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Chapter 14

Environmental Chemistry

Solutions

SECTION - A
Objective Type Questions
1. The layer of atmosphere which extends upto 10 km from sea level is called
(1) Troposphere (2) Stratosphere (3) Ionosphere (4) Mesosphere
Sol. Answer (1)
The layer of atmosphere which is upto 10 km from the sea level is called troposphere.

2. Those pollutants which are readily degradable by natural process are called
(1) Biodegradable pollutant (2) Non-biodegradable pollutant
(3) Primary pollutant (4) Secondary pollutant
Sol. Answer (1)
Those pollutants like organic waste which are degraded by the action of bacteria, fungi or other microbes are
called biodegradable pollutants.

3. Troposphere pollutant contains


(1) Dust (2) Water vapours (3) Mist (4) All of these
Sol. Answer (4)
Air pollution in troposphere is due to the presence of all dust, water and mist.

4. Which one of the following is a secondary pollutant?


(1) CO (2) O3 (3) Pb (4) CH4
Sol. Answer (2)
Secondary pollutants are not imitted as such, but forms when other pollutants (primary pollutants) react in the
atmosphere.

5. Which one of the following pollutants causes irritation in eye?


(1) CO2 (2) SO2 (3) NO2 (4) All of these
Sol. Answer (2)
Sulpher dioxide in high concentration causes irritation in eye.

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6. A primary pollutant is
(1) CO (2) DDT (3) CO2 (4) All of these
Sol. Answer (4)
CO, DDT and CO2 are primary pollutants because they directly cause harmful effect on environment.

7. Which one of the following is colourless and highly toxic gas which reduces oxygen carrying capacity of blood?
(1) SO2 (2) CO (3) NO (4) SO3
Sol. Answer (2)
Haemoglobin has more affinity for CO than for O2. Therefore, in presence of CO, oxygen carrying capacity of
blood decreases.

8. Which one of the following affects chlorophyll?


(1) Sulphur dioxide (2) Nitrogen oxides (3) Carbon monoxide (4) Both (1) & (2)
Sol. Answer (1)
Exposure of plants to lower concentration of SO2 over longer periods hampers the production of chlorophyll.

9. Which one of the following oxides produces brown air or reddish brown haze?
(1) Oxides of sulphur (2) Oxides of nitrogen (3) Oxides of carbon (4) All of these
Sol. Answer (2)
NO2 gas is brown in colour and it is responsible for the brown air or reddish brown haze.

10. Which one of the following gaseous pollutants is carcinogenic?


(1) Oxides of sulphur (2) Oxides of nitrogen (3) Arsenic (4) Oxides of carbon
Sol. Answer (3)
Arsenic present as particulate pollutant in air can cause cancer. It is carcinogenic.

11. Greenhouse gases cause


(1) Trap UV rays (2) Increase in temperature of atmosphere
(3) Prevents global warming (4) All of these
Sol. Answer (2)
Greenhouse gases trap infrared radiation and entrapment of infrared radiation result in the increase in the
temperature of atmosphere.

12. Greenhouse gas other than CO2 is


(1) H2 (2) N2O (3) O2 (4) SO2
Sol. Answer (2)
N2O is also a greenhouse gas

13. Photochemical smog involves


(1) O3 (2) NO (3) NO2 (4) All of these
Sol. Answer (4)
Photochemical smog consists of O3, NO and NO2. This type of fog is oxidizing in nature due to the presence
of O3 and oxide of nitrogen.

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14. One of the greenhouse gas is
(1) CO (2) O2 (3) H2 (4) CFC’s
Sol. Answer (4)
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are greenhouse gases.

15. pH of acid rain is approximately


(1) 5.6 (2) 6.2 (3) 6.7 (4) 7
Sol. Answer (1)
Acid rain is slightly acidic due to the presence of H2SO4 and HNO3. Its pH is close to 5.6.

16. Which is not a cause of acid rain?


(1) NO2 (2) CH4 (3) SO2 (4) CO2
Sol. Answer (2)
CH4 does not react with water to form acid, while NO2 gives nitric acid, CO2 gives carbonic acid. SO2 oxidizes
to SO3 and then form H2SO4 with water.

