Tim Huggins is the new director of human resources of Sprowl Manufacturing, a division of the MBTI Corporation. Tim wanted to start a job analysis program immediately. Six weeks after he took over; job analysis questionnaires (six pages each) were given to employees. The results were puzzling. Responses from e the operating employees (machinists, lift operators, technicians, draftspeople, and mechanics) were quite different from responses from their supervisors about these jobs. The fact that supervisors viewed the jobs differently from those doing the work fueled Tim’s desire to do a job analysis. He wanted to study and specifically define the jobs so that misunderstandings, arguments, and false expectations could be kept to a minimum. The supervisors listed job duties as simple and routine. The operating employees disagreed and claimed that their jobs were complicated and constrained by limited resources.They complained ‘ that work areas were hot, stuffy, and uncomfortable. These disagreements soon E became the basis for some a open hostility between supervisors and workers. Finally, Nick Mannis, machinist, confronted a supervisor, Rog Wilkes, and threatened to punch him over the “lies” Rog and other supervisors had concocted in the job analysis. Tim was worried that the job analysis program was getting totally out of hand. He had to do something about it. Everyone was getting up in arms over a program Tim felt was necessary. Should a manager like Tim, who knows a lot about HRM, but who was not trained in the specifics of job analysis, undertake this kind of program?

Organizations have evolved because the overall mission and objectives of most institutions are too large for any single person to accomplish. Consequently, the organization must have a systematic way to determine which employees are expected to perform a particular function or task that must he accomplished. The cornerstone of the organization is, therefore, the set of jobs performed by its employees. These jobs, in turn, provide the mechanism for coordinating and linking the various activities of the organization that are necessary for success. As a result, studying and understanding jobs through the process known as job analysis is a vital part of any HRM program. job analysis provides answers to questions such as these: How much time is taken to complete important tasks? Which tasks are grouped together and considered a job? How can a job be designed or structured so that the employee’s performance can he enhanced? What kinds of behaviors are needed to perform the job? What kind of person (in terms of traits and experience) is best suited for the job? How can the information acquired by a job analysis be used in the development of HRM programs? This chapter claries the contributions made by job analysis to an organization’s HRM program and specific activities. Furthermore, the careful planning needed and the various techniques of a ob analysis program are highlighted. Finally,

the importance of job analysis in the design of jobs is discussed. The chapter shows that job analysis is a necessary part of HRM and in many respects is the foundation upon which all other 1-IRM activities must he constructed. As can be seen in the diagnostic model (see Exhibit 6—1), the nature of the work to be performed is one of the fundamental inputs into all major HRM functions. This is another way of saying that how workers’ responsibilities and duties are segmented helps to shape and determine virtually all other facets of organizational functioning. As such, understanding exactly what constitutes any particular job is critical to developing HRM activities that support the organization’s mission. Before considering the process and techniques involved in job analysis, on should THE VOCABULARY learn the language of job analysis. Although many of these terms are often used OF JOP ANALYSIS interchangeably by people who are unfamiliar with job analysis, the expert will Use them more precisely in order to avoid confusion and misinterpretation. Precision in the use of these terms is, in fact, required by federal and state legislation. it is therefore important for the HR manager to use each of them in a way that is consistent with such legislation.

The following definitions are consistent with those provided by the U.S. Employment Service and the U.S. Office of Personnel Management:2 Job analysis. A purposeful, systematic process for collecting information on the important work-related aspects of a job.3 Job description. The principal product of a job analysis. It represents a written summary of the job as an identifiable organizational unit. Job specification. A written explanation of the knowledge, skills, abilities, traits, and other characteristics (KSAOs) necessary for effective performance on a given job. Tasks. Coordinated and aggregated series of work elements used to produce an output (e.g., a unit of production or service to a client). Position. Consists of the responsibilities and duties performed by an individual. There are as many positions in an organization as there are employees. Job. Group of positions that are similar in their duties, such as computer programmer or compensation specialist Job family. Group of two or more jobs that have similar duties. THE STEPS IN The 1ob analysis process involves a number of steps, which are outlined in Exhibit JOP ANALYSIS 6—2. As it appears in the exhibit, the process assumes that the job analysis is being conducted in an ongoing organization; in other words, an organization that is already in operation as opposed to a new venture. Step I provides a broad view of how each job fits into the total fabric of the organization. Organization charts and process charts (discussed later) are used to complete step I. Step 2 encourages those involved to determihe how the job analysis and job design information will be used. This step is further explained in the next section. Since it is usually too costly and time-consuming to analyze every job, a representative sample of jobs needs to be selected. In step 3, jobs that are to he analyzed are selected. Step 4 involves the use of acceptable job analysis techniques. The techniques are used to collect data on the characteristics of the job, the required behaviors, and the characteristics an employee needs to perform the job. The information collected in step 4 is then used in step 5 to develop a job description. Next, in step 6, a job specification is prepared. The knowledge and data collected in steps 1 through 6 are used as the foundation for virtually every other HRM activity. As shown in Exhibit 6—2, these include activities such as recruitment, selection, training, performance evaluation, and compensation. The information gathered during job analysis is essential to each of these. As is also shown in the exhibit, the information gathered is used in job design and redesign, which are discussed in detail later in this chapter. Job analysis provides information necessary for organizing work in ways that allow employees to he both productive and satisfied. Finally, information from job analysis can be used in an organization’s follow—up evaluations of its job design. At this step, it is important for an organization to evaluate its efforts and determine whether the goals of productivity and satisfaction are in fact being achieved.

It should yield a thorough. Job analysis is linked with these discrimination laws through rulings from numerous Supreme Court decisions. On the basis of these court decisions. abilities. In addition. The quality of job analysis conducted by an organization is frequently a primary determinant of whether it has acted properly. That is. 3. and managers in general know that job analysis has manyJOP ANALYSIS T uses. The UGESP emphasizes that job analysis should be used when validating or assessing the accuracy of organizational selection procedures. In addition to helping organizations satisfy their legal requirements. It must allow for an accurate assessment of the knowledge. a set of policies designed to minimize or prevent workplace discrimination practices. a good job analysis must provide the following if it is to be viewed favorably: 1. it must clearly determine which KSAOs are important for each job duty. and other characteristics (KSAOs) required by the job. Administrative guidelines accompanying various civil rights and EEO laws and judicial recommendations are clear.5 In terms of staffing and selection activities. including the Civil Rights Act of 1991 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. It must yield information about the relationship between job duties and these KSAOs. clear job description. job analysis is closely tied to HRM programs and activities. The question has become how to conduct a legally defensible job analysis rather than whether to conduct such an analysis at all. specialists. 4.THE USES OF HR managers. job analysis is critical to assessments of discrimination under most employment-related laws. 2. It is used extensively in each of the following areas: . The frequency and importance of task behaviors should be assessed. Some of these individuals now believe that there is no longer even a choice A about whether job analysis should be conducted. job analysis plays an important role in the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures (1978). skills.

job analysis information helps recruiters seek and find the right persons for the organization. analyses. compensate. On the other hand. If an organization has only an occasional need for job analysis information. HR managers will 4. this objectivity might be difficult to achieve when incumbents conduct the job analysis. And. Compensation. Strategic planning. Effective job analysis can help organizations to change. controlling. For example. Thus. Compensation is usually tied to the duties and always be able to find responsibilities of a job. Knowing the skills necessary for jobs is HRMEMO essential to building effective training programs. selection testing must assess the most critical skills and abilities needed to perform a jo6.1. More and more. jobs. Part of that planning should involve carefully choosing the people who will JOP ANALYSIS? conduct the analysis. Managers involved in virtually all aspects of planning. including the location and complexity of the jobs to be analyzed. managers are beginning to realize that need to convince line job analysis is another important tool in an organization’s overall strategic managers that their planning efforts. and the ultimate intended purpose of the results of the analysis. or some combination of these to collect job analysis information. Thus. appraise. the individuals should thoroughly understand people. or utilize its human resources without the kinds of information derived from job analysis. In cases like these. it may hire a temporary job analyst from outside. . WHO SHOULD The steps spelled out in Exhibit 6—2 suggest that care and planning are important features of CONDUCT THE any job analysis. Other organizations will have job analysis experts employed full-time. This information comes from job analysis. They should also have considerable knowledge about how work is expected to flow within the organization. Moreover helping people to Line managers. In addition. difficult to imagine how an organization could effectively hire. or otherwise restructure work and work flow processes to meet the changing demands of uncertain environments. eliminate. in fact. and directing in the organization also benefit from job analysis information. busy with move efficiently from one career stage to another can only be accomplished with their day-to-day information from job analysis. It should be obvious from this list that the potential uses of job analysis cover the entire domain of HRM activities. Each of these choices has strengths and weaknesses. 2. how receptive incumbents might be to an external analyst. But the value of job analysis doesn’t end with HRM. train. may not 3. job incumbents. involving incumbents in the job analysis process might increase their acceptance of any work changes stemming from the results of the analysis. the choice of who should analyze a job depends on many factors. aid the total organizational system. responsibilities. proper compensation demands accurate time to conduct job assessments of what various jobs entail. organizing. Training and career development. It is. job incumbents are a good source of information about what work is actually being done rather than what work is supposed to be done. Recruitment and selection.9 Regardless of who collects the information. to hire the right person. Still other organizations will use supervisors. job analysis should describe the work activities of a job independent of any personal attributes of a given job incumbent. Because incumbents tend to exaggerate the responsibilities and importance of their work. cooperation is critical.

An organization chart presents the relationships among departments and units of the firm. 42—43. 04--I 12. “Bureaucracy.”Reen6gineering Work: Don’t Automate. In response to this inefficiency. Michael Hammer. the company created a new job titled case manager. even before this selection is made. pp. the company will need to redesign several existing jobs to support these new initiatives.” Industry Week.HR JOURNAL REENGINEERING: THE STRATEGIC JOB ANALYSIS CHALLENGS A 1990 Harvard Business Review article entitled. .” Nation’s & Business. THE However. Obliterate: introduced managers to the concept of reengineering. The reengineering doubled the volume work that was being completed. pp. and Fiction. pp. This requires a complete redesign of existing work into jobs that previously didn’t exist. A case manager became responsible for the entire application process for any given individual. The project will be aimed at Toyota’s North American parts supply network that includes 1. the heart of reengineering is the need for organizations to break away from their traditional rules about work and from the assumptions that underlie how that work is efficiently accomplished. units. the company was able to eliminate 100 unnecessary field office positions. Typical turnaround time was between 5 and 25 days. this overview will provide the job analyst with a better understanding of the flow of work through the organization. To gain these useful insights about the structure and process of the organization. Job analysis is likely to play an important role in this change process. the world’s fourth largest automobile manufacturer with 2001 sales of U. Mutual Benefit Life Insurance implemented a complete reengineering program several years ago. Their job analyses indicated that the application process included 30 separate steps that spanned five different departments. reengineering designs jobs around outcomes rather than tasks . The line functions (the individuals performing the work duties) and staff functions (the advisers) are also spelled out. Michael Hammer (July—August 1990). pp. pp. 66—68. John Thackray (June 1993).500 Lexus and Toyota dealers and its 450 suppliers.’ Management Today. Heal Thyself. In order to make this project a reality. the number of different functional departments. an overview of the organization and its jobs is USE OF required. Specifically. A typical organizational chart will yield information about the number of vertical levels in the organization. and the formal reporting relationships that exist.S. Obliterate’ Harvard Business Review. David Warner (October I 993). The job analyst has to select the best methods and procedures available to conduct the analysis.000 employees. john Teresko (January 00 I). Fixes. An overview provides the job analyst with an informed picture of the total arrangement CHARTS of departments. and jobs. 71— 74. at the same time.$ 106 billion and 215. with most of the time spent passing the application between departments. Similar efforts to streamline operations and make bureaucracy more efficient and less cumbersome are promised by Toyota Motor Corporation. “Fads. two types of charts are especially helpful. “Toyota’s New Challenge. Additionally. “Reengineering Work: Don’t Automate.This means that a single individual will be responsible for performing all aspects of a process rather than a limited subset of tasks. 40—42. “The New Business Agenda Strategy & Leadership. Sources: Michael Hammer (November—December 2001). According to its author. The initiative focuses on creating and implementing a new global standard for manufacturing which will attempt to realize new synergies between the company’s IT and production systems.

