloidal silica is controlled by monitoring the silica
concentration in boiler water, and in the event of any anomaly, a comprehensive inspection of the raw water,
filtrated water and deionized water must be conducted.

Table 3.3.2-3: Troubles and Measures for the Pre-Treatment Unit


235
Phenomenon Cause Measures or Check Item
Inappropriate use of chemicals x Conduct a jar test to check that the coagulation conditions are
Coagulation agent appropriate.
Coagulation auxiliary agent x Operate the unit under the appropriate injection ratio and filtrate water
pH adjuster coming out from the coagulation sedimentation tank and the coagulation
Deterioration of the processed water quality

tank using a No. 5 filter. If the filtrated water is normal, then the problem
lies on the filtration unit, as explained in the next chapter.
Incomplete regeneration of a filtration unit x Check whether impurities remain in the filtration unit when the normal
course of regeneration process is done. If necessary, extend the
backwashing time.
x Check whether there is any shortage in the backwashing air and water
flow.
Incomplete water collection unit under the x Check the air dispersion conditions when air backwashing is run. If
filtration unit necessary, open the lower manhole to check it.
Defects to the backwashing trough of the x Check whether effluents from the backwashing process are evenly
filtration unit collected.
Wear or decreased filtration materials x Consider the replenishment of filtration materials.
Channeling of filtration layers x Check whether any impurities and organic slime are found in the
Mad balls filtration layers.
x Repeat the water and air backwashing processes several times.
x Remove the mad balls and replace part of the filtration materials.
Floc strength x Check whether the differential pressure is appropriate for operation by
examining the differential pressure surge from the start of sampling
water and the quality of the processed water.
Insufficient opening of the valves x Insufficient working air pressure
x Damage to valves
Decrease in
amount of
obtaining

Slime inside the filter layers x Operate air backwashing using a filtration material cleaner.
water

or accumulation of foreign matter x Remove foreign matter having accumulated in the upper part of the filtration
Miniaturization of the filtration materials material, if it hinders the discharge of effluents from backwashing.
x Replace the filtration materials on the surface of the filter layers

A slurry circulation type coagulation sedimentation unit requires the maintenance of slurry concentration at an
optimum level, while a sludge blanket type needs the sludge blanket to be kept stable. For both types, the key is
how to adjust the volume of chemicals used as well as that of the sludge discharged from the units. Even without
any dramatic fluctuation in the turbidity and alkali level of raw water, the water temperature varies seasonally,
with a lower water temperature leading to a deterioration in floc formation performance. Experience states that the
threshold temperature is at 10°C or so. If the temperature descends from this level, an auxiliary agent should be
increased to facilitate the floc formation. In the case of a coagulation filtration unit, high water temperature
excessively increases the size of the floc formed and when this happens, the volume of the auxiliary agent should
be decreased. When a separation membrane is used for the desalination unit, the water quality, including the
turbidity and FI (Fouling Index) at the outlet of a pre-treatment unit, must be maintained within the criteria
determined for them. Table 3.3.2-2 shows some examples of turbidity assessment indexes.
In many cases, the problems of a pre-treatment unit are mainly caused by insufficient regeneration of filter
layers due to contamination, which can sometimes be the result of mad balls and mechanical failure of the unit.
When problems involving the filtration unit surface, these can be identified by a deterioration in the quality of
processed water and reduction in the cyclic sampling volume. Table 3.3.2-3 shows the major problems anticipated
to occur with the pre-treatment unit and their measures.

3.3.2.1.3 Control of Deionized Water Generation Unit for Maintaining its Performance
As makeup water for a high pressure boiler requires highly pure demineralized water, the quality of the makeup
water must be controlled. Water treatment items for this purpose include electrical conductivity and silica, and an
indicator and recorder with an alarm are installed at the anion tower of a deionized water generation unit and at
the exit of a polisher to continuously monitor these items. Table 3.3.2-4 shows some examples of water quality
criteria for makeup water used at thermal power plants. The actual values measured by each company, as indicated
in the table, are 1.0µS/cm and 0.01mg/l or below for conductivity and silica respectively.
The following items are examples of daily control items, which should be monitored daily at a fixed time if the
values are measurable:
{ Operation cycles and collection volume per cycle
{ Volume of regeneration agents used and stored
{ Temperature when chemicals are injected to regenerate the anion exchange resin
{ Inner pressure of each ion-exchange resin tower (before and after regeneration)
{ Conductivity of water sampled at the inlet of a deionized water generation unit
{ Conductivity of processed water
{ Silica concentration in processed water
236
Ion-exchange resin should be controlled once a year to measure the total volume of resin replaced and volume
of neutral salt decomposed. At the same time, check the volume of ion-exchange resin remaining in each tower
and inspect whether the resin is finely-divided or not. As for the replenishment of ion-exchange resin, the volume
of resin to be replenished for cation resin is 5% -10% per year, including those finely divided, provided that no
swelling and/or contamination is observed. In the case of anion resin, the volume to be replenished comes to 10%
to 20% per year in general, because it is subject to aging besides the pulverization.
The troubles a deionized water generation unit may encounter mainly include decreased collection volume and
deterioration of the quality of processed water (incl. high conductivity and silica concentration). These problems
are often associated with pre-treatment unit troubles. Table 3.2.2-5 shows the cause of the troubles and their
measures as well as check items.

Table 3.2.2-4: Examples of Criteria set by Each Electric Power Company for
Water Quality at the Outlet of a Circulation Boiler Makeup Water Desalination Unit
Company Name A B C
Pressure Category
130 170 100 130 170
(kgf/cm2) 100 Class 130 Class 170 Class 100 Class
Class Class Class Class Class
Item
Conductivity (µS/cm) 5 or below 1.25 or below 5 or below 3 or 5 or 1.0 or below
below below
Silica (mg/l as SiO2) 0.05 or 0.015 or 0.01 or 0.1 or 0.05 or 0.02 or 0.1 or 0.015 or below
below below below below below below below

Table 3.2.2-5: Troubles (reduced collection volume and decreased purity of processed water)
of a Deionized Water Generation Unit, Their Causes and Measures
Root Cause Cause or Phenomenon of Trouble Measure
Change in Raw Water { Increased total ion volume in raw water { Conduct a total analysis of the raw water and file the data every
Quality { Change in the percentage of Na, HCO3 and SiO2 month (Conductivity must be measured and recorded every
{ Increased organic substances and total iron volume month).
{ Check the water sources.
{ Adjust the ratio of water intake from various water sources.
Oversampling { Inappropriate water flow rate { Compare the data with that of an instantaneous flow meter.
x Failure of a flow meter { Operate by uplifting the water flow.
x Slippage of a flow meter due to the small volume { Refer to the instruction manual attached to the instrumentation
of water passing through unit.
{ Deteriorated water quality { Compare the data with that of a portable water quality meter,
x Failure of a meter etc.
x Failure of a communicator { Connect a resistance box attached to the unit to a cable in lieu
x Sampling failure of a communicator. If the values coincide with each other, then
the communicator is damaged.
{ Refer to the instruction manual attached to the instrumentation
unit.
{ Sampling valve is too far closed or totally closed.
{ Sampling valve is too open.
{ Damages or water leakage to the communicator case.
Incomplete { Insufficient regeneration level { Regenerate the volume specified in the instruction manual. (Or
regeneration increase the level of regeneration)
{ Inappropriate concentration of chemicals { Feed chemicals at an appropriate concentration.
(Insufficient volume or excessive dilute solution { Repair the damaged pipe.
used) { Failure of a chemical feed pump
{ Insufficient dispersion of regeneration agent { Clogs of ejectors and nozzles
x Clogged or damaged chemical feed pipe { Excessive decrease of the diluted water flow rate
x Decreased chemical feed speed (dispersed { Backwash for more than 30 minutes.
unevenly) { Check and remove clogs from the lower water collection and
x Channeling of resin layers dispersion unit.

237
Root Cause Cause or Phenomenon of Trouble Measure
Incomplete { Insufficient extrusion { Measure the specific gravity of regeneration effluents
regeneration (to confirm whether the extrusion force is sufficient or not)
{Insufficient flushing { Analyze the washing effluents
(to confirm whether the concentrations of Cl― of the H tower
and Na+ of the OH tower are the same as those in their inlet
position)
{ Shortage in chemical injection time { Make the total time for chemical injection and for extrusion at
least the same as those designated
{ Inappropriate temperature for chemical injection { Make the temperature of chemical injection as 35±5°C
(if the temperature is lower than this, silica will leak out and if
it is higher, then the resin performance will be deteriorated)
{ Fluidization of resin layers when chemicals are { Readjustment of chemical injection volume and slip water
injected upward volume
{ In the case of a multiple-layer system, a mixture of { Replacement of the mixture of resins in the middle position
mild/strong acid resins and basic resins
Flow-out of { Increased backwashing speed { Check the backwashing speed
ion-exchange resin { Flow out of resins due to excessive backwashing { Check the water temperature
speed
{ Breakage of the lower water collection and { Repair the damaged parts
dispersion unit
{ Flow out of resins to the outlet of an ion-exchange { Conduct a functional test of resins (coarseness distribution,
resin tower etc.)
x Fractured resins due to oxidizing substances
x Fractured resins due to pressurization
Contamination of { Existence of iron oxides and manganese in raw { Check the pre-treatment unit.
ion-exchange resin water
(This contaminates mainly cation resins.)
{ Existence of organic substances in raw water
Channeling { Compressed resin layers
x The raw water is highly turbid. { Backwash thoroughly, or conduct air backwashing to
completely remove turbidity from the resin layers.
x Pulverization of resins due to chemical fracture { Remove residual chlorine in the raw water.
x Pulverization of resins due to a high flow rate { Operate at an appropriate flow rate.
operation or the internal pressure surge of a tank
during operation
x Insufficient or failed backwashing { Backwash thoroughly. (Backwash for approx. 30 minutes, and
stop it just before the outflow of resins from the tank.)
{ Failure of lower and upper distributors { In the case of a heavily uneven surface on the resin surface,
check and improve the upper water distributor so that water can
be distributed evenly.
{ Inspect and repair it.
Low flow rate { The sampling water flow rate is 5m/h or below. { Operate the unit at a high flow rate as much as possible.
sampling This normally results in the leakage of ions from { Don t operate the unit below the minimum flow rate.
(when only the purity an anion resin tower deteriorating.
of processed water is
decreased)
Leakage from a valve { Valve failure { Inspect and repair or replace it.
(when only the purity
of processed water is
decreased)
Deterioration of the { Even in the case that there are no hazardous { Replenish resins as designated.
ion-exchange resin substances in the raw water, the resin function { Measure the degree of functional deterioration and replenish
function generally tends to slowly deteriorate. the resins.
{ Excessive temperature of chemicals { Keep the chemical temperature at an appropriate level.
(Never raise the temperature above 45°C.)

3.3.2.2 Boiler Water treatment


3.3.2.2.1 Objectives and Methods of Water treatment
The degree and types of corrosions caused by water and steam and damage inflicted by corrosion products on
feed water systems, boilers and turbine systems vary depending on the materials used and the temperature. This
chapter outlines the type of damage caused to each component and how to prevent it.
(1) Condensate Water
Steam used in a turbine is converted back to water using a condensing unit and the loss is replenished by
feeding ion-exchange water as makeup water. The condensing unit of most plants uses copper alloy cooling water
pipes, due to their good heat conductivity and anti-corrosion properties. As Fig. 3.3.2-1 shows, copper solubility is
lowest at a pH of about 9 and in the actual unit, the relationship is similar. For a unit using copper alloy for the
feed water system, the pH of condensate water is around 8.8 to 9.0, which is a zone within which the dissolution
of copper is mostly restricted. For a unit using steel pipes, the pH reaches 9.3 to 9.6, making it difficult to curtail
the dissolution of copper. In an environment where dissolved oxygen exists, the dissolved copper forms complex
copper ammonium ions, which means the dissolution persists. In order to prevent this, titanium pipes are used for

238
the air cooling zones of a condensing unit and nickel plated copper alloy cooling water pipes are laid around the
exterior of the unit.

Iron Concentration
Iron Solubility
Solubility

Iron Concentration
in Feed Water

Temperature

Fig. 3.3.2-2: Behavior of Iron in Feed Water and Condenser

Saturation solubility
of Cu(OH)2 in
deionized water
Saturation solubility
of CuO in deionized
water
Solubility

Fig. 3.3.2-1: Relationship between the Solubility of Copper and pH

(Iron)

(Copper)
Concentration

(Nickel)

Fig. 3.3.2-3: Shift in Metal Ion Concentration due to a Change in the Feed Water pH

(2) Feed Water


Feed water refers to the water run from the outlet of a condensed pump to the inlet of an economizer, between
which lies a heat exchanger. The temperature moves from 20℃ to 260℃ and various materials are used in these
areas, such as iron, copper and nickel alloys. In the process of feed water, the method used to prevent impurities in
water channeled to the boiler, to prevent the generation of scales in the latter, as well as how to avoid corrosion are
very important. Fig. 3.3.2-6 shows the JIS criteria. The level of dissolved salts and other impurities contained in

239
water is close to zero under normal operation, thanks to the upgraded performance of a deionized water generation
unit. However, in the case of seawater leakage, dissolved salts slip into the system. Depending on which materials
are used for the feed heater pipes, namely copper alloy or steel, the means used to control pH to prevent corrosion
of the materials vary. In the case of copper alloy, the pH control mainly targets copper and the value is limited to 9
or so, because dissolved copper ions accelerate the corrosion of iron. The slight volume of ammonia generated by
thermal decomposition of the hydrazine used as a deoxidizer is used to control the pH. Fig. 3.3.2-2 shows a
behavior model of iron in condensate water and feed water systems. The higher the temperature rise, the more iron
ions are generated. Around a high pressure feed heater, the iron ion concentration goes beyond the iron solubility
curve meaning ion deposits are generated. The iron is then deposited in the high temperature zones of high
pressure feed heaters, economizers, boilers and other units. In order to prevent such scales from being deposited, it
is important to minimize the iron ion volume. Fig. 3.3.2-3 shows a change in the iron ion concentration in a course
of a shift in the pH of feed water. As indicated, the pH should be kept high. Fig. 3.3.2-4 shows the solubility of
magnetite (Fe3O4), a corrosion coating. In the high temperature zone, the curve bottoms out at a pH level of
around 10. As iron ions tend to accelerate its oxidization under the existence of dissolved oxygen, hydrazine is
added to the feed water to remove oxygen, so that the generation of dissolved oxygen can be minimized.
N2H4+ → O2+2H2O
A unit using steel pipes is subject to a control pH at around 9.5. Ammonia is directly added to the outlet of a
condenser or deaeration unit as a pH adjuster, and hydrazine is added at the outlet of a deaeration unit as a
deoxidizer respectively.
(3) Boiler Water
Most substances dissolved in boiler water are separated out as the temperature rises, due to the low solubility
and known as scale and sludge. This scale and sludge has low thermal conductivity, causing thermal efficiency to
deteriorate and corroding the boiler generation pipes. With this in mind, the generation of scales and sludge must
be avoided as far as possible. As shown in Fig. 3.3.2-3, the pH of the boiler water must be retained high to prevent
corrosions of generation pipes. Silica contained in boiler water flows out to the steam side and is separated out on
the turbine blades as scales, causing the efficiency of the unit to deteriorate. Therefore, silica concentration must
be minimized as far as possible.

Table 3.3.2-6: Feed Water Quality


[Drum Type]
Max. Operating Pressure (MPa or kgf/cm2) 10 - 15 15 – 20
Category

(100 - 150) (150 – 200)


Evaporation Rate of the Heat Transfer Surface - -
(kg/(m2xh))
Types of Makeup Water Ion-exchange water Ion-exchange water
pH (at 25°C) 8.5 – 9.6 8.5 – 9.6
Hardness (mgCaCO3/l) 0 0
(mg/l)
Feed Water

Dissolved Oxygen (mgO/l) 0.007 or below 0.007 or below


Iron (mgFe/l) 0.03 or below 0.02 or below
Copper (mgCu/l) 0.01 or below 0.005 or below
Hydrazine (mgN2H4/l) 0.01 or above 0.01 or above
Conductivity (µS/cm) (at 25°C) 0.5 or below 0.5 or below

[Once-through Type]
15 - 20 20 or above
Max. Operating Pressure (MPa or kgf/cm2)
Category

(150 - 200) (200 or above)


Volatile Oxygen Volatile Oxygen
Treatment Method Substance Treatment Substance Treatment
Treatment Treatment
pH (at 25°C) 8.5 – 9.6 6.5 – 9.0 9.0 – 9.6 6.5 – 9.0
Conductivity (µS/cm) (at 25°C) 0.3 or below 0.2 or below 0.25 or below 0.2 or below
Feed Water

Dissolved Oxygen (mgO/l) 0.007 or below 0.02 – 0.2 0.007 or below 0.02 – 0.2
Iron (mgFe/l) 0.02 or below 0.1 or below 0.01 or below 0.01 or below
Copper (mgCu/l) 0.003 or below 0.05 or below 0.002 or below 0.002 or below
Hydrazine (mgN2H4/l) 0.01 or above - 0.01 or above -
Silica (mgSiO2/l) 0.02 or below 0.02 or below 0.02 or below 0.02 or below

240
Iron Ion Concentration (mol/kg)

Fig. 3.3.2-4: Relationship between the Magnetite Concentration and pH

Fig. 3.3.2-7 shows the JIS criteria. For a drum type boiler, sodium phosphate is used in the boiler intermittently
to control the pH of boiler water. Substances dissolved in the boiler water, such as silica and chlorine ions, are
removed by blowing the boiler water, while in the case of a once-through boiler, all substances dissolved in the
boiler water are separated and deposited as scales, since it lacks any air-water separation mechanisms. This means
the pH of a once-through boiler is controlled by using ammonia, a volatile chemical, and by installing a
desalination unit at the outlet of a condensate water generation system to remove dissolved substances from the
condensate water.

Fig. 3.3.2-7: Boiler Water Quality Criteria


Max. Operating Pressure (MPa or kgf/cm2) 10 - 15 15 - 20
Category

(100 - 150) (150 - 200)


Evaporation Rate of the Heat Transfer Surface - -
(kg/(m2 x h))
Types of Makeup Water Ion-exchange water Ion-exchange water
Treatment Method Sodium phosphate All volatile Sodium phosphate All volatile treatment
treatment treatment treatment
pH (at 25°C) 8.5 – 9.8 8.5 – 9.6 8.5 – 9.8 8.5 – 9.6
Oxygen consumption (pH at 4.8) (mgCaCO3/l) - - - -
Boiler Water

Oxygen consumption (pH at 8.3) (mgCaCO3/l) - - - -


Total residue on evaporation (mg/l) - - - -
Conductivity (µS/cm) (at 25°C) 60 or below 20 or below 60 or below 20 or below
Chlorine ion (mgCl−/l) 2 or below 1 or below 2 or below 1 or below
Phosphate ion (mgPO43-/l) 0.1 – 3 0.1 – 3
Sulfurous acid ion (mgSO32-/l) - - - -
Hydrazine (mgN2H4/l) - - - -
Silica (mgSiO2/l) 0.3 or below 0.2 or below

Fig. 3.3.2-8: Steam Quality Criteria


Item Criteria
Conductivity (µS/cm) (at 25°C) 0.3 or below
Silica (mgSiO2/l) 0.02 or below

Table 3.3.2-9: Facility Outline of Unit Nos. 1 to 4 Units of the Nishi Nagoya Thermal Power Plant
Unit No. 1 Unit No. 2 Unit No. 3 Unit No. 4 Unit
Output 220 000 kW 220 000 kW 375 000 kW 375 000 kW
Operation started in: July 1970 December 1970 July 1972 September 1972
Boiler type Reheating natural Reheating natural Reheating natural Reheating natural
circulation type circulation type circulation type circulation type
Turbine steam pressure 169 kg/cm2G 169 kg/cm2G 169 kg/cm2G 169 kg/cm2G
(4) Steam
Impurities contained in steam are those carried over from the boiler water, which cause corrosion of superheater
systems and the deposition of scales onto turbine blades. Such impurities include chlorine ions, sodium, silica and
copper. Fig. 3.3.2-8 shows their JIS criteria.

241
As success in steam quality control is significantly dependent on the boiler water quality, for a drum type boiler,
the conductivity of boiler water and its silica content, and - for a once-through boiler - those of feed water at the
inlet of an economizer should be carefully monitored.

3.3.2.2.2 Water treatment of a Drum Type Boiler


Table 3.3.2-9 shows an outline of facility of unit Nos. 1 to 4 of the Nishi Nagoya Thermal Power Plant. The
following are the explanation of water treatment of a drum type (reheating natural circulation) boiler:
(1) Water treatment under Normal Operation
Fig. 3.3.2-5 shows the water treatment system for a drum type boiler.
Table 3.3.2-10 shows the water treatment values.
a. Water Treatment of Condensate water and Feed Water
The method of water treatment for condensate water and feed water depends on the materials used for a high
pressure feed heater, but as for the Nishi Nagoya Thermal Power Plant, its unit Nos. 1 to 4 use copper alloys and
hydrazine is used for water treatment. Under normal operation, thin hydrazine (0.5% N2H4) is added to the outlet
of the condensate pump in order to maintain the pH of the feed water (at the entrance of an economizer) at 8.8 to
9.0. Since, under normal operation, the conductivity at the inlet of a deaeration unit is commensurate with the pH
at the inlet of an economizer, hydrazine is added based on the feed water volume after the measurement of the
same. The conductivity at the inlet of a deaeration unit is 1.3 to 2.0 when pH is maintained at a level of 8.8 to 9.0
and the pump stroke comes to 15 to 20%. Under normal operation, the water quality of each system is maintained
at the normal values as shown in Table 3.3.2-10.

To high pressure
turbine
To medium- and
low-pressure turbines

From high pressure


turbine

Drum

Deaeration unit Condenser

Flush
tank Deaeration unit water
tank Conden
sate
water
pump
Flush valve Ground
steam
condenser

Flush pipe
drain tank

Makeup
water
tank
Makeup water
pump

Flooding pipe of boiler Sampling point

Fig. 3.3.2-5: Water Treatment System Diagram of a Drum Type Boiler

b. Boiler Water Treatment


Controlling the pH at the inlet of an economizer at 8.8 to 9.0 makes the pH of boiler water 8.7 to 8.9 or so. As
the unit uses hydrazine only to control the pH, the boiler water lacks any alkali elements, while its lack of any
hardness removers (sodium phosphate), also makes it vulnerable against the infiltration of corrosion products
from feed water or impurities (Ca and Mg, etc.) brought into boilers from seawater leakage. Accordingly, for a
unit frequently started and stopped, sodium tertiary phosphate (2% Na3PO4) is added to the boilers at the stroke of
242
30% to maintain the pH in the boilers at 9.0 to 10.0.
c. Frequency and Method of Off-the-System Blows
Even under normal operation conditions, corrosion products generated from condensate water and feed water
systems and pipes are concentrated in boilers. As there was a report that a generation pipe of a unit similar to this
ruptured due to the detachment of scales containing zinc, for boilers in Nishi Nagoya Thermal Power Plant, an
off-the-system blow process is applied to 20 to 25 t of boiler water every two days when the units have been in
operation continuously for a week. The off-the-system blow is always performed as necessary, whenever the units
are in continuous operation, when the concentration of corrosion products (Cu, Zn, Ni and Fe) in the system is
high and when the conductivity of the boiler water is high.
(2) Water treatment at Start-up and while the Unit is not used
a. Stop Time Water treatment
Various methods of chemical injection and storage are used, depending on the necessity to apply anti-corrosion
measures to the system, requirements for the early startup of power supply and cost performance.

Table 3.3.2-10: Water treatment Values at Normal Operations


Item Control Item Unit Criteria Normal Operation
Measurement All volatile Phosphate Value ANN
Specimen Method treatment Treatment Value
Makeup Outlet of a makeup water tank Measurement
Conductivity µS/cm 1.5 > Same as left 0.5 – 1.0 1.5
water (Nos. 3 and 4) instrument
Measurement
Water in condenser Conductivity µS/cm * * U0.15 U0.5
instrument
pH * Anytime 8.6 – 9.0 Same as left 8.8 *
Measurement
Water at the outlet of the Conductivity µS/cm U0.3 > Same as left U0.15 U0.3
instrument
condenser
Total iron µg/l Once a year (10 >) Same as left 10 *
Water Total copper µg/l Once a year (5 >) Same as left 3 *
Water at the inlet of low Dissolved Measurement
µg/l 40 > Same as left 10 40
pressure No. 3 feed heater oxygen instrument
Measurement
Conductivity µS/cm * * 1–2 *
Water at the inlet of the instrument
deaeration unit Total iron µg/l Once a year (10 >) Same as left 10 *
Total copper µg/l Once a year (10 >) Same as left 5 *
Dissolved
µg/l Anytime 7> Same as left 2 *
Water at the outlet of the oxygen
deaeration unit Total iron µg/l Once a year * * 10 *
Total copper µg/l Once a year * * 5 *
Measurement
Feed pH * 8.6 – 9.0 Same as left 8.9 8.9 9.0
instrument
water
Measurement
Water at the inlet of an Conductivity µS/cm U0.3 > Same as left U0.15 U0.3
instrument
economizer
Total iron µg/l Once a year 10 > Same as left 10 *
Total copper µg/l Once a year 10 > Same as left 5 *
Hydrazine µg/l Anytime (10 – 30) Same as left 10 *
Measurement
pH * 8.6 – 9.0 8.6 – 9.5 8.7 8.6 9.5
instrument
Measurement
Conductivity µS/cm U0.3 > 15 > U1.5 U3
instrument
Boiler Measurement
Drum water Silica µg/l 0.2 > 0.2 > 0.05 0.2
water instrument
Phosphate
µg/l Anytime * 3> 0–3 *
ion
Total iron µg/l Once a year * (50 >) 20 – 50 *
Total copper µg/l Once a year * (20 >) 5 - 15 *
Measurement
Steam at the inlet of Conductivity µS/cm U0.03 > * U0.1 U0.3
Steam instrument
superheater
Silica µg/l Anytime 0.02 > * 0.005 *
Note 1: The figures in parentheses refer to the values that should be maintained.
Note 2: The figures prefixed with △ refer to the value after the treatment of cation resins.
Note 3: The pH level of the boiler water is 8.5 to 9.0 after all volatile treatment and 8.5 to 9.5 after the injection of sodium tertiary phosphate.

