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National University of Sciences & Technology (NUST)

School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering (SMME)

Basic Electrical Engineering

Course: EE-103
Dr. Jawad Aslam
Book: Electric Circuits by James W. Nilsson and Susan A. Riedel
Reference Book: Electrical Circuits Fundamentals by Sergio
Franco
Circuit Analysis
• Nodal Analysis
The nodal analysis allows us to find node voltages
– Node Method
– Select the reference node and ground it(0V). Label all nodes and
whose voltages are unknown and use arrows with arbitrarily
chosen directions to label the currents entering or leaving each
node
– Apply KCL at each labeled node but labeled currents are
expressed in terms of node voltages via Ohms’s law . Relation of
node voltage and current direction should conform to passive
sign convention
– Solve resulting set of equations to find node voltages
– Use KCL at nodes to check solution to answers according to the
equation utilized in solution
Circuit Analysis
• Nodal Analysis
– Example
𝑖1 = 4 + 𝑖2
12 − 𝑣1 𝑣1
=4+
1 3
36 − 3𝑣1 = 12+𝑣1
𝑣1 =6V
Circuit Analysis
• Nodal Analysis
– Example
𝑖1 = 𝑖2 + 𝑖3
9 − 𝑣1 𝑣1 𝑣1 − 𝑣2
= +
3 6 4
𝑖3 = 𝑖4 +5
𝑣1 − 𝑣2 𝑣2
=5+
4 2
𝑣1 =2𝑉
𝑣2 = −6𝑉
Circuit Analysis
• Nodal Analysis
– Supernode
• Used when to labeled nodes are connected by a voltage
source
• The current of the source is effected by the surrounding
element indirectly and cannot be expressed directly in
terms of voltage itself
• The problem is overcome by considering the nodes and
source as generalized node or supernode
• Applying the KCL to supernode then individual node
Circuit Analysis
• Nodal Analysis
– Example
𝑖1 = 𝑖2 + 0.5
𝑣3 − 𝑣1 𝑣1 − 𝑣2
= + 0.5
2 1.5
𝑖2 = 𝑖3 + 𝑖4 + 𝑖1
𝑣1 −𝑣2 𝑣2 𝑣3 𝑣3 −𝑣1
= + +
1.5 3 10 2
𝑣3 =𝑣2 +8
Circuit Analysis
• Loop Analysis
Loop analysis allows you find the unknown current. The current can be used
to find branch voltages
– Loop Method
• Select a set of meshes such that at least one mesh passes through
each branch. Label each mesh with the corresponding mesh
current and assign each mesh current an arbitrary chosen
direction e.g. clockwise
• Apply KVL around each labeled mesh, with each branch voltage
expressed in terms of the corresponding mesh currents via Ohm’s
law. Relate the voltage polarities and current according to passive
sign convention
• Solve the resulting set of equations for unknown mesh currents
• Checking can be done using the mesh currents and branch
voltages that they satisfy KVL
Circuit Analysis
• Loop Analysis
– Example
– 𝑣1 =13V, 𝑣2 =2V, 𝑅1 =3 𝛺, 𝑅2 =1 𝛺 and 𝑅3 =4 𝛺 find
current through 𝑅3
13 = 3𝑖1 + 4(𝑖1 − 𝑖2 )

0 = 2 + 2𝑖2 + 4(𝑖2 − 𝑖1 )
Circuit Analysis
• Loop Analysis
– Supermesh
• Special treatment occurs when two or more unknown
mesh current passing through same current source
• The voltages of the current source are define by
surrounding elements indirectly
• Therefore voltage cannot be expressed directly
• The choice of mesh currents are altered in such a way
that only one current passes through the offending
current source
• The source is bypassed by larger loops or supermesh
Circuit Analysis
• Loop Analysis
– Example
8 = 1.5𝑖1 + 3(𝑖1 − 0.5)

8 = 2𝑖2 + 10(𝑖2 + 0.5)


Circuit Analysis
• Superposition Principal
• (The scaling property)The branch currents and
node voltages resulting from the single source
in the circuit are linearly proportional to the
source
• (The additive property) In a circuit with two or
more sources , each branch currents and node
voltage is the algebraic sum of the
contributions from each source acting alone
Circuit Analysis
• Superposition Principal
– Label the current or voltage to be found and indicate
its reference direction or polarity explicitly
– Find the contribution from each independent source
acting alone, that will be independent with all other
sources set to zero or suppressed. Suppressing
voltage means replacing it with a short circuit, while
suppressing a current source means replacing it with
an open circuit
– Add all the contributions algebraically (keeping in
mind the sign obtained) to find desired current or
voltage
Circuit Analysis
• Superposition Principal
– Example
– Find the current through the voltage source
Circuit Analysis
• Source Transformation
– The source transformation exploits the
equivalence between a voltage source in series
with a resistance and a current source in parallel
𝑣𝑠 𝑣 𝑣
–𝑖= − 𝑖 = 𝑖𝑠 −
𝑅𝑠 𝑅𝑠 𝑅𝑠