Both of these orientations are acceptable under the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures as long as they identify job duties and behaviors that are critical to performing the job. or incumbent diary or log. or negotiating). In each of these methods. These answers (of course.A second type of chart. The job analyst should probably try to get information from males and females. shows how a specific set of jobs are related to each other. a job can be analyzed in terms of behaviors or what the job incumbent does to perform the job (such as computing. and short-job cycle activities. COLLECTION There are four basic methods. valid data. collects records about the job. the job analyst should not assume that all incumbents and supervisors have the same amount of knowledge about a job.1° Thus. which can he used separately or in combination. interview. interview. The four methods—or any combination of them—must focus on critical information. questionnaires. and high. coordinating.and low-performing incumbents (the research is mixed about whether there will he differences between them in terms of their view of the job). the process chart. Exhibit 6—3 presents a portion of one type of JAIE Differences among job incumbents should he considered during the analysis of JAIF information. directly observes the job incumbents performing the job. Job incumbents are asked to complete the JAIF. managers need to collect comparable. Consequently.12 A professional job analyst typically conducts extensive interviews with incumbents and supervisors. if feasible. This is important because research indicates that too little knowledge about a job can lead to inaccurate job descriptions. some questions may not be answered or can’t be answered because the job incumbent doesn’t know the answer) are then used to specifically structure the data collection technique that will eventually be implemented. Since time and cost are considerations. and. A safeguard against developing a distorted picture of a job is for the job analyst to collect information from a variety of incumbents. some form of core information is needed no matter what data collection method is used. This is referred to as work-oriented job analysis. in addition to the actual job analysis. rather than simply showing the structural relationships among job titles (as iii a METHODS OF typical organizational chart). It permits the job analyst to collect information that provides a thorough picture of the job. A questionnaire called the job analysis information format (JAIF) can provide the basic core information for use with any job analysis method—observation. ‘ Finally. and requirements. questionnaire. of collecting job analysis data—observation. 1-Observation Direct observation is used for jobs that require manual. older and younger workers. the process chart shows the flow of activities and work necessary DATA to produce a desired product or service. the information about the job is collected and then the job is studied in terms of tasks completed by the job incumbent (person presently working on the job). The job analyst must observe a representative sample of individuals performing these . On the other hand. standardized. jobs performed by an inventory stockroom employee are examples of these. job duties.oriented. This type of job analysis is referred to as job. and job incumbent diaries or logs. The job analyst should not assume that all incumbents or their supervisors will view a job in the same way.

EXHIBIT 6-3 JOB ANALYSIS INFORMATION FORMAT Your Job Title _______________________ Code _________________ Date__________________ Class Title _________________________ Department __________________________________ Your Name _________________________ Facility______________________________________ Supervisors Title _____________________ Prepared by __________________________________ superior s Name_____________________ Hours Worked _____ _________ to ________________ AM AM 1. What is the general purpose of your job? What was your last job? If it was in another organization, please name it. 3. To what job would you normally expect to be promoted? 4. II you regularly supervise others, list them by name and job title. 5. If you supervise others, please check those activities that are part of your supervisory duties: -Hiring -Orienting -Training -Scheduling -Developing -Coaching -Counseling -Budgeting -Directing -Disciplining -Measuring performance -Terminating -Promoting -Other ‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬ -Compensating

6. How would you describe the successful completion and results of your work? 7. Job Duties—Please briefly describe what you do and, if possible, how you do it. Indicate those duties you consider to be most important and/or most difficult. a. Daily duties— h. Periodic duties (please indicate whether weekly, monthly, quarterly, etc.)— c. Duties performed at irregular intervals— d. How long have you been performing these duties? e. Are you now performing unnecessary duties? If yes, please describe. f. Should you be performing duties not now included in your job? If yes, please describe.

EXHIBIT 6-3 CONCLUDED 8. Education. Please check the blank that indicates the educational requirements for the job, not your own educational background. a. ________ No formal education required b. _______ Less than high school diploma c. High school diploma or equivalent. d. _______ 2-year college certificate or equivalent. e. ______ 4-year college degree. F. _______ Education beyond undergraduate degree and/or professional license.

List advanced degrees or specific professional license or certificate required. Please indicate the education you had when you were placed on this job. 9. Experience. Please check the amount needed to perform your job. a. _______ None. b. ______ Less than one month. c. _______ One month to less than six months. d. ______ Six months to one year. e. _______ One to three years. f. ______ Three to five years. g. _______ Five to 10 years. h. ______ Over 10 years.

Please indicate the experience you had when you were placed on this job. 10. Skill. Please list any skills required in the performance of your job. (For example, degree of accuracy, alertness, precision in working with described tools, methods, systems, etc.) Please list skills you possessed when you were placed on this job. 11. Equipment. Does your work require the use of any equipment? Yes _____ No _____ If yes, please list the equipment and check whether you use it rarely, occasionally, or frequently. Equipment a. ________________ b. ________________ c. ________________ d. ________________ Rarely __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ Occasionally __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ Frequently __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________

jobs. Observation is usually not appropriate where the job involves significant mental activity, such as the work of a research scientist, a lawyer, or a mathematician. The observation technique requires that the job analyst be trained to observe relevant job behaviors. In conducting an observation, the job analyst must remain as unobtrusive as possible. He or she must stay out of the way so that the work can he performed. 2-1lnterviews Interviewing job incumbents is often done in combination with observation. Interviews are probably the technique used most widely in collecting data for job analysis. They permit the job analyst to talk face to face with job incumbents. The job incumbent can ask questions of the job analyst, and this interview serves as an opportunity for the analyst to explain how the knowledge and information gained from the job analysis will be used. Interviews can be conducted with a single job incumbent, with a group of individuals, or with a supervisor who is knowledgeable about the job. Usually a structured set of questions will be used in interviews so that answers from individuals or groups can be compared. Although interviews can yield useful job analysis information, an awareness of their potential limitations is also needed. Interviews are difficult to standardize—different interviewers may ask different questions and the same interviewer might unintentionally ask different questions of different respondents. There is also a real possibility that the information provided by the respondent will he unintentionally distorted by the interviewer. Finally, the costs of interviewing can he very high, especially if group interviews are not practical.16 3-uestionnaires The use of questionnaires is usually the least costly method for collecting information. It is an effective way to collect a large amount of information in a short period of time. The JAIF in Exhibit 6—3 is a structured questionnaire. It includes specific questions about the job, job requirements, working conditions, and equipment. A less structured, more open-ended approach would be to ask job incumbents to describe their job in their own terms. This open-ended format would permit job incumbents to use their own words and ideas to describe the job. The format and degree of structure that a questionnaire should have are debatable issues. Job analysts have their own personal preferences on this matter. There really is no best format for a questionnaire. However, here arc a few hints that will make the questionnaire easier to use: • • Keep it as short as possible—people do not generally like to complete forms. Explain what the questionnaire is being used for—’-people want to know why it must be completed. Tim Huggins (in this chapter’s Career Challenge) failed to explain his job analysis questionnaire. Employees wanted to know why the questions were being asked and how their responses would be used. Keep it simple—do not try to impress people with technical language. Use the simplest language to make a point or ask ‘a question. Test the questionnaire before using it—in order to improve the questionnaire, ask some job incumbents to complete it and to comment on its features. This test will permit the analyst to modify the format before using the questionnaire in final form.

• •

and when the duties are accomplished. or by members of different departments. scientists. a task survey based on expert judgments is constructed and administered. a statistical analysis of the responses to the task survey is conducted in order to assess their consistency and to identify any systematic variation in them. They form the basis for construction of specific techniques that have gained popularity QUANTITAVE across many types of organizations. The diary or log is useful when attempting to analyze jobs that are difficult to observe.2° In this approach. and senior executives. the choice of a method is determined by circumstances such as the purpose of the analysis and time and budget constraints. weekly. the position analysis questionnaire. most individuals are not disciplined enough to keep such a diary or log. be relatively expensive and time-consuming. There might. This technique requires the job incumbent to keep a diary or log. The four methods of data collection for job analysis just described were presented in general SPECIFIC terms. frequency of the duties. be variation in the descriptions provided by incumbents and supervisors. it does offer one distinct advantage over any of the basic methods used alone: the quality of information derived from a more comprehensive approach is strongly endorsed by the courts in cases that rely on job analysis information. skills. interviews should not be relied on as the sole data collection method. at very least. the job analyst first conducts interviews with incumbents and supervisors in conjunction with on-site observation. most organizations base their choice on their current needs. Finally. certain methods seem to be better suited to a given situation than other In the absence of a strong theoretical reason why one method should be superior to another. When they arc used properly. there is no general agreement about which methods of job analysis yield the best information. If a diary or log is kept up to date. Since these four basic methods seem to have different strengths and weaknesses. it can provide good information about the job.’9 In other words. Many experts agree that. by incumbents at different geographic locations. and the management position description questionnaire. such as those performed by engineers. Using a comprehensive process such as the multimethod job analysis approach will. of course. .4-Job Incumbent Diary or Log The diary or log is a recording by job incumbents of job duties. Unfortunately. and other human characteristics (KSAOs) are needed to perform the job. However. Which Method to Use? Although any of these four basic methods can be used either alone or in combination.’7 In addition. many organizations are turning to a multimethod job analysis approach. differences in how the job has been described need to be resolved so there is general agreement about its true nature. or monthly basis can be made. This permits an examination of the routineness or nonroutineness of job duties. Regardless. Three of the more popular quantitative techniques are functional job analysis. the various methods may not be interchangeable. these specific techniques can TECHNIQUES provide systematic and quantitative procedures that yield information about what job duties are being accomplished and what knowledge. for example. Next. abilities. Comparisons on a daily.