243
b. Startup Water treatment
Just after the startup of units, water quality tends to be subject to considerable fluctuation and is under threats
such as seawater leakage and other water quality problems and measurement instrument failures. If these
problems are left unattended, a serious accident will occur. For this reason, water quality targets, blowing
procedures and chemical injection procedures are established for each stop time period. A standard startup
command (operation) sheet shown in Fig. 3.3.2-6 is used to confirm the water quality for each stage to control the
startup water quality, while the standard patterns for dissolved oxygen, silica concentration and conductivity of
water are as shown in Fig. 3.3.2-6. As for the conductivity in particular, a standard pattern for each stop time
period is formed, which is accessible when a recorder is located in the central control room. This pattern is subject
to a comparison check with the current values by a power plant staff member so that the trend can be monitored
and controlled.
c. Off-the-System Blowing
This type of blowing is always implemented till the water quality at the inlet of an economizer and saturated
steam descend below the criteria and till the conductivity shows a falling trend of 0.5 to 0.6µS/cm. (See Fig.
3.3.2-11)
d. Control of Silica Concentration in Steam
It is known that silica deposits are hardly formed on turbine blades when its concentration is below 0.02mg/l.
The silica concentration in steam can be controlled indirectly by managing the level in boiler water. After opening
the system for regular inspections, dust, which is allegedly the source of dissolution of silica slips into the system,
is often carried to a boiler via feed water pipes, where it is then deposited as ionic silica under an environment of
high temperature and pressure. Thus, especially just before system startup after regular inspection, it is vital to
implement the replacement of water and continuous blowing of boilers as practically as possible to reduce silica
concentration in the system, so that silica can be purged completely and swiftly.

244
Preparation for Preparation Ignition Temperature up Pressure vacuum up Preparation for the startup of turbines Turning on of a Parallel in Switchover within Load dispatching
startup for ignition disconnect the plant operation
up
Switchover of burners Startup of turbines switch

Check item
Operation item

Command by the deputy manager


Main steam pressure

Preparation for ignition Ignition and Preparation for the startup of turbines Parallel in Load dispatching operation
temperature/pressure up

Startup of condenser Water quality check Water quality check Water quality check Water quality check
Water quality check
Start up of the feed pump Up of vacuum Startup of turbines Up loads (100MW) Up loads (220MW)

Operation check
Start injection of hydrazine

[Dissolved Oxygen]
(Condensate water)
The concentration of dissolved oxygen falls alongside the
vacuum up in the condenser.
(Feed Water) Condensate water
The dissolved oxygen concentration declines alongside the
surge of pressure of the deaeration unit.

Feed water

[Silica]
When turbines are started, silica scale deposited on the low
pressure blades comes off. (Part of the silica scale comes
from the dead space of the pre-boiler system.)

245
The silica concentration comes down as the blow
operation starts.
Boiler water

[pH]
(Feed Water)
Due to the injection of hydrazine at system ignition, the pH Feed water
level rises.
(Boiler Water)
Due to the injection of hydrazine at system ignition, the pH
level of the feed water rises, as well as that of the boiler
Boiler water
water.

Water quality pattern


[Conductivity]
(Condensate water)
When the system is subject to a parallel off, the
conductivity of the condensate water rises due to the Condensate water
influence of carbon dioxide gas contained in the air, but
falls as the degree of vacuum increases.
(Feed Water)
Similar to condensate water, the level falls as the degree of Feed water
vacuum increases. However, the downward curve tends to
be moderated for about 1 hour from the parallel in point
because of contamination of the feed water, condensate
water and the whole system.
(Saturated Steam) Saturated steam
For about 1 hour from the juxtaposition point,
contamination of boiler water is conspicuous. Due to this,
the level of conductivity tends to peak due to a carryover
and for other reasons, before subsequently following a
moderate downward course.

Fig. 3.3.2-6: Standard Startup Command (Operation) Sheet and Startup Water Quality
Fig. 3.3.2-11 Methods of Blow Except the Boiler Water System at Startup

Boiler water blow is implemented until water quality of the eco inlet, the boiler, and the
saturated steam is at the standard value or less, and the conductivity at the CP outlet
shows a declining trend (0.5 to 0.6µS/cm).

Conductivity Silica
Eco inlet or less
Boiler water or less
Saturated steam or less
→Boiler water blow stop
(ANN of silica and conductivity
Conductivity
0.5 or less high have to be reset.)
CP outlet
Shall be on a down note.

The silica concentration in boiler water sometimes exceeds the standard value (0.2mg/l) when the boiler is
sealed (steam sealing) after the unit shut down. The cause seems to be the fact that when the boiler is stopped and
sealed, silica scale separates from the turbine blades, etc., is channeled to the boiler and concentrated when it is
started. To reverse such situation, the following measure is implemented while the boilers are sealed in order to
avoid boiler blow loss and gaining load up during the early stages. When the level of water in a condenser goes up
while the boilers are sealed, the silica concentration in condensate water is measured. If the value is 0.02 mg/l or
more, water is added to the condensate water after total blowing, whereupon the system is started. Following the
implementation of the measure, no abnormal silica concentration up was reported.
(3) Water treatment at Seawater Leakage
It is essential to detect any seawater leakage at an early stage to implement measures. The means of controlling
water quality depends on the seriousness and conditions of the leakage, with appropriate water control measures
sought. For this purpose, conductivity is measured within the condenser, at the outlet of the condensate pump, the
inlet of an economizer and in the boiler water. When the value is found to be high, seawater leakage is present.
Two lines of cation resin towers are installed at the front stage of the condenser and the conductivity meter at the
outlet of the condensate pump, so that the letup time for replacing the resin can be minimized, in the case of
emergencies such as seawater leakage. How to inject chemicals and how to blow boiler water are determined as
controlling water quality in the event of seawater leakage. Also, in a leakage, a process which requires prompt and
correct action is decided. For this purpose, a seawater leakage accident control sheet (Fig. 3.3.2-7) is used to cover
such items as ‘operation method,’ ‘actions done’ and ‘restoration.’
(4) Water treatment Values and Monitoring
Water quality during the normal operation time is monitored and checked for each specimen, using
pre-determined control items and the measurement frequency. All measurement values can be monitored by the
CRT and recorders of the central control room, where staff members are stationed to monitor during the normal
system operation. In the case of an accident, an alarm is activated. Accidents are handled referring to the measures
defined in ‘Water Quality ANN Messaging Procedure’ (Fig. 3.3.2-12).
As water quality requires monitoring of long-term trends, a daily control sheet is formed. Appropriate and
stable operations of the unit are assured and good water treatment methods are established by collecting total
measurement data of iron and copper concentration and in-house inspection results obtained from a regular
inspection and other measures to ensure that water is appropriately treated.

3.3.2.2.3 Water treatment of Supercritical Pressure Through a Flow Boiler


There are two types of once-through boiler, a subcritical once-through boiler and a supercritical
once-through boiler. The basics of water treatment for both types of boiler are the same, with minor differences.
In this chapter, the methods employed by unit Nos. 1 to 4 of the Sodegaura Thermal Power Plant are explained.
Table 3.3.2-13 shows the basic unit configuration of the Sodegaura Thermal Power Plant.

246
3. Causal 4. Restoration
1. Occurrence of an 2. Operation just after
investigation measures
accident the accident

Conductivity high’ ANN turns on. Accident handling Causal investigation Restoration
measures

Point of leakage
(1) Caustic silver check
(2) Switchover of thermometer
(1) Conductivity surges in the order takeout points Repair completed
(1) Boiler water blowing
of condensate water, feed water (2) Injection of sodium tertiary
and boiler water. phosphate
(2) Check the conductivity of the (1) Condenser restored to
confluence points of desalinated normal
water. (2) Boiler steam flushing (See
Note 2)
Seawater temperature at the inlet of Seawater temperature at the inlet of the (3) Restriction of load lifted
condensing water generation unit at 20°C condensing water generation unit at 20°C
or below (See Note 1) or below (See Note 1)
Vacuum of condenser at 690mmHg or Vacuum of condenser at 690mmHg or
above above
If these can be maintained: If these can be maintained:
Load: 220MW Load: 200MW of below

(1) Conductivity of condensate


water, feed water and boiler water
(2) Degree of vacuum of condenser
(3) Temperature of the air discharge
One-side operation of condenser chamber
Water Quality Target of Boiler Water during Seawater (4) Conductivity deteriorated in the
Leakage order of condensate water, feed
µS/cm of water and boiler water
recovery
water 0.3µS/cm or below Higher than 0.3µS/cm
Boiler water

(1) pH of boiler water: 8.0 or (1) Degree of vacuum of condenser


(1) Stop addition of sodium tertiary
below (2) Temperature of the air discharge chamber
phosphate when the chlorine ion
(2) Saturated steam (3) Vibration of turbine, position of lids and
concentration in the boiler water
conductivity: 1µS/cm or axis, difference in the temperature of
goes below 0.2 ppm.
above metals
3 or below (2) Stop the blowing of boiler water
(4) Conductivity deteriorated in the order of
condensate water, feed water and boiler
Stop the unit. water
Conductivity
(µs/cm) 15 or below As low as possible

Turbine E-STOP push button ON

Note 1: In order to avoid any stress corrosion cracks of SH and RH pipes, boilers should be subject to vapor washing when the unit is restored from seawater
leakage (at the turbine rotation of 3,600 rpm).
Note 2: Considering the working environment while only one condenser is in operation, the vacuum is set as 690 mmHg or above (according to a test result in
1980).
Reference information: The conductivity of condensate water was once seen to surge due to pinhole damage of the exterior housing of a condenser water pump.

Fig. 3.3.2-7: Accident Handling Sheet for Seawater Leakage

(1) Water treatment during Normal Operation


a. Water treatment
As for the water control of a once-through boiler, in order to minimize the separation out of metals, due to the
corrosion of materials used in the system, it is necessary that the pH and dissolved oxygen concentration should
mainly and always be retained within the controlled values. For this purpose, ammonia and hydrazine are added
continuously to the outlet of the condensate water pressure surge pump. The ammonia aims to control the pH to a
level of 9.3 to 9.6 and for this purpose, the conductivity at the inlet of the deaeration unit is maintained at a
constant value and the condensate water flow rate is controlled in proportion to the ammonia injection ratio. For
hydrazine, the chemical is added at the rate proportional to the feed water flow rate to control the concentration of
dissolved oxygen at 7µg/l or below by controlling the residual hydrazine concentration at the inlet of an
economizer at 10µg/l or above. See Table 3.3.2-14 for the details of other water treatment criteria under normal
operational conditions.

b. Analysis Items and Frequency of Analysis


Table 3.3.2-15 shows the analysis items and the frequency analysis.
c. Control of the Condensate water Desalination Unit
A once-through boiler is unable to conduct the off-the-system blowing of boiler water under normal
operational conditions. In order to remove impurities infiltrating the system from outside, a condensate water
desalination unit is installed to remove corrosion products produced from within the system and other
impurities originating from outside the system due to the seawater leakage of a condenser. The condensate
water desalination unit is an ammonex type of the outside regeneration type. It functions quite similarly to a
separate regeneration type system in reducing the regeneration time and reduction of nitrogen in effluents and
is maintained and controlled considering the items shown below.
a). To check the area where resin layers are detached
The water regeneration tank of a mixed bed system, most of the causes leading to the deterioration of water
quality are derived from the movements of resin layers detached, the tank is subject to checking after scrubbing.

247
Table 3.3.2-12: Check Sheet for Unit Nos. 1 to 4 Water Quality When ANN is Transmitted
1. Silica and Dissolved Oxygen 3. Abnormal pH Level
* Whether silica and dissolved oxygen concentration tend to be high Check Item Description Cause
or not is checked by referring to the checksheet. Feed water pH High (or low) b d
Check Item Description Cause Boiler water pH High bdh
Silica Low abd
concentration is Makeup water There is considerable conductivity of
c d
high. makeup water.
Makeup water 1.5µS/cm or above for the makeup c Chemicals
water Chemical Chemical concentration and type
10µg/l or above at the outlet of the concentration
makeup water desalination unit b
Failure of pumps Switchover test of injection pumps
Load Load surged Addition of
(when silica is purged) i chemicals Stroke and valve operations
Measurement The ANN of a measurement d
instrument instrument is transmitted. Cause and Measures
The dissolved Cause Measures
oxygen a. Seawater leakage a. x See the section of seawater
concentration is leakage.
high. x See Accident Action Procedure.
Load Load decreased e b. Excessive (too small) b. Adjust the injection volume.
Deaeration unit Check the inner pressure of the f hydrazine injection
system. c. Abnormal quality of c. x In the case of abnormal quality of
Switchover of Check whether any O2 is leaked or g makeup water makeup water, blow the water in
the condensate not by switching the condensate Leakage of regeneration the makeup water tank.
pump pump agent of a desalination unit
Drain pump Check whether any O2 is leaked or g and sampling after breakage
not at the drain pump seal. d. Fault of measurement d. If adjusting the flow rates and
Measurement The indication does not change d instruments temperature does not work,
instrument after switching the specimen inform Chemical G.
water. e. Decreased loads
f. Deteriorated deaeration
2. High conductivity/Condenser・High conductivity/Seawater unit
leakage at startup g. O2 leakage from g. Seal the leakage.
Check Item Description Cause condensate pump and drain
pump
Check the The conductivity of the
h. Excessive addition of h. Adjust the volume.
relationship of the condensate water and water in the
sodium tertiary phosphate
following: system suddenly surges from the
a i. Surge of loads i. x Blow the boiler water.
Condensate water, normal level, followed by feed
x See the section explaining the
feed water, boiler water, boiler water, saturated
relationship of silica in boiler
water, saturated water. The makeup water is intact.
water and pressure.
steam and The conductivity of the makeup
makeup water in water surges, followed by others c
the system such as condensate water.
Chloride ions Adding caustic silver changes the
a
water turbid in white.
Measurement Their conductivity fluctuates
d
instrument separately.

b). Regeneration Process Check


The entire regeneration process is subject to a detailed check once a year to confirm the conditions of the flow
rate and the volume of chemicals added, to determine abnormalities at their early stage and to plan suitable
countermeasures.

c.) Confirmation of Functions of Ion-Exchange Resins


Performance of exchanging neutral salts, chemical reaction speed and other aspects are checked once a year.

Table 3.3.2-13: Facility Outline of Unit Nos. 1 to 4 Units of the Sodegaura Thermal Power Plant
Unit No. 1 Unit No. 2 Unit No. 3 Unit No. 4 Unit
Output (MW) 600 1 000 1 000 1 000
Operation started in: August 1974 September 1975 February 1977 August 1979
Boiler type Reheated
once-through Same as left Same as left Same as left
type
Boiler capacity (t/h) 1 900 3 110 Same as left 3 170
Steam pressure (kg/cm2) 246/42.1 246/40.1 Same as left Same as left
Steam temperature (°C) 538/566 Same as left Same as left Same as left
Fuel used LNG Same as left Same as left Same as left
d. Replenishment of Resins
Referring to the results of the performance check, resins are replenished to maintain the function of a
condensate water desalination unit at the appropriate level. The volume of resins replenished annually is 10% for

248
cation exchange resin and around 20% for anion exchange resin.

Table 3.3.2-14: List of Water Quality of Supercritical Pressure Through the Flow Boiler at Normal Times
Specimens taken Analysis item Criteria
Makeup water Conductivity < 0.5 µS/cm
Silica concentration < 30 µg/l
Outlet of a condensate Conductivity < 0.5 µS/cm
pump
(CP out)
Outlet of a condensate Conductivity < 0.15 µS/cm
water desalination unit Sodium concentration < 5 µg/l
(CBP out) Total iron concentration < 5 µg/l
Total copper concentration < 2 µg/l
Outlet of a Dissolved oxygen < 7 µg/l
desalination unit concentration
(Dea out)
Inlet of an economizer pH 9.3 to 9.6
(Eco in) Conductivity < 0.25 µS/cm
Total iron concentration < 5 µg/l
Total copper concentration < 2 µg/l
Hydrazine concentration < 10 µg/l
Silica concentration < 20 µg/l

Table 3.3.2-15: Analysis item and Frequency


Specimens taken Analysis item Frequency
Makeup water Conductivity Once a month
Silica concentration Once a month
Outlet of a condensate Iron concentration Once a month (once a week)
water desalination unit Cooper concentration Once a month (once a week)
Sodium concentration Once a month (-)
Inlet of a desalination Conductivity Once a month (once every three days)
unit Dissolved oxygen concentration Once a month (once every two weeks)
Outlet of a desalination Dissolved oxygen concentration Once a month (once every two weeks)
unit
Inlet of an economizer pH Once a month (once every three days)
Conductivity -
Total iron concentration Once a month (once every three days)
Total copper concentration Once a month (once every three days)
Hydrazine concentration Once a month (once every two weeks)
Silica concentration Once a month (once every three days)
Main steam pH - (once every two weeks)
Conductivity - (once every two weeks)
Silica concentration - (once every two weeks)
Items in parentheses indicate the frequency of analysis within six months of the start of operation.

Table 3.3.1-16: List of Storage Methods when the Plant is Subject to Shutdown
Stop time Boiler Deaeration unit Condenser Feed water heater
Steam side Feed water side
Within 56 hours Hot banking In circulation mode Retains the ordinary Storage in vacuum Retain the shutdown
water level. condition or in steam status.
sealing
Within 72 hours Storage after filling Normal water level + Retains the ordinary N2 pressurization Storage by filling
water +N2 pressurization Steam sealing water level. water
[or N2 pressurization]
(Hydrazine: 20 to 30 (Hydrazine: 20 to (Hydrazine: 20 to
mg/l) 30 mg/l) 30 mg/l)
More than 72 Dry storage after sealing Dry storage after Dry storage Dry storage after Storage by sealing N2
hours N2 sealing N2 sealing N2 or dry or by filling water
(RH: Dry storage) storage (Hydrazine: >300
mg/l)

(2) Water treatment at Startup and while the Unit is not used
a. Water treatment while the Unit is not used
The most important thing in water treatment while the unit is not used is to minimize the inclusion of exterior
air inside the system to prevent corrosion. The following three measures are conducted for this purpose:
(1) Hot banking that puts a boiler under a pressurization condition to eliminate the inclusion of exterior air
(2) After a boiler has cooled down, a high concentration of hydrazine is infused to minimize the area
contacting with air, while also helping remove the dissolved oxygen from the contact area.
(3) After a boiler comes to a stop, boiler water is purged and blown out by pressurized nitrogen while keeping
the boiler temperature at 100℃ or above to keep it in a dry condition.
249
Fig. 3.3.2-16 shows how to store the plant when it is not in use. The table categorized the storage method by the
period of storage. In the case that the planned short time storage is subject to change in the longer storage period,
the storage method for the plant must be changed. Sampling racks are stored by closing the valves and after filling
with deionized water.
b. Water treatment at Startup
Before starting the plant, it is subject to a cleanup process by dividing the system into 3 blocks of condenser,
feed water system and boilers respectively. The controlled items for this purpose include, for a cold cleanup
process, iron and mill scales, etc., with those that are generated during the time the plant is not in use analyzed. To
check the iron concentration, two methods are used; the membrane filtration and automatic measurement methods.
The former compares the color of the filter after filtration of sample water with the standard color, while for the
latter, an iron meter of the particle counting method or the scattered light method is used. The control criteria of
the iron concentration is set as 300 µg/l or below as a target, while Fig. 3.3.2-17 shows other water control criteria.
In addition, the injection of ammonia and hydrazine, etc. is possible to combat corrosion of the system and
maintain the quality of water in the systems at the appropriate level. In injecting chemicals, Mode PB on the
sampling rack is selected. Fig. 3.3.2-18 shows a worksheet of a chemical feed unit.
In the Sodegaura Thermal Power Plant, a patterned operation is used for the blowing time and chemical
injection in order to control iron concentration, etc. at the appropriate level. The pattern was formed based on the
experience of the plant. More recently, more plants have been able to automatically control and operate water
treatment and chemical injection using a computer. In the Sodegaura Thermal Power Plant, the iron concentration
of feed water at the inlet of an economizer after ignition of the plant is controlled to 50µg/l or below as a target.
The criteria for collecting drain water generated by each process is, 300µg/l or below for iron collected by a
condenser, and 50µg/l or below for that collected by a feed water system.

250
Table 3.3.2-17: List of Water Quality of a Supercritical Pressure Through a Flow Boiler at its Startup
Startup process Sampling at: Analyzing item Criteria
Surge of condenser vacuum - - Condenser Vacuum
> 680 mmHg
Water feed to a condenser desalination CP out Total iron concentration < 300 µg/l
unit Hydrazine concentration < 10 µg/l
Pre-boiler system blow stop CP out Total iron concentration < 300 µg/l
Hydrazine concentration < 10 µg/l
Water feed to boilers Dea out pH 9.2 to 9.6
Total iron concentration < 100 µg/l
Dissolved oxygen concentration < 50 µg/l
Boiler system blow stop WW out or SH Total iron concentration < 300 µg/l
out Hydrazine concentration < 10 µg/l
Ignition Eco in pH 9.2 to 9.6
Conductivity < 1.0 µs/cm
Total iron concentration < 50 µg/l
Total copper concentration < 10 µg/l
Dissolved oxygen concentration < 10 µg/l
Silica concentration < 30 µg/l
WW out pH 9.2 to 9.6
Conductivity < 1.0 µg/l
Humidified circulation Eco in pH 9.2 to 9.6
Conductivity < 1.0 µs/cm
Total iron concentration < 50 µg/l
Total copper concentration < 10 µg/l
Dissolved oxygen concentration < 10 µg/l
Silica concentration < 30 µg/l
WW out Conductivity < 1.0 µs/l
Aeration to turbines - 1/2 loads Eco in pH 9.2 to 9.6
Total iron concentration < 50 µg/l
Total copper concentration < 10 µg/l
Silica concentration < 30 µg/l
Collection by condenser - Total iron concentration < 300 µg/l
Collection by condensate - Total iron concentration
Drain water

< 50 µg/l
collection

water and feed water systems

Conductivity: Cationic conductivity after going through cation resin.

(3) Water treatment at the Seawater Leakage of Condenser


a. Determination of a Leakage
In order to detect any leakage of seawater at an early stage, two methods are normally employed; a salinometer
installed closer to a condenser, and checking the cationic conductivity of the condensate water by sampling it at
the sampling rack (after it has passed through the cation exchange resin). However, the method of measuring the
cationic conductivity tends to show a high rate, because of the condenser hot well water generated when a vacuum
break occurs at the startup time and the influence of the carbonate ions generated by carbon dioxide dissolved in
makeup water, the conditions of which are quite similar to that shown at seawater leakage. Accordingly, it was
necessary to analyze the existence of chlorine ions. The shortcomings of this method are (i) the fact that the
quantification limit is high, i.e. 0.01 mg/l, making it difficult to detect minute leakages and (ii) it takes about an
hour for the analysis, meaning the method cannot be used for startup operation. Therefore, in this plant, a sodium
meter (of ion electrode method) is installed at the outlet of a condensate pump to be used in combination with the
salinometer for detecting seawater leakage.

251
Table 3.3.2-18: Chemical Injection Workflow Sheet
Plant process Circulation of
condensate water
Circulation of the Circulation of the Circulation of
deaeration unit pre-boiler the boiler Normal operation
Stop
Fe: 300 ppm or
Water treatment values below Hot banking Normal storage and
N2H4: 10 ppm or DO: 50 ppb plant not in use:
below or below 10 ppb or above N2H4: 10 ppm or
above
Sampling rack mode
Circulation Circulation Circulation Circulation Aeration of
Lamping High Low Normal Delamping Parallel off
of of the of the of the the main Storage method
end pressure pressure
PB process condensate deaeration pre-boiler boiler steam pipe heater heater
operation
water unit Hot Ordinary
Stop
banking storage

Kick signal
Injection of a high
concentration of hydrazine
Program control with the for 4 hours
conductivity at the outlet of
Stroke length a demister as a preceding Constant value control of conductivity at the inlet of a deaeration unit with the Program control with the
control signal
conductivity at the outlet of a demister as a preceding signal
conductivity at the outlet of a Injection of a
demister as a preceding signal
constant volume
Ammonia pump

RPM control
In proportion to the condensate water flow rate
As above
Program control with the
conductivity at the outlet of
Stroke length a demister as a preceding Constant value control of conductivity at the inlet of a deaeration unit with the Program control with the
conductivity at the outlet of
control signal conductivity at the outlet of a demister as a preceding signal a demister as a preceding
Injection of a
signal constant volume

RPM control
In proportion to the condensate water flow rate
As above
Hydrazine pump

Stroke length In proportion to the condensate water flow


rate In proportion to the feed water flow rate In proportion to the
control condensate water flow
Injection of a constant
volume (CONC)

Stroke length In proportion to the condensate water flow


control
rate In proportion to the feed water flow rate In proportion to the Injection of a constant
condensate water flow volume (CONC)
Chemical injection locations

Ammonia

Open

Open
Hydrazine

Open

Fig. 3.3.2-19: Measures to be Taken upon Leakage of Condenser Pipes


Conductivity
Chlorine
(µS/cm) Determination How to Operate a
Specimen Ion Measures to be Taken at Leakage
[Cationic of Leakage Desalination Unit
(mg/l)
conductivity]
Outlet of a < 0.5 < 0.1 Normal H Type: 1 -
condensate pump 0.5 to 3.0 0.1 to 3.0 Minute NH4 Type: 2 Repair the leakage while operating only one
leakage H Type: 2 condenser, after confirming the location of
> 3.0 > 0.3 Significant NH4 Type: 1 the leakage using a salinometer.
leakage H Type: 3 Stop the unit.
Outlet of a > 0.15 > 0.1 Significant - Stop the unit
condensate water leakage
desalination pump

b. Operation of a Condensate water Desalination Unit


Table 3.3.2-19 shows the measures to be taken after identifying the occurrence of a seawater leakage to a
condenser pipe and determining its severity. Immediately after detecting cationic conductivity exceeding
0.5µS/cm, a stand-by water feed tower of a desalination unit is switched on, one NH4 type water intake tower that
is currently taking water is shut down under the system configuration of two H type water intake towers and one
NH4 type water intake tower. When the leakage deteriorates further to exceed 3µS/cm, an examination starts to
stop the unit while all towers are switched to H type water intake towers. By the time that cationic conductivity at
the outlet of a desalination unit exceeds 0.15µS/cm, the desalination unit will have been in break condition (a
status where the exchanging function is lost), the unit is stopped immediately.
When such abnormalities are detected, while the leakage is limited to 0.5 to 3µS/cm, the loads to the plant is
decreased and one of the condensers is stopped to detect the location and seriousness of leakage and a repair
process will start. The resins that are exposed to the seawater leakage contain salts in seawater and hence the ratio
of sodium and chlorine contained in them are higher than in normal times. In such cases, the resins are subject to
regeneration based on the degree to which such ions are absorbed.