17. Acid rain causes


(1) Chlorosis (2) Increasing acidity of soil
(3) Corroding bridges (4) All of these
Sol. Answer (4)
Acid rain contains HNO3 and H2SO4 with some carbonic acid. Acid rain causes chlorosis in plant, it increases
the acidity of soil and reacts with the metal and stone structures which result in corrosion.

18. Interference in development and maturation of RBC is caused by


(1) Hg pollution (2) Pb pollution (3) S pollution (4) All of these
Sol. Answer (2)
Pb is very toxic and in high concentrations, it can interfere with the development and mataration of red blood
cells.

19. Select viable pollutant.


(1) Smoke (2) Moulds (3) Mist (4) Fumes
Sol. Answer (2)
Moulds are living organisms. Hence, they are viable pollutants.

20. Which one of the following is not a property of classical smog?


(1) Occurs at low temperature (2) Secondary pollutant play significant role
(3) Contains SO2 (4) Dark brown coloured
Sol. Answer (2)
Secondary pollutants play significant role. Secondary pollutants play a significant role in photochemical smog.

21. Photochemical smog always contains


(1) SO2 (2) O3 (3) HNO3 (4) All of these
Sol. Answer (2)
Ozone is the main component of photochemical smog. The oxidizing nature of photochemical smog is due
to the presence of O3.

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22. Photochemical smog is actually a cause of pollution of


(1) Soil (2) Air (3) Noise (4) Water
Sol. Answer (2)
Ozone being a gas acts as an air pollutant and causes air pollution.

23. Photochemical smog includes the reduction of


(1) SO2 (2) NO (3) Cl2 (4) NO2
Sol. Answer (4)
NO2 breaks up into NO and free oxygen. This free oxygen causes oxidation.
n
NO2(g) NO(g) + O(g)

24. Earth is protected from UV rays by


(1) N2 (2) O2 (3) O3 (4) SO3
Sol. Answer (3)
Ozone (O3) present in the atmosphere absorbs UV radiation coming from sun and protect the earth from its
harmful effect.

25. Months in which ozone hole appears over poles is


(1) June-July (2) August-September (3) October-November (4) December-January
Sol. Answer (2)
During August-September, the sunlight returns to the antarctica and the sun's warmth breaks up cloud and
HOCl and Cl2 are photolysed which gives chlorine free radicals. These chlorine radicals are responsible for the
depletion of ozone layer.

26. Depletion of ozone layer can not cause


(1) Damage of DNA (2) Skin cancer (3) Cataract (4) Rickets
Sol. Answer (4)
Depletion of ozone layer results in exposure of humans to UV radiations UV radiation may cause skin cancer,
catract or it can damage DNA. UV radiation does not cause rickets.

27. Which one of the following gases is known as chemical weed in troposphere?
(1) C2H6 (2) SO2 (3) O3 (4) NO2
Sol. Answer (3)
ozone (O3) is known as chemical weed in troposhere. Ozone formed in troposphere harms plants and animals
whereas ozone present in stratosphere acts as a shield against UV radiation.

28. Depletion of ozone layer causes


(1) Increased transpiration (2) Damages paints and fibres
(3) Causes aging of skin (4) All of these
Sol. Answer (4)
Depletion of ozone results in exposare of plants and animals to the UV radiations. These UV radiations are
harmfal and it increases transpiration, damages points and fibres and also causes aging of skin.

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29. Which causes water pollution?
(1) Jet planes (2) Herbicides (3) Smoke (4) Combustion of fossils
Sol. Answer (2)
Herbicides are used in fields to kill pests. These go into the water bodies with rain and cause water pollution

30. Most common and commercial water pollutant is


(1) Industrial waste (2) Fertilizers (3) Detergents (4) PCB’s
Sol. Answer (1)
Industrial waste is the most common and commercial source of water pollution.

31. For clean water BOD is less then


(1) 17 ppm (2) 12.2 ppm (3) 7 ppm (4) 5 ppm
Sol. Answer (4)
The water is considered clean when the Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) is less than 5 parts per million
(PPM)

32. Cause of eutrophication is


(1) Nutrient enrichment of water bodies (2) Increase of oxygen in water bodies
(3) Increase in number of aquatic organisms (4) All of these
Sol. Answer (1)
Nutrient enrichment in water bodies leads to excess growth of aquatic plant kills animal life by depriving it of
oxygen and this results in loss of biodiversity. This is called eutrophication.

