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Tour report on Saint Martin’s island and cox’s bazar

Contents
Abstract ......................................................................................................................................................... 2
Introduction:.................................................................................................................................................. 2
Importance of tour: ....................................................................................................................................... 2
Aim and object: ............................................................................................................................................. 2
Study area: .................................................................................................................................................... 2
Zonation of St. Martin's Island: .................................................................................................................... 3
1.Uttar Para .............................................................................................................................................. 3
2. Madhya Para ....................................................................................................................................... 4
3. Golachipa .............................................................................................................................................. 4
Materials and Methods:................................................................................................................................. 4
Biodiversity of saint’s martin island: ............................................................................................................ 4
Seaweed list of Saint Martin’s island ........................................................................................................ 4
Mollusk and crustacean:- .......................................................................................................................... 4
Crab list from Saint Martin’s island.......................................................................................................... 4
Zooplankton and phytoplankton:-............................................................................................................. 5
Water quality of Saint Martin’s island coast ............................................................................................. 5
People and community:............................................................................................................................. 5
Discussion: .................................................................................................................................................... 5
Role of aquatic environmental parameters: .................................................................................................. 6
Tour extensions:............................................................................................................................................ 6
Conclusion: ................................................................................................................................................... 6
Recommendation: ......................................................................................................................................... 6
References:.................................................................................................................................................... 7
Acknowledgement ........................................................................................................................................ 7

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Abstract
Saint Martin’s island is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Bangladesh. It is also an ecological
hot spot. It is the only place in Bangladesh where coral colonies are found. At the same time St.
Martin’s Island also has an important ecological value as one of the few remaining nesting places in
the region for several species of globally threatened marine turtles, as well as being a wintering site
for migratory birds. There are also commercial important seaweed and oyster and shell.

Introduction:
The Saint Martin Island is one of the most beautiful islands in Bangladesh. This island is locally
known as Narikel Jinjira (Coconut Island). It is located in the Bay of Bengal, approximately 9 km
south of the Cox’s Bazar -Teknaf peninsula. Its weather is heavily influenced by the subtropical
monsoon climate that prevails over Bangladesh. This island is very much resourceful with
enormous biological diversity i.e. mollusk-300 species, fish -150 species, amphibian-5 species,
coral-66 species, turtle-5 species, snail-5 species, bird-200 species, mammals-20 species . The
surface area of the island is about 8 km2, however, it may vary depending on the tidal level. This
is the most attractive tourist spot in Bangladesh.

Importance of tour:
Study tour is very important in practical Oceanography. This tour has covered a lots of amazing sessions
of oceanographic features such as seawater water quality measurement. This has added new scope
of working in Bangladesh fish processing industry. The unique marine communities have very high
scientific value for research and monitoring. This type of tour adds new dimension of knowledge
of south eastern coast of Bangladesh.

Aim and object:


The main aim and object of study are
 To observe ecology and biodiversity of Saint Martin’s island.
 To measure water quality of St. Martin Island coast.
 To trace out local problems and solution.
 To identify environmental profile of St. Martin Island and the factor of impact on environment of
Saint Martin’s island.
 To explore of trading activities of the local market of St. Martin Island.
 To identify waste management system of St. Martin Island.
 To estimate the availability of mollusk and crustacean in this island.
 To find prospect of seaweed culture.
 To find out commercial important finfish and shelfish
Finally to know and understand about research methodology on a particular place and make a report on
observed place that means on St. Martin Island

Study area: the Island (study area ) lies between latitude 20°34 ́ and 20°39 ́N, and longitude
92°18 ́ and 92°21 ́E.The area of the Island itself is about 5.9 km2 and with the rocky platforms extending
into the sea the total area of the island is about 12 km2.

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Figure: saint Martin’s island ( designed by Hafez ahmad )

Zonation of St. Martin's Island:


The shallow water marine habitats include rocky and sandy inter-tidal zone, offshore lagoons, rocky
subtidal zone, coral aggregations, sea grass beds, soft coral habitats and offshore soft bottom habitats.
East coast: A generalized zonation of east coast benthic communities along an inshore-to-offshore gradient
starting from the lower inter-tidal is as follows: 1) Inter-tidal gastropod-algal community. 2) Coral-algal
community. 3) Mixed sea grass-algal community. 4) Soft coral community and 5) Soft-bottom (mud)
community.
West coast: The zonation on the west coast is as follows: 1) Gastropod-algal community; 2) Coral-algal
community; 3) Algal community; 4) Soft-bottom community. Coralline algae are more abundant in the
lower inter-tidal zone on the west coast than on the east coast. With respect to corals, they are usually more
abundant in sheltered areas. Corals are found around most of the island, but their abundance is generally
low.
There are five distinct physiographic areas within the Island:

