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READING ASSIGNMENT

ARCHITECTURE DEPARTMENT, UNIVERSITY OF PALANGKA RAYA 2018

Name : _______________________________________________ Reg. No: _____________________________

Read the following text on the architecture topic. Choose the correct answer (X) among the
multiple choice options provided.

In the study of the arts and sciences, architecture ranks highly as one of the most fundamental
and practical subjects based on human culture. Architecture is the living proof of the persistence
of man's ideas with the passage of time. Back in prehistoric times, early man lived in caves.
Many years later, simple huts were erected to replace the caves as places of dwelling. The
earliest known huts were found in Russia and were made from mammoth bones.

As more time passed, man learnt to build stronger and bigger buildings. These served as
temples for worship or as tombs for important people. Between the years 2700 B.C and 2200
B.C., the Egyptians built massive stone pyramids which are still standing today, some four
thousand years later, to honor their gods and pharaohs. These pyramids are one of the seven
wonders of the world.

Wood was a popular building material with the Chinese and the Japanese. Many Buddhist
temples were built from wood. The roofs of these buildings were covered with tiles that curved
gently upwards. Wooden Japanese houses still retain the same design as those constructed
centuries ago. Rooms in such houses are divided by paper screens.

In India, the Hindu temples are the pinnacle of Indian architecture. Huge, carved statues of
Hindu gods decorate the pillars and the roofs of these temples.

Greek architecture from the period 450 B.C to 400 B.C has greatly influenced western designs.
Ancient Greek buildings were well-known for their beauty and fine proportions. the Greeks
were fond of using columns to support the roofs of their buildings.

During the fourth century, much of Europe was under siege from her enemies. Kings and
noblemen resorted to building strong castles to protect themselves. These castles had thick
walls, high towers and small windows to discourage invaders. Another feature was the inclusion
of a moat around the castle. Access to the castle was only via the drawbridge which would be
lowered and raised accordingly to admit traffic in and out of the castle. As more and more
European countries became stable politically, European architects shifted towards a style that
highlighted grace and beauty instead of protection.

It was not until the turn of the twentieth century that architects realized the appearance of a
building must be closely related to its function. New techniques and new materials were thus
used to create more interesting designs.

1. On human culture, architecture is apparently placed to be ......


a. Simple b. Classic
c. Fundamental d. Complicated
2. In prehistoric times, early man make ...... as their house.
a. Mountain b. Forest
c. Trees d. Caves

3. The earliest known huts which were made mammoth bones were firstly found in ....
a. Russia b. Australia
c. Mongolia d. Mexico

4. The Egyptians built massive stone pyramids as a symbol to .....


a. protect them from storm b. create wonderful architecture
c. worship their gods and d. build wall from enemies
pharaohs

5. Many Buddhist temples were built from .....


a. sand b. wood
c. clay d. mud

6. Chinese and the Japanese used paper screens for .....


a. making the roofs b. making the walls
c. dividing the windows d. dividing rooms

7. The pillars and the roofs of Hindu temples are decorated from .....
a. carved statues b. thick metal
c. big stones d. gold layer

8. Ancient Greek buildings, today, remain ......


a. beautiful and elegant b. artistic and complicated
c. simple and minimalized d. futuristic and furnished

9. During the fourth century, kings and noblemen thick-walled castles to ....
a. protect themselves from wild b. protect themselves from the storm
animal
c. protect themselves from d. protect themselves from war
meteors anemies

10. The twentieth century architects likely give their focus more on ..........
a. the arts of the building b. the functions of building
c. the materials of the building d. the shapes of the building
Read the following text on the architecture topic. Choose the correct answer (X) among the
multiple choice options provided.

Architecture is the art and science of designing structures that organize and enclose space for
practical and symbolic purposes. Because architecture grows out of human needs and
aspirations, it clearly communicates cultural values. Of all the visual arts, architecture affects
our lives most directly for it determines the character of the human environment in major ways.