33. Inorganic pollutant can damage


(1) Central nervous system (2) Liver
(3) Kidneys (4) All of these
Sol. Answer (4)
Inorganic pollutants are very harmful for the whole body of humans. Inorganic pollutants constitute heavy metals
such as Cd, Hg, Ni etc. Which can damage central nervous system, liver and kidneys.

34. Decomposition of organic matter through microbial activity is known as


(1) Eutrophication (2) Stratification (3) Putrescibility (4) BOD
Sol. Answer (3)
The decomposition of organic matter present in plant such as leaves, grass and phytoplanktons by microbial
activity is known as putrescibility.

35. Permissible level of nitrate ions in the drinking water is


(1) 40 ppm (2) 50 ppm (3) 60 ppm (4) 70 ppm
Sol. Answer (2)
The permissible level of nitrate ions in the drinking water is 50 ppm as per international standards.

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36. Tooth decay is caused by deficiency of


(1) Fluorides (2) Lead (3) Sulphates (4) Nitrates
Sol. Answer (1)
Fluorides are components of teeth and their deficiency results in tooth decay.

37. Laxative effect is caused by


(1) Nitrates (2) Sulphates (3) Lead (4) Fluoride
Sol. Answer (2)
Presence of excess of sulphates in the drinking water causes laxative effect.

38. Soil pollution can result in decreased


(1) Soil productivity (2) Quality of plants
(3) Purity of ground water (4) All of these
Sol. Answer (4)
The harmful effect of soil pollution includes decrease in soil productivity, decrease in quality of plants and it
also decreases the parity of ground water.

39. Which one of the following is not an organochlorine?


(1) Parathion (2) DDT (3) BHC (4) Aldrin
Sol. Answer (1)
Parathion is an organophosphate compund whereas DDT, BHC and aldrin are organochlorines

40. Which one of the following is least persistent insecticide?


(1) Aldrin (2) Dieldrin (3) BHC (4) Carbamates
Sol. Answer (4)
DDT, BHC and aldrin are organo chlorines which are presistent insecticides whereas carbamate are less
persistent and blodegradable more than organochlorines.

41. Which one of the following is a herbicide?


(1) Organochlorines (2) Organophosphates (3) Carbamates (4) Sodium arsinite
Sol. Answer (4)
Sodium arsinite is one of the commonly used herbicides which is biodegradable and not much persistant.

42. Non-biodegradable industrial waste that can be utilized by cement industry is


(1) Fly ash (2) Slag (3) Gypsum (4) Both (1) & (2)
Sol. Answer (4)
Fly ash and slag both can be used in cement industry which are non-blodegradable industrial waste.

43. Small quantity of industrial toxic waste is removed by


(1) Burning in open bins (2) Controlled incineration
(3) Burning in closed bins (4) Both (1) & (2)
Sol. Answer (1)
Burning of small quantity of toxic waste can be used to remove industrial toxic waste. Burning in open bin
will result in complete combustion of the toxic waste.
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44. Select non-biodegradable industrial waste
(1) Waste from cotton mills (2) Waste from paper mills
(3) Fly ash from thermal power plants (4) Waste from food processing units
Sol. Answer (3)
Thermal power plants produce fly ash which is non-biodegradable whereas waste from cotton mills, paper mills
and food processing units are generally biodegradable.

45. Which one of the following is not a non-biodegradable industrial waste?


(1) Gypsum from fertilizer industries (2) Mud and tailings from metal industries
(3) Slag from steel industries (4) Waste from textile industries
Sol. Answer (4)
Waste from textile industries is biodegradable whereas gypsum, mud, slag are non-biodegradable.

46. Biodegradable wastes are mixed with water and cultured from bacterial species which produces a gas called
(1) Methane gas (2) Ethane gas (3) Propane gas (4) Butane gas
Sol. Answer (1)
Biodegradable waste mixed with water and cultured with bacteria produce methane gas. Bacteria decompose
organic matter and produce methane.