sanitary facilities are adequate and in good order. The next three digits (062) designate the degree to which a job incumbent typically has responsibility for and judgment over data. May conduct basic or applied research in meteorology. entertainment. and livestock. raising. Employment Service for descriptive information about jobs. recreational facilities. Directs welfare activities for employees of stores. May visit workers’ homes to observe their housing and general living conditions and recommend improvements if necessary. agriculture. and industry. title. and things. waybilling. & kin. Directs preparation and maintenance of financial records. and collecting fees for shipments. Current versions of the DOT use the basic descriptive language of FJA to describe more than 20.22 which was the primary source used by the U. The DOT classifies these jobs by means of a nine-digit code. It was originally conceived in the late 1940s and was developed as a mechanism for improving the classification of jobs contained in the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT). mules. Ensures that lighting is sufficient.). such as camping. 187.117-022 Import-Export Agent (any ind. and strikes glove pocket with fist while examining glove visually and tactually to ensure comfortable fit. fishing. Baseball Glove (sports equip.) steamer and shaper.684-106 Shaper. and machinery safeguarded. Organizes dances. and other industrial and commercial establishments: Arranges for physical examinations.) Directs operation of dude ranch: Formulates policy on advertising. documentation.062-010 Meteorologist (profess. fire prevention.) foreign agent. 184. Plans recreational and entertainment activities. to resolve problems and arrive at mutual agreements. May direct forecasting services at weather station. satellites. guest rates. and outings. Negotiates with foreign shipping interests to contract for reciprocal freight-handling agreements.167-094 Manager. & rec. publicity. & rec.) Ana1y and interprets meteorological data gathered by surface and upper-air stations. and showing horses. The lower the numbers. hunting.000 jobs. and prognostic charts to predict long. such as breeding. the greater the responsibility and judgment. photographs. the DOT serves as a good starting point. mallets. Negotiators with domestic customers. May assist employees in the solution of personnel problems. If someone is interested in a general description of a job. maps. and form glove pocket. Issues hurricane and severe storm warnings. Dude Ranch (amuse. Functional job analysis Functional job analysis (FJA) is the cumulative result of approximately 50 years of research on analyzing and describing jobs. & kin. The final three digits (010) re used to classify the alphabetical order of the job titles within the occupational group . Coordinates activities of international traffic division of import-export agency and negotiates settlements between foreign and DOT DESCRIPTION OF JOBS domestic shippers: Plans and directs flow of air and surface traffic moving to overseas destinations. lunchrooms. 732.117-014 Manager.S. May contact customs officials to effect release of incoming freight and resolve customs delays.and short-range weather conditions. Directs activities of DUDE WRANGIERS (amuse. and smoothes seams to shape baseball gloves. manager. 166. first aid. and educational courses. assessing charges. such as recommending day nurseries for their children and counseling them on personality frictions or emotional Maladjustments. Issues weather information to media and other users over teletype machine or telephone. Exhibit 6—4 shows DOT descriptions of several jobs. inserts hand into glove. and hammers: Pulls glove over heated hand-shaped form to open and stretch finger linings. Removes glove from form. and air-pollution control. using heated forms. rneteorologist—025) specify the occupational code. May prepare reports of transactions to facilitate billing of shippers and foreign carriers. The first three digits of any one of these listings (for example. Supervises workers engaged in receiving and shipping freight. Forms pocket. and credit. Employee Welfare (profess. as intermediary for foreign customers. and other medical attention. Arranges for installation and operation of libraries. and dancing. factories. people. May establish and staff observation stations. Directs other activities. and radar to prepare reports and forecasts for public and other users: Studies and interprets synoptic reports. Prepares special forecasts and briefings for those involved in air and sea transportation.) employee-service officer. May examine invoices and shipping manifests for conformity to tariff and customs regulations. Pounds fingers and palm of glove with rubber mallet and hall-shaped hammer to smooth seams and bulges. opens fingers.EXHIBIT 6-4 025. welfare. ‘horseback riding.

FIA can then be used to elaborate and more thoroughly describe.having the same degree of responsibility and judgment.2 DOT descriptions help a job analyst to begin learning what is involved in a particular job. .

Delivers requested programs. Teaches trainees new computer software. Persuades trainees of importance of topic. Sets a vision as to why development is important. n/a Evaluates learning of trainees. Answers trainees’ questions. Directs trainees to additional resources. lightens mood with customer when appropriate. Checks on and helps trainees posrprogram. Informs customer a bout product specifications. Defines and clarifies key concepts. Advises new trainer (in how to deliver a training program. Refers customer to production manager. Gives encouragement to new assistant salesperson. Bargains over price with customer. Asks trainees for feedback. Asks for larger budget from vice president of human resource department. Demonstrates how product works. n/a Structures job of assistant salesperson.: Treating 5: Supervising 6: Negotiating 7: Mentoring 8: Leading Stays within assigned territory. Convinces customer to purchase product. Asks questions to assess needs of customers.EXHIBIT 6-5 Worker function scale and examples from functional job analysis ( FJA ) Organizational Examples PEOPLE FUNCTIONS SCALE ENTRY-LEVEL SALEPERSON COMPANY TRAINER IA: Taking instructions—helping 1B: Serving 2: Exchanging information 3A: Sourcing information 3B: Persuading 3C: Coaching 3D: Directing 4A: Consulting 4B: Instructing 4(. Counsels assistant salesperson on career issues. Sends product samples to customers. . Creates entertaining class environment. Models behavior for new salespeople.

storage. etc. handled. not in the process of being changed or modified. highways. x-ray films.) 9 4 Materials not in process (parts. tables of numbers. fields. blueprints. and other mechanical devices which are sources of information when observed during use oroperation) 8 3 Matcrials in process (parts. protractors. used to obtain visual information about physical measurements. for example. workpiece being turned in a lathe. etc. thickness gauges. work output. which are sources of information when being modified. job context. clocks. diagrams. shoe being resoled. docks. maps. buildings.) 2 2 Quantitative materials (materials which deal with quantities or amounts. speedometers. and other “man-made” or altered aspects of the indoor and outdoor environment which are observed or inspected to provide job information. etc.. machinery. packaged. bridges. office notes. photographic films. Source Position. 3 Moderate 4 Considerable 5 Very substantial 1. do not consider equipment. gauges. materials. or selected. items being inspected. job instructions. accounts. radarscopes. etc.) 3 1 Pictorial materials (pictures or picture like materials used as sources of information.1 EXHIBIT 6-6. etc. geological samples.1 Visual Sources of Job Information 1 4 Written materials (books. articles. cloud formations. do not include here materials described in item 3 above) 5 2 Visual displays (dials. that an individual uses in his or her work.) 4 1 Patterns/related devices (templates.s shows II of the “information input” questions or elements. etc. distributed.4 -C H A P T E R 6 Job Analysis and Design 169 . machines. which are sources of information when being inspected. etc. as covered by item 7) Noie:Th. tracings. scales. worked on. signs. materials. signal lights. eqöiprnent. such as bread dough being mixed. railroads. drawings. .. do not include here devices described in item S above) 7 4 Mechanical devices (tools.. relationships with others. and other job characteristics. specifications. objects.0] INFORMATION INPUT PORTIONS OF A COMPLETED PAGE INFORMATION INPUT Extent of Use (U) FROM THE POSITION ANALYSIS 1.. thermometers. such as items or materials in inventory. etc. and other features of nature which are observed or inspected to provide information) 11 2 Man-made features of environment (structures. etc. etc. used as sources of information when observed during use. objects. etc.) 6 5 Measuring devices (rulers. patterns.. or otherwise processed. or distribution channels. etc. reports. dams. vegetation. pipettes. fabric being cut. TV pictures. stencils. Other PAQ pages contain questions regarding mental processes. tire pressure gauges.1.. calipers.) 10 3 Features of nature (landscapes. such as graphs.1 Soutces of Job Information NA Does not apply QUESTIONNAIRE Rate each of the following items in terms of 1 Normal/very infrequent the extent to which it is used by the worker 2 Occasional as a source of information in performing his or her job.

The available evidence indicates that it can be an effective technique for a variety of intended purposes. or characteristics other than those described in sections 1 through 5 are relevant? Computerized programs are available for scoring PAQ ratings on the basis of seven dimensions—( 1) decision ma king. Information input. behavioral activities performed in jobs may distort actual task differences in the jobs. The 195 items contained on the PAQ are placed in six major sections: 1. Mental processes. A major problem with the PAQ is its length.25 It also seems valid in that jobs rated higher with the PAQ prove to be those that are compensated at higher rates. the PAQ has advantages and disadvantages. Relationship with other people. One of its biggest advantages is that it has been widely used and researched. it is often filled out by a trained job analyst. Work output. Other job characteristics.29 Some research suggests that the PAQ is capable only of measuring job stereotypes. and planning processes are used to perform the job? 3. and (7) processing information. Job context. In addition. (2) communication. What reasoning. Like other job analysis techniques. In what physical and social context is the job performed? 6. decision-making.3° If this is true. It seems to be an effective way of establishing differences in abilities required for jobs. Where and how does the job incumbent get job information? 2. ratings on the PAQ might represent information that makes up the job analyst’s stereotype about the work in question rather than actual differences among jobs. (5) being physically active. since no specific work activities are described. That is. conditions. These scores permit the development of profiles for jobs analyzed and the comparison of jobs. (6) operating vehicles or equipment. measuring devices (item 6) play a very substantial role (5) for the job being analyzed in Exhibit 6—6. It requires time and patience to complete.27 It is reliable in that there is little variance among job analysts’ ratings of the same jobs. What physical activities and tools are used to perform the job? 4.questionnaire requires considerable experience and a high level of reading comprehension to complete properly. What relationships with others are required to perform the job? 5. the profiles for a typist. belly dancer. (4) performing skilled activities. and male ballet dancer may be quite similar. For example. then the PAQ may he providing little more than common knowledge about a job. (3) social responsibilities. since all involve fine motor movements. For example. . What activities. The job analyst must decide whether each item applies to a particular job.

33 which is completed by an incumbent. The latest version of the MPDQ is classified into 15 sections. 11. 8. which may increase the number of intrajob skill-based comparisons that may he made. many other methods of quantitative job analysis are also receiving attention. 4. 2. government). they are more behaviorally concrete. is a job analysis instrument with several potential advantages over existing measures. General information. and type of industry (for example. 3. it is designed to he a comprehensive description of managerial work. levels in the hierarchy. skills. The common metric questionnaire (CMQ).Management Position Description Questionnaire Conducting a job analysis for managerial jobs offers a significant challenge to the analyst because of the disparity across positions. 7. Knowledge. 13. The result of the work is the management position description questionnaire (MPDQ). PAQ. and abilities. Items were grouped into sections in order to reduce the time it requires to complete. and to help with the interpretation of responses: 1. 6. 14. Monitoring business indicators. Administering. Consulting and innovating. Coordinating. medical. Controlling. Overall ratings. and MPDQ are all intended for use across a large range of jobs. Contacts (section 8 apj5ears in Exhibit 6—7). 15. and the CMQ is applicable to both exempt and nonexempt positions. . and it is intended for use across most industrial settings. thereby making it easier for incumbents to rate their jobs. 10. An attempt to systematically analyze managerial jobs was conducted at Control Data Corporation. 12. Although the FJA. The items are at a reading level more appropriate for many jobs. industrial. Planning and organizing. Representing. 9. The MPDQ is a checklist of 208 items related to the concerns and responsibilities of managers. Supervising. 5. Decision making. Comments and reactions. Organization chart.

however. was developed as a comprehensive system to describe occupations. the Department of Labor’s recent creation.S. and current job descriptions are to an organization.35 Incorporating the last 60 years of knowledge about the nature of jobs and work. In cooperation with several other sources of funding. for example. Finally. a job description is a D written description of what the job entails. the job description (see Exhibit 6—2) is one of the primary Outputs provided by a systematic job analysis. it is worth noting that the U.Considerable research on job analysis is currently being conducted in Europe. several techniques have the common goal of analyzing and describing work at the task level. Employment and Training Administration has undertaken a major job analysis initiative. and workplace requirements in the country. focusing on alternative quantitative methods. Department of Labor. Simply stated. independent of any particular incumbent’s perceptions. Thus. worker KSAOs. the automated and Internet accessible O*NET is expected to replace the more cumbersome Dictionary of Occupational Titles. difficult to overemphasize ow important thorough. Many changes occurring in recent years have increased the need for such job . accurate. In Germany. As previously mentioned. the O*NET (Occupational Informational Network). It is. these approaches are expected to he well suited to situations where job content or manufacturing technology is changing.