252
To the outlet of
From HPx1HTR
HPHTR
From HP2HTR
To the
boiler
blow
tank
Drain tank
LP-HTR
Drain P
Steam A
and B
To the boiler
blow tank

253
From the
outlet of
CBP

To the boiler blow tank To the To the startup


startup collection pit
LP.HP HTR Drain
effluent pit
Fig. 3.3.2-8: Water Treatment Flow Chart of the No. 1 Unit of Kawagoe Thermal Power Plant
3.3.2.2.4 Water treatment of an Ultrasupercritical Pressure Once-through Boiler
The method used by an ultrasupercritical pressure once-through boiler to control water quality is basically the
same as the conventional supercritical pressure once-through boiler. This chapter explains how water quality is
controlled at the Kawagoe Thermal Power Plant. Fig. 3.3.2-8 shows the water treatment flow chart.
(1) Water treatment in Normal Operation
a. Frequency and Method of Chemical Injection
Aiming to keep the pH of the feed water at the inlet of an economizer at 9.6 as a target, ammonia is injected
continuously and automatically to the outlet of a condensate water booster pump in proportion to the flow rate of
the condensate water and with monitoring of conductivity (ammonia concentration) at the inlet of a deaeration
unit.
In addition, in order to keep the hydrazine concentration of feed water at the inlet of the economizer at 20µg/l as
a target, hydrazine is injected continuously and automatically to the outlet of a condensate water booster pump in
proportion to the flow rate of the condensate water and with monitoring of hydrazine concentration of the feed
water at the inlet of the economizer to retain it to 35µS/l.
b. Operation Control of a Condensate water Desalination Unit
In this plant, the condensate water desalination unit is operated continuously without limiting the inflow of
water into the unit. The unit consists of two prefilters (electromagnetic filtration system) and four mixed bed
condensate demineralization towers (with one standby).
In principle, all condensate demineralization towers are of NH4 type and water collection stops when the
towers are filled by a pre-designated volume of water and when water quality deteriorates. Table 3.3.2-20 shows
the pre-designated volume of water and the water treatment values of this desalination unit.
(2) Water treatment at Startup and while the Unit is not used
a. Pattern of Stoppage and How to Store each Component
Table 3.3.2-21 shows the stoppage pattern and how each component is stored.
b. Sampling Rack at the time of Stoppage and How to Store Chemical-Related Measurement
Instruments
As soon as the systems of each sampling point stops, a shut-off valve installed at the inlet of the sampling rack
automatically closes. The chemical-related measurement instruments are in standby condition, ready to start
measurement, just the same as when the system is in operation. No transfer of deionized water takes place in the
sampling rack.
c. Cleanup
Table 3.3.2-22 shows the scope of the cleanup and the water treatment criteria.

d. Monitoring of Water Quality


Water quality is monitored by a continuous water quality measurement instrument. When each system
component starts working, a valve installed at the inlet of the sampling rack automatically opens. As for the iron
concentration, a scattered light/transmitted light ratio turbidity meter that can monitor colloidal iron is used by
automatically switching the measurement point.

Fig. 3.3.2-20: Designated Water Volume of the Condensate water Desalination Unit
and Water treatment criteria
Designated collection NH4 Type 384 000 (m3)
volume H Type 35 000 (m3)
Water treatment (outlet Conductivity 0.15 (µS/cm)
water quality) Sodium ion concentration 5.0 (µg/l)

e. Drain Collection
Drain is blown to the outside of the system at the same time with the startup of the feed water heater. Drain of
the low-pressure feed water heater is collected to the condenser when the iron concentration becomes 500 µg/l or
less. Moreover, when the iron concentration becomes 50 µg/l or less, it is collected to the condensate water pipe.
Similarly, drain of the high-pressure feed water heater is collected to the condenser when the iron concentration
becomes 50 µg/l or less. When the iron concentration becomes 50 µg/l or less, it is collected to the deaerator.

254
Fig. 3.3.2-21: Stoppage Patterns (Category) and How to Store each Component
Stoppage Stop time Within 72 hours 72 hours to 1 week 1 week or longer
Category Boiler stop Normal stop Forced cooling Normal stop Forced cooling Normal stop Forced cooling
Component condition
Condenser Retained Destructed Retained Destructed Retained Destructed Retained Destructed
vacuum
Boiler body Hot bank Same as left Pressurized sealing Same as left Hot bank Storage after Hot bank After decreasing
When the pressure is of N2 After decreasing the filling 100mg/l After decreasing the the pressure, the
decreased pressure, the boiler is of hydrazine pressure, the boiler is boiler is filled
Pressurized sealing of filled with 100mg/l of filled with 200mg/l of with 200mg/l of
N2 hydrazine for storage. hydrazine for storage. hydrazine for
storage.
Pre-boiler Valve is closed like Same as left Same as left Same as left Same as left Storage after Same as left After decreasing
during normal Like the case of a filling 100mg/l Like the case of a boiler, the pressure, the
operation. boiler, the pre-boiler is of hydrazine the pre-boiler is filled boiler is filled
filled with 100mg/l of with 200mg/l of with 200mg/l of
hydrazine for storage. hydrazine for storage. hydrazine for
storage.
Deaeration unit Hot bank Same as left Pressurized sealing Same as left Hot bank Storage after Hot bank After decreasing
When the pressure is of N2 Like the case of a filling 100mg/l Like the case of a boiler, the pressure, the
decreased boiler, the pre-boiler is of hydrazine the pre-boiler is filled boiler is filled
Pressurized sealing of filled with 100mg/l of with 200mg/l of with 200mg/l of
steam or N2 hydrazine for storage. hydrazine for storage. hydrazine for
storage.
Low pressure feed water heater Valve is closed like Same as left Same as left Same as left Same as left Storage after Same as left After decreasing
during normal Like the case of a filling 100mg/l Like the case of a boiler, the pressure, the
operation. boiler, the pre-boiler is of hydrazine the pre-boiler is filled boiler is filled
filled with 100mg/l of with 200mg/l of with 200mg/l of
hydrazine for storage. hydrazine for storage. hydrazine for
storage.
From condenser to the inlet of the low Cleanup Same as left Same as left Same as left Same as left Storage after Same as left After decreasing
pressure feed water heater Circulation continued Like the case of a filling 100mg/l Like the case of a boiler, the pressure, the
boiler, the pre-boiler is of hydrazine the pre-boiler is filled boiler is filled
filled with 100mg/l of with 200mg/l of with 200mg/l of
hydrazine for storage. hydrazine for storage. hydrazine for
storage.
Shell side of feed water heater Retained under Pressurized Retained under Pressurized Same as left Same as left Same as left Same as left
vacuum condition. sealing of N2 vacuum condition. sealing of N2
Superheater and reheater Valve is closed like Same as left Same as left Same as left Same as left Same as left Same as left Same as left
during normal
operation.

255
Table 3.3.2-22: Scope of Cleanup and Water Quality Criteria
Cleanup process Water quality Water quality criteria for approving the cleanup process Scope of Remarks
measurement pH Cationic Dissolved Hydrazine Total iron cleanup
point conductivity oxygen concentration concentration
(µS/cm) concentration (mg/l) (mg/l)
(mg/l)
Condensate Blowing Outlet of a 9.8 1.50 or 0.500 From a
water condensate below condenser
pump to the inlet
Circulation Outlet of a 9.4 0.15 or 0.200 0.050 of a low
condensate to below (Outlet of a pressure
condensate water
pump 9.7 booster pump)
feed water
heater
Deaeration Blowing Outlet of a 9.5 0.50 or 0.500 From a low
unit deaeration to below pressure
circulation 9.7 feed water
pump heater to a
Circulation Outlet of a 9.5 0.50 or 0.10 or 0.200 0.050 deaeration
deaeration to below below unit
circulation 9.7
pump
Pre-boiler Blowing Pre-boiler 9.5 0.50 or 0.500 From the
cleanup pipe to below outlet of a
9.7 deaeration
unit to a
Circulation Pre-boiler 9.5 0.50 or 0.10 or 0.200 0.050 high
cleanup pipe to below below pressure
0.7 feed water
heater
Boiler Blowing Outlet of a 9.5 0.50 or 0.500 From the
water separator to below outlet of a
9.7 high
Circulation Outlet of a 9.5 0.50 or 0.10 or 0.200 0.050 pressure
water separator to below below feed water
9.7 heater to a
boiler

3.3.2.3 Water treatment When Condenser Pipes are Subject to Leakage


Most thermal power plant use seawater as the cooling water for their condenser and this is frequently channeled
into the system through condenser pipes or joints between them and the pipe boards due to their corrosion and
erosion (seawater leakage). The seawater, having infiltrated into the system, causes the following damage to each
part of the unit:
(1) Corrosion of materials due to the decreased pH of the boiler water caused by magnesium chloride
(2) Heat transmission failure due to the scales consisting of Ca and Mg on the generation pipes
(3) Contamination and corrosion of superheater pipes and turbine blades due to the carryover of salts
(4) Corrosion of SUS materials due to the chlorine ions contained in the temperature reduction spray water of a
superheater.
As measures to avoid seawater leakage, several methods are possible, including the prevention of foreign
matter brought into a condenser, the installation of an electrolytic protection unit on the seawater side of a
condenser, a coating of anti-ion and -oxide layers inside condenser pipes and the use of titanium pipes. As for
protective maintenance measures against system aging, an eddy current flaw detector (eddiography) is used during
regular inspections.
3.3.2.3.1 Confirmation of Leakage
A seawater leakage can be detected by the enhanced conductivity of condensate water. In the case of a drum
boiler, it can be identified by increased chloride salt concentration, although in the case of a minute leakage, it is
difficult to identify the leakage with such measures. Generally, the leakage is detected by transforming salts into
acids via cation exchange resins. When salts are transformed into acids, the conductivity jumps up to 8 to 10 times.
For this purpose, a cation exchange resin tower is installed before an conductivity meter of condensate water,
basically. In order to detect seawater leakages as early as possible, most units take out condenser hot well water to
measure its salt concentration using a salinometer, in combination with the conductivity meter, so that seawater
leakage can be detected, even when the conductivity meter fails. The double monitoring system is relatively useful
in detecting seawater leakage.
Fig. 3.3.2-9 shows an example of the salinometer installation.
The conductivity meter shall be monitored constantly by installing the alarm system and the recorder because
the phenomenon of seawater leakage may be continuous but it can also be temporary, in which case it only lasts
for a few minutes to over ten minutes.
256
3.3.2.3.2 How to Detect the Leakage Location in One Condenser Operation
It is desirable that the unit be shut down and damaged parts identified and repaired as soon as seawater leakage
occurs. However, most cases involve the need for identification and repair of damaged parts in parallel with the
unit in operation. As a unit installed with a salinometer and condenser hot wells can be selectable, in which a
condenser system leakage occurs, condenser A or B can easily be identified by an operator by referring to its
operation manual. There may be several ways to detect a leakage. A 1000MW class boiler has a large-sized
condenser with a number of thin pipes installed on it. The first thing to do is to identify the location of the leakage.
In this class, firstly, a circulation pump is stopped, and then a transparent vinyl tube is connected to the pump
pressure detector so that it rises vertically against the top of the condenser. While checking the water level in the
transparent tube, seawater is blown gradually to estimate the leakage part by referring to the indications of a
salinometer and a sodium meter. After the total blowing, an operator enters into the seawater side system and
pastes a thin polyethylene film to the surface of the pipes. The location of a pipe where the film is sucked has a
hole as a source of the leakage.
In the case of a minute leakage, it is difficult to identify it via single condenser operation. In many case a
leakage stops unknowingly to the operators. In this case, what is generally practiced is conducting a water
pressure test after stopping the unit. Makeup water of a low concentration fluorescent solution is put into the
condenser steam side and left for a period ranging from several hours to about one day. Subsequently, ultraviolet
rays are cast from the seawater side to detect which part reacts against the rays.

3.3.2.3.3 Water treatment at Seawater Leakage


As explained above, seawater slipped into feed water due to a leakage can cause various damage to boiler and
turbine systems, so it is important to stop the leakage and remove salts from the feed water.

Condensate water
pump
Return valve

Sampling Sampling
valve valve

Conductivity
meter
Resin tower

Resin tower
Sampling

Sampling
Flow meter

Fig. 3.3.2-9: Example of Salinometer Installation

(1) Drum Type Boiler


Among the salts contained in seawater, MgCl2 can produce Mg(OH)2 sediments and HCl as shown in the
following chemical formula, causing a significant deterioration in the pH level of boiler water and accelerating
corrosion of the materials.
MgCl2+2H2O→Mg(OH)2+2HCl
As soon as seawater leakage occurs, boiler blowing on a par with the volume of leakage starts and in order to
uplift the pH value slightly higher than the criteria of water quality, an appropriate volume of sodium phosphate is
injected. The phosphate ions have the effect of preventing the deposition of hard scales of Ca and Mg, and also
work to discharge such scales out of the system via the help of the boiler blowing. In the case of a unit where feed
water is sprayed to a superheater and reheater to reduce their temperature, the volume of the feed water is reduced
when seawater leakage is detected. When the chlorine ion concentration in condensate water rises to 0.5mg/l or
above, the spraying is stopped. Table 3.3.2-23 shows the actions taken to a 175MW drum type boiler.
(2) Once-through Boiler
When a condensate water desalination unit reaches its peak capacity, a once-through boiler stops its operation.

257
For this reason, when seawater leakage is detected, its remaining capacity is checked immediately. During normal
operation, an ammonia type sampling is switched to H type sampling, on a par with the volume of leakage, and
the standby tower starts operation. With these measures, loads are reduced as soon as possible to contain the
volume of seawater slipping into the system. Table 3.3.2-14 shows the actions taken for a 1,000MW class boiler.

3.3.2.4 Water treatment During a Regular Inspection


A large-sized industrial use boiler tends to have a longer interval till the next regular inspection and its
restoration will take also longer, from the process of filling water to restarting it. During that time, the water
quality must be maintained in good condition. When such boiler is subject to a stop for regular inspection, a boiler
is subject to blowing at as high a temperature as possible to remove any residual liquid in it, so that it can be
stored in dry condition.
Generally speaking, 60% to 70% of the total process is subject to water pressure tests. Pre-restoration, each
component is kept in such condition that pressure-related tests can take place. Firstly, a deaeration unit is flushed
with water and then filled with water drawn directly from a makeup water tank, to which approx. 100mg/l of
hydrazine is added. Subsequently, a commissioning test is conducted to a feed water pump. The next process
involves filling the boiler with water and adding 100mg/l hydrazine. After the water pressure test, nitrogen is
blown into the boiler to purge the water. The water containing hydrazine purged out from the boiler is then
decomposed by adding sodium hypochlorite. The concentration of this chemical is also kept to a minimum for
environmental purposes.
As for the storage of the unit till the next startup, the general practice is that the water used for the pressure test
is blown out. If the unit is subject to an immediate start, boiler pipes are sometimes filled with water for storage.

Table 3.3.2-23: Example of Actions when Seawater Leakage Happens to a Condenser (Example)
Surge of Conductivity
at the Outlet of CP Actions Taken
(µS/cm)
Rated Water Quality Treatment Cl-Concentration
1/2 load Actions for Operation Others of Condensate
load Blowing Chemical Injection water
1. To strengthen 1. Continuous blowing 1. Chemical injection 1. To close the
monitoring by a. To be done to boilers condensate water
monitoring immediately after a. To inject 10l of return valve
instruments detecting seawater sodium tertiary connected to a
2. Determination of the leakage phosphate to the distilled water
location and degree of b. Intermittent blowing drum when tank
leakage depending on the continuous 2. To conduct a
Lower than Lower
3. Examination for leakage conditions blowing starts water-pressurized -
6 than3
starting operation and (manual inspection, b. To inject an leak check
inspection plans etc.) appropriate
2. Blowing of condensate volume of sodium
water tertiary phosphate
a. To be done so that the pH
depending on the level of boiler
leakage conditions water can be
1. One condenser 1. Continuous blowing maintained at 1. To check and
operation To be done around 9.5 repair the
(To stop damaged continuously 2. Chemical injection damaged
condenser and to 2. Rapid blowing to feed water condenser while
operate the intact To be done in the case a. To switch operating the
3 or condenser that water quality check hydrazine intact one 0.3 ppm or
6 or above
above continuously at the revealed it necessary injection from (Inspection using above
1/2 load) (Openness: 10% to automatic mode a vinyl sheet)
2. To confirm that the 15%) to manual mode
conductivity at the 3. Blowing of condensate (Target: pH of
outlet of CP, etc., has water feed water to be
decreased To be done around 8.8)
1. Reduction or stop of continuously * As seawater
the spray flow rate for (Fully open in elements causes
10 or 5 or an uplift of 0.5 ppm or
a superheater and principle, but subject to
above above conductivity, it is above
reheater adjustment depending
2. To reduce load on conditions) not possible to
1. To stop the unit in 1. Total boiler blowing as control the pH 1. To check and
principle necessary level by adjusting repair the
20 10 it. 1.0 ppm
damaged
condenser

3.3.2.5 Water treatment of Component Cooling Water


The component cooling water system (bearing cooling water system) can be roughly divided into circulation
and non-circulation temporary cooling types. The former can further be divided into a open circulation type, in

258
which water heated up in a heat exchanging process is evaporated in a cooling tower to be cooled by discharging
evaporative latent heat for use in recycling, and a closed circulation type, in which heated water is cooled down in
a cooling water cooler using seawater. A large capacity power generation plant in Japan uses the closed circulation
type, which can then be categorized into systems where bearing cooling water tanks are installed and those using
stand pipes. Recently, the latter has been frequently used because of the ease of water treatment.
These component cooling water systems incorporate an oil cooler that cools down the lubricants used for
turbine rotors, etc., a hydrogen cooler that is used for cooling generator and a coolant cooler. These units are made
of aluminum brass. Controlling the water quality of such component coolants should involve consideration of the
selection of an appropriate coolant circulation method and the use of steel, copper and copper alloys. Based on
such views, the water treatment of component coolants involves the introduction of anti-corrosion agents into the
coolants, in order to prevent the corrosion of the heat exchanger cooling pipes as well as other pipes, in turn, to
prevent scale deposits on the heat exchanger and avoid deterioration of its heat exchanging function.

3.3.2.5.1 Temporary Cooling Type Cooling System


A temporary cooling type is used where river water is accessible. Cooling water containing heat is normally
discharged into the river untreated, because the use of high concentration anti-corrosion agents is not practical for
cost reasons. However, polymer phosphate and silicate anti-corrosion agents of 2 to 5 mg/l are sometimes used,
mainly to prevent the generation of carbon steel rust and corrosion of the peripheral area arising from the same. In
using these chemicals, it is necessary to secure a flow rate of at least 1 m/s to obtain favorable results.

Table 3.3.2-24: Example of Water Quality Treatments to a High Hardness Cooling Water System
Volume of circulation water: 20,000 m3/h
Operation Condition of Cooling Water volume retained: 13,000 m3
Tower Temperature difference in a cooling tower: 8°C
Concentration : 2.5 times
Initial injection:
Anti-corrosion agent: Kurizetto S370 (polymer phosphate series) 400mg/l
Anti-scaling agent: Kurizetto T225 (polymer series) 200mg/l
Chemicals Used Normal operation:
Alkali treatment agent: Kurizetto S113 (phosphate - polymer series) 40mg/l
Chlorine treatment: 0.5 to 1.0mg/l(Cl2) 3 h/day
Slime control agent: Polyclin A496 (nitrogen compounds - polymer series) 50mg/l x month
Partial Filtration of Circulation Sand filtration: 3% (against circulation water volume)
Water
Makeup water Circulation water
Turbidity (degree) 2 5
pH (at 25°C) 8.1 9.0
Conductivity (µS/cm) 350 1 000
Water Quality Calcium hardness (CaCO3 mg/l) 170 380
M alkali level (CaCO3 mg/l) 180 400
Chloride ion (Cl-mg/l) 20 63
Sulfate ion (SO42-mg/l) 31 79
Silica (SiO2 mg/l) 7 18
Treatment Periods 7 years
Results of Effects using a Test
Corrosion rate (SPCC) [mdd] 3 to 4
Piece
A small volume of scales and sludge was observed in several low speed heat exchangers, but other heat
Result of a Regular Inspection
exchangers were in good condition without any corrosion scales, slime and sludge damage.

3.3.2.5.2 Open Circulation Type Cooling System


As the cooling water in an open circulation type cooling water system partially evaporates in a cooling water
tower, the dissolved salts are concentrated in the circulation water. In order to obtain favorable functions of a
coolant, it is necessary that water volume of a forced blowing be adjusted to control the concentration of salts in
the circulation water, and that the quality of circulation water, as well as the concentration of chemicals, such as
anti-corrosion and anti-scaling agents, be kept at a constant level.
In an environment with high calcium hardness i.e. 150mg/l(CaCO3) or above, the alkali level is sufficient and
the pH level is high, i.e. 8 or above in cooling water, calcium phosphate anti-corrosion coating can easily be
formed and the concentration of anti-corrosion agents in water can be retained to 5 to 6 mg/l(T-PO4) to perform
their intended result. However in such an environment, where the calcium hardness, M alkali level and pH are all
high, it is necessary to add polymer series anti-corrosion agent of a sufficient concentration to avoid calcium
phosphate series anti-corrosion coating and calcium carbonate from forming scales in the high temperature area.
As the quality of makeup water shows a relatively low hardness and low M alkali level, in most cases, this type of
treatment is applied by high concentration operation of water cooling system (5 times or above). This works well
in view of preventing environmental pollution because it can reduce the volume of blowing water and
phosphorous discharged outside the system.

259
Unlike highly hard water, water with low calcium hardness tends to require an increased concentration of
anti-corrosion chemicals and it is necessary to raise the concentration of anti-corrosion agent to 10 to 15
mg/l(T-PO4) under the calcium hardness of around 100 mg/l(CaCO3) and 15 to 20 mg/l(T-PO4) in the case of 50
mg/l (CaCO2). This is because the phosphate series anti-corrosion agent is influenced by dianoinic metals, such as
calcium ions, and because the combined use of phosphate and zinc salts with a strong coating forming
performance can achieve good anti-corrosion performance, even if the concentration of anti-corrosion chemicals
is kept to a low level. In a low hardness cooling water system, scales such as calcium phosphate can be formed in
a high temperature zone, and anti-scaling agents, such as acrylic acid series polymers and maleic acid series
polymers, are generally used in combination with these chemicals. In an open circulation type cooling system,
operation under a high concentration of chemicals to save the volume of water can thicken nutrients contained in
the water and within such an environment, microbes can pullulate and slime be formed relatively easily. In order
to prevent this, measures are taken by sterilizing the microbes and adding anti-slime agents that are effective in
curtailing the reproduction of the same. For such purposes, the hypochlorites and cyanurates previously used have
been recently replaced by carbonyl series compounds with no corrosion effects. Tables 3.3.2-24 and 3.3.2-25 show
examples of water quality treatment at open circulation type cooling systems.
Table 3.3.2-26 shows the water quality analysis items and frequency of analysis that are usually used for the
operating control of an open circulation type cooling system, while Table 3.3.2-27 shows the significance of these
water quality analysis items.

Table 3.3.2-25: Example of Water Quality Treatments to a Low Hardness Cooling Water System
Volume of circulation water: 5 000 m3/h
Operation Condition of Cooling Water volume retained: 2 400 m3
Tower Temperature difference in a cooling tower: 12°C
Concentration : 3 times
Initial injection:
Anti-corrosion agent: Kurizetto S370 (polymer phosphate series) 400mg/l
Kurizetto S611 (zinc salt series) 100mg/l
Chemicals Used Normal operation:
Anti-corrosion agent: Kurizetto S603 (phosphonates, phosphates and zinc salts) 50mg/l
Anti-scaling agent: Kurizetto T225 (polymer series) 30 mg/l
Chlorine treatment: Polyclin A411 0.3 to 1.0mg/l(Cl2) 3 h/day
Partial Filtration of Circulation Sand filtration: 3% (against circulation water volume)
Water
Makeup water Circulation water
Turbidity (degree) 2 7
pH (at 25°C) 7.2 7.9
Conductivity (µS/cm) 100 254
Water Quality Calcium hardness (CaCO3 mg/l) 24 72
M alkali level (CaCO3 mg/l) 23 47
Chloride ion (Cl-mg/l) 5 18
Sulfate ion (SO42-mg/l) 6 15
Silica (SiO2 mg/l) 6 15
Treatment Periods 8 years
Results of Effects using a Test
Corrosion rate (SPCC) [mdd] 3 to 5
Piece
Result of a Regular Inspection Corrosion, scale and slime were hardly observed and the result was very good.