47. Sewage sludge does not contain


(1) Nitrogen (2) Phosphorus (3) Potassium (4) All of these
Sol. Answer (3)
Sewage sludge does not contain potassium but it contains some amount of nitrogen and phosphorous.

48. Green chemistry emphasizes on


(1) Reaction that takes place in non-aqueous medium
(2) Utilization of sciences to reduce adverse impact on environment
(3) Use of condensation polymers
(4) Minimise the use of non-hazardous waste
Sol. Answer (2)
Green chemistry utilizes existing knowledge of science and practices to reduce the production of environmental
pollutants.

49. In place of tetrachloroethene in dry-cleaning we use


(1) Sodium lauryl sulphate (2) Sodium stearate
(3) Hydrogen peroxide (4) Sodium bisulphite
Sol. Answer (3)
Hydrogen peroxide is used as green solvent for dry-cleaning instead of tetrachloroethene because
tetrachloroethene is carcinogenic and H2O2 unlike tetrachloroethene is not harmful.

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50. Chauvin, Grubbs and Schrock won 2005 Nobel prize for the development of
(1) Dumas method (2) Kjeldahl’s method
(3) Metathesis method (4) Carius method
Sol. Answer (3)
Y Chauvin, Robert H. Grubbs and richard R-schrock won 2005 Noble Prize in chemistry for the development
of metathesis method in organic chemistry. Metathesis method is a way to arrange groups of atom within a
molecule that can produce desired molecule of high commercial importance.

SECTION - B
Objective Type Questions
1. Which one of the following statements regarding photochemical smog is not correct?
(1) Photochemical smog is formed through photochemical reaction involving solar energy
(2) Photochemical smog does not cause irritation in eyes and throat
(3) Carbon monoxide does not play any role in photochemical smog formation
(4) Photochemical smog is an oxidising agent in character
Sol. Answer (2)
O3 and PAN are powerful eye irritants ozone and nitric oxide irritate the nose and throat.

2. About 20 km above the earth, there is an ozone layer. Which one of the following statement about ozone and
ozone layer is true?
(1) It is beneficial to us as it stops U.V. radiation (2) Conversion of O3 to O2 is an endothermic reaction
(3) Ozone has a triatomic linear molecule (4) It is harmful as it stops useful radiation
Sol. Answer (1)
It is beneficial to us as it stops UV radication in the stratosphere, O3 absorbs the harmful UV radiation and
protects the earth's environment from its harmful effect.

3. Which one of the following is responsible for depletion of the ozone layer in the upper strata of the atmosphere?
(1) Polyhalogens (2) Ferrocene (3) Fullerenes (4) Freons
Sol. Answer (4)
Freons produce chlorine free radical which combines with ozone and cause depletion of ozone layer.
UV
CF2Cl2 CF2Cl + Cl Cl + O3 ClO + O2

4. Which one of the following statements is not true?


(1) Oxides of sulphur, nitrogen and carbon are the most widespread air pollutant
(2) pH of drinking water should be between 5.5 – 9.5
(3) Concentration of DO below 6 ppm is good for the growth of fish
(4) Clean water would have a BOD value of less than 5 ppm
Sol. Answer (3)
Dissolved oxygen (DO) below 6 ppm is not the adequate quantity of oxygen for the growth of the fish. The
Do should be above 9 ppm for the good growth of fish.

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5. Which of the following is not caused due to SO2?
(1) Cough (2) Shortness of breath (3) Spasm of larynx (4) Blindness
Sol. Answer (4)
Exposure to SO2 does not cause blindness, it generally affects the respiratory system.

6. Which of the following has not adverse effect on human health?


(1) CO2 (2) NO2 (3) SO2 (4) CO
Sol. Answer (1)
CO2 does not have adverse effect on human health, while NO2 cause respiratory problems, SO2 also affect
the respiratory system. High concentration of CO stops the oxygen transport by haemoglobin.

7. Which of the following is not a green house gas?


(1) CO2 (2) CH4 (3) CCl2F2 (4) O2
Sol. Answer (4)
Oxygen is not a greenhouse gas, while CO2, CH4 and CCl2F2 are greenhouse gases.