tattat.i ((in a id Sv di ii Ii Ucliti a I people (mitts mdc t he orpl Ira ti iii.RATING INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL CONTACTS USING THE MANAGEMENT POSITION DESCRIPTION QUESTIONNAIRE (MPDQ) I (I iehic . .1 t it an V Ii is ‘vi th mm mIte c IP( r. print a (0111. 226 STEP I Mark an X’ ii the box to the left of the k iiids (if I id is mdii a Is di at represent m (Or ni a I or contacts Internal a id external to (‘I nitro I 1) ata ( tI rp Irat 1(111.rrs old clIlitilta its may rcqtiircd to CoIfltotIIiaate with (Ill IS (1.: For each contact checked.lCts lily ITi(II. lie purposes (It these oiU. Retiieiim her to consIder bothIts mImlfIot!aIIcc in light of all (It lie r p ISttI Oh ictiv it ics and Its /reqmuucv of occu rrerice. 2-A moderate part of the pIIs(tmon.3 If von have am other contacts please elaborate on them r ii a to re and i°’ rpose be 111W. STEP .her hetsveeli I) mitd 4 ill each coitinum to Indicate Ii os’ S ugh I tie a lii a part oh VII or (sit (((It ti it P U R P( )S F is.I(IU (liii hut. o DcfnitcIy not a part (It the position. IrgaIll/atlonil goals. STEP 2 . 3-A substantial hart ut the position. 4-. I --\ minor part imt the position.\ crucial and most significant lilrt of the positIon. t molts as: • lnhmrmuiimg • Receis mug Information • lntlueimciimg • Promoting • Selling • Directing • (‘oordiiiitimig • I iltilarati ii g • Negotiitmiig DIRECTIONS: 1)ese rm 1w t he ia tim ri It I (10 nitacts iomplettmmg the harts ott the opposite as hi IIl1)W.

at ii ni or its po Id ucts! services Sell p r id iict s/ .t am trol Data general! regional manager Representatives of nia)or suppliers. etc. joint ventures. icti VitW5. stockholders Representatives of federal or sIt te gi nero ments s tmch as detcn se contract auditors. etc. PURIOSF Share infornation Influence others to . or executive consultant I .. government inspectors. orga iii . Provide. Customers at a Ies’el equivalent to or above a ( lilt rol Data genera IJ .3 204 211) 21 I II 2 IX 224 . for e\. obtain. or senior consnlraiit Secto mn/branch na nager m 0l?%LiItailt I ‘6 1 7 1S4 I 85 162 I0 I ‘X 186 163 171 ISO I’9 I Unit flianager 164 Exempt employees I2 168 I I 188 181 189 190 Nonexenipt employees 66 182 .CONTINUED 1 srEP2 STEI I CoNTACTS I INTERNAL. director.tct or decide n a n at flCt (list sten t ni th nit object yes I )irrct and/or re..iniplr.xeciitive or senior V1CC president and above Vice president Genera l/regii ma I ma niger. 193 94 195 200 2(11 202 207 208 209 215 216 22 I 222 22. or ant ci pa ted act cIt es or otegra te the iii n s.) 96 I9 20. 22 . ( ir exchange iii formation i ir ads’ice Promote the . ((I’ decisions 1’.— regional manager 191 198 20.8 212 219 Customers at a level lower than .1st.89 16fi 169 decision of others I6 I IS 16)) 161 Deparmient/district manager. p resent. 213 220 major contracts — Em pl o’ees of suppliers svh ii provide ( . EXTERNAL. subcontractors for 192 199 206 .i rd og p. services Negotiate contracts.oittrol Data with parts or services Representatives of nfl urn t i a I coinniun it organhiations I id iv id ual s such as applicants. sertlements.

These changes include (1) the incredible number of organizational restructurings that have occurred (e.HRMEM0 . amount of dependency in the work). It addresses the question “What personal traits and experience are needed to perform the job effectively?” The job specification is especially useful in offering guidance for recruitment and selection. you would know that the successful applicant would have a college education and would already have at least six years of experience in HRM. Navistar realized an average of $200. 38—45. Harvey offers the following guidelines for arriving at the characteristics that should be included on a job specification:39 1. While there is no standard format for a job description. All job tasks must be identified and rated in terms of importance using sound job analysis techniques. he rated.kltc A’t the . and other relevant characteristics of the immediate work environment such as hazards and noise levels. it’s working! After completing 200 projects. 2. Each skill that has been identified needs to he specifically linked to each job task. knowledge. Determining what skills. ey • Environment—description of the working conditions of the job.. A panel of experts. responsibilities. or abilities are required for performing a particular job must he done systematically. J. size of work group. suppose that you were looking for an HR professional to fill the position described in Exhibit 6—8. Can process changes yield savings? Ask Navis tar international Corporation. and behaviors performed on the job. From the job specification. or supervisors should specify the necessary skills for performing each of the job tasks identified. (2) the need to implement new and creative ways to motivate and reward employees. Also describes the social interactions associated with the work (for example. The importance of each skill must. equipment. incumbents.000 per project Source: Mark Frigo and Heather Kos (August 1999). identified. and information hat required for effectively performing the job. 5.or two-sentence statement describing the purpose of the job and what outputs are expected from job incumbents. These include things such as physical requirements and professional certification. Any other characteristics necessary for performing the job should he. almost all well-written. • Surnmary—brief one. • Equipment—clear statement of the tools.. downsizing). F e. • Activities—includes a description of the job duties. 4. For example. descriptions. i. Any trait or skill that is stated on the job specification should actually he re £ C i ml A . The job specification evolves from the job description. more stringent federal regulation of employment practices through legislation like the Americans with Disabilities Act and the Civil Rights Act of 199 1. pp. R.. 3.g.37 it still seems unlikely that there are any relevant aspects of human resources that do not depend on accurate job descriptions.Navistar’s Dream Team Strategic Finance. (3) the accelerated rate at which technology is changing work environments. and (4) new. useful descriptions will include information on:3i • Job title—title of the job and other identifying information such as its wage and benefits classification.6 Though some HR managers feel that technology and rapidly changing jobs will eventually decrease the need for job descriptions. a leading transportation firm that has reengineered the way they identifr and manage projects with high strategic fit and economic impact for the firm. the location of the job.

with major work in human resources. Work involves responsibility for the planning and administration of an HRM program that includes recruitment. Interviews applicants. job evaluation.40 Essential skills are those for which alternative ways of accomplishing the job are not possible. . trains unit supervisors in making employee evaluations. Establishes effective service rating system. Nonessential skills can be accommodated by changing the structure or work methods of the job. Six-year minimum. ruits and screens applicants to fill vacancies and reviews applications of qualified persons. and abilities Considerable knowledge of principles and practices of HRM selection and assignment of personnel. General qualification requirements Experience and training should have considerable experience in area of FIRM administration. evaluation. skills. Education Graduation from a four-year college or university. evaluates qualifications. classifies applications. Communicates policy through organization levels by bulletins. meetings. and recommended change of status of agency employees. If disabled people could accomplish the job successfully after such accommodation. one clerk. retention or release of probationary employees.ciieral description of the 1ob Performs responsible administrative work managing personnel activities of a large state agency or institution. and a system of communication for disseminating necessary information to workers. Functional areas are not as important as they once were for defining a person’s job. . Supervises a group of employees directly and through subordinates. including placement problems. Maintains employee personnel files. promotion. appointment. Initiates personnel training activities and coordinates these activities with work of officials and supervisors. Job activities Participates in overall planning and policy making to provide effective and uniform personnel services. There are many signs that the fundamental nature of work may be changing. Works under general supervision. Confers with supervisors on personnel matters. Performs related work as assigned. business administration.1. exercising initiative and independent judgment in the performance of assigned tasks. Job Analysis and Strategic Human Resource Management he HR Journal appearing earlier in this chapter suggests that process and work engineering will be the strategic HR challenge for the coming years. and personal contact. or industrial psychology. ferentiate clearly between essential and nonessential skills. instead. examination. selection. transfer. and dismissals of permanent employees. and one secretary. Supervises administration of tests. transfers. Responsibility Supervises a department of three HRM professionals. knowledge. then it should be done. demotions.

new job responsibilities may he poorly defined for the new environment. These programs include variations on traditional work such as compressed work schedules.42 An important part of this task vill he an ability for job analysts to write job specifications that accurately detail the knowledge and skills that will complement the future strategic initiatives of the organization. and — • I)esign and implement stathng programs focused around conipetencics (rather than specific jobs) as a way of increasing staffing flexibility in job a ssign nwnts. and rewarding a variety of broad-based competencies that successful employees should possess. organizations will have to continually adapt to rapidly changing business environments. job sharing. Hewlett-Packard.4 Job Analysis and Employee Competencies Over the past decade.interdisciplinary or cross-functional teams comprised of pers6ns with extremely diverse backgrounds are becoming increasingly common. • I)escribe and measure the organization’s orkforce in mdre general. I QM programs arc implemented. many work environments will also offer employees much greater flexibility in when and how they work. Much more general than traditional knowledge.4 . and abilities needed to perform one specific job. Organizations such as AT&T. therefore. This inevitability creates a new problem for the job analyst.” such usage of competencies in HR practices reflects an organization’s desire to achieve the following: • Communicate job requirements in ways that extend beyond the specific jot? itself. cwnpetencies are general attributes employees need to do well across multiple jobs or within the organizatioll as a whole. telecommuting. many organizations are identifying. and the value of teamwork is emphasized. For example. skills. one of the major complaints about reengineering is that once an organization’s processes have been reconstructed. cornpetencies might include anything from “teamwork” to “leadership potential. Also termed “competency modeling. some HR departments have increasingly analyzed jobs in a way that is consistent with the changing nature of business and management practices. the new job analyst will also have to describe jobs that will exist in the future organization. communicating.4 In the future.4 Although it is currently unclear whether these new work arrangements will lend themselves to accurate description through the quantitative methods covered in this chapter. Not surprisingly.” As jobs are reengineered. strategic job analysis will have to be capable of capturing both the present and the future. there is a growing acknowledgment of the need to match human resource activities with an organization’s strategic planning. reengineering of one kind or another is likely in a majority of organizations.” To the contrary.4’ Despite these potential difficulties. competency terms. and Pfizer have all implemented flexible working environments to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse workforce. and flexible hours. job descriptions will no longer be snapshots of a static entity called a “job. it is safe to assume that effective organizational functioning will require some type of job analysis to be competently conducted.44 Compounding the potential problems that reengineering can introduce. Thus. While the job analyst has traditionally been charged with creating descriptions of jobs as they exist in an organization. As mentioned elsewhere in this text.