Table 3.3.2-26: Water treatment Items and Analyzing Frequency for Operation Control of an Open Circulation
Type Cooling System (Standard)
Analysis Item Frequency of Analysis
Makeup Water Circulation Water
Turbidity (degree) Once a week Once a week
pH (at 25°C) Once a week Once a day
Conductivity (µS/cm) Once a week Once a day
M alkali level (CaCO3 mg/l) Once a week Once a week
Calcium hardness (CaCO3 mg/l) Once a week Once a week
Chloride ion (Cl-mg/l) Once a week Once a week
Sulfate ion (SO42-mg/l) Once a week -
Silica (SiO2 mg/l) Once a week -
Total iron (Fe mg/l) Once a week -
Residual chlorine (Cl2 mg/l) - -
CODMin (O mg/l) Once a month Once a month
Anti-corrosion agents (mg/l) - Once a day

There are several ways to monitor the effectiveness of an anti-corrosion agent, the representative methods of
which include (1) measuring the corrosion speed of a test piece, (2) measuring the corrosion speed using a
corrosion measurement device using a polarization resistance method (an electrochemical method), (3) confirming
the conditions of corrosion and erosion depth on the heat transfer surface of a pipe using a heat exchanger for

260
monitoring purposes. The use of a test piece or a corrosion measurement device to measure the corrosion speed
cannot confirm the corrosion conditions on the heat transfer surface, in which case a heat exchanger for
monitoring purposes can be used. However, this method is not generally used, because the conditions of pipes
cannot be confirmed during test periods (normally 1 to 3 months) and because it requires significant plant and
operation control costs.
Table 3.3.2-27: Significance of Each Water Quality Analysis Item
Item Significance
pH Measured to obtain the trend of corrosion behavior and scale formation of water. The pH level of circulation water
(at 25°C) is normally controlled at 7.0 to 9.0. Where the level is decreased to 6.5 or below, it must be raised by the addition
of alkali agents. In this case, the appropriate pH level is 8.0 to 9.0.
Conductivity Measured to determine the trend of salt concentration dissociated into water as ions. Generally speaking, water
(µS/cm) quality with high conductivity tends to be bad and is frequently a cause of corrosion damage.
Turbidity Measured to determine the volume of suspended matter in water. Since the presence of such suspended matter in
(degree) the system can cause deterioration of efficiency and erosion damage to a heat exchanger, the turbidity of the
circulation water should be retained as low as possible.
M alkali level There is a certain degree of connection between pH and the degree of alkali. The M alkali degree is an indicator of
(CaCO3 mg/l) the trend of calcium carbonate forming scales.
Calcium hardness This indicator is important to control the concentration of circulation water and to determine the trend for the
(CaCO3 mg/l) formation of scales by calcium and other compounds such as calcium carbonate.
Chloride ion This is generally used as an indicator for controlling the concentration of circulation water. For a system where
(Cl-mg/l) chlorine treatment is performed, this indicator is used in combination with others, such as conductivity, calcium
hardness and silica concentration, etc. Water containing high chloride ions tends to have strong corrosive
performances.
Sulfate ion Water containing a high concentration of sulfate ions tends to have a strongly corrosive performance. As for HAVC
(SO42-mg/l) coolants, the inclusion of sulfur acid gas contained in the air into the system causes a high concentration of sulfate
ions and decreases the pH level, forming a highly corrosive environment.
Silica Silica is one of the causes of scale formation.
(SiO2 mg/l)
Ammonium ion Water containing a high concentration of ammonium ions is highly inclined to generate slime. For a system using
(NH4+/l) copper series materials, ammonium ions and copper react with each other to form a complex ammonium ion salt,
which is a cause of corrosion.
Consumption of oxygen A system with a high consumption of oxygen tends to cause slime, meaning appropriate slime control measures
[CODMin ] must be implemented.
(O mg/l)
General microbe count It can be an indicator to know the generation of slime. It can also be used to judge the effectiveness of the
(pcs/ml) microbicide.
Total iron The total iron content in the circulation water includes iron ion and colloidal ion derived from the makeup water as
(Fe mg/l) well as other iron generated by corrosion of the system. The existence of iron can cause secondary corrosion,
meaning the total iron concentration must be kept as low as possible.
Concentration of It is necessary to constantly maintain the concentrations of anti-corrosion and anti-scaling agents at an appropriate
anti-corrosion agents and level. In the case of significant fluctuations, effective anti-corrosion and anti-scaling performances cannot be
anti-scaling agents expected.
(mg/l)

3.3.2.5.3 Closed Circulation Type Cooling System


A closed circulation type cooling system does not incorporate any cooling towers, and thus thickening of
chemicals due to the evaporation of water cannot take place. The main problem affecting this type of cooling
system is corrosion. In order to prevent corrosion, polymer phosphate series agents, nitrate series agents and
molybdenum salt series polymer agents are used, as shown in Table 3.3.2-28.
As cooling systems with bearing coolant tanks have a large area, where the coolants come into contact with the
atmosphere, and also generally tend to have significant cooling water leakage, substances that cause the pH level
to fluctuate, such as carbon dioxide, can enter into the system quite easily from the air, and the volume of
anti-corrosion agents consumed tends to be high. For such reasons, filtrated water is used as a coolant for cost
saving purposes, and a polymer phosphate series anti-corrosion agent is used. The polymer phosphate reacts
against copper to form dark green Cu2OxCuPO3. Similarly to basic copper chloride, this compound does not form
a continuous layer, has high solubility and can have significantly adverse effects to the system. Due to this, it is
necessary to use benzyxotriazole and a derivative of trithio cyanuric acid in combination with the above agents,
because these substances show a strong anti-corrosion performance against copper and copper alloys. The
concentration of the polymer phosphate anti-corrosion agents is 100 to 200 ppm for initial injection. After the
initial injection, the concentration is kept at 20 to 40 ppm. The concentration of anti-corrosion agents is controlled
in such a manner that after understanding the relationship of the agent and conductivity, the agent is added by
monitoring the conductivity of the coolant.
A coolant system incorporated with a stand pipe, where the coolant is circulated without being exposed to the
air, meaning no carbon dioxide and oxygen will enter the system from the exterior air. The leakage of coolant is
small and consumption of anti-corrosion agents to form anti-corrosion layers can be minimized. For these reasons,
this type of system is superior to other types having a coolant tank, in terms of controlling water quality.
Conventionally, filtrated water was used as a coolant. However, recently, deionized water has been used for this
purpose due to the enhanced plant reliability. Nitrate salt is used to prevent corrosions, but sometimes hydrazine is
261
also used in a one-off manner for this purpose. As nitrate salt anti-corrosion agents cannot expect anti-corrosion
performance equivalent to that of polymer phosphate series agents, a special agent to prevent corrosion to copper
must be used in combination. In addition, as nitrite salts can cause decreased concentrations, due to the act of
microbes (nitrification due to action of oxidative bacterium against nitrate salts such as nitrobactors), it is
necessary to use an inhibitor in combination with the agents or to use deionized water containing less uncertain
elements. In the case of the nitrate salt series agent, after the initial injection of 200 to 300ppm of this agent, the
concentration is kept at a level of 60 to 130 ppm. In the case of hydrazine, the initial concentration is 20 ppm,
following which the concentration is maintained at 5 to 10 ppm when the concentration reaches a stable stage,
whereupon a good anti-corrosion performance can be obtained. The frequency of administering anti-corrosion
agents ranges from once a week to once every two weeks to obtain good water treatment.

Table 3.3.2-28: Outline of Anti-Corrosion Agents for a Closed Circulation Type Cooling System
Anti-Corrosion
Applicable Water System Corrosion Rate Remarks
Agent
Polymer Phosphate Retention period: Within 10 Carbon steel: 5 to 20 mdd As this agent facilitates the discharge of corrosion products
Series days Copper and copper alloys: outside the system, a corrosion speed of 5 to 20 mdd may
Makeup water: Industrial water 1 mdd or be acceptable.
Fresh water below Use polymer agents in combination with it to reduce the
generation of scales on heat transmission surfaces.
Nitrate Salt Series Retention period: 10 days or Carbon steel: 1 mdd As this agent does not allow the easy discharge of corrosion
more Copper and copper alloys: products outside of the system, a chemical that ensure
Makeup water: Industrial water 1 mdd or favorable anti-corrosion performance must be used.
Softened water below As the maximum temperature of bearing coolants is 40°C
Deionized water or below, which is within the optimum growing
temperature for microbes oxidizing nitrate salts (generally
15 to 30°C), it is necessary to use its inhibitor in
combination with it.
Molybdate Retention period: 50 days or Carbon steel: 10 mdd When this agent is used in a system in which no or
Polymer Series more Copper and copper alloys: insufficient anti-corrosion treatment is performed, iron
Makeup water: Industrial water 1 mdd or oxides existing in the system can be washed away turning
Softened water below the color of the coolant red. In such systems, it is necessary
Deionized water to flush it before starting injection of this chemical.
3.3.3 Future Prospects
With unit size subject to rapid growth since the introduction of large-sized components after WWII, a daily
water treatment method has almost been established following the era of trials and errors. However, many
problems still remain to be solved depending on the location of a thermal power plant, in order to further advance
the method of water treatment.
The first involves how to raise the reliability of supplying sufficient energy. Considering recent advancements
of society and economic growth, it cannot be said that sufficient energies are guaranteed. Under current conditions,
where it is increasingly difficult to build a new power plant, currently available systems should be used as long as
possible. The issues to be solved in order to ensure the patterns of water treatments, established based on the
experiences of thermal power plants to advance into stricter and more assured means of water treatment, include
raising the accuracy of the devices used to monitor water quality as well as measures against seawater corrosion of
condenser pipes, in terms of materials.
The second issues to be solved include (1) a reduction of carbon dioxide emissions that is considered to be a
cause of global warming, (2) shortening the system operation time to maintain and uplift the heat efficiency of
boilers from the viewpoint of energy saving and the appropriate use of energies, (3) the introduction of such
methods as oxygen treatment to prevent scale attachment to boilers and (4) reduction in the ammonia volume used
for the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from effluents.
The third issues include plant maintenance. Water treatment is a decisive factor in preventing the corrosion of
components. With this in mind, it is important to occasionally conduct a water quality inspection to assess the
quality of water in the system and to determine the volume of oxygen and metal ion concentration, in order to
conduct appropriate anti-corrosion measures.

262
3.4 Turbines and Auxiliary Machines
3.4.1. Maintenance of Steam Turbines
Maintenance of steam turbines includes minor repairs (for example, retightening of a gland packing for a
valve) during a patrol and major repairs during periodic maintenance, among which replacement or improvement
of a faulty part may be included. There are two kinds of maintenance, one is daily repair to be effected whilst
the turbine remains in operation or the electric generation is stopped and another is periodic maintenance where
the electric generation is periodically stopped for a long time.

3.4.1.1 Daily Repairs


Daily repairs consist of (1) repairs and adjustments of faulty parts as regular repairs, (2) regular inspections,
adjustment and investigation of equipment such as important instruments and of vibration of the rotating devices
in advance as preventative maintenance, (3) improvement of a part to prevent recurrence of a failure that has often
occurred. [1] Speed, [2] sureness, [3] safety and [4] low cost are taken into consideration when a repair
operation is effected, and an elaborately prepared plan in terms of processes and application procedures should be
prepared especially for a part that may have a critical effect on the operation of the unit and also when the repair is
carried out with operation of the power unit stopped.

3.4.1.2 Periodic Inspections


Voluntary inspection of a steam turbine used for electric generation should be periodically performed in
compliance with the Electricity Utilities Industry Law.
This inspection is called the “Voluntary Periodic Inspection”, and overhauling of a steam turbine is effected
with operation of the power unit subject to a long time planned stop.
This inspection became voluntary in 1995 and the regulation stipulates that the inspection should be effected
every four years from 1999. However, this four year period may be extended depending on the operating
conditions.

3.4.1.3 Content of Periodic Inspections


During this periodic inspection, major repairs and improvements that cannot be effected at other times are to
be carried out besides overhauling of the main body and the major accessories in accordance with the established
plan. Table 3.4.1-1 shows examples of the maintenance of the parts and the equipment.

Table 3.4.1-1: Maintenance of a Steam Turbine During Periodic Maintenance


1. Main body of a turbine 2. Equipment attached to the turbine body 3. The turbine lubricating oil device
(1) Turbine wheel (1) Main Valves (1) MOP, BP, AOP, TGOP and EOP
Cleaning by honing (MSV, CV, RSV, ICV, SMV) Overhaul, repair and detailed and
Detailed and precision inspection and Maintenance and precision inspection precision inspection
repair of the disk, the rotating blades and of the inside and the outside of the (2) Main Oil Tank and Oil Cooler
the shaft valves, the valve rods, the valve seats, Cleaning and oiliness test of the inside
Measurement of run-out and centering of and the valve casings of the tank
the shaft Measurement of bend and the gaps of Cleaning of the oil cooler piping and the
Inspection and repair of the coupling bolts the valve rods water chamber
(2) Ejection Holes and Partitions Inspection of the bolts exposed to high (3) Oil Cleaner
temperature
Cleaning by honing Cleaning of the inside and replacement
Detailed and precision inspection and (2) Speed Governor and Emergency of the filter
Stopping Device
repair of the stationary blades and Overhaul and repair of the attached
labyrinths Inspection of the speed governor pump and the fan
(3) Casing mechanism and the piping for the
control oil
Measurement of the Cleaning of the
(3) Turning Device
inside and the outside of casing, detailed
and precision inspection Detailed and precision inspection of the
gears and the bearings
Measurement of the level of the
horizontal flange Inspection of the clutch mechanism
Measurement of the alignment of the
casing
Maintenance of the bolts, hardness test
(4) Bearings
Adjustment of the contact of the white
metals
Measurement of the bearing gaps

263
3.4.1.4 Special Maintenance
Accumulated operating hours of many of the then new and advanced thermal power plants in Japan that were
the motive power for the rapid development of the Japanese economy are reaching one hundred thousand hours or
more. It is time for them to be thoroughly inspected in a systematic manner.
Desirable items to be inspected are listed below.

(1) Rotors of high, medium and low pressure turbines


a. Center hole......................... Visual inspection by means of a bore scope, magnetic particle test, liquid penetrant
test and ultrasonic test
b. Surface of the rotors .......... Hardness test at the designated points, structural examination by means of a
microscope, liquid penetrant test of general surface, magnetic particle test, hardness
test

(2) Blades
a. Embedded portion.............. Inspection to check whether the roots of the first and second stage rotors of the high
and the medium pressure turbines that are exposed to high temperature have lifted
Ultrasonic test of the rotating blades in each of the high, and the medium pressure
stages
b. Shroud tenon...................... General inspection to check whether it lifted and how it lifted

(3) Main steam check valve... Liquid penetrant test of the inside and outside surface, magnetic particle test,
ultrasonic test, hardness test and structural examination by means of a microscope

(4) Turbine casing.................. Penetrant test of the inside and outside surface, magnetic particle test, structural
examination by means of a microscope

3.4.1.5 Content of the Periodic Inspection


Content of the periodic inspection for a steam turbine is summarized as follows.

264
V⋅T: Visual Inspection U⋅T: Ultrasonic Test
Table 3.4.1-2: Major Items of the Periodic Inspection Legend P⋅T: Penetrant test R⋅T: Radiographic test
Operation : Inspection M⋅T: Magnetic particle test
Number of Inspection
No. Place to be Inspected Inspection Method Remarks Illustration and Reference Point
Tested Samples Frequency
1 Usual inspection
(1) Casing
The inside
a. Corners and the inside V⋅T, M⋅T 100% inspection Every two years In our experience, cracks are liable to occur of a pipe
surface of each pipe due to concentration of heat stress in the seat

seat corners, the inside of a pipe seat and places A corner


where thickness of the material markedly
changes.

b. Nozzle chamber
(a) The inner and the V⋅T, M⋅T, A mirror 100% inspection Every four years (1) Removing the nozzle plate, carefully check
outer surfaces for inspecting the the base part of the nozzle vane, the corners of
inside of a pipe the nozzle chamber, the welded part, etc.
(2) Carefully check the shape of the internal A welded
connecting part
threads of the nozzle plate fixing bolts.
M⋅T, U⋅T

(b) The welded M⋅T, U⋅T 100% inspection Every four years It is a matter of concern that self-excited
connecting part vibration of the nozzle chamber occurs with
increased clearance between the casing and the
nozzle chamber causing too much stress in the
welded base part resulting in a crack there.

(c) Profile Dimensions 100% inspection Every four years It is necessary to monitor the total deformed
(Deformed amount) amount of the nozzle chamber since it is one of The inside of the nozzle
chamber
the parts of a steam turbine that is subject to
V⋅T, M⋅T, A mirror to
the severest conditions and creep deformation Deformed amount of the profile inspect the inside of a pipe
may occur after a long time operation. Measurement of the dimensions
a, b and c

(d) Fitted part Dimensions 100% inspection Every four years It is necessary to monitor the clearance
(Clearance) between the casing and the nozzle chamber
every year since it may increase due to
repeated knocks caused by vibration generated
by vapor flow.

(e) Vane Dimensions 100% inspection Every four years Increased eroded amount causes unfavorable
(Eroded amount) influences such as decreased turbine efficiency,
weakened strength of the rotating blades, etc.
Measuring point
It is necessary to carefully monitor a turbine
unit with which starts and stops are frequently
repeated especially because it may suffer from
outstanding increase in the eroded amount.

Eroded amount

265
Operation : Inspection
Number of Inspection
No. Place to be Inspected Inspection Method Remarks Illustration and Reference Point
Tested Samples Frequency
c. The spot-faced part of V⋅T, M⋅T 100% inspection Every two years The corners and the spot- faced part are liable
the horizontal joint to cracking. Inlet Sleeve Spot faced portion

d. The inlet sleeves V⋅T, M⋅T, 100% inspection Every two years Carefully observe tearing-off, scoring and
Dimensions cracks on the border of an area to which stelite
is coated. The maintenance of dimensions of
bearing seal ring and seal ring is also
important.

e. Hole Plug for the M⋅T, Dimensions, 100% inspection Every two years The Hole Plug should be carefully inspected so
balance hole Shape of the screw that it may be easily removed and installed as
threads needed. Inspection of the male and the
female threads should be assuredly effected
since its coming off during operation may
result in a serious accident. Hole Plug Stopper

Outer Casing
f. Balance tube M⋅T, U⋅T 100% inspection Every two years Cracks in the welded part and the extent of
(Wall thickness) reduction in the wall thickness of the inner part
of the vent should be controlled. Hole Plug Hole Plug head
clearance

g. Welded part 100% inspection Every two years Cracks are liable to occur in the welded part of Inner Casing
V⋅T, M⋅T
the pipe base and also to the trace of the
welding for repair effected when it was
manufactured among the wide welded area.
Inspect the male and the female
It is also desirable to concentrate the inspection threads of the Hole Plug
on the welded part of the Low Pressure Casing
Stay.

h. Key V⋅T, Dimension 100% inspection Every four years It is necessary to control the clearance to be
(Clearance) appropriate at all the keys accessible for
Inner
inspection so that expansion and shrinking of
Casing
the casing may not be constrained.

(2) Casing Connecting Tube


a. Welded outer surface of V⋅T, M⋅T 100% inspection Every four years Cracks occur because the shape is so
the seat for the complicated and the wall thickness is so Outer
extraction tube variable that heat stress is caused. Casing

b. Main Steam Inlet Piping The outer surface: 100% inspection Every four years Remove Pipe Base and the welded part of
Drain Pipe Base V⋅T, M⋅T Drain Pipe and observe the inside of Main Pipe The welded outer
The inner surface: A and the welded part of Pipe Base by means of a surface of the seat for
mirror to inspect the inside of a pipe. the Extraction Tube
mirror to inspect the
inside of a pipe Effect M⋅T on the outer surface.
Main Steam Inlet Piping
Drain Pipe Base

266
Operation : Inspection
Number of Inspection
No. Place to be Inspected Inspection Method Remarks Illustration and Reference Point
Tested Samples Frequency
(3) Rotor Rs
a. The R portion of the V⋅T, M⋅T 100% inspection Every four years The small size parts near the inlets of the high
outer surface pressure and the medium pressure steam and
the bottom of the dummy groove require
inspection.
b. Shoulders of the V⋅T, U⋅T 100% inspection Every two years In case the T root is used to embed the first The shoulder part of the first stage
The outside blades of the medium pressure turbine
grooves in the rotor of stage blade of the medium pressure, check
diameter of the rotor
the medium pressure whether any cracking occurs in the inside by
turbine where the the outer surface(U.T) of the wall of the groove
blades are embedded for the blade. Hollows in the rotor in which
the entry blades are embedded
c. The outside diameter Dimensions The area around Every four years Whether creep deformation has occurred can
of Rotor the steam inlet be determined by change in the rotor outside
A crack
(High and medium diameter. In this method, measuring points
pressure turbine rotors) should be fixed to grasp the yearly change in
the outside diameter.
d. Hollows where the side V⋅T, M⋅T, U⋅T 100% inspection Every four years Apply the same method as that used for the
entry turbine blades are root of the rotating blades.
embedded
e. Pump Shaft V⋅T, M⋅T 100% inspection Every four years It is desirable to remove the vane of the main
oil pump and to measure the part with the least
cross section and some other parts. (An area in which the blades are embedded)
Erosion
Lifted amount Tenon
Shroud Tenon
(4) Rotating Blades Shroud
Rotating
a. Tenon, Shroud Ring (1) V⋅T, M⋅T, 100% inspection Every four years Lifting of the shroud may be caused by heat direction
Measurement of due to sheering or touching of the tenon This
the lifted problem is common in rotating blades.
amount of the
shroud ring
(2) Measurement of 100% inspection Every two years In the event of serious erosion, part of the
Shroud ring cracks
the eroded caulked tenon is lost. This problem should be
amount of the observed. A unit that is subject to frequent
tenon starts and stops should be observed carefully. Cracks
b. Welded parts of the V⋅T, P⋅T 100% inspection Every four years In some cases, fine cracks occur in an area of
stubs the rotating blade of the low pressure turbine to
which the metal is welded. Especially for an
old blade where TIG welding was yet to be Cracks in the welded part of the stub
used, special observation is required.
c. Portions that make the Measurement of the 100% inspection Every two years The rotating blades near the main inlet and the Erosion of the part making the profile
profile eroded amount reheat inlet are liable to be eroded. It is
necessary to grasp secular changes in the
profile by means of mold transferring using a
standard gauge and compound as an additional Cross-section
of a blade
means.

267
Operation : Inspection
Number of Inspection
No. Place to be Inspected Inspection Method Remarks Illustration and Reference Point
Tested Samples Frequency
d. The blade root area of V⋅T, M⋅T, U⋅T 100% inspection Every four years Both for the blade and the disk, the highest
the side entry blade stress is experienced at the corner on the first
tooth. The inspection is to be effected by
means of M⋅T and U.T according to necessity.
However, in case the inspection has to be
carried out in a limited space such as the high
or medium pressure stage, P.T will be used. A crack in the blade root
e. An area of the blade in
the low pressure stage The blade
on which stelite is base metal
Erosion
deposited. Silver
(a) Eroded amount 100% inspection Every two years According to the erosion, the condition is to be solder
V⋅T
classified as follows and recoating should be
effected according to a planned schedule.
A crack Separation
(1) The surface is somewhat rough.
An image taken during R.T showing
(2) The surface is pitted.
incomplete fused spray of stelite
(3) The erosion has reached the base metal.
Special care should be paid to the leading
blades of a group since they are liable to be
Erosion
eroded.
(b) Separation and P⋅T 100% inspection Every two years Immediately recoat any cracked blade or where
cracking separation has propagated to a wide area.
(c) Bonding condition R⋅T (or U.T) All the recoated When recoated Make sure without fail that they have been
blades well bonded because the bonded condition Blade Ring
when the coating is effected is very important.

The steam outlet


(5) Stationary blades Measurement of 100% inspection Every two years The end of the outlet for the stationary blade is
Welded outer surfaces
(Blades near the main eroded amount liable to erosion because of steam oxidation
steam inlet and the scale and flowed-in drain.
reheated steam inlet)
Baffle Plate

The steam inlet

Valve seat

(6) Major valves


a. Inner corners, welded V⋅T, M⋅T 100% inspection Every time when Cracks are liable to occur around the welded
area overhauled areas of the baffle plate and of the valve seat
lip and the trace of the welding for repair when
the unit was manufactured.
b. Welded outer surface V⋅T, M⋅T 100% inspection On and after the Cracks are liable to occur around the welded
5th year areas of the structural members and the trace of
Every eight years welding for repair when the unit was
manufactured. The point where hardness is measured
Main Steam Stop Valve
Hardness of the flange surface

268
Operation : Inspection
Number of Inspection
No. Place to be Inspected Inspection Method Remarks Illustration and Reference Point
Tested Samples Frequency
c. Valve Seat V⋅T, M⋅T (P⋅T) 100% inspection Every time when Cracks are liable to occur in a part coated by
overhauled stelite. A stelite deposited part should be
inspected by means of P.T.

d. Flange surfaces of the Hardness Representing On and after the It is desirable to measure the hardness of the
main body points 5th year Main Steam Stop Valve that is exposed to the
(Only for the Main Every two years severest conditions among the valves and to
Steam Stop Valve) monitor secular changes in order to grasp the
tendency of its softening due to creep.

(7) Bolts exposed to high


temperature and high
pressure
a. Bolts V⋅T 100% inspection Every time when
opened
M⋅T (Fluorescent About 1/4 of the Every four years Observe damage to the threads and cracks
magnaflux) installed bolts in the bottoms of the threads. Usually, the
Hardness About 1/4 of the Every four years stud bolts must not be unscrewed.
installed bolts
U⋅T 100% inspection Every two years
b. Inner threads for the Hammering test 100% inspection Every time when Carry out the hammering test before loosening
stud bolts opened the nut and immediately after the unit is
opened to determine symptoms of damage to
the inner thread. In the event that a bolt
becomes shaky or the depth of a stud bolt in
the inner thread becomes shallower over time,
it is considered that the damage to the inner
threads has worsened.

Dimensions About two Every four years For a unit of which the service time has
representing exceeded 8~10 years, measure the internal
bolts per area and the pitch diameters every four years.
Checking of the - ditto - Every four years For the profile of the threads, copy the
thread profile profile by means of compound and
periodically observe secular change of the Actual profile Standard profile
cross section.
Checking of the profile of the female threads

269
Operation : Inspection
Number of Inspection
No. Place to be Inspected Inspection Method Remarks Illustration and Reference Point
Tested Samples Frequency
2 Secular deterioration check
(1) Rotors
a. The center hole V⋅T, P⋅T, M⋅T, U⋅T All the planes Once at 100,000 For a rotor where a blind hole is drilled in the
Dimension hours in service center, another of which defect was found
(inner diameter) and every ten during the inspection of the center hole
years thereafter effected when it was manufactured and others
of a unit that has been operated with frequent
starts and stops, it is desirable to inspect in a
short cycle of period.

b. Grooves for the blades V⋅T, M⋅T (or by P.T) Rotors of the 1st Once at 100,000 For a rotor having semicircle rotating blade
(For the T root and the to 5th stages in hours or so in fixing metals, it is desirable to sample some Blades
double T root types) the high pressure service rotating blades and inspect them since it is a
turbine matter of concern that cracking will occur in Rotor

Rotors of the 1st the rotor side of the seating surface of the
and 2nd stages in metal and also in the corner of the jaw in the
the medium groove for the blade in the rotor. Caulking Piece
pressure turbine Also for a rotor that is equipped with a flat
fixing metal since it was manufactured, it is A crack
desirable to check its secular deterioration by
A crack
an inspection method such as U.T from the
outside (for the 1st stage of the medium
pressure turbine) because cracking may occur
in the jaw of the groove for the blade in the
rotor.

(2) Rotating Blades Rotating Blade


a. Blade root V⋅T, U⋅T, 100% inspection 8th to 10th year Effect U.T and monitor the lifted amount of the
(For saddle shape Measurement of and every four blade root in order to control the creep
blades) lifted amount years thereafter deformation due to prolonged service under
Stopper Pin
high temperature and the stress corrosion
cracking of the stopper pin.
A crack

Lift
Rotor
b. Portion representing Measurement of Several 8th to 10th year It is desirable to control softening of the
the profile hardness representative and every four material used for the rotating blades every four
(Blades near the main (by means of X-ray rotors years thereafter years since the material may possibly be Measurement of
steam and the reheat diffraction or other deteriorated after prolonged service under high hardness of the surfaces
representing the profile
steam inlets) methods) temperature and this can be detected by
measurement of the hardness. X-ray
diffraction is available for the measurement of
hardness as an inspection method without
making any dent in the blade.

270
Operation : Inspection
Number of Inspection
No. Place to be Inspected Inspection Method Remarks Illustration and Reference Point
Tested Samples Frequency
(3) Stationary blades Measurement of 100% inspection 8th to 10th year It is a matter of concern that creep deformation
(Blades near the main inclination amount and every four occurs to the stationary blades in the 1st stage
steam and the reheat of a blade row years thereafter of the high or the medium pressure turbine
steam inlets) after prolonged exposure to steam of high
temperature and high pressure so that
difference in elongation between the rotor and Steam
the casing is constrained.

Amount of inclination

(4) Bolts exposed to high Destructive test One or two Every four years Select the place where the severest operational
temperature and high representative condition is realized and perform tests such as
pressure bolts per material examinations of structural transformation,
creep, low cycle fatigue, mechanical, etc.

271
3.4.2 Maintenance of Condensers
3.4.2.1 Inspection and Measures
Table 3.4.2-1 shows content of the maintenance and inspection to be effected at the periodic inspection.