8. At which of the following pH, rain is called acid rain?


(1) 4 (2) 6 (3) 6.8 (4) All of these
Sol. Answer (1)
When the pH of rain is below or equal to 4 due to the presence of sulphuric and nitric acid, the rain is called
acid rain.

9. Which of the following is Freon-11?


(1) CCl3F (2) CCl2F2 (3) CClF3 (4) CF4
Sol. Answer (1)
CCl3F is known as freon-11. CCl2F2 is freon-12 whereas CClF3 is freon-13. CF4 is not a freon.

10. At which of the following concentration of sulphate it will have a laxative effect?
(1) Above 300 ppm (2) Above 500 ppm (3) Above 400 ppm (4) Above 600 ppm
Sol. Answer (2)
High concentration of sulphate ion lead to laxative effect. When the concentration of sulphte ion is above
500 ppm, it causes laxative effect.

11. Measurement of dissolved oxygen that would be needed by the microorganism to oxidise the compounds is
known as
(1) Acid rain (2) BOD (3) COD (4) Ozone layer depletion
Sol. Answer (2)
Biological oxygen demand (BOD) is used as a measurenment of dissolved oxygen that is needed by the micro-
organism to oxidize the organic matter. For clean water, the BOD should be less than 5 ppm.

12. Which of the following is herbicide?


(1) DDT (2) (CH3)2Hg (3) NaClO3 (4) C2H2
Sol. Answer (3)
Sodium chlorate (NaClO3) is a herbicide. DDT, (CH3)2Hg and C2H2 are not herbicide.

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13. Green house gases


(1) Allow shorter wavelength to enter earth’s atmosphere while doesn’t allow longer wavelength to leave the
earth’s atmosphere
(2) Allow longer wavelength to enter earth atmosphere while doesn’t allow shorter wavelength to leave the
surface
(3) Don’t have wavelength specific character
(4) Near to earth show wavelength specific behaviour while far from earth have wavelength independent behaviour
Sol. Answer (1)
Allow shorter wavelength to enter earth's atmosphere while does not allow longer wavelength to leave the earth's
atmosphere.
Greenhouse gases like CO2, CH4 etc allow radiation of shorter wavelength like visible light to enter the earth's
atmosphere but when the surface of the earth radiates long-wavelenth radiation i.e, infrared radiation, these gases
do not allow them to leave the earth's atmosphere and thus result in the increase in temperature of earth's
atmosphere.

14. Which of the following is the correct match?


(1) Classical smog – NO2 (2) Photochemical smog – SO2
(3) Green house gas – CH4 (4) Both (1) & (3)
Sol. Answer (3)
Only greenhouse gas –CH4 is the correct match. NO2 is not a constituent of classical smog whereas
photochemical smog does not contain SO2. CH4 is a greenhouse gas.

15. Which group correctly represent the photochemical smog produced during reaction of hydrocarbon in the combustion
chamber of an engine?
(1) Formaldehyde and PAN (2) Acrolein and PAN
(3) Formaldehyde and acrolein (4) Formaldehyde, acrolein and PAN
Sol. Answer (4)
Unburnt hydrocarbons are oxidized by NO2 and O3 present in the photochemical smog to form formaldehyde,
acrolein and peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN)
3CH4 + 2O3  3HCHO + 3H2O

16. Freons which cause damage to ozone layer are


(1) Chemically unreactive (2) Non toxic (3) Odourless (4) All of these
Sol. Answer (4)
Freons are chemically unreactive non-toxic and odorless chemicals however in the presence of sunlight they

generate Cl free radical which react with ozone and cause its degradation.

17. Ozone depletion over Antarctica is maximum in the month of


(1) September and October (2) March and April
(3) June and July (4) December and January
Sol. Answer (1)
In the month of September and october, the sunlight returns to the antarctica and the sun's warmth breaks
up the cloud and HOCl and Cl2 are photolysed which gives chlorine free radical. These chlorine radicals are
responsible for the depletion of ozone layer.
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18. Heat pollution affects mainly
(1) Vegetation (2) Aquatic creature (3) Rocks (4) Air
Sol. Answer (2)
Aquatic creatures are affected by heat pollution to a greater extent. Vegetation, rocks and air are not much
affected by heat pollution. A smaller rise in the normal temperature of water dusturb the biological processes
of aquatic creature.