In other words. many of the principles are still relevant today. Thus. Thus. no one best way to design a job. . it is unlikely that any one approach will fully satisfy all of the goals’of a manager. they emphasize equipment design and the proper match between machines aiid operators. Once learned. he stated: Perhaps the most prominent single element in modern scientific management is the task idea. approaches to job design place different emphasis on performance and satisfaction as desired outcomes. and (4) the motivational approach.Once a thorough job analysis has been conducted and there are high-quality job JC descriptions and job specifications available. duties. Scientific Management and the Mechanistic Approach Job design was a central issue in F. others are more concerned with satisfaction. these tasks could he done quickly and efficiently. The two remaining approaches more clearly highlight the potential trade-offs that must frequently he made by organizations with regard to job design. 1)ifferent situations call for different arrangements of job literature. The emphasis was clearly on structuring jobs so that they were broken down into simple. W. (3) the mechanistic approach. describing in detail the task whiji he is to accomplish.49 Both the perceptual-motor approach and the biological approach have their roots in human factors engineering. This task specifies not only what is to be done hut how it is to be done and the exact time allowed for doing it. There is. (2) the biological approach. This information iS very useful for structuring job elements. Their major focus is on the integration of human and machine systems. In 1911. This means that the choice of job design will involve making trade—offs based on the more critical needs of the organization. The work of every workman is fully planned out by the management at least one day in advance. Although the principles of scientific management were formally introduced in the early I 900s and many current methods of job design criticize the use of the repetitive-task structure. Among these •re recommendations stemming from Taylor’s scientific management. and tasks in a manner that will help to achieve Optimal perft) rmance and satisfaction. . The mechanistic approach is best exemplified by Taylor’s scientific management and the motivational approach by job enrichment. such as the‘dlowing: . Taylor’s model of scientific management. certain methods of job design are primari lv interested in improving performance. and each man receives in most cases complete written instructions. His use of job design is an excellent example of the rational approach and shows how certain perspectives focus more heavily on productivity than on satisfaction.45 Perspectives on the design of work can he classified into four major categories: I) the perceptual-motor approach. repetitive tasks. In ‘The work of Taylor and the principles of scientific management initiated a great deal of interest in systematically studying the structure of jobs. an organization can USC this information for designing or redesigning jobs. however. They are also the two that have received the most attention in the.

highly specialized work can lead to dissatisfaction among employees. It is assumed that the specialization and routine nature of jobs designed according to scientific management principles will lead to higher levels of output and require minimal training before employees are able to master the work. an enlarged job is not as specialized or routine as a job designed according to scientific management. Despite the appeal of these potential advantages. • Monetary compensation should be tied directly to performance and should be used to reward the performance of employees. the gains in efficiency that scientific management may offer can he offset by losses in satisfaction and higher levels of absenteeism and turnover. (Job descriptions and job specifications used iii recruitment and selection should achieve this.) • Employees should be trained to perform the job.52 Job en largement attempts to increase satisfaction by giving employees a greater variety of things to do. they are merely allowed to do a greater number of tasks. however. Many managers find the scientific management approach to job design appealing because these kinds of recommendations point toward improving organizational performance. Thus. since the employees are not given more responsibility or authority in decision making. Early strategies for overcoming some of the problems associated with jobs designed according to scientific management focused on job enlargement.S1 Thus. considered horizontal. but it may not be any more meaningful. .• Employees selected for work should be matched to the demands of the job. The expansion of the work is. research has found that repetitive. Rather.

the job characteristics model is one of the most widely publicized.” These include • Skill variety—degree to which the job requires a variety of different activities in carrying out the work. enrichment differs from enlargement because the job is expanded vertically. job enrichment tries to design jobs in ways that help incumbents satisfy their needs for growth. • Task identity—degree to which the job requires completion of a “whole” and identifiable piece of work—that is. much work has been directed at changing jobs in more meaningful ways than job enlargement was able to do. — • Task significance—degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the . His basic idea is that employees will be motivated by jobs that enhance their feelings of self-worth. The notion of satisfying employees’ needs as a way of designing jobs comes from Frederic Herzberg’s two-factor theory of work motivation. recognition.job Enrichment: A Motivational Approach In the past two decades. It shows that for a job to lead to desired outcomes it must Possess certain “core job dimensions. Thus.55 This model is depicted in Exhibit 6—9. which involves the use of a number of an individual’s skills and talents. Rather than simply increasing the variety of tasks performed by an employee. and responsibility. doing a job from beginning bo end with a visible outcome.4 Although there are many different approaches to job enrichment. employees are given responsibility that might have previously been part of a supervisor’s joh.

he or she will then he motivated to perform well and will be satisfied with the job. If these core dimensions are present in a job. 3. and worthwhile.Source:Ado pied from J. independence.” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance. To the extent that these three states are important to the job incumbent. p. they are expected to create three critical psychological states in job incumbents. 2. G. Richard Hackman and R. valuable. determining the procedures to he used in carrying it out. the more internal work motivation the job incumbent will feel. . 256. • Feedback—degree to which carrying out the activities required by the job results in the individual’s obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance. Qldham (August 1976). The more these three states are experienced. Experienced meaningfulness—degree to which the job incumbent experiences work as important. and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in . *Autonomy—degree to which the job provides substantial freedom. Experienced responsibility—extent to which the job incumbent feels personally responsible and accountable for the results of the work performed. “Motivation through the Design of Work: Test of a Theory. Knowledge of results—understanding that a job incumbent receives about how effectively he or she is performing the job.’ The key psychological states that are necessary for motivation and satisfaction are: 1.

and (4) strength of needs. On the other hand. Often viewed as primary caregivers. and higher levels of employee productivity. Work-Family Balance and Job Design Organizations are directing more attention and resources toward helping employees balance their work and family demands. a trend is emerging in which some organizations are trying to accommodate diverse employees’ needs by offering flexible work arrangements. How are organizations responding to these challenges? Although nor as dramatic as originally anticipated. Many job enrichment programs have been implemented in the United States and in other countries around the world. The aging population will he another factor that requires a response from working-age caregivers. they will he better able to balance their work-home demands. For job incumbents to be internally motivated. leading both working spouses to require flexible work arrangements to meet family life and career cycle needs. improved morale. it is important to be aware of the potential for individual differences to moderate the linkages shown in Exhibit 6—9. studies support the expectation that jobs perceived to possess the core dimensions of the job characteristics model are more satisfying. Autonomy is directly related to feelings of responsibility. then job enrichment will probably have less effect than it would for a person who values personal growth. . lower absenteeism and tardiness. however there are no clear answers about the effectiveness of enrichment. this issue will grow in importance. a person dues not have a strong need for personal growth. they must have a sense of the quality of their performance. Since different people have different capabilities and needs. three job dimensions—skill variety. caregiving responsibilities may he shared. for example. task identity. If. After 20 years of research. This sense comes from feedback. the more they will feel responsible. flextime. Another example of demographic changes includes the increase in dual-career couples. the number of women and single parents entering the workforce is expected to increase. The more control 1ob incumbents feel they have over their jobs. (3) personal and work-related outcomes. and telecommuting. Many have argued that companies that offer and encourage participation in such famil— friendly work arrangements will reap one or more of the following benefits: higher recruitment and retention rates. As the baby boom generation reaches retirement age. Examples of flexible work arrangements include job sharing. Feedback is related to knowledge of results. Generally. The job characteristics model describes the relationships that are predicted to exist among four sets of factors—( I ) core job dimensions.As presented in Exhibit 6—9. these individuals vill continue to experience stress as they attempt to balance career and family priorities. (2) psychological states. For example. It is believed that by allowing employees more control over their work lives. Driving this work-family tension are a number of variables related to the changing demographics of the workforce.’ Research also suggests that increasing the scope of a job beyond certain levels can have detrimental effects on workers. the relationships between the critical psychological states and employees’ reactions to enrichment are not yet fully understood. and task significance— AB contribute to a sense of meaningfulness. In Some cases.

Kraft. J the Occupational Safety and Health Act! Job Design: The Next Challenge In the late I 980s and early 1 990s.61 Companies such as CoreStates Financial. they may prefer to work a 4—day!! 0— mr per day work schedule. The risk here is that if only certain e. and Xerox. every attempt should be made to open these programs to all employees. General Motors.!ainst work-family programs!’ Second. fax.or fulltime. Merrill Lynch. CAP involves the systematic study. and assessment of .62 I—or example. then excluded group’ may feel discriminated against. Required demonstration that the work could be accomplished off-site and that the employee could sustain and/or enhance performance. maintaining their connection and communication with the office through phone. Motorola. Limited the number of days to work at home to two per week. 1o avoid peak rush hour.“partners” who have complementary scheduling needs and skills. Third. motivate. organizations need to be mindful of the laws that may impact how these flexible work arrangement policies are developed and managed. S. took the following steps to establish their program: I. 2.. analysis.roups are offered these options. self-directed teams hav become important ingredients in the success of manufacturers worldwide! And now. and Cigna. Opened the program to all employees of the division. oine applicable laws include the Fair Labor Standards Act. many organizations have learned the hard way that reengineering cannot succeed unless careful attention is also paid to the effects on how employees use their skills.64 Though oftentimes resisted by managers who fear loss of control and subordinate accessibility. 4. the employees do not have to be at the of&e on Friday. First. Although organizations like Pizer and the other faniily-friendiy firms are movmg forward to attract. and Household International all have oh-sharing options available for their employees. These authors also reported that flextiine programs should not be too unstructured and that they lose some of their effectiveness over time. Telecommuting refers to the work arrangement that allows employees to work in their homes part. employees may decide that instead (it working 5 days a week for 8 hours a day. because of the competitive pressures that foreign business has placed on them. or telecommuting for fear of being derailed from their career progression. workers’ compensation. The appropriate response to these changes is exemplified by Coopers & Lybrand’s competency alignment process (CAP). job satisfaction.66 In order to make these programs an accepted part of the organization. AT&T. Coca-Cola. Chose a small division to pilot the telecommuting initiative. and retain employees with diverse nonwork needs. Companies that offer fiextime options include I lewlctr-Packard. hoping to regain their competitive advantage. With this schedule. other employees might use their flex— time to arrive at and leave from work one hour later Monday through Friday. European and Asian competitors of American corporations were revolutionizing job design by turning away from the basic dc1i1t of scientific management and embracing the quality management movement More recently. Procter & Gamble. and absenteeism. Flextime is another type of flexible work arrangement in which employees can choose when to be at the ofce. to name a few—are also implementing self-directed work teams. having the CEO of an organization anoiince these programs is not enough to effect change. American orporations—including Chevron. One research study concluded that flexible workweek schedules had a positive influence on employee performance. Many career-minded employees do not take advantage of job sharing. Regardless of the specific nature of redesign. one company has aken a methodical approach to implementing a telecommuting program. Federal Express. Required interested employees to satisfy a formal proposal and performance standards. Pfizer Inc.) organizations need to consider three important issues when developing and implementing such flexible work arrangement options. a large health care company.’9 Countless others are reengineering their work processes. managers need to he trained and rewarded for encouraging their subordinates to use them without fear of derailing their good standing within the firm. General Electric. and computer. Managers need to be aware that excluded employees can create a backlash . 3. flextime.

The job is described in terms of data. organization and process charts should be consulted to acquire an overview of the organization. The management position description questionnaire (MPDQ) is a checklist of 208 items that assesses the concerns and responsibilities of managers. it can then be eliminated through a variety of programs including training. 1. The position analysis questionnaire (PAQ) is a I95item structured instrument used to quantitatively assess jobs on the basis of decision making. . the reengineering will probably not succeed. Strategic planning. industry. the famous industrial engineer and father of what is called scientific management. 9. job analysts and other HR professionals are a crucial link in the reengineering processes upon which so many corporations are staking their competitive future. I 3. interviews. people. The uses of job analysis information seem endless. compensation.000 jobs on the basis of occupational code. communication and social responsibilities. and job incumbent diaries or logs. 2. 12. prepare job descriptions. and provide details on job specifications. and responsibility are satisfied. Conducting job analysis is not for amateurs.3. it cannot succeed. There are six sequential steps in job analysis. job enrichment involves designing jobs so that employees’ needs for growth. Four general job analysis techniques can be used separately or in combination observation.7° Without these or similarly intense efforts. and tasks to achieve optimal performance and satisfaction. methods. . and things. CAP determines current skill levels of employees in order to identify skill gaps. it is essential that each characteristic of each job in an organization he clearly understood. recognition. and the skills needed to perform them in the reengineered organization. being physically active. questionnaires. 6. To summarize the major points covered in this chapter: . operating vehicles or equipment. . Each part of the diagnostic HRM model is in some way affected by job analysis. Reengineering is more than job redesign. and processing information. 5. It is a comprehensive approach and is currently viewed very favorably from a legal respective. The job is the major building block of an organization. 10. Without adaptable job descriptions. Therefore. and outsourcing. selection. Training is required. Functional job analysis (FjA) is used to describe the nature of jobs. job design was a concern of F. This chapter has emphasized the major role that job analysis plays in HRM activities and programs. The multimethod approach to job analysis uses a combination of these four general. 4. It is taking a new look at the entire flow of work through an organization. To accomplish this goal. 11. starting with examining the total organization and the fit of jobs and concluding with the preparation of a job specification (see Exhibit 6—2). Thus. When a skill deficiency exists for the reengineered organization. Job design involves structuring job elements. however. and job design all benefit immensely from job analysis information. title. recruitment. 7. duties. 14.WTaylor. redeployment. Before conducting a job analysis. The Dictionary of Occupational Titles is a listing of over 20. performing skilled activities.

