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Electrical Engineering 103 Lecture 4

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Course: EE-103

Dr. Jawad Aslam

Book: Electric Circuits by James W. Nilsson and Susan A. Riedel

Reference Book: Electrical Circuits Fundamentals by Sergio

Franco

Circuit Analysis

• Nodal Analysis

The nodal analysis allows us to find node voltages

– Node Method

– Select the reference node and ground it(0V). Label all nodes and

whose voltages are unknown and use arrows with arbitrarily

chosen directions to label the currents entering or leaving each

node

– Apply KCL at each labeled node but labeled currents are

expressed in terms of node voltages via Ohms’s law . Relation of

node voltage and current direction should conform to passive

sign convention

– Solve resulting set of equations to find node voltages

– Use KCL at nodes to check solution to answers according to the

equation utilized in solution

Circuit Analysis

• Nodal Analysis

– Example

𝑖1 = 4 + 𝑖2

12 − 𝑣1 𝑣1

=4+

1 3

36 − 3𝑣1 = 12+𝑣1

𝑣1 =6V

Circuit Analysis

• Nodal Analysis

– Example

𝑖1 = 𝑖2 + 𝑖3

9 − 𝑣1 𝑣1 𝑣1 − 𝑣2

= +

3 6 4

𝑖3 = 𝑖4 +5

𝑣1 − 𝑣2 𝑣2

=5+

4 2

𝑣1 =2𝑉

𝑣2 = −6𝑉

Circuit Analysis

• Nodal Analysis

– Supernode

• Used when to labeled nodes are connected by a voltage

source

• The current of the source is effected by the surrounding

element indirectly and cannot be expressed directly in

terms of voltage itself

• The problem is overcome by considering the nodes and

source as generalized node or supernode

• Applying the KCL to supernode then individual node

Circuit Analysis

• Nodal Analysis

– Example

𝑖1 = 𝑖2 + 0.5

𝑣3 − 𝑣1 𝑣1 − 𝑣2

= + 0.5

2 1.5

𝑖2 = 𝑖3 + 𝑖4 + 𝑖1

𝑣1 −𝑣2 𝑣2 𝑣3 𝑣3 −𝑣1

= + +

1.5 3 10 2

𝑣3 =𝑣2 +8

Circuit Analysis

• Loop Analysis

Loop analysis allows you find the unknown current. The current can be used

to find branch voltages

– Loop Method

• Select a set of meshes such that at least one mesh passes through

each branch. Label each mesh with the corresponding mesh

current and assign each mesh current an arbitrary chosen

direction e.g. clockwise

• Apply KVL around each labeled mesh, with each branch voltage

expressed in terms of the corresponding mesh currents via Ohm’s

law. Relate the voltage polarities and current according to passive

sign convention

• Solve the resulting set of equations for unknown mesh currents

• Checking can be done using the mesh currents and branch

voltages that they satisfy KVL

Circuit Analysis

• Loop Analysis

– Example

– 𝑣1 =13V, 𝑣2 =2V, 𝑅1 =3 𝛺, 𝑅2 =1 𝛺 and 𝑅3 =4 𝛺 find

current through 𝑅3

13 = 3𝑖1 + 4(𝑖1 − 𝑖2 )

0 = 2 + 2𝑖2 + 4(𝑖2 − 𝑖1 )

Circuit Analysis

• Loop Analysis

– Supermesh

• Special treatment occurs when two or more unknown

mesh current passing through same current source

• The voltages of the current source are define by

surrounding elements indirectly

• Therefore voltage cannot be expressed directly

• The choice of mesh currents are altered in such a way

that only one current passes through the offending

current source

• The source is bypassed by larger loops or supermesh

Circuit Analysis

• Loop Analysis

– Example

8 = 1.5𝑖1 + 3(𝑖1 − 0.5)

Circuit Analysis

• Superposition Principal

• (The scaling property)The branch currents and

node voltages resulting from the single source

in the circuit are linearly proportional to the

source

• (The additive property) In a circuit with two or

more sources , each branch currents and node

voltage is the algebraic sum of the

contributions from each source acting alone

Circuit Analysis

• Superposition Principal

– Label the current or voltage to be found and indicate

its reference direction or polarity explicitly

– Find the contribution from each independent source

acting alone, that will be independent with all other

sources set to zero or suppressed. Suppressing

voltage means replacing it with a short circuit, while

suppressing a current source means replacing it with

an open circuit

– Add all the contributions algebraically (keeping in

mind the sign obtained) to find desired current or

voltage

Circuit Analysis

• Superposition Principal

– Example

– Find the current through the voltage source

Circuit Analysis

• Source Transformation

– The source transformation exploits the

equivalence between a voltage source in series

with a resistance and a current source in parallel

𝑣𝑠 𝑣 𝑣

–𝑖= − 𝑖 = 𝑖𝑠 −

𝑅𝑠 𝑅𝑠 𝑅𝑠

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