19. Bhopal gas tragedy was caused by


(1) CH3CN (2) CH3NC (3) CH3N = C = O (4) CH3—N = O
Sol. Answer (3)
Bhopal gas tragedy was the result of leakage of highly poisonous gas methyl isocyanate (CH3N = C = O).
20. What is the name of chlorine containing antibiotic?
(1) Chloretone (2) Chloroform
(3) Chloromycetin (4) Carbontetrachloride
Sol. Answer (3)

21. How much percentage of air by mass is present in troposphere?


(1) 40 (2) 60 (3) 80 (4) 100
Sol. Answer (3)
In troposphere, air is 80% by mass. The rest of the mass is occupied by pollutants such as particulate matter,
dust, gaseous pollutants etc.

SECTION - C
Previous Years Questions
1. Which of the following is a sink for CO? [NEET-2017]
(1) Haemoglobin (2) Micro-organisms present in the soil
(3) Oceans (4) Plants
Sol. Answer (2)
Micro-organisms present in the soil is a sink for CO.
2. Which one of the following is not a common component of Photochemical Smog? [AIPMT-2014]
(1) Ozone (2) Acrolein
(3) Peroxyacetyl nitrate (4) Chlorofluorocarbons
Sol. Answer (4)
Chlorofluorocarbons are mainly responsible for the depletion of ozone layer.

3. Which one of the following statements regarding photochemical smog is not correct? [AIPMT (Prelims)-2012]
(1) Photochemical smog is formed through photochemical reaction involving solar energy
(2) Photochemical smog does not cause irritation in eyes and throat
(3) Carbon monoxide does not play any role in photochemical smog formation
(4) Photochemical smog is an oxidising agent in character
Sol. Answer (2)

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4. Which one of the following statement is not true ? [AIPMT (Prelims)-2011]


(1) Oxides of sulphur, nitrogen and carbon are the most widespread air pollutant
(2) pH of drinking water should be between 5.5 – 9.5
(3) Concentration of DO below 6 ppm is good for the growth of fish
(4) Clean water would have a BOD value of less than 5 ppm
Sol. Answer (3)

5. Green chemistry means such reactions which [AIPMT (Prelims)-2008]


(1) Study the reactions in plants
(2) Produce colour during reactions
(3) Reduce the use and production of hazardous chemicals
(4) Are related to the depletion of ozone layer
Sol. Answer (3)

6. Which of the following is a secondary pollutant?


(1) CO2 (2) N2O (3) SO2 (4) PAN
Sol. Answer (4)
Peroxyacetyl nitrate is a secondary pollutant. Secondary pollutants are those which are produced as a result
of interaction between the primary pollutants and are not directly discharged from source.

7. ‘White lung cancer’ is caused by


(1) Asbestos (2) Silica (3) Textiles (4) Paper
Sol. Answer (3)
White lung cancer is an occupational disorder which is found in workers of textile industry. The main cause
of this disease is the inhalation of textile fibres.

8. BOD5 is
(1) Waste decomposed in 5 days (2) Oxygen used in 5 days
(3) Microorganisms killed in 5 days (4) Dissolved oxygen left after 5 days
Sol. Answer (2)
The BOD5 is biological oxygen demand of waste water during decomposition occuring over a 5 day period. It
is a measure of the organic content of waste water.

9. Ozone in the stratosphere is deleted by


(1) CF2Cl2 (2) C7F16 (3) C6H6Cl6 (4) C6F6
Sol. Answer (1)
Ozone layer in the stratosphere is depleted by CFCs. CF2Cl2 is a CFC which can procuce chlorine radical in
the presence of sulight. These free radical react with ozone and degrade it.

10. Which one of the following is responsible for depletion of the ozone layer in the upper strata of the atmosphere?
(1) Polyhalogens (2) Ferrocene (3) Fullerenes (4) Freons
Sol. Answer (4)
Freons are chloroflocrocarbons. These compounds contain chlorine and fluorine and they generate chlorine free
radical in presence of sunlight. These free radical react with ozone and cause its decomposition/degradation.