What would you advise Tim to do about job analysis at this point? autonomy common metric questionnaire (CMQ) competency alignment process (CAP) feedback functional job analysis (FJA) job job analysis job analysis information format (JAIF) job characteristics model job description job enlargement job enrichment job family specification management position description questionnaire (MPDQ) niultimethod job analysis approach Occupational Information Network (0 *NET) organization chart POSItiOn position analysis questionnaire (PAQ) process chart skill variety strategic job analysis task task identity task significance 1. Perhaps distributing memos.A new person luded has to establish rapport o with emp’oyees before ir changing things.Tim’s haste a and lack of preparation have now caused the situation to T reach a boiling point. and using the expertise of trained job analysts can improve the atmosphere at Sprowl. Using questionnaires requires preparation and conch careful initial steps. and this lack was clearly revealed as the process got out of hand. .What do you now think about Tim Huggins’s job analysis process? Do you see why some type of training in job analysis is required Tim really lacked sufficient training.A trained job analyst knows that distribution of questionnaires without an explanation is bound to set off negative feelings. holding TERMS open discussions with informal leaders. Job analysis is often referred to as the “cornerstone” of HRM. He was a new boss. ti In the case of Sprowl ai Manufacturing. What are the six steps in the job analysis process? 2. and this alone was threatening to many people. How might job analysis be helpful to an organization that is being sued for sex discrimination in . He a needs to backtrack and slow down.Tim failed to plan thoroughly what he wanted to do. Do you agree? Why? 3.

What is the difference between an essential and a nonessential skill? How are these related to the Americans with Disabilities Act? . Describe the mechanistic and motivational models of job design. What core information should be included in most job descriptions and job specifications? 6.What is the emphasis of each? . and abilities? Both? Explain your answer.promotion? 6 4. skills. how will you communicate the requirements of an entry-level customer service representative to a candidate who just arrived at your office for an interview? \Iill you describe the job in terms of cornpetencies? Knowledge. As a current (or future) manager. 5.

and checking receipts and vouchers. On April 13. complaining that she was still required to stand for long periods of time. Ms. The court found that Ms. Worthington with a more comfortable chair. Dist. she hled a grievance with the union. Further. receiving payments. 1995. Ms. 1999 U. Worthington ceased working on March 25. 9. Ms. due to her disability. As a result of the fall. Thus. maintenance (if accounts and parking tag books. with or without accommodations. who had preexisting back. Worthingwn could perform the essential functions of the ob either with or without accommodations. as an Account Clerk I in its Tax Office. District Court for the District of Connecticut. (2) replacement of overhead shelves with waist level shelves. LEXIS 16104. Worthington filed a disability discrinnnation suit under the Americans with Disabilities Act in U. the court found that Ms. checking receipts and vouchers. What challenges does the concept of reengineering pose for job analysis and human resources Based on Worthington v. Despite recominendanons from her doctor for the ergonomic chair and letters froii ti’e Connecticut Bureau of Rehabilitative Services suggestinj a worksite evaluation. (2) a record of such impairment. fell at work. maintaining accounts. the City provided Ms. and knee in)uries. Describe the major components of the job characteristics model of job enrichment. repeatedly denied Ms. and various other clerical duties. According to the City’s job description.” According to the AI)A.000 in compensatory damages. she suffered neck and lower back pain when sitting For extended times. Ms. Worthington with an ergonomic chair. Later in that same month.S. Worthington had a physical impairment of her musculoskeletal system that substantially limited her ability to walk and stand for long periods of time. a plaintiff must prove that he or she is a “qualified individual with a disability who can perform the essential functions of their job. a disability is I) a physical or mental illpairmcilt that substantially limits one or more major life activities. neck. The Facts Patricia Worthington was hired 1w the City of New Haven on December 23. the Cit agreed to provide Ms. On May 24. Vorthington did indeed possess the required education. Worthington. Following the accident. Howevei the court disagreed and awarded Ms. and (3) modification of her job duties so that she avoided standing for long periods of time. Worthington had a disability under the ADA. Ms. experience. 1994. The Court’s Decision To recover under the ADA. \Vorthington requested three accommodations from the City: (1) an ergonomic chair with neck and back support. The court found that the essential functions of Account Clerk I involved preparation of payrolls and financial reports. she filed a grievance with the City. On July 1 3. 1 993.S. Worthington $150. Worthington’s job. On February 3. The court examined the City’s job description for Account Clerk I to determine if Ms. City of New Has en. 199 I. 1993. and skills for the Account Clerk I position. 1992. Following surgery for spinal problems aggravated by her fall at work. holding that she was a qualified individual with a disability who could perform the essential functions of the Account Clerk I position with reasonable accommodations. . which could all he performed with only occasional standing. The City claimed that filling in for an employee who collected parking fines which involved standing for long periods of time was also an essential function of Ms. Worthington’s requests for accommodai ions based on a lack of funds. preparing payrolls and financial reports. What is the ONET? How and when would a job analyst use the ONET? Do you think it will replace the Dictionary of Occupational Titles? Why or why not? 10. After an investigation. the City .8. the Account Clerk I position required bookkeeping. or (3) being regarded as having such an impairment.

33. 48—68. cit.). Ivan Robertson anc Mike Smith (November 200 “Personnel Selection. Jai Ghorpadc and Thomas J. Industry. p. . 3rd ed. 1--lerhert 1-leneinan. Harvey. 1—larvey (1991). Staffing Organizations. “The Concept of Job Analysis: A Review and Some Suggestions. Henderson (1 989).33.-\nalvsis: Developing and Dcuinenting Data” (Washington. 1)unnerte and I eaetra M. IL: McGraw-Hill/Irwin). “Job Analysis in Practice: A Brief Review of the Role of Job Analysis in Human Resources Management. Richard I. and 1-leneman. 53—59. op. pp. 198—1 99.” in Marvin 1). pP 198—199. Judge. Kendrith M. The Job A nalvsis Handbook /or I3usiness. pp.” in Si d ne (. Ii John C.27— 3. Vol. Veres 111. pp. ‘Toni S.27—3. 441—472. essential functions are the fundamental hut not marginal duties of a job.. cth ed. (Boston: Allyn and Bacon). pp. pp.nnent. Government Printing Of6ce(. Locklear. 779_7$9 . Gerard P Panaro (1991)).Job Description Information Provide Accurate Position Analysis Questionnaire ( PAQ) Ratings?” Personnel Ps’t’cholog’. op.S. Friedman and Robert J. (2) there are a limited number of employees who are available to perform the function.’. Compensation Management: R en ‘a ‘ding Performance. and M. “Can Recruiters with Reduced . Ronald Buckle’ (eds. Atchison (Summer 1980). 1 38—139. In differentiating between essential and nonessential job functions in job descriptions.. S Robert •J. op. cit. DC: U.. cit. “Practical Findings from Job Analysis Research. 86—89.’. 2nd ed. Ash and Edward L.. “A Framework for Evaluating Job Analysis Methods. ). cit. Ferris. and (3) the employee was hired for an expertise or ability to perform a particular function. Panaro. pp.” Journal 01 ( )ccupatumal and Organizational l’sb)lnç”.. “Job Analysis. According to the ADA. 2 Henderson. A job duty is essential if (I) the position exists to perform the function. employers should also consider how much time an emplace spends performing a jot) duty and the consequences of not requiring an employee to perform the duty. Human Resource Management: Perspectives and Issues.). 1. Edward ‘F.” Public Personnel Management Journal. Tiniothv Judge. Bureau of Intergovernmental Personnel Programs (1 973). 3 I 2. Rowland. pp.Human Resource Implications Organizations must carefully define essential and nonessential job functions in their job descriptions and be prepared to provide reasonable accommodations requested by employees. pp. and Robert Heneman (2000). op. I-’anplovnu’nt Lan’ Manual (Boston: Warren. Sims (1990). pp. (Englewood Cliffs. Harvey (Winter 1986).” Personnel.acl (ed. CA: Cansulting Psychologists Press). Heneman. pp. Hough (eds. Gorham & Larnont). I (New Yorl Wilev. p. Cornelius (198$).. and Ronald R. NJ: Prentice-Hall). Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psvchokg. . pp. and Got ‘er. 134—144. Vol. 2 (Palo Alto. (Burr Ridge. and Ronald A. Levine (November—December 1980). 3. “Job .” in Gerald R. 2nd ed.3. 71—163.. 100.’.

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Rcnn and Robert J. Janson.” California Management Review. each of these outlets has a store manager who reports directly to Mary. each store has a different collection of merchandise. Briggs. Managing Human Resources. C. a national chain of specialty clothing stores with 200 outlets across the country. R. pp. “The Critical Psychological States: An Underrepresented Component in Job Characteristics Model Research. Roy Furchgott. pp. and jewelry. Balkin. These departments vary considerably in size and in the number of sales clerks reporting to the assistant manager. Oldham. and Feedback on Attitudes and Performance. Mary Watson was recently promoted to the position of regional sales manager for Today’s Fashion. “Self-Directed Work Teams: A Guide to Implementation. ‘ Nancy G. 329—347. Julie A. 68 Jane Gibson and Dana Tesone (November 2001). 56 Hackman and Oldham. “A New Strategy for Job Enrichment. Jia Lin Xie and Gary Johns (October 1995). 122—1 33. Richard Hackman.1. and Paul ludge (September 1997). Steve Hamm. “i Michael W. “Flexible and Compressed Workweek Schedules: A Meta-Analysis of Their Effects on WorkRelated Criteria. formal wear. Mary is the regional manager for the Pacific Coast. Prior to being appointed to the regional sales manager position.” HRMagazine. cosmetics. pp. Autonomy. 37—43. “Work and Family. “Job Sharing: One job. NJ: Prentice Hall).” Journal of Organizational Behavior.While she was an assistant manager. Baltes. and Robert L. Gomez-Mejia. Double Headache?” Personnel Journal. Because the chain’s success lies in being receptive to local customers tastes and buying habits. 61 Charlenc Solomon (September 1994). “Management Fads: Emergence. The departments include casual wear. 6 Sharon Leonard (July 2000). and George A. pp. “The Legalities of Flextirne. Managing Human Resources. 1288—1309. 88—93. 8 Robert W. “The Interactive Effects of Variety. 279—303.Performance. cit. Dodd and Damel. Vandenberg (Summer 1995). “Job Scope and Stress: Can job Scope Be Too High?” Academy of Management Journal. pp. ‘ Boris B. 250—279. Joseph \V. Hauser (May 1996).” Business Week. 96--lOl. pp. Ganstec çy 1. Pp. Homey and Richard Koonce (December 1995). Evolution. “The Missing Piece in Reengineering. 250—279. Managing Human Resources. shoes. Each outlet: has between three and five assistant store managers. 57—71. pp. (Upper Saddle River. Mary had often thought that she was responsible for many aspects of store management that other . 496—513. 187 60 Luis R.” The Academy of Management Executive.ornez-Mejia Ct al.996). 8 1—87. Piczak and Reuben Z. Mary had been both a store manager and an assistant manager in a casual-wear department. pp. 70 Nicholas F.” journal of Management. pp.. op. pp. Cardy (2000).” Training and Development. Gomez—Mejia et al. Neuman (August 1999).. pp. Purdy (Summer 1975). “The Baby Gap. and several different combinations of departments can be found in Mary’s region. David B. and K. and . pp.” lournal of Applied Psychology. and Implications for Managers. 64 (. Greg R. She manages 35 outlets in California and Oregon.. 3rd ed. Wright. 66 Keith Hammonds. pp. Thomas E. Huff. 62—66.” Work force. Each assistant manager is responsible for one particular specialty department. depending on the number of specialty departments.” Quality Progress. 6’ Gillian Flynn and Sarah E Gale (October 2001). which is one of Today’s Fashion’s largest markets. 368—370.