Table 3.4.2-1: Content of the Maintenance and Inspection to be Effected at the Periodic Inspection
Timing of Inspection
Item Purpose or Method Countermeasure/Improvement
Maintenance Method
1 The inside of the • Inspection as to whether or not When the water VI • Clean it with a brush or something
cooling pipes clogging of the pipe with chamber is opened ET similar.
foreign matter, corrosion or • Install a stop plug in pipes that water
erosion has occurred cannot pass through due to clogging.
• Effect anti-corrosion or anti-erosion
treatment and install a stop plug as a
precaution.
• Replace the clogged pipe with a new one.
2 The outer surface • Inspection of erosion and When the main body VI • Install a stop plug in the damaged pipe.
of the cooling pipe damage is opened • Effect the anti-erosion treatment.
• Replace the damaged pipe with a new
one.
3 The surface of the • Inspection as to whether or not When the water VI • Clean it with a plastic scraper, deck
pipe plate and how marine creatures and chamber is opened brush, etc.
dirty matter adhere
• Checking of the connecting
part of the cooling pipes
4 The inside of the • Inspection as to whether or not When the water VI • Repair the damaged part.
water chamber a swell, separation, damage or chamber is opened PHT • Clean it with a plastic scraper, deck
a pin hole has appeared on the brush, etc.
rubber lining
• Inspection as to whether or not
and how marine creatures and
dirty matter adhere
5 The inside of the • Inspection of erosion and When the main body VI • Replace the eroded part with a new one,
main body shell damage caused by steam and is opened PT and install a protective cover.
drain attack, and inspection of • Clean the hot well.
the burned out part
• Inspection as to whether or not
any scale or dust has been
deposited.
6 The pressure- • Inspection as to whether or not When the main body VI • Repair the damaged part.
resistant portion of any cracking has occurred in the is opened PT
the main body shell shell plate, welded part, or WT
fixing part of the nozzle stub
7 Connecting piece • Inspection of deterioration of Once a year after the VI • Replace them with new ones after about
the rubber the rubber expansion joint by five cumulative ST ten years.
expansion joint viewing from the inside of the years since the first WT
body steam extraction
8 The extraction • Inspection as to whether or not Once a year after the VI • Repair the damaged or broken part.
steam pipe damage, breakage, adhesion. five cumulative PT • Establish a schedule to replace it with a
expansion joint etc. has occurred years since the first new one after 20 years.
steam extraction
9 The feed water • Inspection as to whether or not When the main body VI • Repair the damaged or broken part.
heater outer cover damage, breakage, etc. has is opened PT
(Lagging) occurred
V.I.: Visual Inspection E.T.: Eddy Current Test P.T.: Liquid Penetrant Test
W.T.: Leak Test by Filling Water S.T.: Hardness Test P.H.T.: Pin Hole Test

3.4.2.2 Cleaning of the Water Chamber and the Surface of the Pipe Plate
Negligence in cleaning of the water chamber and the surface of the pipe plate allows marine creatures to
adhere to them and strongly propagate on them so that the cooler pipes are so persistently clogged, requiring too
much labor to remove them. Therefore, cleaning of the water chamber and the pipe plate shall also be scheduled
whenever a planned shutdown or opening of the water chamber is expected.

272
3.4.2.3 Cleaning of the Inside of the Cooling Pipes
Cleaning of the inside of the cooling pipes is important to maintain the performance of the condenser, and
Table 3.4.2-2 shows the method of cleaning. However, it is necessary to check the properties and condition of
the scale deposited on the inside wall and to select an effective method since it may be different according to such
properties and condition. When the pipe is clogged with foreign matter, remove it first, and then carry out the
cleaning.

Table 3.4.2-2: Cleaning Methods for the Inside of a Cooling Pipe


Cleaning Method Properties of the Scale Method and Procedure
1 Washing out with a Algae-containing • Feed the nylon brush through the pipe by pressurized water from a pressure
nylon brush scale feed-type water gun.
• The water gun pressure should be about 0.6 ~ 0.8 MPa.
• Attach a rubber guide to the tip of the water gun in order not to damage the tip
of the cooling pipe.
• Wet the nylon brush in advance.
• Feed the nylon brush against the direction of the flow of the cooling water.
• Take a precautionary measure using a protective sheet so that the brush does
not directly touch the rubber lining in the water chamber on the opposite side.
2 Cleaning with a ball Slimy scale • Feed by pressurized water several granulated balls per pipe that are used by a
purge-type cleaner ball cleaning equipment through the pipes with a water gun.
• Feed the balls against the direction of the flow of the cooling water.

3 Cleaning with a Scale containing a • Feed by pressurized water a rotary tube cleaner with a water gun.
rotary tube cleaner small amount of algae • Wet the tube cleaner in advance.
• Feed the cleaner in the direction of the flow of the cooling water at first, and
afterwards, feed it against the direction of the flow.
4 Cleaning with a Hard scale • Use a neutral cleanser; never use a chlorine- or acid-containing detergent.
chemical detergent • Do not effect this treatment until it is ensured that the discharged rinsing water
has been completely neutralized to be harmless to the environment.

3.4.2.4 Leak Test of the Cooling Pipes


In the event that leakage from a cooling pipe is found, it is necessary to exactly identify from which pipe
among thousands or ten of thousands of pipes the leakage is occurring. Figure 3.4.2-1 shows the methods of
checking.
Point of leakage
Point of leakage
Rubber
plug
Wrapping sheet

(1) Wrapping sheet (very thin plastic film) method (4) Water-filling method

Rubber Black light


Point of leakage
Point of leakage plug
Manometer

Rubber packing
(5) Fluorescent agent method
(2) Water manometer method Rubber packing
Point of leakage Point of leakage
Foam Transparent Rubber plug
acrylic resin
Foam cap
Application of
A vacuum meter soapy water
(3) Foam method Vacuum-breaker
Vacuum pump (6) Vacuum pump method
(an ejector)
Check valve

Compressed air

Figure 3.4.2-1: Methods for Leakage Check of the Cooling Pipes

273
(1) Wrapping sheet (very thin plastic film) method
This method makes it possible for the unit to be operated with a single system. One end of the pipe plate is
blocked by a rubber plug, and the other end is covered by wrapping sheet or both ends are covered by the
wrapping sheet, and leakage is detected by a hollow in the sheet.

(2) Water manometer method


This method makes it possible for the unit to be operated with a single system. One end of the pipe plate is
blocked by a rubber plug, and a water manometer is connected to the other end by pressure welding. Sucking up
of a water column of the manometer shows that there is leakage from the pipe. This method can detect even a
pin hole, but it takes time to check all the pipes since the test needs to be effected pipe by pipe.

(3) Foam method(8)


This method makes it possible for the unit to be operated with a single system. Foam is sprayed on the
surface of the both opened pipe plates from a fire extinguisher-type spray gun. If the foam sinks into the inside
of the pipe, it means there is leakage from the pipe. This method can detect a relatively small hole, but has a
little difficulty to detect a hole in the expanded part of a pipe.

(4) Water filling method


This method can be used when operation of the unit is stopped and should be effected after it is ensured that the
water-filling support is in good condition. Any leakage shall be checked after the main body is completely filled with
demineralized water and left without being touched for 48 hours or longer. Moisture in the water chamber may cause
dew formation, making detection difficult. This method can detect leakage from a pipe and a joint portion of a pipe.

(5) Fluorescent agent method


The procedure for this method is the same as that of the water-filling method explained above, except that a
whitener of the diaminostilbene-type fluorescent agent is added to the filling water. This agent decreases surface
tension and increases osmosis of water to make it easier to detect leakage compared with the usual water-filling
method. The leaking point radiates light in a dark room when black light is irradiated on it. It is required to
neutralize and treat the liquid for discharging it after the test.

(6) Vacuum pump method


This method can be used when the operation is stopped. One end of the pipe plate is blocked by a rubber
plug, soapy water is applied over the other side of the pipe plate, and that side is capped by a transparent cap made
from acrylic resin or a similar material. The air around the cap is sucked with a vacuum pump, and the leaking
point is found by movement of the soapy water foam. Leakage can also be detected by monitoring a drop in the
vacuum meter needle with the stop valve closed after having sucked the air. Leakage from the pipe or the
connecting part of the pipe can be detected.

3.4.2.5 Checking of air leakage


Too much air leakage to the condenser lowers the steam-condensing capability and the degree of vacuum,
resulting in inability to limit the load on the steam turbine or in inability of operation. Checking of air leakage
can be effected with flon or helium gas as shown in figure 3.4.2-2. But flon is a regulated material from an
environmental protection viewpoint. This method is suitable for checking of the many parts of the unit including
the turbine and the piping. In the event that the degree of vacuum is lowered before or after the periodic
inspection, parts dismantled and repaired in the meantime and connecting parts such as flanges should mainly be
checked. The water-filling method explained above may be used when the checking is just for the condenser
system.
Breakable diaphragm

Turbine casing

Flon or
helium gas
Rubber expansion joint Low-pressure
feedwater heater
Connecting piping
Connecting piping

Gas detector

Connecting
Connecting piping piping
Air-cooling section

Vacuum pump

Figure 3.4.2-2: Method for Air Leakage Detection

274
3.4.2.6 Eddy Current Test (9)
The built-in-type eddy current test is a checking method to find damage to the cooling pipes. This checking
should be effected at every periodic inspection, and the data should be compared and arranged in good order
according to the passage of time. The eddy current test is a detection method that utilizes electromagnetic
induction. There are two methods: synchronized detection and phase analysis. Both or only the latter should be
effected. As shown in Figure 3.4.2-3, passing an alternative current through a coil situated near a metallic
material causes an eddy current in it due to electromagnetic induction. Such defects as cracks or any variation in
the material properties would change the eddy current, changing the impedance of the coil.

The cooled pipes

The AC coils

Figure 3.4.2-3: Built-in-type Eddy Current Flaw Detection Coils(15)

The condition of the cooling pipe can be known if this change in impedance is converted to voltage and
recorded using a suitable electric circuit. Figure 3.4.2-4 shows how the flaws are detected.

Dent in the outer surface Synchronized detection method

Synchronized Synchronized
detection method detection method

Phase analysis Phase analysis


method method

A foreign metal adhered to the outside


surface
Corrosion of the outside surface

Synchronized Synchronized
detection method detection method

Phase analysis Phase analysis


method method

Figure 3.4.2-4: Detected Wave Form vs. Type of Flaw

Since this method can only detect variation in the volume due to damage, a sample pipe should be extracted
corresponding to the wave form, and correlation between the wave form and any damage should be established.

3.4.2.7 Replacement and Blocking of a Cooling Pipe


Replace and block a cooling pipe from which leakage is found. Figure 3.4.2-5 shows the procedure for
effecting the methods.
Pipe from which Pipe
(1) Crimping of the end of the pipe Pipe leakage occurred
plate plate
Old
Rubber plug,
Copper rod brass rod, etc.
pipe

(2) Extracting of a pipe Pipe Procedure for blockng a pipe


plate Copper rod
Old
pipe

Fix a brass plate with


silver soldering. Pipe
(3) Inserting and expanding of a new pipe Pipe plate
plate Expander A rubber plug

New pipe
Procedure for expanding and
Procedure for pipe replacement then blocking a pipe
Figure 3.4.2-5: Procedure for Replacing and Blocking a Cooling Pipe

3.4.2.8 Checking of a Connecting Piece Rubber Expansion Joint


The service life of a rubber belt is about ten years. So, the following checking and measurement shall be
effected once a year after five years since the start of operation, and replacement shall be prepared after ten years.

(1) Visual inspection


Check whether or not any cracks,swells, or irregularities due to aged deterioration are found.

275
(2) Measurement of dimensions
Measurement of such dimensions as inclination, elongation, and shrinkage.

(3) Measurement of hardness


Replace it with a new one when the hardness reaches HS 80°. The hardness of the new one should be 65°±3°.

(4) A leak test by filling water shall be effected when the rubber expansion joint is replaced with a new one.

3.4.2.9 Repair of the rubber lining


Figure 3.4.2-6 shows a typical method and procedure for the repair. Cut the damaged part off and grind the
appropriate part and the surroundings with a grinder. Apply adhesive over it, attach a vulcanized rubber sheet,
and shape them with pressure using a roller or some other tool. Make sure by visual check or by using a pin hole
tester that there are no irregularities.

Application of an adhesive Vulcanized rubber

Metal part

Figure 3.4.2-6: Repair Method for the Rubber Lining

3.4.2.10 Replacement of a Bundle of Pipes


Copper alloy pipes may be replaced by highly corrosion-resistant titanium pipes when many copper alloy pipes
among all of the pipes have been blocked after prolonged operation. As Figure 3.4.2-7 shows, there is a choice
between the method of replacing only the cooling pipes and the pipe plates making use of the currently used
support plate of the condenser, and the other method of replacing a bundle of pipes including the support plate as a
module.

1. Removal of the copper alloy tubes Water chamber Inlet of the turbine bypass

(1) Current situation (2) Cutting off of the copper alloy (3) Removal of
pipes, Removal of water the copper alloy pipes
chamber and pipe plate
2. Replacing of the existing pipes with titanium ones
(a) Method of replacing only the cooling pipes and the pipe plate
The pipe plate
Titanium pipe plate Protective device for the turbine bypass

The stakes
Welding of the
titanium pipe
Newly fabricated water chamber
(6) Installation of the pipe plates on
(4) Installation of the pipe plate on the side opposite (5) Insertion of the side from which the pipes Expansion of Installation of the stakes
to the side from which the titanium pipes are to the titanium pipes are inserted and installation of the pipes
be inserted, the protective device for the turbine the water chamber, Welding of
bypass, and the newly fabricated water chamber the titanium pipes, P.T. (Liquid
penetrant test), The water-filling
(b) Method of replacing the pipe bundle module test

Newly fabricated water chamber


Supporting plate Pipe bundle module

(4) Cutting off a notch at the end


plate of the condenser, (5) Insertion of the pipe (6) Recovery of the end plate,
Installation of the water (7)Leak test by filling water
Removing the supporting plate bundle module
and the inner structure chamber

Figure 3.4.2-7: Procedure for Replacing of the Aluminum Brass Alloy Pipe Condenser by the Titanium Pipe
Condenser

2.4.2-1 Maintenance of the Feed water Heater


Table 3.4.2-3, 3.4.2-4, and 3.4.2-5 show examples of the main failures occurring in the feed water heater, those
of aged deterioration, and the main items of maintenance, respectively.
These items of maintenance and their frequency are just for reference, and they depend on the kind of a plant.
Therefore, it is necessary to obtain information on other plants and to operate a plant in cooperation with the
supplier.

276
Table 3.4.2-3: Examples of Main Failures Occurring in the Feed water Heater
Part Name Item of Failure
[Monel metal] Stress corrosion cracking
[Brass] Ammonium attack
Drain attack
Heating [Steel pipe] Inlet attack
Stress corrosion cracking
[Stainless]
Drain attack
Deposit of scale
Diaphragm of the cylindrical water chamber Fatigue damage
Seal ring of the breech lock-type water chamber Cracking in the welded part
Extraction steam nozzle Cracking in the welded part
Body and the parts inside the body Erosion, thickness reduction, cracking due to thermal stress fatigue
Diaphragm in the water chamber Erosion, thickness reduction, cracking in the welded part

Table 3.4.2-4: Examples of Aged Deterioration of the Feed water Heater


Phenomenon of Aged Deterioration
Measures for Control
Item Content
Deterioration of heat transfer The inside and the outside of Effecting the function test
Deterioration of

capability of the heating pipe the pipe are becoming rusty Renewing the equipment, Chemical washing, Jet water
Function

(scale deposited). washing


Deterioration of the structure Deteriorated function of the de- Checking in cooperation with the supplier
and the function superheating system, the drain-
cooling system, and the vent
system
Damage to and deterioration Ammonium attack, Inlet attack, Control by periodic inspection
of the heating pipes Corrosion, Erosion, Drain (Visual check of the heating pipe, Eddy current test)
attack
Deterioration of the heating Loosening of the expanded Effecting the leak test using pressurized water or air
pipe mounting part portion of the pipe Eddy current test for the heating pipe
Erosion of the welded part
Deterioration of the body and Erosion due to flowed-in drain Measurement of body wall thickness, Effecting
the material inside the body and steam inspection of the inside
Local attack (Measuring of the body wall thickness using the
Deterioration of Materials

ultrasonic measuring test)


Deterioration of the water Fatigue damage (hair cracks) Cutting off of the skin of the area where a hair crack
chamber diaphragm and the appears
corners of the pipe plate Effecting the periodic inspection
(Magnaflux particle inspection, liquid penetrantion test,
Measurement of hardness, Visual inspection)
Deterioration of the Hair cracks appear on the Grasping of reliable information on the operation history
diaphragm of the cylindrical surface area where stress is (Replacement of the diaphragm with a new one)
water chamber made of concentrated. Effecting the magnaflux particle inspection and the
forged steel liquid penetrantion test
Deterioration of the material Fatigue damage of the Periodically effecting the liquid penetrantion test
used inside the water diaphragm mounting portion
chamber
Deterioration of the nozzle Erosion and cracking due to Effecting the ultrasonic measuring of the wall thickness
portion thermal stress fatigue of the
material around the steam inlet
and the drain inlet nozzle

277
Table 3.4.2-5: Maintenance Items of the Feed water Heater
Maintenance
No. Operation Mode Maintenance or Monitoring Item
Frequency
Once every hour Level of the drain
1 to once every few In service Opening angle of the valve
hours Water quality control
Level of the drain
2 Once a day In service Opening angle of the valve
Water quality control
Level of the drain
Once a day to
3 In service Opening angle of the valve
once a month
Water quality control
Level of the drain
Once a month to
4 In service Opening angle of the valve
once a year
Water quality control
During a halt in operation Checking of the inside of the water chamber
5 Once a year (during the periodic Replacing and checking of the packing
inspection) Checking of the performance
During a halt in operation Checking of the inside of the body, Measuring of the wall thickness
Once every five to
6 (during the periodic Checking of the heating pipe, Measuring of the wall thickness (E.T.)
ten years
inspection)

3.4.2-2 Maintenance of the Deaerator


Table 3.4.2-6 and Table 3.4.2-7 show an outline of the main failures and aged deterioration that may occur in
the deaerator, respectively. Maintenance during operation is required in order to prevent and relieve these
failures and deterioration and to enhance reliability.

Table 3.4.2-6: Examples of Main Failures of the Deaerator


Part Name Item of Failure
Nozzle exposed to high temperature Cracking due to thermal stress fatigue
Bottom body plate Erosion and corrosion
Spray nozzle Corrosion and abrasion
Welded part Corrosion and cracking

Table 3.4.2-7: Examples of Aged Deterioration of the Deaerator


Phenomenon of Aged Deterioration
Measures for Control
Item Content
Deterioration of the heated Deteriorated performance of the Periodic control of the deaeration performance
deaeration system heated deaeration system due to (Checking of the level of the tray, Inspection of the spray
Deterioration of

unevenness of the thickness of valve)


Function

the water-feeding membrane


caused by increased bending of
the tray
Deteriorated function of the
vent due to damaged spray
valve
Deterioration of the materials Erosion due to flowed-in drain Inspection of the inside
of the body and inside the and steam Ultrasonic measurement of the body wall thickness
Deterioration of

body Local attack


Materials

Deterioration of the material Cracking due to erosion of the Inspection of the inside
of the nozzle materials around the steam Ultrasonic measurement of the body wall thickness
inlet, the drain inlet, the outlet
of the condensed water, etc. and
thermal stress fatigue

Table 3.4.2-8 shows the main items of maintenance. These items of maintenance and their frequency are just
for reference, and they depend on the kind of the plant. Therefore , it is necessary to obtain information on other
plants and to operate a plant in cooperation with the suppliers in the same manner as explained later on the causes
of and measures against representative examples of failures listed in Table 3.4.2-6.

278
Table 3.4.2-8: Maintenance Items of the Deaerator
Maintenance
No. Operation Mode Maintenance or Monitoring Item
Frequency
Once every hour Level of the drain
1 to once every few In service Opening angle of the valve
hours Water quality control
Level of the drain
2 Once a day In service Opening angle of the valve
Water quality control
Level of the drain
3 Once a month In service Opening angle of the valve
Water quality control
Level of the drain
Once a month to
4 In service Opening angle of the valve
once a year
Water quality control
During a halt in operation Inspection of the inside
5 Once a year (during the periodic Replacement and checking of the packing
inspection) Inspecting the inside of the body
During a halt in operation Checking of the functions
Once every five to
6 (during the periodic Inspecting the inside of the body, Measurement of the wall thickness
ten years
inspection) (Inspection of the tray and spray valve)

3.4.2-3 Maintenance of the Cooler


3.4.2-3.1 Maintenance and Control during Operation
The following maintenance and control shall be effected during operation of a power plant.

(1) Monitoring of the attached instruments and the measured data


Monitor the data on the temperatures at the outlet and the inlet of the cooler measured by temperature meters
or some other instruments to make sure that no irregularities related to function and performance occur.
Especially for seawater coolers, the pressure of the outlet and inlet of the cooler and, the opening angle of the
temperature control valve (the lower the performance, the wider the opening) on the cooling water side shall also
be monitored because its performance may be deteriorated due to deposited marine creatures clogging it and also
because the cooling pipes may be corroded.

(2) Checking of the appearance of each cooler


Check whether or not any leakage from the flanges is found and some other items.

(3) Inspection of the attached equipment


If an electrochemical protection device supplied with off-device electricity is used, make sure that the
corrosion control current and the corrosion control potential during operation are within the specified ranges. If
a seawater strainer (seashell filtering device) is installed, check the pressure difference, washing frequency, etc.

(4) Water quality control


When iron or chlorine is injected into seawater, the concentration of the solution to be injected and frequency
of injection shall be controlled.

(5) Storing of a device whose operation is suspended


If there is a spare seawater cooler or oil cooler, or in the event that the condenser cooler is bypassed in the
summer season, its operation is suspended for a long time. In this case, seawater in the seawater system of the
cooler shall be completely discharged, and the cooler shall be completely dried out for storing.

3.4.2-3.2 Periodic Maintenance


Table 3.4.2-9 shows the maintenance items to be effected during the scheduled suspension of operation or the
periodic inspection. Many of the maintenance items for the seawater system of the cooler are the same as those
for the condenser. However, for a cooler using seawater, which is different from a condenser as it is not usually
equipped with a ball cleaning equipment, maintaining cleanliness of the cooling pipes is more difficult than in the
case of a condenser. Therefore, it is desirable to increase the frequency of cleaning of the cooling pipe and to
effect cleaning semiannually in addition to that in the periodic inspection of the plant by switching the operation
to the spare unit.

279
Table 3.4.2-9: Maintenance Items to be Effected during Scheduled Suspension of Operation and Periodic
Inspection
Name of Equipment Inspection Item Method Frequency Countermeasures
Inspection of the inside Inspect whether or not Once every six months Effect washing with a
of the cooling pipes and how scale adheres to one year brush or something
and foreign matter is similar.
deposited. Review the frequency
- Clean them when of the cleaning.
necessary (V.I.).
Inspection of corrosion Inspect corrosion of Once a year Install a stop plug or
of the cooling pipes both the inside and the replace the pipe with a
outside of the pipes new one.
using ECT.
Inspection of leakage Apply water or air Once every two to three Re-expand the pipe.
from the expanded part pressure to the inside of years Install a stop plug.
and other parts of the the body, and inspect Replace the pipe with a
Seawater cooler cooling pipes whether or not there is new one.
leakage.
Inspection of the Visually inspect Once every two to three Apply epoxy resin
surface of the pipe plate corrosion of the pipe years coating to the eroded
plate surface (V.I.). area of the pipe plate.
Inspection of the inside Inspect whether or not Once every six months Repair/clean the lining
surface of the water the rubber lining is to one year
chamber damaged (V.I. and pin
hole check).
Inspect how the marine
creatures adhere (V.I.).
Inspection of the Inspect the consumed Once a year Replace the anode plate
galvanic anode plate amount of the anode with a new one.
material (V.I.).
Inspection of corrosion Check whether or not Once every two to three Install a stop plug.
of the cooling pipes any part of the outside years
or the inside of the pipe
is corroded.
Condenser cooler Inspection of leakage Apply water (oil) Once every two to three Re-expand the pipe.
Oil cooler from the expanded part pressure or air pressure years Install a stop plug.
of the cooling pipes to the inside of the
body, and inspect
whether or not there is
leakage (V.I.).
V.I.: Visual Inspection ECT:: Eddy current test W.T.: Pressure test (Water, Air, or Oil pressure)

It is necessary to effect an eddy current test (ECT) at every periodic inspection for a cooler using seawater.
However, the frequency of ECT for a condenser cooler and an oil cooler may be somewhat reduced provided that
the water is appropriately treated to reduce the causes of cooling pipe corrosion.
A stop plug must be fitted in a pipe whose wall thickness is found by ECT to be too greatly reduced or when
such a pipe must be replaced with a new one. Figure 3.4.2-8 shows the procedure for fitting a stop plug in a pipe.

Pipe plate Cooling pipe

Drive into the pipe


(e.g. with a hammer)

Stop plug (e.g. brass bar)

Figure 3.4.2-8: Procedure for fitting a Stop Plug into a Pipe

280
3.4.3 Preventative Maintenance and Remaining Life Assessment techniques of Equipment and
Components used in a Steam Turbine

3.4.3.1 The Main Body of a Steam Turbine

1 Typical Modes of Aged Deterioration of a Steam Turbine


Figure 3.4.3-1 shows causes and effects of the aged deterioration.

Causes Effects

Creep
A creep deformation
A creep rupture
Time Fatigue
Low-cycle fatigue Material deterioration
High-cycle fatigue Increased
Temperature
possibility of
Aged deterioration Embrittlement
damage
(Aged deterioration Stress Corrosion Strength reduction
of quality) Corrosion fatigue
Stress corrosion Increased
Environment operating cost
Start and stop cracking
Performance down
Load fluctuation Erosion
Corrosive Solid particle attack
Drain attack
Softening
Abrasion

Figure 3.4.3-1: Causes and Effects of Aged Deterioration of a Steam Turbine

The inlet temperature of a steam turbine is as high as 500°C or more, and the steam at the final stage where it
finishes its expansion is in the wet condition at a temperature of about 33°C and at a wetness fraction of about
10%.
Various kinds of deterioration occur due to the difference in the operating conditions mentioned above.

1.1 Creep
A material that is subjected to a load under high temperature gradually deforms and finally cracks and breaks.
This phenomenon where a material gradually deforms is called creep, and the cracking or the breaking is called
creep rupture.

(1) Creep deformation


Deformation due to creep can be a cause of aged bending of the steam turbine rotor, aged deformation of the
wheel casing, and aged lifting of the rotating blade.