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11. The smog is essentially caused by the presence of
(1) O2 and O3 (2) O2 and N2
(3) Oxides of sulphur and nitrogen (4) O3 and N2
Sol. Answer (3)
Oxides of sulphur and nitrogen are the main constituents of smog. Classical smog contains SO2 whereas
photochemical smog contains oxides of nitrogen.

12. Pick up the correct statement :

(1) CO which is a major pollutant resulting from the combustion of fuels in automobiles plays a major role in
photochemical smog

(2) Classical smog has an oxidizing character while the photochemical smog is reducing in character

(3) Photochemical smog occurs in day time whereas the classical smog occurs in the morning hours

(4) During formation of smog the level of ozone in the atmosphere goes down

Sol. Answer (3)

Classical smog occurs in cold humid climate and occurs in morning hourses when temperature is low.
Photochemical smog occurs in warm, dry and sunny climate and formed in day time when temperature is high.

13. In Antartica, ozone depletion is due to the formation of the following compound

(1) Acrolein (2) Peroxy acetyl nitrate

(3) SO2 and SO3 (4) Chlorine nitrate

Sol. Answer (4)

In antarctica, chlorine nitrate gets hydrolysed to form hypochlorous acid and it also reacts with HCl to give
molecular chlorine

ClONO2(g) + H2O  HOCl (g) + HNO3 (g)

ClONO2(g) + HCl(g)  Cl2(g) + HNO3 (g)

Sunlight breaks HOCl and Cl2 to give chlorine radicals which are responsible for ozone depletion.

h Cl2 (g) h
HOCl(g) HO (g) + Cl (g) 2Cl (g)

14. Which of the following is not a greenhouse gas?

(1) CO2 (2) CH4 (3) O3 (4) N2

Sol. Answer (4)

Nitrogen (N2) is not a greenhouse gas, whereas CO2, CH4, O3 and CCl2F2 are greenhouse gases.

15. High concentration of fluoride is poisonous and harmful to bones and teeth at levels over

(1) 1 ppm (2) 3 ppm (3) 5 ppm (4) 10 ppm

Sol. Answer (4)

High concentration of fluoride is poisonous over a 10 ppm and affects teeth and bones.

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154 Environmental Chemistry Solutions of Assignment (Set-2)

16. Nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide have some properties in common. Which property is shown by one of
these compounds, but not by the other?

(1) Is used as a food-preservative (2) Forms 'acid-rain'

(3) Is a reducing agent (4) Is soluble in water

Sol. Answer (1)

SO2 is used as a food-preservative.

SECTION - D
Assertion - Reason Type Questions
1. A : Global warming is due to Greenhouse Effect.
R : Greenhouse gas is CH4.
Sol. Answer (2)
Assertion is true greenhouse effect causes global warming. The reason is also true, CH4 is a greenhouse gas
but it is not the explanation of assertion.

2. A : Ozone depletion potential is maximum in CFC's.


R : CFC looses active chlorine.
Sol. Answer (2)
CFCs causes depletion of ozone layer by releasing chlorine free radical which reacts with ozone and CFCs
are most active in depleting ozone layer. Both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the correct
explanation.

3. A : Photochemical smog is also known as oxidising smog.


R : Photochemical smog is chiefly composed of O3 PAN. etc.
Sol. Answer (1)
Photochemical smog is an oxidizing smog because it contains ozone (O3) and NO2 which are oxidizing agents.

4. A : Value of COD is greater than BOD.


R : Used oxygen is demanded by some chemicals for oxidation of inorganic and organic pollutants.
Sol. Answer (1)
BOD contains only oxygen used for biodegradable pollutants whereas COD includes both biodegradable and
non-biodegradable pollutants. hence, both assetion and reason are true.

5. A : Productivity of eutrophic lake is maximum.


R : Eutrophication is mainly due to addition of SO42– and heavy metals.
Sol. Answer (3)
Productivity of eutrophic lake is maximum due to the presence of excess of nutrients but eutrophication is not
mainly due to the SO42– ion and heavy metals. Eutrophication is mainly due to the fertilizer which run off into
lakes, stream, rivers.

  

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