supervision of saleselerks. 2. Prepares the department for opening at the beginning of each day. and layaway as needed. Basic math . DISCUSSION QUESTIONS I. despite the chain’s success.assistant managers were not held responsible for. Mary constructed the job description and job specification shown in Exhibit I She hopes that these documents will form the basis of a new selection program that she wants to implement for her region. Carefully read the job description and job specification that Mary prepared. . she was confident that she could construct an accurate and useful job description and specification for the assistant manager job. General Qualification Requirements I—lzicati . rather than simply writing from her own experience. directs. Isiioivk’ilgc. cilnliti’s: I . In addition. training of new einph ivecs.Thus.cnordinates. What kinds of factors about Today’s Fashion and its operations should Mary have examined more seriously in order to improve her job analysis? 3. Mary felt that there was considerable room for improvement in how Today’s Fashion was managed. Principal Duties and Responsibilities • Assists customers in mcrrhandise sclecti ms. Ensures that the department remains professionally organized and orderly. and supervises department salcsclcrks daily. Critically evaluate the job analysis that Mary conducted for the position of assistant store manager. she never really felt comfortable that her store manager had clearly defined her areas of responsibility. Although she had no formal training in job analysis. Has she used appropriate methods? What are the strengths and weaknesses of her efforts? 2. returns. However. skills. The assistant store manager has responsibilit v for customer service. L x/wrieIuce: • Minimum: 5ux months to one year in a retail environment. On the basis of these interviews and her own experience.As a result. inerchatidising. one of the first things Mary did after being appointed to the regional sales position was to initiate a job analysis for the job of assistant store manager. She believes that the best way to improve store management is to hire assistant store managers who are qualified to perform successfully. (larilies any qiicstiu s or problems that a salesclerk encounters. Mary had earned a BBA degree with a marketing emphasis from Wyoming State University. 4. S. Do they appear to be thorough? Do you think that they are adequate to serve as a basis for a new selection system? How well do you think these documents will work if Mary is sued for discrimination in her hiring practices? Why? Job Title: Assistant Store Manager Reports to: Store Manager General Description of the Job . and maintenance of inventory.i: Minimum: Four-year college degree in marketing or related discipline from an accredited program.lanages the daily functions of a specialty department in the retail (iperatio s. Preferred: One to three years as a salesclerk for Today’s Fashion. Frains. primarily because of her personal experience with that position. 2. Maintains inventory records. Mary interviewed three current assistant store managers from the outlet closest to her regional office in Sacramento.

Ed Humphrey. Gunther was a growing firm. After a short management training program. Lois Yates. These are. Clark. He moved up in the department headquarters during the next seven years.You can recruit some employees from the home office and other plants. Clark had majored in personnel at California State University at Los Angeles and wanted to try HRM work. 2. Good typing and computer skills •lvslcal reqiurelilents: Standing and walking required for more than 90 percent of work time. Ability to lift and can y boxes weighing approximately 15 pounds or less. Clark spent almost two years as •erating supervisor in a plant. but excessive . Now Gunther as opening a new plant in e quickly expanding Tampa market. After that. “You and Ed should work out the details.This was what Clark had been waiting for: a chance to be on his own and to show what he could do for Lois. who had been very supportive of his career. Clark Kirby was just entering the office of the vice president of human resource management. Lois greeted him with.2. Shortly you’ll be meeting your new plant manager. High integrity 6. I hope you realize how much we are counting on you in Tampa. Lois had selected Clark to be the human resource manager for the Tampa plant. Clark had worked for Gunther Manufacturing for 10 years in Los Angeles. a position opened up in the HR department. it had one of the fastest growth records in the industry. Good udgmeni and independent thought 4. “Well. “The plant will be staffed initially with the following employees. in effect. Self-starter/highly motivated S. He was very excited as he entered Lois’s office. Effective interpersonal skills .You’ll be working r for him but responsible to me to see that Gunther’s HRM policies are carried out. and for Gunther. For a medium-sized operation. your recruiting quotas: Managers 38 Professional and technical 10 Clerical 44 Skilled employees 104 Semiskilled employees 400 You’ll receive a budget for maximum initial pay for this group shortly.

raiding is not allowed. Remember, too, that Gunther has an equal employment opportunity problem. Wherever possible, try to hire qualified minorities and women to help us meet our internal goals. f “Your own HR office consists of yourself, one HR specialist to help you run the empleyment office, and one clerical employee. Good c luck!” F Clark quickly arranged a for a meeting with Ed, his v new boss. Ed, about 50 g years old, was a high school p graduate who had started a with Gunther as a blue- n collar employee when he u was 18 years old.After 10 years in various blue-collar E positions, Ed became a f foreman. Eight years later he i was selected as an assistant e to the plant manager. After e several years in this h position, he was made one tI of three assistant plant n managers at a Gunther plant n in Chicago. He held that position until being given h this new position of plant manager at the Tampa plant. After introductions, C Clark and Ed talked. p Clark Here are the figures t for employees that Lois gave e me. She also said we could recruit some people from p Gunther, but not to raid beyond company policy. E Also. Lois said we needed to rr do an exceptional job ti recruiting minorities and u women because we have an a EEO problem. ti Ed Let’s get something straight right off. You working for me now, not Lois. Here’s o a list of 20 manager I want F to take with me. It’s your a ‘job to persuade them to come to Tampa with me. In in cases where my help might persuade some to come along, call on me. But I’m very stressed now trying to get machinery ordered, the plant laid out, financing arranged, and so on. Call on me only When you must, understand? Oh, one more thing. That EEO *#/OX_you can forget that.The Tampa plant is going to be the most efficient in the company, or else! And if that means hiring the best workers and they all turn out to be white men, that’s tough, you get me? Keep me posted on what’s happening. Good to have you on board.

After some thought, Clark decided to use job posting as a method of attracting professionaltechnical and managerial employees at the Los Angeles office to the new plant in Tampa. He also made the personal contacts Ed asked for in recruiting managerial employees, and the skills inventory was used to come up with more applicants. Clark contacted these also. He did not use job posting or the skills inventory for clerical, skilled, or semiskilled employees. He knew that for Gunther, as with most organizations, these categories of employees rarely wish to (continued on next page)

move to another location. IMost companies don’t want t’ to pay relocation costs for h these categories of a employment, either. r Clark went to Tampa and set up the employment office at the new location. ‘ He ran an ad in Tampa’s F afternoon paper and placed a job listing with a private employment agency for the HR specialist and clerk- a typist for his office.Then he a, hired these two employees p and set up the office to a receive walk-ins. He ir provided application blanks . b and policy guidelines on n when selection would I proceed. Clark listed the available s positions with the U.S. v Employment Service. He also contacted private in agencies. He selected the hi private agencies after calling cc a number of HR managers w in the Tampa area in similar w businesses who were also hi members of the Society of tF Human Resource Management.The HR a specialist notified all the vocational-technical schools, a junior colleges, and colleges t[ Ii L.4 in the Tampa area. Also, all high school guidance counseling departments were notified. Clark wondered what other media he ought to use to publicize the positions. Clark found out quickly, as you will find in this chapter, that recruftment is a little more complicated than he originally thought. Before an organization can fill a job vacancy, it must find people who not only are qualified for the position but also want the job. This chapter descril)es the recruiting process as one of the ways that an organization can deal with shortages in its human resources needs. Recruitment refers to organizational activities that iiifluence the number and types of applicants who apply for a job and whether the applicants accept jobs that are offered. I Thus, recruitment is directly related to both human reour e

planning and selection. En addition, recruiting often represents the first coti— tact between organizations and prospective employees. As such, care should be taken to create a positive hrst impression with these job applications. Although recruitment can be quite expensive, organizations have not always treated it as systematically a other HR functions, such as selection. l)uring the coming years, however, the importance of recruitment will probably increase for many organizations. Even with a modest rise in recession-based unemployment at the beginning of the 21st century. fears of a looming tight labor market in the United States continue to plague organizations of all sizes..2 I)riven by the inevitable retirements of baby hoomers and fewer numbers of young people entering into the work- force, the labor shortage has caused many companies to develop retention strategies to hold onto their valued employees. For example, Hewlett—Packard Co. and Charles Schwab Corp. have preferred freezes or cut pay to avoid layoffs.4 Despite the fact that organizational layoffs reached a 10-year high at the end of the 1990s, experts anticipate a growing number of iabor shortages in high-skills areas. Exhibit 7—1 shows how the recruiting process is affected liv various factors in the environment. The recruiting process begins with an attempt to find employees with the abilities and attitudes desired lw the organization and to match them with the tasks to he performed. Whether potential employees viIl respond to the recruiting effort depends on the attitudes they have developed toward those tasks and the organization on the basis of their past social and working experiences. Their percepnon of the task will also he affecte.l liv the work climate in the organization and the Important interaction of the organization as a recruiter and the employee as a recruit is examined in the next section.