1.Uttar Para is the northern part of the Island with a maximum length, along the north-south axis,
of 2,134 m, and a maximum width (along the east-west axis) of 1,402 m. There is a shallow lagoon in the
middle of Uttarpara and it is connected to the sea during high tide by a narrow channel on the western
coast. The topsoil of Uttarpara consists of alluvial sands mixed with shells of molluscs. There are two

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small dead lagoons and a stretch of marshy land in Dakshinpara. Fish landing sites, bazars and schools are
present only in Uttarpara.

2. Madhya Para, directly south of Golachipa is 1,524m long and 518m wide at its maximum.
3. Golachipa is a narrow neck of land connecting Uttar Para with Madhya Para.

Materials and Methods:


This tour’s survey uses a lots of tools and materials that are used to determine parameters of seawater,
preserve sample and identify the species.

No. Materials No.


1 Thermometer 4 Digital Multiparameter
2 pH meter 5 Plankton net
3 Secchi disk 6 Chemicals

The tour generally is done in five days, data and samples are collected from the Saint Martin’s island
instantly. Data collected by using mentioned instruments and samples are taken by using appropriate
chemicals in plastics bottle and polythene.

Biodiversity of saint’s martin island:


Seaweed: - Several marine algae were collected from the littoral (exposed and knee-deep water below low
tide mark) zone of the St. Martin’s Island. The algal materials were preserved with 4% formalin in marine
water.

Seaweed list of Saint Martin’s island


No. Seaweed Type
1 Hypnea cornuta Red seaweed
2 Sargassum sp. Brown seaweed
3 Halymeda discoidea Green seaweed
4 Enteromorpha sp. Green seaweed
5 Cladophora sp. Green seaweed
6 Padina sp. Brown seaweed

Mollusk and crustacean:-


Over 12 species of crab have been recorded from the Island including commercially important crab species
such as the mangrove crab Scylla olivacea, Scylla serrata.

Crab list from Saint Martin’s island


No. Scientific name( crab) Common name
1 Scylla serrata Mud crab
2 Scylla olivacea mangrove crab
3 Uca pugnax Fiddler Crab
4 Ocypode ceratophthalma Ghost Crab
5 Portunus pelagicus Flower Crab
6 Carcinoscorpius rotundicanda Horseshoe Crab

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Zooplankton and phytoplankton:-
Zooplankton samples were collected from surface waters saint martin’s island .Zooplankton sampling have
been carried out with the help of conical zooplankton net made of Nylon Silk of 335 micro meter mesh size
and having 24 cm circular mouth opening fitted with a plastic bucket at the coded. A digital flow meter was
set up at the mouth of the net to record the amount of water filtered through the net during sampling.
Samples were collected at sampling stations from the surface water. After collecting samples were
preserved in 5% formalin (5 % for phytoplankton, 10% for benthos) . For efficient sorting, the samples
were stained with Rose bangle and left for overnight. All the zooplankton attained pink color(eosin)
rendering easy identification. The stained plankton was stored out from debris with fine brush, needle,
forceps and low power microscope. The sorted organisms were preserved in 70% ethanol and brought under
the microscope and identified according to Davis (1955), Newell and Newell (1973), Das (1982), Sterrer
(1986), Zafar (1986), Santhanam & Srinivasan (1994).

No. Phytoplankton Zooplankton


1 Asterionella sp Copepod
2 Thalassionema sp. Crab larvae
3 Skeletonema sp. Shrimp larvae
4 Odontella sp. Mysid
5 Coscinodiscus sp. Fish larvae

Water quality of Saint Martin’s island coast


Parameters
1 Water temperature 25 degree Celsius
2 Salinity 28.5 ppt.
3 Conductivity 45.5
4 DO 5 mg/L

People and community: the main way of livelihood is fishing and tourism. Fishing has a long history
at the island and is the main activity of the inhabitants. The main fishing gears are drift fixed, plain fill
nets and seine net.
Commercial fishes are found in Saint Martin’s island

No. Family Fish


1 Serranidae Grouper
2 Lutjanidae Snapper
3 Scaridae parrot fish
4 Acanthuridae Surgeon fish
5 Chaetodontidae Butterfly fish

Discussion:
Ceramium brevizonatum var. caraibica Peter. et Børg., Dasya corymbifera J. Ag., Hypnea boergesenii
Tanaka, Chrysymenia agardhii Harv. were found to be growing on exposed rocks, shells and stones
collected from the coast of St. Martin’s Island, Bangladesh.