(2) Creep rupture


When creep enters an acceleration zone, the strain increases and the material finally breaks.
A design to prevent creep rupture and cracking life assessment are effected based on creep rupture
characteristics (time taken until a rupture occurs under a certain temperature and stress).
Macroscopic deformation of a material caused by creek can be detected by measurement of the dimensions and
lifted amount of the rotating blade and the shroud.

(3) The mechanism of a creep rupture


The assumed process of a creep rupture is as follows. (1) A microscopic crack or a small void appears at the
grain boundary during a creep deformation. (2) Such cracks or voids grow and combine. (3) Finally an inter-
granular rupture occurs. Figure 3.4.3-2 systematically shows this process.

281
A start of a Growth of a
Inter-granular slide microscopic crack microscopic crack

Voids are combined and a


A void is formed and microscopic crack appears
A void is formed growing and is growing

Figure 3.4.3-2: The Mechanism of a Creep Rupture

1.2 Fatigue
Figure 3.4.3-3 systematically shows the process of formation and diffusion of a fatigue crack.
A crystal grain The direction of
repeated stress
A crack in the slip
zone appearing at
the initial stage
A cleavage crack
The outside The direction of growth The inside
(The inside) (The outside)

A ductility striation

A brittle striation that appears mainly


under a corrosive environment
The final slant
The The second stage separation fracture
first
stage
(Formation) (Diffusion of a crack)

Figure 3.4.3-3: Formation and Diffusion of a Fatigue Crack

(1) Low-cycle fatigue


Low-cycle fatigue is fatigue in which the total number of stress cycles to cause a rupture is small and strong
stress exceeding the normal proof stress of the material is applied to a point where stress concentrates or a certain
point so that plastic deformation is caused and finally repetition of the stress causes cracking.

(2) High-cycle fatigue


High-cycle fatigue is fatigue in which the total number of stress cycles to cause a rupture is very high, and it is
very difficult in many cases to detect the symptom from the outside in a non-destructive way.

(3) The mechanism of a fatigue rupture


The assumed process of a fatigue rupture is as follows. (1) Local plastic strain is repeatedly applied to a
material at its surface or a point with an internal defect. (2) Under such a situation as described above (1), a slip
line appears in the crystal grain and increases to form a slip zone. (3) Finally, microscopic cracking occurs along
the slip zone and diffuses.

1.3 Embrittlement
Materials used for steam turbines are exposed to high temperature during operation for a long time, and their
toughness and ductility are reduced. Brittleness is the result of this process and is progressive as time passes.
The turbine wheel casing, the rotor, the main valve, etc. that are used under high temperature are liable to
suffer from this phenomenon.
Generally speaking, brittleness that appears after heating at high temperature for a long time is caused by
segregation of such trace elements as phosphorus (P) and tin (Sn) reducing the grain boundary strength.
Figure 3.4.3-4 systematically shows the process of aged brittleness occurring to the materials used in steam
turbines.

282
Acceleration of the grain
Diffusion of trace Grain boundary segregation boundary segregation
elements of trace elements and embrittlement

Condensation and Precipitation of grain Acceleration of bulkinization


bulkinization of carbides boundary carbides and embrittlement

Figure 3.4.3-4: Mechanism of Embrittlement Phenomenon

Embrittlement occurs at temperatures of 350°C or higher, and does so in a relatively conspicuous manner in
the temperature range between 450° and 500°C.
When a material becomes brittle, its resistance to unstable rupture (brittle fracture) and its ductility are reduced,
and diffusion velocity of a crack is increased at the same time. For this reason, a big cracking may start from a
point where stress concentrates such as a subsisting casting defect. It is necessary to extend the warming-up time
in the rotor in order to prevent bursts that may occur in a cold start.

1.4 Corrosion
The stage of a turbine near the dry-wet alternating area that becomes wet with a heavy load and dry with a
light load is an area where corrosion must be especially observed. In such an area, a phenomenon occurs where
traces of corrosive substances dissolved in water droplets sometimes condense due to the alternation between a
wet condition and a dry condition caused by load fluctuation or by starting and stopping.
And corrosion and pitting occur more or less in a steam turbine that has been operated for a long time because
when the steam turbine stops, steam becomes droplets that attach to the metal surface even near the last stage
where wet steam flows and in the higher stage where the temperature is higher.

(1) Corrosion fatigue


Corrosion fatigue occurs when corrosion and repeated stress exist concurrently.
The fatigue strength of a material is lowered under a corrosive environment. This phenomenon is
conspicuous especially in the case of high-cycle fatigue. The tenons and the shroud for the rotating blades in the
wet area are liable to be affected.
In the case of corrosion fatigue, the higher the concentration of the corrosive substances and the longer the
exposure to corrosive substances, the more the fatigue strength is lowered. The fatigue limit is outstandingly
lowered compared with that in a dry environment.

(2) Stress corrosion cracking (SCC)


The type of stress corrosion cracking is either a crystal grain boundary fracture or a transgranular fracture
depending on the material, the stress, and the environment.
The feature of SCC is a delayed fracture under a specific stress, and it can occur under a stress that is only a
fraction of the stress with which a material fracture occurs under a non-corrosive environment.
Under the same corrosive environment, SCC is more likely to occur with higher stress, and with the same
stress, it is more likely to occur to a material with higher strength.

1.5 Erosion
Erosion that occurs to materials used in a steam turbine is mainly caused either by solid particles or by drain
(water droplets).

(1) Erosion by solid particles


Small solid particles of oxidized scale flying in steam from the boiler are in some cases the main cause of
erosion of the nozzles and the rotating blades in the high- and medium-pressure stage. Erosion often occurs
especially to the nozzle plate in the first stage, where stress working on the rotating blades in the first stage is
increased, affecting the reliability of the rotating blades in extreme cases.
In the event that the area of the nozzle throat is increased or the profile of the effective part of a rotating blade
is changed by the influence of erosion, the efficiency of the turbine is reduced.

(2) Drain (wastewater) attack


Erosion occurs mainly to the rotating parts by wastewater produced in the wet area. Typical erosion of this
283
kind is seen on the rotating blades of the final stage.
In another case, in the event that leakage occurs to a horizontal joint plane inside the wheel casing in a low-
pressure section, steam containing wastewater passing through the joint erodes the metal surface in certain cases.

1.6 Softening
The necessary strength and ductility of the materials used for the parts exposed to high temperature are
maintained by heat treatment. However, various mechanical properties related to the strength are deteriorated
due to the effects of temperature and stress caused by operation under high temperature for a long time. One of
these phenomena is softening.
The higher the temperature and the stress, the more conspicuous the softening.
Softening of a material used in a turbine can be detected by measurement of hardness.

1.7 Abrasion
Although the gasket installed between the rotor and stationary parts such as the nozzle is a non-contact type,
light contact between them may occur due to deformation of the wheel casing during a thermal transitional period
such as the start-up of the turbine.
Gaskets are gradually abraded due to light contact resulting in increased leakage of steam between two stages
to cause aged deterioration of efficiency.
Journals of the rotor and bearings can suffer from abrasion and sliding scratches after prolonged operation.

2. Object Components and Areas in a Steam Turbine to be Assessed and Damage to Them
2.1 Object Components and Areas to be Assessed in a Steam Turbine
The rotor, the wheel casing, the rotating and stationary blades, and the main value are the objects of periodic
maintenance and life control because they are the main components of a turbine.
Figure 3.4.3-5 to 9 show the object components and areas of each item of main equipment for which life
assessment must be effected.

An enlarged view of the dummy part

The T-root
type
The dummy groove
The medium- The place of the tenon
The medium-pressure The high-pressure pressure rotating
rotating blades A shroud
rotating blades blades
The profile

The blade root

A rotor
The center hole
The dummy part The outside surface
The side entry type

An enlarged view of the blade groove


Figure 3.4.3-5: Object Components and Areas of the High- and Medium-pressure Rotor (reaction type)
for Which Life Assessment Must be Effected

The place of the tenon The profile

A disk The outside surface A disk The center hole

The blade root

The high-pressure The dummy part The medium-pressure A disk


rotating blades rotating blades
The dub tail type
An enlarged view of the blade groove

Figure 3.4.3-6: Object Components and Areas of the High- and Medium-pressure Rotor (impulse type)
for Which Life Assessment Must be Effected

284
The profile
The low-pressure
rotating blades A disk The part consecutively
connected by metal parts
one by one

The blade root


The center hole The outside surface
The side-entry type The fork type

An enlarged view of the blade groove


Figure 3.4.3-7: Object Components and Areas of the Low-pressure Rotor
for Which Life Assessment Must be Effected

A corner R portion
A main steam nozzle A corner R portion

A bolt

The flat
portion

Section A - A

Figure 3.4.3-8: Object Components and Areas of the High-pressure Wheel Casing
for Which Life Assessment Must be Effected

A bolt

The valve rod

The valve casing

Figure 3.4.3-9: Object Components and Areas of the Main Valve (Steam-adjusting Valve)
for Which Life Assessment Must be Effected

2.2 Use Environment of Main Equipment and Life Consumption Factor


Figure 3.4.3-1 shows causes of damage in components and areas of main equipment of steam turbines.
Among above-mentioned agreed deterioration modes, softening and creep are mainly caused by temperature-
related factors, so the high-pressure and medium-pressure turbines and the main valve that are subjected to high-
temperature and high-pressure steam are assessed.
As low-cycle fatigue occurs due to repeated thermal stress and centrifugal force caused by starting and
stopping of the operation at the power plant, the corner portions where stress concentration occurs are assessed for
the high-temperature and high-pressure, or rotating parts of the equipment.
Corrosion and drain erosion mainly occur in the wet-dry alternating stage and wet stage pf low-pressure
turbines.
Solid particle corrosion caused by materials flying from boilers etc. occurs at the inlet portion of the high
pressure and medium-pressure turbines. In many cases, the first stage nozzle plate is damaged.

285
Table 3.4.3-1: Main Parts of a Steam Turbine and Causes of Damage
Cause of Aged Deterioration Test

Remaining life
assessment
Embrittlement

Corrosion

Softening

Abrasion
Erosion
Fatigue
Equipment Place/Component

Creep
UT MT PT VT

The center hole { { { { { { { { {


The high and The blade groove { { { { { {
medium-pressure The disk { { { { { { {
rotor The dummy groove { { { { { {
The outside surface { { { { {
The center hole { { { { { {
The low-pressure The blade groove { { {
rotor The disk { { { { { {
The outside surface { { {
The high and The section of the shroud and the tenons { { { { { { { { {
medium-pressure The profile { { { { {
rotating blades The blade root portion { { { { {
The part consecutively connected by metal
{ { { { {
The low-pressure parts one by one
rotating blades The profile { { { { {
The blade root portion { { { { {
The nozzle The profile { { { {
The high and The corner R portion { { { { { { { {
medium-pressure The flat portion { { { { { {
wheel casing The bolt { { { { {
The valve casing { { { { { { { { {
The main valve The valve rod { { { {
The bolt { { { {
UT: Ultrasonic Flaw Detection Test MT: Magnaflux Flaw Detection Test PT: Penetrant Flaw Detection Test VT: Visual Inspection

2.3 Example of aged deterioration of the steam turbine


Example of aged deterioration of the steam turbine in terms of four major cases of damage (creep, fatigue,
corrosion, erosion) are described below.

(1) Creep damage to the Tenon for a medium-pressure rotating blade


Photo 3.4.3-1 shows an example of creep damage that occurred to the tenon for a rotating blade near the inlet
of the medium-pressure turbine.
A structure where the top parts of the neighboring rotating blades in the reaction stage are connected in the
peripheral direction by the shrouds is adopted in order to improve the vibration characteristics. Traditionally, the
blades and the shroud were clinched by means of a tenon.
Areas around the inlet of the medium-pressure turbine can become hot, and strong eccentric force works on the
blades and the related parts in these areas because of the wide blade span, then such factors together with stress
concentration on the tenon cause creep cracking.

Photo 3.4.3-1: Creep damage to the Tenon for a medium-pressure rotating blade

286
(2) Fatigue cracking damage to the base part of the high- and medium-pressure disk
Photo 3.4.3-2 shows an example of low-cycle fatigue cracking damage occurring to the base part of the high-
and medium-pressure rotor due to repeated thermal stress caused by starting and stopping of the turbine.
Thermal stress occurs due to temperature difference between the inside and the surface of the disk. This is
caused by the large heat capacity of the rotor, leading to disagreement in temperature between steam and the
metallic part when the steam is introduced and also to inability of the inside of the disk to follow the rapid
increase in temperature afterwards.
Moreover, since stress concentration occurs around the corner and the groove parts of the rotor surface, plastic
deformation is repeated every time the turbine is started and stopped, leading to accumulated fatigue and finally to
cracking.

Photo 3.4.3-2: Low-cycle fatigue to the base part of the disk

(3) Corrosion fatigue damage to the part of a rotor in which rotating blades are embedded
Photo 3.4.3-3 shows an example of the corrosion fatigue occurring to the part of a low-pressure rotor in which
a rotating blade is embedded.
Impurities or corrosive substances in steam concentrated in the gap between the rotor and the rotating blades
cause corrosion pitting. Starting from a pit, a fatigue crack develops and expands because the fatigue strength of
a material is reduced under a corrosive environment.

A crack
The first hook
A specimen to be
taken The second hook
The third hook The starting point
(The outlet side) (the inlet side)

Photo 3.4.3-3: Corrosion Fatigue of the Part of a Rotor Where Blades are Embedded

(4) Erosion of the nozzle of the first stage (1)


Chipped parts are often found on the first-stage nozzle of the high- and medium-pressure turbine, and Photo
3.4.3-4 shows an example of the chipped part. This is assumed to be caused by oxidized scale that has been
separated from the boiler pipe flying into the turbine and finally crashes into the nozzle at high speed. This
phenomenon is called solid particle erosion (SPE). Since there is concern that the developed erosion would
reduce the internal efficiency and have a bad influence on the first-stage rotating blades, repair needs to be
effected in a timely manner.

Photo 3.4.3-4: Erosion of the Nozzle of the First Stage

3. Techniques for Remaining Life Assessment of a Steam Turbine


3.1 The methods of remaining life assessment
Usually, methods for the remaining life assessment of major materials for steam turbines that have been
operated under high temperature and high pressure for a long time are roughly classified into the following three.

287
(1) Remaining life assessment by a destructive test (direct assessment method)
Among the test methods using destructive tests, one is where the specimens are sampled from the materials of
an actual turbine in service, and another is where the materials thrown away are utilized.

(2) Remaining life assessment by a non-destructive test (direct assessment method)


Conventionally, the main non-destructive tests for periodic inspection include visual inspection (VT), the
penetrant flaw detection test (PT), the magnaflux flaw detection test (MT), and the ultrasonic flaw detection test
(UT).

(3) Remaining life assessment by analytical calculation (indirect assessment method)(2)


The analytical calculation method is an assessment method where damage to the materials (consumed life) and
the time until cracking occurs (remaining life) are calculated based on temperature and stress analysis effected by
means of the finite element method (FEM) or of a kind of simple calculation, the operation history, and the data
on the materials.

3.2 Techniques for remaining life assessment by means of non-destructive inspection


Here, we introduce techniques for remaining life assessment by means of non-destructive inspection in relation
to each kind of damage or aged deterioration.
Table 3.4.3-2 shows examples of remaining life assessment techniques by means of non-destructive inspection
now being applied to actual steam turbines, and an outline of each method is given below.

Table 3.4.3-2: An Example of Techniques for Remaining Life Assessment by a Non-destructive Test
Cause of
Assessment Method Parameters to be detected Instruments/Measuring Method
Damage
Measurement of hardness Hardness A portable hardness tester
Measurement of hardness together Hardness A portable hardness tester
with analytical calculation
Measurement of electric resistance Electric resistance An electric resistance-measuring
device
By A parameters Creep void The replica method
Creep
By the average length of the void Creep void The replica method
By the area rate of the void Creep void The replica method
By the mean area rate of the Carbides The replica method
carbides
By comparison of the structures Voids, Minute cracks, Structural The replica method
(Area affected by welding heat) change, Precipitated substances
Measurement of microscopic Length of microscopic cracks The replica method
cracks
Measurement of hardness Hardness A portable hardness tester
Fatigue
Measurement of hardness together Hardness A portable hardness tester
with analytical calculation
Measurement of X-ray diffraction Half-value width An X-ray diffraction device
Polarization Current density A polarization test device, A small-
size electrolysis cell
Embrittlement
Chemical etching Surface roughness, Intergranular A surface roughness tester, The
corrosion cleavage width replica method

3.2.1 Creep damage


(1) A technique by means of hardness measurement
A technique to assess remaining life by means of change in hardness taking place in a long period of operation
under high temperature is widely used because it is easy to carry out and the quantitative accuracy of the
assessment is relatively good. Removal of the surface layer and metallographic tests of the specimen are
effected to avoid unfavorable influence on the surface layer whose quality has changed due to decarburization and
machining. An Equotip hardness tester or a Shore hardness tester is used for field use.
Some methods of assessing remaining life based on the measurement of hardness are explained below.

288
(i) A method by means of measurement of hardness(2) ~ (6)
The hardness of the low-alloy steel for equipment used in steam turbines that is exposed to high temperature
drops due to the change in the metal structure under high temperature (deformation resistance change). This
drop in hardness occurs even with no load as shown in Figure 3.4.3-10 (heating with no load) and is accelerated
by a load being imposed.
Heated material with no load

Vickers hardness (Hv)

Before heated
Temperature Heated Materials that
(°C) material received creep
with no load damage
450 { ⎯⎯
500 U S
Materials
550 { { that received
550 † † creep
damage

[Cr-Mo-V steel]
Figure 3.4.3-10: Relation between the Temperature Time Parameter and Hardness

The hardness test method assesses the creep damage rate by means of the amount or rate of hardness drop
measured in actual steam turbines. Figure 3.4.3-11 shows the relationship between creep damage rate φc and
drop in hardness ∆Hv (difference in hardness between a material with a load applied and another with no load
applied), and the creep damage rate is obtained from the measurement of hardness making use of the figure.

CrMoV forged iron

CrMoV cast iron


Drop in hardness (∆Hv)

Creep damage rate φc (t/tr)


[Cr-Mo-V steel]

Figure 3.4.3-11: Relation between Creep Damage Rate and Drop in Hardness

(ii) A method of using hardness measurement together with analytical calculations (1)
This method assesses the creep damage rate by means of creep rupture characteristics after deterioration that
are obtained from hardness measured in an area that received thermal aging (an area exposed to high temperature
but only to low stress), as well as by means of the analytical calculations. Figure 3.4.3-12 shows the summarized
test results of creep rupture characteristics represented by hardness and temperature time parameters. And creep
rupture characteristics after aged deterioration are obtained from measurement of hardness on actual steam
turbines and the calculation result of temperature and stress by Formula (1) that is induced from the figure.
T(C+logtr)={Σai⋅(logσ)i-1⋅Hv+Σbi⋅(logσ)i-1 ........................................................................... (1)
where tr: Creep rapture time
T: Absolute temperature
C: Material constant
Hv: Vickers hardness
σ: Working stress
ai⋅bi: Approximation constants

289
Stress σ (kg/mm2)
(Estimation according
to the formula (1))
Values obtained by
experiments

Temperature time parameter (×10-3)


[Cr-Mo-V steel]

Figure 3.4.3-12: Comparison between Data on Creep Rupture Characteristics Obtained from Experiments and its
Estimation Based on Measured Hardness

(2) The electric resistance method (3)- (5)


The electric resistance method measures structural change that occurred during operation at high temperature
(cohesion bulkinization of carbides, drop in solid dissolved carbon in the matrix, and some others) by means of
the potential difference method.
Like in the case electric resistance drops even by heating with no load applied, and the drop is accelerated with
stress loaded. That is, the higher the creep damage rate, the greater the drop in electric resistance.
The electric resistance method assesses the creep damage rate by the ratio between the difference in electric
potential measured on actual equipment and the same measured on a specimen that has not been subjected to
deterioration (electric resistivity ratio).
Figure 3.4.3-13 shows the relationship between creep damage rate φc and the dropped amount of the electric
resistivity ratio ∆Rρ (difference in electric resistivity between a material with a load applied and the same material
with no load applied), and the creep damage rate is obtained from the measured electric resistance making use of
this figure.
Dropped amount of electric resistivity ratio
(∆Rρ)

Creep damage rateφc (t/tr)


[Cr-Mo-V steel]

Figure 3.4.3-13: Relation between Creep Damage Rate and Dropped Amount of Electric Resistivity Ratio

(3) The structure-observing method


The structure-observing method is where a metal structure is observed by means of a replica, and the extent of
damage is assessed by the degree of structural change. Since the change in the structure due to creep damage
itself can possibly be grasped, it is an important technique. Concretely speaking, the structure is transferred to a
replica film after the portion of metal to be assessed is polished and etched. The vapor deposition of gold is
applied to the replica, and the replica is observed by a scanning electron microscope.
Figure 3.4.3-14 and Photo 3.4.3-5 show the procedure for picking up of the replica and an example of
observation of a creep void (a cavity), respectively.

290
Photo 3.4.3-5: An Example of an Observed Creep Void by Means of a Replica

(i) The replica (ii) Transfer of (iii) Picking up (iv) Vapor deposition of gold
film the structure the replica (to give the replica electric conductivity)
A crack or a void
A carbide
The replica

A metal specimen (polished and etched)

Figure 3.4.3-14: Procedure for Picking up of a Replica

For creep, there is a special feature where at first, formation of a creep void is recognized during the process of
damage and it develops, expands, and combines to become a crack through a microscopic crack. There is a
correlation between the situation of void formation and the creep damage rate.
The following methods are proposed for quantifying the occurrence of a void.
(i) The “A” parameter method
(ii) The mean length of void method
(iii) The area rate of void method
(iv) The mean area of carbide method
(v) The structure comparison method

3.2.2 Fatigue Damage


(1) The microscopic crack measurement method (10)(11)
Early in life, many minute cracks appear on the surface of a material that received fatigue damage due to
thermal stress fatigue, and they grow or repeat integration to constitute a major crack. The microscopic crack
measurement method assesses fatigue damage by detection by means of the replica behavior of the growing
microscopic cracks before they become a major crack.
Figure 3.4.3-15 shows the data. These data were obtained by means of a replica that detected the growing
process of minute cracks with a high-temperature, low-cycle fatigue test that was interrupted at each loading
condition.
The maximum microscopic crack length (mm)

Loading condition
A material used for 140,000 hours

A virgin material

Fatigue damage rate φf (N/Nf)


[Cr-Mo-V cast iron]

Figure 3.4.3-15: Relation between the Fatigue Damage Rate and the Maximum Microscopic Crack Length

291
(2) A technique by means of hardness measurement
(i) The hardness-measuring method (1)(12)
For high-temperature, low-cycle fatigue, the fatigue damage rate is obtained from the measurement of hardness
making use of the relationship between the rate of the hardness after deterioration against that of the aged material
and the fatigue damage rate.

(ii) The method of using hardness measurement together with analytical calculations (1)(13)
In the same manner as that of the creep damage assessment, this method assesses the fatigue damage rate by
means of the low-cycle fatigue characteristics obtained from the hardness of an area that received thermal aging
(the absolute value of hardness), as well as by means of analytical calculations.

(3) The X-ray diffraction method (1)(14)


Fatigue damage is one of the concerns regarding the bottom of the groove in the periphery of the rotor and
some other portions. However, hardness measurement is difficult because of their narrowness. Therefore, the
mean value width measurement by means of the X-ray diffraction method is applied.

3.2.3 Embrittlement
(1) The polarization method (1)(12)(15)(16)
The polarization method assesses the degree of embrittlement by means of the relationship between the voltage
and the current (polarization curve) appearing when electrolysis is caused in the electrolysis solution using a part
whose embrittlement is to be calculated as the anode, as well as by means of the phenomenon where the natural
electric potential varies according to advancement of embrittlement.

(2) The chemical etching method (17)


The chemical etching method detects advancement of embrittlement by means of measurement of the depth of
the grain boundary corroded groove (roughness and width of the grain boundary groove) to know the amount of
segregation at the phosphorus grain boundary following selective corroding of a certain grain boundary by picric
acid.

3.3 Application of Remaining Life Assessment and an Example of its Verification


Figure 3.4.3-16(4) shows an example of application of remaining life assessment to a rotor in a high-pressure
turbine by non-destructive inspection. The reference part is the peripheral area of the coupling where the
temperature and the stress are low, and the area to be assessed is the part in the first stage of the high-pressure
turbine.
Assessment of a part in the high-pressure area is not always possible because measurement and inspection of
actual equipment is required to effect assessment of the remaining life by means of non-destructive inspection as
shown in Table 3.4.3-2. For example, for a rotor of a high-pressure turbine, assessment of creep damage to the
center hole is necessary, and a device for this purpose has been developed.
Photo 3.4.3-6(1) shows a device to pick up a replica of the center hole of a rotor and measurement of hardness
as an example.

Photo 3.4.3-6: A Device for Remaining Life Assessment of the Rotor Center Hole [MACH-I]

Figure 3.4.3-17(1)(18) shows the result of remaining life assessment of a high- and medium-pressure outer wheel
casing. (The cumulative operation hours is about 160,000 hours, the number of starts and stops is 370, and the
temperature of the part to be assessed is 538°C.)

292
[1]Operation history
Number of starts and stops: 370 Operated time: 161,000 hours Steam temperature: 538°C

The lower half The zone where [2] Result of

Fatigue damage φf
cracks may occur the life assessment

The reheated steam


Figure 3.4.3-17:
Safe zone
The part to be assessed An Example of Actual
The main steam Application of Remaining
The part to
be assessed Creep damage φc Life Assessment of a High-
and Medium-pressure Outside
[3]Observation Result of a Replica
Wheel Casing
Observation result by a scanning
electron microscope (SEM)
Symbol Mark Inspection Item
Electric resistance (×1000)
measurement
Hardness measurement
Microscopic crack
measurement
Electric resistance Hardness Microscopic crack
measurement measurement measurement

Figure 3.4.3-16: An Example of Actual Application


of Remaining Life Assessment of a High-pressure
Rotor by Means of Non-destructive Inspection

It had been predicted that a crack would have occurred at the R portion of the base part of the main steam pipe
and the re-heated steam pipe on the outside surface of the lower wheel casing due to accumulated creep damage.
And a crack that was considered to be the result of the formation and combination of voids was detected during
the inspection carried out the following year.
Figure 3.4.3-18(1)(19) shows the results of a creep rupture test of a specimen taken from a place very near a
corner of the steam chest where accumulation of creep damage was predicted to have reached almost cracking
point and of observation of the creep point of the place under discussion. The specimen was obtained from a
main stop valve (subjected to about 90,000 hours of accumulated operation hours, about 800 starts and stops,
and a temperature of 566°C at the assessed place) dismantled for the study. The creep damage experienced in the
creep rupture test was near to the predicted damage, and the fact that the creep points had already been combined
to make a minute crack verified that the predicted value was correct.