Architecture is a three-dimensional form. It utilizes space, mass, texture, line, light, and color. To
be architecture, a building must achieve a working harmony with a variety of elements. Humans
instinctively seek structures that will shelter and enhance their way of life. It is the work of
architects to create buildings that are not simply constructions but also offer inspiration and
delight. Buildings contribute to human life when they provide shelter, enrich space, complement
their site, suit the climate, and are economically feasible. The client who pays for the building
and defines its function is an important member of the architectural team. The mediocre design
of many contemporary buildings can be traced to both clients and architects.

In order for the structure to achieve the size and strength necessary to meet its purpose,
architecture employs methods of support that, because they are based on physical laws, have
changed little since people first discovered them. The world’s architectural structures have also
been devised in relation to the objective limitations of materials. Structures can be analyzed in
terms of how they deal with downward forces created by gravity. They are designed to
withstand the forces of compression (pushing together), tension (pulling apart), bending, or a
combination of these in different parts of the structure.

Even development in architecture has been the result of major technological changes. Materials
and methods of construction are integral parts of the design of architecture structures. In earlier
times it was necessary to design structural systems suitable for the materials that were
available, such as wood, stone, brick. Today technology has progressed to the point where it is
possible to invent new building materials to suit the type of structure desired. Enormous
changes in materials and techniques of construction within the last few generations have made
it possible to enclose space with much greater ease and speed and with a minimum of material.
Progress in this area can be measured by the difference in weight between buildings built now
and those of comparable size built one hundred years ago.

Modern architectural forms generally have three separate components comparable to elements
of the human body: a supporting skeleton or frame, an outer skin enclosing the interior spaces,
and equipment, similar to the body’s vital organs and systems. The equipment includes
plumbing, electrical wiring, hot water, and air-conditioning. Of course in early architecture—
such as igloos and adobe structures—there was no such equipment, and the skeleton and skin
were often one.

Much of the world’s great architecture has been constructed of stone because of its beauty,
permanence, and availability. In the past, whole cities grew from the arduous task of cutting and
piling stone upon. Some of the world’s finest stone architecture can be seen in the ruins of the
ancient Inca city of Machu Picchu high in the eastern Andes Mountains of Peru. The doorways
and windows are made possible by placing over the open spaces thick stone beams that support
the weight from above. A structural invention had to be made before the physical limitations of
stone could be overcome and new architectural forms could be created. That invention was the
arch, a curved structure originally made of separate stone or brick segments. The arch was used
by the early cultures of the Mediterranean area chiefly for underground drains, but it was the
Romans who first developed and used the arch extensively in aboveground structures. Roman
builders perfected the semicircular arch made of separate blocks of stone. As a method of
spanning space, the arch can support greater weight than a horizontal beam. It works in
compression to divert the weight above it out to the sides, where the weight is borne by the
vertical elements on either side of the arch. The arch is among the many important structural
breakthroughs that have characterized architecture throughout the centuries.

11. Architecture which grows out of human needs and aspirations communicate ...... values.
a. moral b. cultural
c. religius d. social

12. Architecture affects humans’ lives most directly for it determines the character of .....
a. human future b. human idelogy
c. human culture d. human environment

13. Which of the followings is not the aspects utilized by the architecture as a three-
dimensional form?
a. sound b. texture
c. space d. colour

14. Which of the followings is how the buildings contribute to human life?
a. They provide luxury b. They provide shelter
c. They provide facilities d. They provide furnitures

15. The world’s architectural structures have also been devised in relation to the objective
limitations of .....
a. climates b. spaces
c. materials d. lines

16. In earlier times it was necessary to design structural systems suitable for the materials that
were available, such as ..... (except)
a. wood b. brick
c. stone d. cement

17. Buildings built now and those built one hundred years ago are different in .....
a. height b. shape
c. weight d. type

18. In modern architectural forms, the body’s vital organs and systems are similar to .....
a. frame b. interiors
c. exteriors d. equipments

19. Some of the world’s finest stone architecture can be seen in .....
a. Brazil b. Mexico
c. Peru d. Venezuela

20. The arch, a curved structure originally made of separate stone or brick segments was fistly
used by ......
a. Eskimos b. Mongolians
c. Amazonas d. Mediterraneans