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Role of aquatic environmental parameters:
It is widely acknowledge that many interacting physical and biological factors influence the occurrence,
distribution, abundance and diversity of estuarine tropical fishes. Among the environmental variables, water
salinity, temperature, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, and their regular or irregular fluctuations at different time
scales, have been identified as determinants in estuarine fish ecology (Whitefield 1996; Blaber 2000). But
during study period water temperature was (20◦c-24◦c).salinity is rapidly increasing toward the sea which
is affecting the diversity, distribution ,abundance of zooplankton ,phytoplankton , benthos community.in
this study , copepod are greatly available in two station .

Tour extensions:
a. Radiant Fish World: The first ever fish world which is called the Radiant fish world an aquarium. The
aquarium covers 2 acres of land, it provides kids game zone, souvenir shop, mini zoo, color lab, restaurant.
The building is the first ever of its kind. Situated at the main road of Zawtola this radiant fish world brought
a new dimension in entertainment sector of tourism city Cox’s bazar.
b. Beximco Ltd, Fisheries Division, Cox’s bazar: it is fish processing, packaging and selling center.

Conclusion:
This tour was very informative and educative. The biodiversity of St. Martin's island is characterised by
mangrove forests, seaweeds, corals, turtles, crabs, fish, seabirds, coconut trees and Pandanus vegetation.
The island is a unique example of co-occurrence of different ecosystems. Mangroves are home to corals,
crabs, sea weeds and sea birds, and provide excellent nurseries for marine fishes. It also protects the
inhabitants from the storm surges, cyclones and tidal waves, and prevents the island from erosion. The
ecosystem and biodiversity of Saint Martin’s island is facing serious devastating ecological critical moment
due to pollution such plastic pollution and anthropogenic pollution. Tourist is unaware of environmental
issues. The biodiversity of this island is decreasing day by day.

Recommendation:
 To strengthen monitoring of biological resources and impact of climate change for appropriate
biodiversity management.
 To develop spatial and integrated coastal zone management and maritime spatial planning
 To find out resources allocation .
 To develop alternative livelihoods for the people who are dependent on coral resources.
 To establish an appropriate conservation strategy.
 To emphasize the conservation programme of coral ecosystem and protection of migratory birds.
 To keep the turtle's habitat undisturbed.
 To establish an information system of biodiversity of this island.
 To strengthen research work on the impact of climate change.
 To emphasize ex-situ conservation of endangered species.
 To measure the adverse effects of natural calamities, global warming and sea level rise.
 To create public awareness by using different media.
 To implement ecosystem approach and community based conservation programme by involving
local people.
 To establish mechanisms to promote carbon uptake.

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References:
1: M Mmehedi ul haider(2014) iqbal,M shafiqul islam and md. Nur .Heterogeneity of zooplankton of the
Rezukhal Estuary, Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh with seasonal environmental effectsIns. Mar. Sc. Univ. ctg.
BD. 2(2): 275-282
2: Prabhahar C, Saleshrani K and Enbarasan R. Studies on the ecology and distribution of zooplankton
biomass in kadalur coastal zone, Tamil Nadu, India. Curr Bot 2011; 2(3):1-4.
3. Samia Saif.Environmental profile of St. Martin's Island. ISBN 978-984-33-0779-8.
4. Shahima Islam,Abdul Aziz,Abdullah Harun Chowdhury.Marine algae of St. Martin's Island,
Bangladesh. VIII. new records of red algae (Rhodophyceae). DOI: 10.3329/bjb.v39i1.5531.
5. M. Maruf Hossain and Md. Hashibul Islam. STATUS OF THE BIODIVERSITY OF ST. MARTIN'S
ISLAND,BAY OF BENGAL, BANGLADESH

Acknowledgement : At first, I would like to express my appreciation and sincere gratitude to my


honorable teacher Dr. Md. Ashraful Azam Khan , Dr. Sheikh Aftab Uddin , and Mr. Md. Mostafa Monwar at
institute of marine sciences and fisheries , university of Chittagong for help with practical ,technical and
analytical which was very vital for the completion of the required tasks .they have managed and conducted
this most important ,educational field trip at saint martin’s island and cox’s bazar . I also would like to our
“ institute of marine sciences and fisheries “ for providing different tools (pH meter , Refrectrometer , nets
,digital DO meter, and CTS(conductivity ,temperature and salinity), Secchi disk, chemicals and lab
facilities.