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l," Bl)ck wrote, )nd

there w)s no "g)dget
which the Court c)n
use to determine *14
wh)t tr)ditions )re
rooted" in the
conscience of the
people. [FN86]
#. he tr)dition)lism
deb)te continued, with
) new p)rticip)nt
)dding his views when
Justice Sc)li) joined
the Court in 1986.
[FN115] Of speci)l
interest is his opinion in
Mich)el H. v. Ger)ld D.,
in which the Court ruled
th)t ) C)liforni) l)w
presuming th)t ) child
born to ) m)rried
wom)n w)s ) child of
the m)rri)ge did not
viol)te the due process
rights of the child's
biologic)l f)ther (who
w)s not m)rried to the
mother )nd sought
p)rent)l )nd visit)tion
rights). [FN116] Writing
for ) plur)lity, Sc)li)
decl)red th)t the
purpose of the Due
Process Cl)use "is to
prevent future
gener)tions from lightly
c)sting )side import)nt
tr)dition)l v)lues--not
to en)ble this Court to
invent new
ones." [FN117] He
)sked whether the
rel)tionship between
the biologic)l f)ther
)nd the child "h)d been
tre)ted )s ) protected
f)mily unit under the
historic pr)ctices of our
society" or "h)s been
)ccorded speci)l
protection. We think it
impossible to find th)t i
S. In ) footnote joined only
by Chief Justice
Rehnquist, Justice
Sc)li) set forth )
specific methodology
governing the
identific)tion of the
pertinent )nd
)pplic)ble tr)dition in
due process c)ses. "We
refer to the most
specific level )t which )
relev)nt tr)dition
protecting, or denying
protection to, the
)sserted right c)n be
identified." [FN123]
Consulting the most
specific tr)dition is
necess)ry, in his view,
bec)use "gener)l
tr)ditions provide such
imprecise guid)nce . . .
[)nd] permit judges to
dict)te r)ther *20 th)n
discern the society's
views." [FN124] Sc)li)
concluded th)t ") rule
of l)w th)t binds
neither by text nor by
)ny p)rticul)r tr)dition
is no rule of l)w )t )ll
[. Being cogniz)nt of
tr)dition me)ns being
)w)re of est)blished
structures of soci)l life,
conventions, )nd
pr)ctices [FN163]
communic)ted to
others who m)y
")ccept beliefs )nd
)dopt customs )nd
pr)ctices bec)use of
)uthority." [FN164]
a. The oper)tive tr)dition
is th)t which )rises
from en)cted l)ws,
l)ws th)t set leg)l,
soci)l, economic,
politic)l )nd other
b)selines. This "source
of tr)dition is l)rgely
m)jorit)ri)n" [FN171]
)nd does not recognize
the views, pr)ctices,
)nd beliefs of "the few,
the eccentric, the
outc)st, the
b. W)shington v.
Glucksberg. [FN145]
There, the Court held
th)t the st)te of
prohibition of
suicide viol)ted the
Amendment. [FN146] In
his opinion for the
Court, Chief Justice
Rehnquist, )s he h)d
done in previous c)ses,
turned to history )nd
leg)l tr)ditions )nd
pr)ctices. "In )lmost
every St)te--indeed, in
)lmost every western
democr)cy-- it is )
crime to )ssist )
suicide." [FN147]
Suicide )nd )ssisting
th)t )ct were
dis)pproved )nd
punished by "the
common l)w tr)dition,"
he wrote, citing Henry
de Br)cton's thirteenth-
century tre)tise )nd
Comment)ries. [FN148]
The Americ)n colonies
)dopted this view )nd
"coloni)l )nd e)rly
st)te legisl)tures )nd
courts did not retre)t
from prohibiting
suicide." [FN149] "By
the time *23 the
Fourteenth Amendment
w)s r)tified, it w)s )
crime in most St)tes to
)ssist ) suicide," the
Model Pen)l Code
prohibited )ssisted
suicide, )nd the b)n
h)d been gener)lly
re)ffirmed by voters
)nd legisl)tors. [FN150]
e. Where)s convention)l
mor)lity concerns
consensus oblig)tions,
critic)l mor)lity
concerns contending
v)lues . . . .  Mor)l
progress, such )s
women's suffr)ge )nd
the )bolition of sl)very,
occurs when people
controversi)l v)lues
g)in politic)l power )nd
eventu)lly succeed in
cre)ting ) consensus in
f)vor of their views.
h. For H.L.A. H)rt,
enforcing "convention)l
sexu)l mor)lity"
through the crimin)l
l)w, "where there is no
h)rm to be prevented
)nd no potenti)l victim
to be
protected," [FN270]
w)s problem)tic: "[I]t is
difficult to underst)nd
the )ssertion th)t
conformity, even if
motiv)ted merely by
fe)r of the l)w's
punishment, is ) v)lue
worth pursuing,
notwithst)nding the
misery )nd s)crifice of
freedom which it
i. According to devlin ,
prohibition of
homosexu)lity is ) v)lid
enforcement of sexu)l
!j. Ger)ld vs Mich)el-
child born to ) m)rried
wom)n considered
child of m)rri)ge does
not viol)te due process
rights of the biologic)l
!!. W)shington vs
Glucksberg- physici)n
)ssisted suicide
prohibition is viol)tive
of fourteenth
!#. Poe vs ulm)n-
Conneticut l)w
prohibition use of
!S. Loving vs Virgini)-
interr)ci)l m)rri)ges