Becoming a microscopic crack

The data of
the R portion of
the steam chest

Formation of a void in the steam


chest

(Combined voids)
(The initial
stage) The creep
damage rate and
A void is
the creep strain
formed
(an image
on the
replica).

The creep damage rate


[The main stop valve]

Figure 3.4.3-18: Situation of the Creep Damage Rate, the Creep Strain, and the Void

293
3.4.3.2 Heat Exchangers
1. Outline
Various kinds of heat exchangers are used in thermal power plants. In this chapter, we discuss measures for
improvement including a new technology to enhance future reliability of the major types of heat exchangers.
Table 3.4.3-3 shows the main failures that occurred to the condensers, the feed water heaters, the cooling water
coolers, the oil cooler and the gland steam condensers due to their aged deterioration, as well as the content of
improvement and countermeasures. For typical examples among them, causes and their countermeasures are
explained below.

Table 3.4.3-3: Improvements of the Plant Equipment and Countermeasures against Malfunctions
Improvements of such major heat exchanging equipment as the condenser, the feed water heater, the oil cooler, the
cooling water cooler, and the gland steam condenser and countermeasures against major malfunctions
Name of Maintenance, Inspection, Improvement, and Replacement Method of
Improvements and Countermeasures
Equipment Item Purpose Inspection
Replacement of the cooling pipes with
(1) Replacement of the Prevention of leakage due to aged new ones
cooling pipes with new deterioration, enhancement of performance ET
ones and reliability Replacement of the cooling pipes with
titanium ones
(2) Improvements of the Reinforcement of temperature-proof (1) Converting the base to a thermal
base exposed to high capability (To prevent cracking due to aged PT sleeve type
temperature deterioration) (2) Reinforcement of the welded part
1. Condenser (3) Improvements of other Countermeasures against wall thickness PT Increasing the wall thickness of the
drains and the steam inlet reduction in the baffle and some others due to
DI eroded part
base erosion caused by aged deterioration
(4) Total inspection of the Inspection as to whether or not erosion, VI
inside of the condenser corrosion, or cracking occurs on the internal Repairing the damaged part
body structure due to aged deterioration PT

(5) Replacement of the Maintaining airtightness of the condenser HT Replacement of the joint with a new
rubber belt expansion joint (Prevention of cracking due to aged
VI one
with a new one deterioration)
(1) Measures to prevent
(1) Prevention of ammonium attack
ammonium attack Replacing the heating pipes with new
(2) Prevention of erosion due to steam and ET
(2) Replacement of the stainless pipes
2. Low- drain attack
steel pipes with new ones
pressure Feed
water Heater (3) Inspection of the parts
installed inside the body Checking whether or not erosion or wall VI
Replacing the set with a new one
and the inside of the body thickness reduction occurs UT
plate
(1) Improvement of the structure of the water (1) Improvements of the structure of
chamber the water chamber
(1) Improvement of the (a) Prevention of leakage and sudden gush (a) Adoption of a new welding method
structure of the water from the welded part at the pipe end PT for the pipe end
3. High- casing and checking of Prevention of cracking at the pipe end (b) Increasing the corner R of the
pressure Feed inlet attack in the steel (b) Prevention of cracking due to stress water chamber
water Heater pipes concentration on the corner of the water PT (c) Installing a tube-inserted pipe
(2) Adhering of scale to the chamber Totally replacing the existing water
steel pipes (c) Prevention of the end of the heating pipes chamber with a new one in which the
VI above improvements are integrated
from being eroded
(2) Prevention of scale adhering VI (2) Effecting water jet cleaning

(1) Measures against aged deterioration (1) Replacement of the pipe nest with
(1) Replacement of the
a new one
pipe nest with a new one (2) Recovering of function and performance ET
4. Oil Cooler (2) Installation of a cover that is to be
(2) Modification of the (3) Simplification of maintenance and VI
tightened by flanged bolts on the water
water chamber inspection chamber

(1) Measures against aged deterioration (1) Replacement of the cooler with a
(1) Replacement of the
new one
5. Cooling cooler with a new one (2) Recovering of function and performance ET
Water Cooler (2) Installation of a cover that is to be
(2) Modification of the (3) Simplification of maintenance and VI
tightened by flanged bolts on the water
water chamber inspection chamber
(1) Replacement of the blower with a
(1) Replacement of the new one
(1) Measures against aged deterioration of
6. Gland blower with a new one
the impeller shaft (2) Installation of the blower in a
Steam (2) Modification of the VI
(2) Measures to prevent vibration of the separate place
Condenser blower to a separately
blower (3) Modification of the distribution
placed type
valve located around the blower
Meaning of the acronyms: ET (Eddy Current Flaw Detection Test) PT (Penetrate test) DI (Dimension Inspection) VI (Visual Inspection) HT
(Hardness Test) UT (Ultrasonic Flaw Detection Test)
2. Technology for Preventative Maintenance and Measures to Strengthen the Deterioration-proof
294
Capability of the Condensers
2.1 Corrosion of the Cooling Pipe
Aluminum-brass pipes have been traditionally used for the cooling pipes of condensers. Inlet attack and
deposit attack (the impingement attack) are corrosive and erosive attacks from the inside of the pipe.
Ammonium attack is a corrosive and erosive attack from the outside. In particular, corrosion and erosion from
the inside, such as deposit attack, can sometime pierce the wall in a short time to cause water leakage.
Such measures as the injection of iron sulfate, electrochemical protection, the injection of chlorine, ball purge,
and counter flow washing are traditionally taken to prevent corrosion and erosion from the inside, but additional
daily elaborate operation control is also important.
A periodical E.T. (eddy current flaw detection test) is effective as preventative maintenance for aluminum-
brass pipes. And nowadays, automatic control is adopted to arrange the data of the E.T. in order and to control
the remaining wall thickness.
Recently, there is a tendency to take the safety measure whereby all aluminum-brass pipes of a condenser
already installed are replaced by titanium pipes. The merit is a great reduction in the risk of seawater leakage
and the omission of the E.T. to be effected at periodic inspection and daily maintenance to protect the cooling
pipes. On the other hand, it becomes necessary to shorten the space between the cooling pipe supports as a
vibration-proofing measure so that titanium pipes with thin wall thickness can be used because titanium is
somewhat inferior to aluminum-brass in terms of heat conductivity.

2.2 Cracking in the Hot Nozzle


Hot fluid such as main steam wastewater whose temperature exceeds 400°C flows into the condenser. In
some cases, too much thermal stress occurs in the nozzle into which hot fluid flows due to a big difference in
temperature between the nozzle and the body where the temperature is about 33°C. Table 3.4.3-4 shows
examples of cracking that occurred in the part where the nozzle and the body are welded due to thermal fatigue
caused by repeated heating and cooling under operation in DSS mode.

Table 3.4.3-4 Damage to the Base Portion of the Condenser Exposed to High Temperature and Examples of
Their Countermeasures
Damage situation of the base portion of the condenser exposed to high temperature and examples of the
countermeasures in the shape of the base
Plant Shape of the Base
Output Time of
Operation Name of the
No. (at the Damage Damage Situation
Mode Base Original Shape Countermeasures
opening of Occurrence
the plant)
Cracks
High-pressure Seventeen A crack of 105 mm in (hatched area)
250 MW Drain years after the body and another
1 DSS
(1967) Manifold the operation crack of 30 mm in the
(150 A) started nozzle Fillet welding
Cracks
Medium- Twelve A crack of 115 mm in (hatched area)
250 MW pressure Drain years after the body and another
3 DSS The thermal sleeve
(1974) Manifold the operation crack of 70 mm in the
(100 A) started nozzle Fillet welding
Cracks
At a constant Nineteen (hatched area)
SSR steam
350 MW load years after A crack of 178 mm in
4 inlet Groove
(1970) (entered in an the operation the body welding
(150 A)
emergency) started Fillet welding

Three cracks of 80
Cracks
mm max. length in the
Turbine Lead Ten years
peripheral direction
600 MW At a medium Pipe Drain after the
5 occurred on the
(1973) load Inlet operation
welded part of the
(50 A) started
thermal sleeve and the
body
Meaning of the acronyms: DSS (Daily Start-Stop) WSS (Weekly Start-Stop) SSR (Steam Seal Regulator)

Cracking can be prevented by the countermeasure where the hot side, the nozzle, and the cold side, the body,
are connected through the thermal sleeve and the point of injection is chosen so that the hot fluid does not point
the body to relieve steepness of the temperature gradient between the nozzle and the body.

295
3. Technology for Preventative Maintenance and Measures to Strengthen the Deterioration-proof
Capability of the Feed Water Heater
3.1 Inlet Attack of the Steel Pipes
Inlet attack is a phenomenon where the protective film on the inside surface of a pipe is destroyed and eroded
by water flow, and it is often seen in high-pressure feed water heaters whose temperature of feed water is as high
as between 150°C and 200°C. Erosion and corrosion due to the influence of the pH and temperature of the feed
water are the causes besides vortices and too high a velocity of the fluid flow.

= Countermeasures =
Installation of an inserted pipe and a flow-smoothing bell mouth as illustrated in Figure 3.4.3-19 are effective.

Feed water Feed water

Leakage

An inserted pipe
An inserted pipe
(SUS304TB)
(SUS304TB)
A flow-smoothing bell mouth A flow-smoothing bell mouth
(1.25Cr0.5Mo Steel plate) (1.25Cr0.5Mo Steel plate)

Protrusion welding type Intrusion welding type

Figure 3.4.3-19: An Inserted Pipe and a Flow-smoothing Bell Mouth

3.2 Adhering of Scale on the Inside Wall of a Steel Pipe


In some cases, black consistent scale adheres to the inside wall of the steel pipes and some other places in the
high-pressure feed water heater where steel pipes are used. This scale is iron oxide called magnetite. Too much
magnetite adhered to the surface may lead to damage to the partition in the water chamber due to increased
pressure loss, overload of the BFP, imbalance of the flow of wastewater, and lowered heat conductivity.

= Countermeasures =
Such measures as periodical removal of scale, complete protection against rusting during storing of the unit in
the case of suspension of operation, complete control of water quality when the unit is restarted, etc. can be
countermeasures. Water jet washing and blast washing are usually used for the mechanical removal of the scale,
and acid washing with monoammonium citric acid is used for the chemical removal of the scale. The former is
superior in terms of cost, while the latter is superior in terms of removal performance.

3.3 Drain Attack of the Outside Surface of Steel Pipes


In some cases, steel pipes are attacked by erosion from the outside surface of the pipe, and leakage occurs
around the area near to the inlet of the heated steam flowing into the feed water heater or near the drain. In either
case, high-speed heated steam involves wastewater and blows against the outside surfaces of the front most row of
the pipes so that the erosion gradually penetrates into the inside.

= Countermeasures =
To keep the space between the main body and the row of the pipes so that the local flow speed of heating
steam does not become too fast, adopt an arrangement or location of the nozzle that prevents the heating steam
and the wastewater from interfering with each other. In addition to this measure, utilization of stainless pipes for
two or three outside rows is also effective.

3.4 Ammonium Attack of the Copper Pipes


For a feed water heater in which copper-type alloy pipes such as aluminum-brass pipes are used as heating
steam and the chamber in which the pressure is always negative, the pipes are eroded in some cases near the
area where non-condensed gas is extracted and at the support plate and the pipe plate near to the steam inlet
impact prevention plate where the concentration of ammonium is high.

= Countermeasures =
Replace some of the tubes located where any parts are liable to receive ammonium attack by stainless pipes
that have good corrosion resistance. Such measures as modification of the structure so that gas does not stay
around parts from where non-condensed gas is extracted or a change of operational parameters such as setting of a
vent amount also deserve consideration.

296
3.5 Non-destructive Inspection of the Heating Pipe
Carbon steel, stainless steel, aluminum-brass, monel metal, etc. are used for the heating pipe of the feed water
heater. But the necessary frequency and type of inspection vary according to the material used. The necessity
of inspection is high for carbon steel pipes and brass pipes in order to prevent leakage due to corrosion or erosion
of the heating pipe, while the necessity is low for stainless pipes that are highly corrosion resistant.
On the other hand, austenite stainless and copper alloy material that necessitate less inspection can receive E.T.
contrary to no necessity of inspection because they are non-magnetic materials, while checking of damage to such
ferromagnetic materials such as carbon steel pipes by means of E.T. is not so easy.
The following are inspection techniques to be used for the inspection of carbon steel.

(i) Magnetic saturation eddy current flaw detection method


This is a method where the influence of magnetism is removed in order to improve detection capability by
magnetically saturating part of the heating pipe whose flaw is to be detected.

(ii) The ultrasonic test method


This method can differentiate reduction in the thickness that occurred to the inside of a pipe from that to the
outside, and is used mainly for inspection of reduction in wall thickness using a submerged rotating probe.

(iii) The remote field eddy current flaw detection method


This is an inspection method where a transmission coil and a receiving coil are placed approximately a few
times the pipe diameter apart from each other, where magnetic flux is induced by the transmission coil penetrating
up to the outside surface of the pipe, and where the receiving coil receives the magnetic flux propagated along the
axis of the pipe.

Leakage from the heating pipe can also be checked by the opening angle of the drain valve, the drain level, the
temperature difference of the feed water, and abnormal noise. Although it depends on severity of the damage
suffered, the most popular method is to open the water chamber and install stop plugs in the leaking pipe and other
pipes suffering from the secondary damage. It is recommended to replace the feed water heater as a unit when
plugs are installed in 10% of the pipes. Replacing the heating pipes with stainless ones is also an effective
measure.

3.6 Damage to the Diaphragm in the Cylindrical Water Chamber of the High-pressure Feed Water
Heater
There is a structure where a diaphragm is used to obtain water tightness of the water chamber of the high-
pressure feed water heater (Figure 3.4.3-20). In this structure, the high pressure in the water chamber is
supported by a water chamber cover made of a thick plate and is sealed by the diaphragm. The diaphragm is not
often damaged.

The outlet for the feedwater

The body

The partition The water chamber cover


cover

The diaphragm

The heating pipe

The sheer piece


The pipe plate The water chamber
The inlet for the feedwater

Figure 3.4.3-20: The Structure of the Diaphragm

Since there are more cases nowadays where the welded part at the corner of the pipe plate where the partition
plate is attached and the welded part of the covering plate for the γ hole are cracked (fatigue cracking), it is better
to totally modify it.

297
= Countermeasures =
It is required to replaced the diaphragm every two years taking the DSS mode of operation into consideration.
The old one should not be used but should be replaced it with a new one at such an opportunity as opening of the
water chamber when the old one is broken.

3.7 Erosion of the Inside of the Low-pressure Feed water Heater Body
Reduction in the wall thickness of the parts located inside the heater such as the body plate and the pipe-
supporting plate due to aged deterioration has often been experienced recently.
A study revealed that the places where reduction in wall thickness had been experienced are those where the
flow of steam is relatively fast in the heater or places where there was movement of wastewater and where erosion
is liable to be induced. This attack is a phenomenon due to erosion and corrosion occurring in a specific
temperature range.
The corrosion speed of an iron or steel material is greatly influenced by the environmental temperature, and
there is a tendency for a material to increase its corrosion speed at a specific temperature. The number of cases
of the phenomenon where plates inside the body of the low-pressure feed water heater are corroded and their wall
thickness is reduced around the above-mentioned temperature range has increased.

= Countermeasures =
Such measures as padding by welding on the area whose wall thickness has been reduced, backing the area by
a metal stripe and/or partially replacing with a newly fabricated part made of SUS material are effected.

4. Technology for Preventative Maintenance and Measures to the Strengthen Deterioration-proof


Capability of the Deaerator
4.1 Deaerator
(1) Cracking in the hot nozzle
Strong thermal stress is generated in structural members when there is a steep temperature gradient or a big
change in temperature takes place in an area into which hot steam flows (in the case where the temperature of the
fluid itself changes, or in another case where very rapid changes in the temperature like thermal shock take place
due to wastewater flowed into the hot portion). The generated thermal stress may cause fatigue damage when
concentrated at the point of discontinuity and stress concentration is repeated in DSS operation mode

= Countermeasures =
Check whether or not there is any incorporation of wastewater from the upper stream in the piping (e.g., failure
in discharge of the wastewater due to deterioration of the wastewater trap), and take necessary measures to
improve the root of the incorporation if such incorporation exists. Adopt the thermal sleeve-type structure for
the nozzle as shown in Figure 3.4.3-21 in order to relieve the temperature gradient between the piping and the
body-side plate. Also use full welding to avoid the occurrence of stress concentration.

The breast plate The breast plate


The nozzle The nozzle

The reinforcement plate The thermal sleeve


Figure 3.4.3-21: Examples of Modifications to the hot Nozzle of the Deaerator

5. Remaining Life Assessment of a Heat Exchanger


As for heat exchangers, countermeasures against aged deterioration have traditionally been effected focusing
on preventative maintenance. However techniques for remaining life assessment have recently been developed
and have partly being applied to feed water heaters and deaerators.
Remaining life assessment is carried out by means of theoretical analyses, destructive tests, and non-
destructive tests, and utilization of these techniques has altogether improved its accuracy.

298
3.4.3.3 Pump

1. Preventative Maintenance for Pumps


As for preventative maintenance of pumps, there are two types of pumps. The first one includes such pumps
as the boiler feed water pump and the boiler circulating pump whose life is decided by fatigue under high
temperature and high pressure. The second one is a circulating water pump whose life is decided by seawater
corrosion. Moreover, there are another classification of the condition, that is, whether it is with or without a
spare unit, continuously operated or not, etc. It is important to effect preventative maintenance suitable for each
pump. In this section, the boiler feedwater pump and the circulating water pump are discussed.

2. Daily Inspection and Periodic Inspection


Scheduled maintenance includes maintenance by means of daily inspection and another one by periodic
inspection to be effected every two years or four years. Tables 3.4.3- 4 to 5 show the items for daily inspection,
and Tables 3.4.3-6 to 7 show the items for periodic inspection. The following points shall be observed when
each pump is inspected.

Table 3.4.3-4: The Content of Daily Maintenance and Inspection of BFP


Operation Record Discharge pressure/Suction pressure/Amount of feed water/Feed water temperature/r.p.m./Motor
current/Bearing temperature/Lubricating oil temperature/Lubricating oil pressure/Vibration/Temperature of the
returned seal water (for the bushing seal type)/Temperature of the flushing water (for the mechanical seal type)
Inspection Items Abnormal noise and vibration/Leakage from the piping, the gland and the coupling/Vibration of the small-size
piping/Opening angle of the sealing water control valve/Differential pressure of the strainers

Table 3.4.3-5: The Content of Daily Maintenance and Inspection of CWP


Operation Record Discharge pressure/Opening angle of the variable blade/Motor bearing temperature/Electric
current/Vibration/Noise/Gland temperature/Differential pressure of the lubricating water strainer
Inspection Items Abnormal noise and vibration/Leakage from the piping/Abnormal noise and vibration/Leakage from the
gland/Differential pressure of the strainer/Abnormality in the bearing lubricating water

Table 3.4.3-6: The Content of the Inspection on the Periodic Inspection of BFP
Item Content of the Inspection
The sliding ring • Clearance
• Cracks (P.T. inspection)
The main shaft • Measurement of the bend
• Cracks (P.T. inspection)
• Measurement of the dimensions of the gland and the journal
Rotating • Visual inspection
Component Corrosion, Abrasion, Fretting, Threads on the shaft, Key way
The impeller • Dimensions and run-out of the sliding part
• Scale
• Cracks (P.T. inspection)
• Visual inspection
Cavitation corrosion, Abrasion, Erosion, Dents, Movement
The outer body • Erosion of the inside surface
• Cracks in the stainless padding (P.T. inspection)
• Dimensions of the joint part and scratches on the surface
• Damage to and abrasion of the threads of the tightening bolts
The inner body • Erosion of the mating surface
Casing • Scale
• Cracks (P.T. inspection)
• Damage to the mating surface of the joint to the outer body
• Loosening of bolts
• Scratches and cracks
• Inner body bushing/Erosion of the water extraction pipe/Deformation
The radial metals • Contact
• Clearance
• A crack in and separation of the padding metal (P.T. inspection)
Bearing
The thrust metals • Abrasion of the thrust shoe and the disk
• Damage
• Checking of the thrust shoe movement
Others • Checking of the end play of the rotating components
• Alignment check after dismantling and assembling

299
Table 3.4.3-7: The Content of the Inspection on the Periodic Inspection of CWP
Item Content of the Inspection
The main shaft (1) Measurement of the bend
(2) Dimensions of the outside diameter of the bearing sleeve
(3) Dimensions of the gland gasket sliding sleeve
(4) Visual inspection
Corrosion/Cracks/Abrasion/Looseness of the key/Bolt hole
The impeller (1) Measurement of the outside diameter of the wearing
(2) Visual inspection
• Corrosion
Rotating
• Cracking
Component
• Dents/Contact of the tip of the vane with the liner
• Abrasion of the base of the vane entrance
• Looseness of the key/Contact of the joint part
(3) Cracking in the boss and the base of the vane (P.T.)
The coupling cover (1) Visual inspection
Corrosion (the general part/the flange surface/the portion for the O-ring)
The shaft sleeve (1) Visual inspection
Corrosion (the general part/the joint/the portion for the O-ring)
1. The bearing (1) Dimensions of the internal diameter
(2) Visual inspection
• Deterioration of the rubber
Bearing
• Boundary separation of the rubber from the shell
2. The shaft case (1) Visual inspection
Corrosion (the spigot joint/the boundary between the case and the shaft shell)
1. The pumping-up (1) Visual inspection
pipe of the Corrosion (the spigot joint on the flange surface/the general part)
discharging body
2. The stuffing box (1) Visual inspection
Corrosion (the spigot joint on the flange surface/the gasket inserting part/the general
Casing part)
3. The suction bell for (1) Dimensions of the internal diameter of the liner ring
the guide vane (2) Visual inspection
Corrosion (the shaft case inserting part/the joint portion with the vane entrance tip
and the inner pipe/the spigot joint on the flange surface/the general part)

(1) The feed water pump


In some cases, magnetite adhered on the impeller due to poor quality control of the feed water (AVT) may
increase the r.p.m. vibration for the same output. It is necessary to make sure by daily inspection that there are
no changes in tendency regarding discharging pressure, r.p.m., vibration, etc.
Since corrosion problems of the hard chrome plating applied to the wearing occurred due to the quality control
of the feed water (CWT) that was recently introduced, visual inspection of these parts is necessary at each
overhaul.
Note 1. CWT is the acronym for Combined Water Treatment and is a kind of water treatment for boilers
where combined injection of oxygen and ammonium are carried out.
2. AVT is the acronym for All Volatile Treatment (deaeration treatment) where a protective film of
oxide iron (magnetite) is formed with the help of hydrazine under a deaerated condition to lower
the oxygen concentration in the system to the lowest possible minimum in order to make the object
corrosion resistant.

(2) The circulating water pump


In the event that operation of a circulating water pump is suspended for a long time as it is installed, it is
necessary to operate it once a week or once a month to prevent pitting and crevice corrosion.

3. Measures to Strengthen Deterioration-proof Capability


In the previous section, we discussed preventative maintenance where periodic inspection is expected to
identify deteriorated parts and where necessary parts are repaired or replaced by new ones.
However, the following changes in the situation are now known.
(1) Power plants that are operated in DSS or WSS mode have increased.
(2) The percentage of power plants that have been operated for 20 years or more since their start of
300
operation has increased.
(3) The interval for periodic inspection of pumps has been extended.
So, it is desirable that deterioration-proof capability of the pump itself be extended. Table 3.4.3-8 ~ 9 show
the measures taken by the industries to strengthen deterioration-proof capability.

Table 3.4.3-8: Measures Taken to Strengthen the Deterioration-proof Capability of the Boiler Feed water Pump at
Hitachi, Ltd.
Phenomenon that
No. Cause Measures for Improvement
Occurred
c Cavitation erosion Increased operation time in the low flow • Padding of a corrosion-resistant metal on the first-
rate range due to increased opportunity of stage impeller
intermediate-load-range operation such as • Improvement of the shape of the inlet channel and
DSS and WSS the first-stage impeller
d Increased vibration Unbalanced force vibration due to locking • Adoption of a diaphragm coupling with better
of the tooth flank of the gear coupling flexibility
caused by a sudden change in the load
e Increased vibration Increased operation time outside the • Adoption of rotors with high rigidity
designed flow rate due to increased
opportunity of intermediate-load-range
operation such as DSS and WSS
f Damage to the shaft Fatigue started from corrosion pitting • Detailed inspection of the shaft and removal of
caused by deterioration of feed water corrosion pits
quality due to leakage of seawater or a
certain other reason.
g Occurrence of self- Increased clearance due to aged • Adoption of a vibration-damping-type balancing
excited vibration deterioration drum
h Corrosion damage Deterioration of the corrosion-proof • Replacing the current one with the new one to which
to the chrome environment due to increase in DO in the improved corrosion-proof chrome plating is applied
plating feed water caused by CWT operation • Improvement by adoption of a material not
necessitating chrome plating (adoption of a shaft
without chrome plating/a shaft seal part without
chrome plating)
i Damage to the part Too much stress due to thermal deformation • Replacing the current casing with a new one whose
where stress was of the casing repeatedly working on it when deterioration-proof capability is strengthened
concentrated the turbine is started and stopped • Changing the control method to temperature control
from the seal water control to prevent too much cold
water from flowing in
j Erosion of the inner Erosion corrosion caused by aged • Applying padding of austenite stainless steel after
surface of the deterioration of the material and developed effecting welding of carbon steel for the repair
discharging nozzle under an environment where there is steam
with high-speed flow

301
Table 3.4.3-9: Measures Taken to Strengthen the Deterioration-proof Capability of the Circulating Water Pump at
Hitachi, Ltd.
Phenomenon that
No. Cause Measures for Improvement
Occurred
c Reduction in wall Crevice corrosion due to seawater • Adoption of a corrosion-proof technique to coat the
thickness of the Aged deterioration of the material inside surface in contact with water with a ripoxy
loose flange due to lining
corrosion
d Corrosion of the Crevice corrosion due to seawater • Adoption of a technique to prevent seawater from
mating surface of Aged deterioration of the material penetrating by means of epoxy resin putty filled in
the intermediate the joining surface
coupling
e A malfunction of Clogging due to adhering of marine • Adoption of seal-waterless bearings
feeding of the seal creatures and accumulation of adult
water creatures in the feed water piping and the
Abrasion of the feed water channel in the pump
shaft-sealing device
f Corrosion of the Crevice corrosion due to seawater • Adoption of a corrosion-proof technique to coat the
flange surfaces of Aged deterioration of the material inside surface in contact with water and the flange
the bearing bracket surface with a ripoxy lining.
and the column pipe
g Corrosion of the Crevice corrosion due to seawater • Strengthening corrosion-proof capability by
bolts, the nuts, and Aged deterioration of the material applying a crevice corrosion inhibitor (RFC)
some others
h Reduction in wall Crevice corrosion due to seawater • Effecting a periodic assessment of corrosion by
thickness due to Aged deterioration of the material means of an ultrasonic test
corrosion of such
parts as the casing,
the column pipe, etc.
i Leakage of oil in the Crevice corrosion of the part of the variable • Neutralizing the possibility of oil leakage by
impeller boss (only pitch vanes due to seawater adopting oil-less bearings for the variable pitch
for the circulating control mechanism for the vane to eliminate the
water pump for the necessity of boss oil.
rotating vanes)

302
4. Assessment Techniques for Equipment
4.1 Assessment Techniques at Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.
The following are explanations of the assessment techniques for the area of components that are possibly
subject to fatigue taking remaining life assessment of the outer casing as an example to prevent escalation to
secondary damage to other equipment than the boiler feed water pump in the event of failure.

(1) Selection of objects of assessment and assessment methods


They had an experience where cracking occurred to the suction-side gasket seat of the outer casing (Figure
3.4.3-22 i) of a turbine unit whose operation had started about 15 years ago when the failure occurred; it was
repaired by welding, and the outer casing was replaced. Welding of stainless padding was carried out on the part
under discussion to strengthen corrosion and erosion resistance. That part was subjected to stress fluctuation
according to starting and stopping of the unit. It was sealed against differential pressure between the suction part
and the discharging part by a gasket, and the thrust force from the inner casing due to differential pressure worked
on that part and caused stress concentration on the corner.

Figure 3.4.3-22: A Structural Drawing of the Feed water Pump of the Mitsubishi MDG 267 Boiler

This life assessment method(Figure 3.4.3-23) is an analytical method, and they are studying the replacement of
the component when cracking due to fatigue has occurred, development afterwards, and when the maximum
allowable depth of a crack has been reached.

Cracking due to fatigue

According to the S-N


Stress S

curves for carbon steel


and stainless steel in
Notification 501 Number of Occurrences
Life assessment
of Cracking N

Development of a crack The max.


FEM
Depth of a Crack

allowable depth
Stress analysis Max. allowable crack
depth according to the
crack development
curve for stainless steel Number of Starts
(Cracking in NDI) Remaining Life and Stops N
Predicted future
operation mode

Remaining life
assessment

Figure 3.4.3-23: Remaining Life Assessment Method

Even if such a crack is found in the periodic inspection and repaired by means of welding, its deterioration
resistance capability would not be high enough and cracking would recur and continue its development. For safe
operation of a plant, it is recommended as the measure to strengthen the deterioration-proof capability of the pump
that “occurrence of cracking” should be deemed the end of its life.

(2) Results of remaining life assessment


The results of this analytical remaining life assessment were analyzed by means of an FEM model. Table
3.4.3-10 shows the results of the assessment in an actual plant. The part under discussion was assessed, and it
was found that it had more than 30 years of remaining life, also taking into consideration the fact that no cracks
had been found in a non-destructive inspection that had been separately carried out for a similar part of the unit.

Table 3.4.3-10: Results of the Life Assessment

303
Consumed
Part Name Name of Portion Remaining Life
Fatigue Life
The seating surface for the outer
casing suction-side gasket
1. The corner area More than
4.0%
(the suction nozzle side) 30 years
The suction nozzle

2. The corner area


More than
(in the horizontal 2.5%
30 years
direction)
The outer casing

The suction nozzle


Welding

3. The corner area


More than
(on the side opposite to 2.4%
The outer casing 30 years
the suction nozzle)

304
3.4.4 Corrosion of Steam Turbines and its Countermeasures
The conditions inside a steam turbine continuously change from high temperature and high pressure to a
pressure lower than atmospheric pressure and low temperature depending on the conditions of steam.
For a recent typical power plant, the steam temperature at the inlet of the turbine is about 540°C to 570°C, the
pressure is about 250 kgf/cm2 and the exhaust gas temperature is about 30°C.
The change in steam conditions agrees with improvement of the materials used for each part of a turbine and
of the turbine structure. Development of heat resistant materials having great strength at high temperature is
indispensable to achieve high efficiency in power generation.
The design of a steam turbine is usually achieved for the high temperature section and the low temperature
section separately. Table 3.4.4-1 shows typical materials used in each section of a steam turbine. Low alloy
steel containing a low percentage of chromium and molybdenum is used for the rotor, the casing, the steam valve
and the tightening bolt all of which are used in the high and medium pressure section. And low alloy steel that
has high tensile strength such as 3.5NiCrMoV steel is used for the low pressure rotor. In this material, chromium
contributes to the oxidation resistance and resistance to the graphitization, and molybdenum contributes to the
high temperature strength. The 12Cr heat resistant steel is used for the rotor, the blade, the nozzle and the bolt all
of which are used in the high and medium pressure section. For the material for the rotor whose temperature
increases to about 580°C, 12Cr steel reinforced with molybdenum and vanadium is used with tantalum and
niobium or nitrogen added and with fine carbide and nitride precipitated. For use in the higher temperature,
strength at the high temperature is improved by the addition of tungsten or molybdenum.

Table 3.4.4-1: Material used in main parts of the thermal turbine


Parts Representative steel types
The rotor 1Cr-1Mo-1/4V steel
12Cr-Mo-V-Ta-N steel
12Cr-Mo-V-Nb-N steel
High and Middle pressure turbine

12Cr-Mo-V-W-Nb-N steel
The blade 12Cr-Mo-V-W steel
The nozzle 12Cr-Mo-V-Nb-N steel
12Cr steel
Ni-based superalloy
The casing 1Cr-1Mo-V steel
The steam valve 1Cr-0.5~1Mo steel
11/4~21/4Cr-0.5~1Mo steel
12Cr steel
The tightening bolt 1Cr-1Mo-V steel
12Cr-Mo-V-W steel
12Cr-Mo-V- Nb-N steel
Ni-based superalloy
The rotor 3~3.5Ni-Cr-Mo-V steel
Low pressure turbine

The blade 12Cr steel


The nozzle 12Cr-Mo-V steel
12Cr-Ni-Mo-V-N steel
17-4PH
Titanium
The casing Carbon steel

3.4.4.1 Corrosion in the High Temperature Zone and its Countermeasures


For corrosion in the high temperature zone exceeding 400°C, it is usually only a question of an oxidation
reaction of the target substance with a gas phase substance, and there is no involvement of a liquid phase. In a
thermal power plant, especially for the boiler, this countermeasures for the high temperature corrosion is an
important issue. This phenomenon is related to the decrease of thickness in many cases, therefore, the selection
of materials and setting of corrosion control such as coating are decided from this perspective.
As for the materials for the components of a turbine, problems directly related to the high temperature
corrosion have not often occurred. However, issues to be considered such as sticking of the major valves like the
main steam stop valve caused by products of corrosion deposited on the valves and erosion occurring due to the
flowing in of oxide particles still remain.
High chromium steel such as 12Cr steel is effective to improve corrosion resistance. And hardening of a
material by applying nitride treatment to the material surface and cladding welding of stelite that is a cobalt base
alloy are effective measures to strengthen corrosion resistance too.
305
Erosion is a phenomenon where decrease of thickness occurs due to high speed fluid and the reduction is
accelerated when solid substances included in the fluid abrade the wall. For example, we experienced a
phenomenon whereby the nozzle plate in the control stage at the turbine inlet is eroded by oxide particles. This
phenomenon mainly occurs at the start-up of a turbine, damaging the end part of the steam outlet of the nozzle
finally resulting in lowered turbine efficiency. Boronizaion treatment is one measure to prevent this erosion from
occurring. This treatment diffuses boron(B) applying its vapor deposition to the surface of the material to harden
it.
Figure 3.4.4-1(2) shows the effect of the treatment. This is the data of effectiveness of the boronization
treatment applied to an actual turbine unit. We obtained the result whereby the nozzle plate with a thickness of
80 µm of the treated layer could realize such durability that almost no erosion occurred in an operation even
exceeding 15000 hours. And also another measure is one in which the shape of the nozzle is structurally
changed to enhance erosion resistance.

With no treatment
Erosion Rate (%)

With boronization treatment


(thickness of the surface
layer: 40 µm)

With boronization
treatment (thickness of
the surface layer: 80µm)

Time (h)
Figure 3.4.4-1: Erosion Resistance of the Nozzle Plate with Boronization Treatment

3.4.4.2 Corrosion in a Low Temperature Zone and its Countermeasures


Corrosion in a turbine usually means corrosion under a wet steam environment at 200°C or lower. Corrosion
in this temperature zone includes stress corrosion cracking (SCC), corrosion fatigue, and erosion corrosion. The
SCC and the corrosion fatigue are generally considered to be caused by condensed water in the space between
turbine components where impurities such as Cl- and SO42- contained in steam are dissolved and condensed. In
fact, these types of corrosion often occur around the boundary zone between dry steam and wet steam in a low
pressure turbine.
The SCC is cracking that occurs in a material when corrosion happens under a static tensile stress. This
cracking suddenly causes a brittle fracture, therefore, it presents a serious problem for a structural component.
On the other hand, corrosion fatigue is a rupture of a material when an alternate stress is imposed on a material,
being caused by a phenomenon whereby the fatigue strength is lowered in a corrosive environment. For a low
pressure turbine, it occurs at the base of the blade and in the tenon in some cases.
And in the wet steam zone, erosion occurs in some cases. The erosion is caused in a process such that a water
film formed on the surface of the stationary blade is carried away by steam flow to become droplets and they
crash onto the rearmost rotating blades. Stelite welding or some other measures are applied to the rearmost
rotating blades to prevent this from happening.

3.4.4.2.1 SCC Sensitivity of a Material Used in a Thermal Power Plant


Here, some recent studies on the influence of impurities’ ions and dissolved oxygen on the SCC of materials
used in a thermal power plant are introduced.
The influence of impurities’ ions on SCC under an AVT (Volatile Matter Treatment) environment is being
studied. The test conditions were 90°C and pH 9.5 with deairing (7 ppb or lower O2) achieved. Figure 3.4.4-
2(11) shows the results of investigation on the influence of Cl- concentration on the depth of the maximum crack
that occurred in a constant strain SCC test.

306
3.5NiCrMoV steel

Max. crack depth (µm)


12Cr steel
17-4PH steel

Cl- Concentration (ppm)

Figure 3.4.4-2: Influence of Cl- Concentration on Behavior of Various Types of Steel Related to SCC

For the 3.5 NiCrMoV steel, pitting occurs at 100 ppm of a Cl- concentration and SCC with 1000 ppm of a Cl-
concentration. While, for 12Cr steel and 17-4PH steel, no SCC occurs when Cl- is increased up to 1000 ppm.
SO42- has so little acceleration function compared with Cl- that no SCC occurs when the Cl- concentration is
increased up to 1000 ppm though pitting occurs at the same Cl- concentration. And for Na+, neither pitting nor
SCC occurs up to 1000 ppm of Cl- concentration. However, the SCC occurs both in 12Cr steel and 17-4PH steel
where the concentration is as high as 10% at a temperature of 200°C or higher.
Thus, we show the influence of dissolved oxygen. Figure 3.4.4-3(12) shows the situation in the case of
3.5NiCrMoV steel. This test was conducted in conditions such as a temperature of 90°C, a Cl- concentration of
10 ppm and range of dissolved oxygen concentration between 7 ppb or less and 1.63 ppm. The test results show
that the SCC occurs when the dissolved oxygen concentration exceeds 10 ppb and 10 ppm Cl- concentration.
Our results showed that the SCC sensitivity to the dissolved oxygen has the same tendency as that of the low alloy
steel as shown in Fig. 3.4.4-4(12) in the case of 12Cr steel used in the material for blade, but the speed of crack
development is slow. And the SCC resistance of the 17-4PH steel is more superior than the two types of steel
mentioned above as shown in Fig. 3.4.4-5(12).

1000 hour test


1500 hour test 5000 hour test
3000 hour test (320 µm on average)
Max. crack depth (µm)

5000 hour test

3000 hour test

1500 hour test

Dissolved oxygen concentration (ppm)

Figure 3.4.4-3: Influence of Dissolved Oxygen Concentration on Behavior of 3.5NiCrMoV Steel Related to SCC

1000 hour test


1500 hour test
3000 hour test
5000 hour test
Max. crack depth (µm)

5000 hour test 3000 hour test


(75 µm on average)

1500 hour test

Dissolved oxygen concentration (ppm)

Figure 3.4.4-4: Influence of Dissolved Oxygen Concentration on Behavior of 12Cr Steel Related to SCC

307
1000 hour test
1500 hour test
3000 hour test

Max. crack depth (µm)


5000 hour test

5000 hour test 3000 hour test


(19.5 µm on average)
1500 hour test

Dissolved oxygen concentration (ppm)

Figure 3.4.4-5: Influence of Dissolved Oxygen Concentration on Behavior of 17-4PH Steel Related to SCC

3.4.4.2.2 Corrosion Fatigue


Generally, the stronger the corrosiveness of the environment, the more the corrosion fatigue strength of a
material is reduced. For example, the corrosion fatigue strength is reduced with the existence of NaCl, the
corrosiveness becomes more severe in conditions of a smaller pH number and increasing concentration of the
dissolved oxygen(13). As shown in Fig.3.4.4-6(14), there is also a report asserting that the number of cycles at
which a material is broken in the NaCl solution is influenced by temperature and the life is shortest around 150°C.
Number of cycles (N)

Temperature (°C)
Figure 3.4.4-6: Influence of Temperature on Corrosion Fatigue in NaCl Aqueous Solution

Recently, the method of feedwater treatment in thermal power plants is being changed to CWT (treatment by
oxygen) from conventional AVT. Some of the power plants have adopted the CWT. Influence of this change in
water treatment to the material of turbine is being investigated and no significant difference in the fatigue strength
of 3.5NiCrMoV steel and 12Cr steel has been found in any conditions of AVT (pH9.5, 7 ppb O2) and CWT (pH8.0,
[I] 50 ppb O2 and [II] 200 ppb O2) according to Fig. 3.4.4-7(15).

3.5%NiCrMoV steel 12%Cr steel


Stress amplitude (kg/mm2)

Stress amplitude (kg/mm2)

Repeated number at which the material is broken Repeated number at which the material is broken

Figure 3.4.4-7: Influence of Water Treatment Conditions on Corrosion Fatigue Strength

3.4.4.3 Properties of Steam


All the types of corrosion damage explained above are greatly influenced by impurities contained in the steam.
Therefore, it has become a very important issue to completely grasp the properties of the steam quantitatively.

308
3.4.5 Corrosion of Heat Exchangers and Piping of Turbine Systems and its Countermeasures
3.4.5.1 Introduction
The system configuration of a thermal power plant using steam turbines has become more complicated due to
improvement in the steam condition and increase in the capacity of a single unit. Figure 3.4.5-1 shows as an
example the main system diagram(1) of a power plant having steam turbines of the 1000 MW class. The main
facilities of the power plant are classified as follows.
(1) The turbines and generators
(2) The water treatment unit for water for the condenser and feedwater
(3) The condenser unit
(4) The feedwater heater unit
(5) The feedwater pump
(6) The piping unit for each component system

Approximately
3000 tons/h
The generator

The high The medium The low pressure


The boiler

pressure The low pressure


pressure turbine turbine (A) turbine (B)
turbine
The condenser
The make-up water

The
condenser
pump
The turbine
The
demineralizer
for the
condenser
Approximately
280°C Gland steam
deaerator

condenser
The

The feedwater heater The condensate


booster pump
The drain
The boiler feedwater pump pump
The feedwater booster pump
(1)
Figure 3.4.5-1: Main System Diagram of a Power Plant Having Steam Turbines in the 1000 MW Class

Among these main facilities, equipment and components, of which corrosion is one of the main concerns, are
the low pressure turbines, the condenser in the condensing and water feeding system, the deaerator, the feedwater
heater and the piping, all of which are placed under wet conditions during operation of the turbine, is well as other
components and piping that utilize seawater for cooling fluid, all of which handle or use water. In this chapter,
we discuss corrosion occurring in the heat exchanger and the piping for the turbine system and also its
countermeasures.

3.4.5.2 Examples of Corrosion Occurring in the Heat Exchangers and the Piping used in the
Turbine System and its Countermeasures
1 The Heat Exchangers Used in a Power Plant Using Steam Turbines
1.1 The Condenser
Figure 3.4.5-2 shows types of corrosion occurring in the condenser cooling pipes and protective measures
against it(2).

309
Type of corrosion and leakage Protective measures

Inlet attack An electrochemical protection


device
Deposit attack Formation of a protective film by
the injection of ionized iron
The inside Sand erosion
of a pipe A chlorine injection device
Abnormal
A ball purge device
impingement damage
A shell remover
Corrosion of and Corrosion by polluted
leakage from a A counter-flow washing device
seawater
copper alloy pipe
Inspection of the water intake gate

Change of the material of the


Ammonium attack
The outside pipes to titanium types
of a pipe Erosion by Improvement of the structure
drain

Type of corrosion and leakage Protective measures


Galvanic Copper alloy pipes + Applying epoxy coating on the
corrosion titanium pipes pipe plate

The inside Making the electric potential of


of a pipe Copper alloy pipes + the electrochemical corrosion
titanium pipes protection device appropriate
Hydrogen (-0.45 ~ -0.6V (SCE))
Corrosion of/ absorption
leakage from Reinforcing the water chamber for
a titanium pipe which electrochemical corrosion
Full-titanium pipes
protection is not provided by the
addition of a rubber lining
The outside
Erosion by drain Improvement of the structure
of a pipe

Figure 3.4.5-2: Corrosion and Leakage of Condenser Cooling Tube and Its Countermeasures

Here in this chapter, we introduce the types of corrosion occurring in the cooling pipes facing the outside
(steam side) and the protective measures.

(1) Ammonium attack of the copper alloy pipes.


Part of the ammonium that is used as a feedwater treatment agent is discharged in the form of non-condensed
gas to the outside of the circulating system through the condenser cooler unit by the air extraction device. The
air cooler and the surrounding area are always exposed to ammonium concentrated in the condensed water and
especially the pipes near the supporting plate along which the condensed water drips down suffer from corrosion.
Photo 3.4.5-1 shows an example of the above mentioned corrosion. The countermeasure is replacement of
the existing pipes by titanium types that have superior corrosion resistance.

Photo 3.4.5-1: An Example of the Ammonium Attack of an Aluminum-brass Pipe

(2) Erosion by Drain (Droplet erosion)


In some cases, droplets accelerated by steam that is discharged from the low pressure turbine collide with a
pipe located outside of the pipe arrangement and erode its outer surface making it resemble a matte finished type(5).
Figure 3.4.5-3, Photo 3.4.5-2 and Photo 3.4.5-3 for example show the position where the erosion occurs and
the condition of an eroded aluminum-brass pipe and of an eroded titanium pipe, respectively. A protective
element and protective pipes are installed for the countermeasures as shown in Figs. 3.4.5-4 and - 5.

310
The low pressure turbine

The connecting body


The low pressure
feedwater heater The connecting
body

A group of the

Eroded portion
cooling pipes

Eroded Eroded portion


portion

Eroded portion

Figure 3.4.5-3: Erosion of the Outer Surface of a Condenser Cooling Pipe (at a place where erosion occurs)

Conditions of the outer surface of a cooling pipe

The outer surface

The inner surface

Photo 3.4.5-2: Erosion of an Aluminum-brass Cooling Pipe

Conditions of the outer surface of a cooling pipe

The outer surface

The inner surface

Photo 3.4.5-3: Erosion of a Titanium Cooling Pipe

311
The cross section of
the protection element
The supporting plate

The cooling pipe


protection element
A bundle of pipes
The supporting plate

Figure 3.4.5-4: Prevention of Droplet Erosion by Installation of Protection Elements

The supporting plate

A bundle of pipes
The protection pipes

The supporting plate

Figure 3.4.5-5: Prevention of Droplet Erosion by Installation of Pipes to Protect the Peripheral Portion of the
Bundle of Pipes

1.2 Deaerator
In some cases, the inner surface of the deairing chamber body is partly damaged in a plant where the pH of the
boiler feedwater is smaller than 9.0 and the water includes a relatively large amount of dissolved oxygen. The
area receiving the damage is limited to the area on which the feed water drops from the deairing tray or against
which the dropping water is blown by the influence of heating steam. The cause of the damage is erosion
corrosion caused by the feedwater that drops from the deairing tray, is accelerated by heating steam entering from
the bottom center part of the tray which directly collides with the deairing chamber body. And when there is a
certain distance between the deairing tray and the body wall, erosion corrosion is sometimes caused by free fall of
the feedwater regardless of the existence of the heating steam.
Figure 3.4.5-6 shows an example of the damage. The protective plates made of stainless steel having strong
erosion corrosion resistance are attached to the inner surface of the deairing chamber body as shown in Fig. 3.4.5-
7 to prevent erosion corrosion damage of the deairing chamber body.

Deaerating chamber

The tray
Heating steam
Erosion

Figure 3.4.5-6: Example of Corrosion Inside the Main Body of the Deaerating Chamber

312
The deairing chamber

The tray
Heating steam

Protection plate (SUS304)

Figure 3.4.5-7: An Actual Measure Against Erosion of the Inner Surface of the Deairing Chamber Body

1.3 The Oil Cooler


In most cases, corrosion of the oil cooler actually experienced occurs on the cooling water side of the copper
alloy cooling pipe. Causes of the corrosion are mainly (i) pitting and (ii) stress corrosion cracking.

(i) Pitting
When pitting occurs, it occurs almost evenly along the entire length of the cooling pipe, and the speed of
progression is of such an extent that the pitting pierces the wall with a thickness of approximately 1.2 mm in about
6 months in the fastest case. There is a special tendency whereby pitting is liable to occur more in the cooling
pipes of a spare unit fully filled with water than in the pipes through which water is running.
It is considered that the following combination of factors is the cause of the pitting.
1) The corrosion inhibitor added in the cooling water is not effective in corrosion prevention, or the
concentration of the corrosion inhibitor is insufficient.
2) A corrosion factor exists in the cooling water.
3) Local electric potential difference or difference in the concentration of dissolved oxygen is liable to
occur because the liquid in the pipe has almost no velocity when the operation is suspended (in a
stand-by situation).
4) Dissolved oxygen is consumed by microbes to make the atmosphere anaerobic, and the pipe is
corroded by ionized sulfur produced due to the propagation of sulfate salt reduction bacteria.

(ii) Stress corrosion cracking


On the other hand, there is the fact that a stress corrosion crack starts from a pit and occurs within a limited
area approximately 500 mm apart from the plane including the pipe plate in most cases. This crack advances
towards the outside surface of a pipe from the inside. Photo 3.4.5-4 shows an actual stress corrosion cracking
starting from a pit occurring in an aluminum-brass pipe that is dipped in the water (a sectional photo).

Photo 3.4.5-4: Stress Corrosion Cracking in an Aluminum-brass Pipe Dipped in the Cooling Water.

This is considered to be caused by the following two factors combined.


1) Existence of a corrosive catalyzer in the cooling water (ionized ammonium, ionized sulfur, etc.)
2) Existence of residual stress (those in the raw material itself, generated during the operation or
generated during assembling process)
Prevention of pitting is possible especially for the oil cooler whose operation is suspended (in a stand-by
situation) by providing a fluid speed fast enough (faster than 0.3 m/s) to equalize the difference in the local
concentration of ions that may form a corrosion battery. However, since it is not possible to nullify a corrosive
catalyzer, it is necessary to select and add an appropriate corrosion inhibitor from a practical view point.
As for measures against stress corrosion cracking, firstly, add the most appropriate corrosion inhibitor to
suppress pitting, the starting point of cracking. Secondly, reduce the residual stress in the cooling pipe as much
as possible. For this purpose, improvement of the processing method such as expansion of the cooling pipe and
assembling is important.

313
2 Piping for the Turbine Plant
2.1 The Steam Pipes
The damage to a main steam pipe or a hot reheat steam pipe is creep damage caused by the effect of internal
pressure during the steady operation and erosion and low cycle fatigue damage due to repeated thermal stress
caused by load fluctuation due to start and stop or some other factors.
Places where wall thickness reduction is liable to occur are the main stop valve (MSV), the governing valve
(CV), the lower outlet of the drain valves located before and after the valve seat of the combined stop and control
reheat valve (CRV), the elbows, the caps and the orifices. Leakage due to reduction in the wall thickness was
experienced in these places and components. Figs. 3.4.5-8 and 3.4.5-9 show the location of the damage and the
actual damage to the drain pipe elbows before and after the valve seat of the CRV, and the actual damage to the
main steam lead pipe warming orifice, respectively.

The primary valve


Flow
The secondary valve

Reduction in wall thickness


(The drain pipe before and after the valve seat of the MSV valve)

Figure 3.4.5-8: An Example of Damage to a Drain Pipe Elbow Before and After the Valve Seat of the MSV Valve

From the lead pipe


The main steam lead pipe
To the high pressure

Erosion
casing

To the condenser
Oxidized
powder scale
Erosion

To the condenser
Leakage

Figure 3.4.5-9: An Example of Damage to the Main Steam Lead Pipe Warming Orifice

These types of erosion are caused by the collision of the drain jet and flowing- in of the oxidized scale existing
in the main pipe. The countermeasures are periodic measurement of the wall thickness of the places in the
system where reduction in wall thickness is liable to occur and replacement of those components for which
reduction in wall thickness has been advanced.
And the orifice used to be replaced by one that had a shape more favorable in terms of erosion resistance.

2.2 Pipes of the Condenser and the Feedwater Systems


Damage to the pipes of the condenser and the feedwater systems is reduction in the wall thickness due to
erosion corrosion.
Generally speaking, erosion corrosion is a phenomenon of reduction in wall thickness that is caused by the
interaction of erosion, a mechanical action and corrosion, a chemical action.
Conditions of the fluid (temperature, wetness fraction, pH, dissolved oxygen), flow speed, material properties
and shape of the part are considered to be factors contributing to erosion corrosion.
Figures 3.4.5-10 to 13 show the influence of fluid speed, wetness fraction, content of alloy elements and
temperature on reduction in weight due to erosion corrosion, respectively.
Reduction in weight due to erosion

Temperature: 158°C
corrosion (mg/cm2)/14 days

Wetness fraction: 11%


O2 concentration: 16 ppm Carbon
steel

Ni-Cr-Cu steel
Cr-Mo steel

Steam speed (m/s)


Figure 3.4.5-10: Influence of Steam Speed on Erosion Corrosion

314
Reduction in weight due to erosion
Temperature: 171°C
Velocity: 200 m/s

corrosion (mg/cm2)/10 days


O2 concentration: 16 ppm Carbon steel

Ni-Cr-Cu steel
Cr-Mo steel

Wetness fraction of steam (%)


Figure 3.4.5-11: Influence of Wetness Fraction of Steam on Erosion Corrosion

advancing speed ratio


Erosion vs. corrosion

Temperature: 150°C
Velocity: 90 m/s