Government and Union Restrictions government regulations prohibiting discrimination in hiring and employment have INFLUENCES 1 direct impact on recruiting practices. As described in derail in (chapter 3, government agencies can and do review the following information about recruiting to see 1 [I organization has violated the law: • List of recruitment sources (such as employment agencies, civic organizations, schools) for each job category. • Recruiting advertising. • Estimates of the employment needs k)r the coming \ear. Source: Kenneth Sovereign (1999). Personnel Law. 4th ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall), pp. 46—51; Gerord Panoro (1990), Employment Law Manual (Boston: Warren, Gorham, and Lamont), pp. 1—10. • Statistics on the number of applicants processed by demographic category (sex, race, and SO on) and by job category or level. • Checklists to show what evidence was used to verify the legal right to work. Although there is no guaranteed way to avoid legal entanglements associated with recruiting, Exhibit 7— 2 provides some basic principles of sound recruiting practices. The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986 has placed a major responsibility on employers for stopping the floW of illegal immigration to the United States. The employer—not the government—is the chief enforcer of the prohibition against the unauthorized recruitment and employment of foreign-horn individuals. ’ Under the law’s “employer sanctions” arrangement, all employers are required to screen every applicant’s eligibility for lawful employment and maintain records demonstrating employment authorization. The IRCA is a complex piece of legislation, but its basic features fit into four broad categories: ‘—i’ Employer’s duty not to recruit, hire, or continue to employ “unauthorized aliens.” 2. Employer’s duty to verify the identity and work authorization of every new employee. ‘L_3 Employer’s duty not to discriminate on the basis of citizenship or national origin. _4. Amnesty rights of certain illegal aliens who are eligible to achieve temporary or permanent resident status in the country. Despite the difficulty that organizations have determining whether a worker is legally employable, the

. 1. lENT Publish a list of qualifications necessary to fill the job. Be sure the job qualifications are applied to every applicant in a consistent manner. but some money will also he devoted to ensuring that legal applicants are not discriminated against because of the stepped-up enforcement activities. even informal attempts at recruiting will probably attract Post notices regarding the availability of a job. Additional money will be spent on hiring more investigators. g wary of establishing qualifications that might directly or indirectly exclude members of protected groi. .government is currently planning to step up its enforcement of the IRCA. 5. Do not rely only on word—of-mouth sources (if recruits. 4. attorneys. Labbr Market Conditions Another external environmental factor affecting recruiting is labor market conditions (these were described in some detail in Chapter 2). Use recruiting sources that will reach the greatest number of potential applicants in the job market. 6. 3. and support staff. If there is a surplus of Iabor at recruiting time. Distinguish between essential 2. qualifications and desirable ones.i PS.

and organizations are given the opportunity to bid against one another for a given worker. experts are predicting no end to critical shortages of skilled labor. The largest job posting site in the world. manage contact with thousands of passive jobseeker candidates. These shortages are expected to be especially acute in high-tech industries such as computers and wireless communications. including Recruiting-Online. Various personnel journals. It should be kept in mind that in spite of the meteoric e in the use of the Internet for recruitment and job search activities. find resumes of people with any skill set or in any location in the world. A similar online auction site dedicated solely to high-tech talent can be found at www. When companies are not creating new jobs. To remain mpetitive. unemployment in the United States has recently hit record low levels and. more than enough applicants.Bid4geeks. A. despite massive layoffs in some industries. (http://www. Current college recruiting efforts are analyzed by the Conference Board. there is often an oversupply of qualified labor. Clearly. Contract and temporary workers can now register at the website.Though little research has been conducted to assess the success of these recruiting innovations. skillful and prolonged recruiting may be necessary to attract any applicants who fulfill the expectations of the organization. the Internet is one of the tools being used more and more frequently to satisfy these difficult recruiting goals.At the same time. take advantage of newsgroups and listservs. C. Obviously. www. the Month/-v Labor Review. The federal Department of Labor issues employment reports. organizations in these industries must find new innovative ways to identify. organizations that do not begin to capitalize on the Internet might soon find themselves at a competitive there appears to be a considerable organizational interest in the concept. One way to stay current regarding online recruiting is to enroll in Internetbased courses that teach the latest in advanced online recruiting techniques. new developments occur almost daily that make the Internet more effective. when full employment is nearly reached in an area.html). However. and obtain e-mail addresses of employees at companies that are merging or downsizing. There are also sources of information on local employment conditions as they affect their members. has added another capability to its Internet services. and state divisi ofls of efriployrnent security and labor usually can provide information about specific types of employees.Web postings still only represent approximately 2 percent of all job listings. In addition. and the Endicort Report. Such courses are available from a variety of Chances are virtual recruiting is here to stay. the unwary user should not be lulled into believing that the Internet can easily replace other forms of recruiting. In addition.As mentioned earlier in this chapter. which appears in the Journal of College and hire people with the skills needed. and The Wall Street Journal also regularly report on employment conditions . there has been another twist to Internet use in organizational recruitment and selection.recruitingonline. An employer can find out about the current employment picture in several ways.Online includes the following “how-tos”: build a candidate it is difficult if not impossible for an organization to capture the degree of fit between an applicant’s personality and the organization’s culture from an electronic resume alone. For example. Course content at Recruiting. Nielsen. attract.The talent auction has arrived. how many applicants are available also depends on whether the economy is growing.

But for those organizations such as Allstate Insurance with the foresight to embrace diversity. this policy means that many nrganizations recruit from outside the organization only at the initial hiring level. Native American. . it has become important for an organization to anal‫غ‬ze the composition of its workfor . the nature of the organization and the goals of the managers are highlighted. and are willing to work long hours for almost no money.’ \Xithout these. As far as the applicants are concerned. have 10 years’ experience (at age 21). it must be valued by the organization. the benefits can be tremendous in terms of outcomes ranging from higher 1ItI’ tfl I I(’tP1 (11crc11l1r ci ticfntiin X INTERACTIONS After considering how external factors such as government. however. and job specifications in Chapter 6). as is the nature of the task. the effective organization examines the specifications that are absolutely necessary for the job. have worked their way through school. The techniques used and sources of recruits vary with the job. labor market OF THE RECRUIT conditions. or Alaskan native employees in the workforce depends largely on the availability of these minority employees in the relevant labor market. Due in part to skills shortages. Recruiting requirements The recruiting process necessarily begins with a detailed oh description and job specification. Then it uses these as its beginning expectations for recruits (see the sections on oL analysis. are presidents of extracurricular activities. Regardless of the location of the organization. This can help the organization avoid unrealistic expectations for potential employees: An employer might expect applicants who stand first in their class. The Organization’s View of Recruiting Several aspects affect recruiting from the organization’s viewpoint: the recruiting requirements set. Such an analysis is done to determine whether the hrni’s employment practices are discriminatory. For diversity management to work. Organizational policies and practices In some organizations. Fdr all practical purposes. and location of the organization restrict AND THE recruiting options. and the organization’s image.IIRM policies and prctices affect recruiting and who is recruited.Composition of Labor Force and Location of Organization The influence of FIRM law on activities was noted in Chapter 3. the number of African American. an aggressive diversity management program will be essential for organizations entering the 21st century. That is. organizational policies and procedures. Asian or Pacific Islander. it is impossible for recruiters to determine how well any particular applicant fits the job. are good-looking. Hispanic. It should be made clear to the recruiter which requirements are absolutely essential and which arc merely desirable. As the number of legal requirements has increased. job description. One of the most significant of these is promotion from within. composition of the workforce. Contrasting with this unrealistic approach. The location of the organization and the relevant labor market will play a major role in the CompoSition of the workforce. unions. the next step in understanding the recruiting process is to consider the interaction between the applicants and the organization in recruiting. their abilities and past work experience affect how they go about seeking a job. ORGANIZATION In Exhibit 7—2 (the diagnostic model). progressive orgamzations now ul7derstand that effective diversity management is an integral strategic tool for enhancing competitiveness.

Other policies cait also affect recruiting. Recruitment should also be somewhat easier for companies that exude a strong cumulate presence or positive flame recognition. and new employees from outside might be helpful. . The Potential Employee’s View of Recruiting Exhibit 7—i highlighted several factors relevant to how a recruit looks for a job. General Electric. veterans. If an inadequate number of high—quality people apply. SO do recruits have a set of preferences for jobs. or union restrictions.educated entrants to the labor force. there yill still be approximately 6 million college graduates either unemployed or underemployed (i. and preferences based on past work experiences and influences of parents. the limitations of its policies and practices. significant numbers of college radiates will Likely he working as retail sales employees. for example. for those organizations that reach the top of Fortune magazine’s “most admired” list. Although the Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts that the total number of college. motor vehicle operators. 0 Thus. harriers created 1w economic conditions. They feel this is tair to present loyal employ— ees and assures them of a secure future and a fair chance at promotion.e. Others i1ay be involved in nepotism and favor relatives. and how they go about seeking a job. Organizational image The image of the employer generally held by the public can affect recruitment. The incant has abilities. Is promotion from within a good policy Not always. All else being equal. I the time and effort needed to recruit high—quality workers may be less than for competitors who rank poorly. or ex-convicts. promotion from within may be detrimental. The techniques used for inrernal recruiting will be discussed later in this chapter. such as Coca-Cola or the most recent two— time winner. The business does not compete effectively. such a recruit is not necessarily going to nd her or his ideal job. In sum. teachers. All these policies affect who is recruited. Understanding these is vital to effective recruiting. Certain organizations have always hired more than their fair share of the disabled. food preparers and wavers. For example. These factors affect recruits in two Ways: how they set their job preferences. and others..level job openings between NOW and 2008 will nearly equal rhe number of college. the organization may have to adjust the job to fit the best applicant or increase its recruiting efforts. working in positions that Jo not require a bachelor's degree). Preferences of recruits for organizations and jobs Just as organizations have ideal speciation for recruits. Some employers also feel this practice helps protect trade secrets.Most employees favor this approach. An organization ma become SO stable that it is set in its vavs. attitudes. In such cases. However. the ideal job specifications preferred by an organization may have to be adjusted to meet the realities of the labor market. Recruits also face barriers to Iinding their ideal job. it should be easier for an organization with a positive corporate image to attract and retain employees than an organization with a negative image. and they may look to these sources first. and its image. and in administrative support roles. A student leaving college generally expects to obtain a job that actually requires college-level education and skills. or the government bureau will not adjust to legislative requirements. government. The graduate might also have strong geographic preferences and expectations about salary and may anticipate that advancement will occur rapidly.

First. friends. in order of . choosing an organization involves at least two major steps. there are government and union restrictions. But a survey conducted by the National Association of Colleges and Employers found that occupational choice is most heavily influenced by parents. trade publications. or service has a good future and will lead to growth and opportunity? Once these kinds of questions have been answered. this decision isn’t always purely rational. Then she or he chooses the organization to work for within that broader occupation. Additionally. The purpose pf self-assessments is for job searchers to recognize their career goals and their strengths and weaknesses.’4 As previously mentioned.S. however.uir rciinw should include these items. the individual chooses an occupation—perhaps in high school or early in college. or public sector)? 3. it is also affected by unconscious processes. ‘ The job search is a process that begins with self-assessment. or no particular size? 2. and the limits of organizational policies and practices.. Deportment of Labor and the Public Employment Service. career counselors. Have I checked to make sure that the sector. many factors that influence these decisions. the job seeker can generate a list of prospective employers using a wide variety of sources including fle\VSpapers. not for profit. 1. and successful self-presentation. What kinds of industries interest me? This question is usually based on interests in products or services. Information gathering and networking are methods for generating lists of p0. networking. product. What factors affect the choice of occupation and organization? Obviously.1 rr.1 Research also suggests that satisfaction with the communication process in recruitment is critical to attracting applicants. targeting specific jobs. it lists over 1. It is not always enough to simply be in the right place at the right time. Do I have a size preference: small. and organizational “insiders. 4.chi. just as the organization must. Do 1 prefer working with mechanical objects or counseling people? This is a crucial question. and luck. Source: ww-w. hut from the perspective of the applicant. Job search and finding a job: The recruit People who are successful at finding the “right job” tend to follow similar research processes. and the Internet. choice of an organization might be influenced by corporate image.ajb. self-presentation becomes critical. Research suggests that recruiters want to see a resume and cover letter that is tailored to the position .HRMEM0 Americas Job Fank is a coo perative eflbrt between the U. When the job seeker has decided where he or she will send a resume. medium. personal contacts.-l : 8 T1. The effective job searcher creates opportunities in a systematic way. Sources of information include newspapers. college recruitment offices. This information is used later in the search to help the applicant assess whether there is a fit with a particular job offer.. chance. many recruits prefer larger. Currently. The assessment is similar to what organizational recruiters will be doing. and relatives. or large. The recruit must anticipate compromises. followed by teachers.tential employers and jobs. An effective job search involves several steps including self-assessment. From the individual’s point of view. and preferred lifestyles.. information gathering.4 million job openings for job seekers. interests and values. 16 In reality. well-established firms over smaller organizations.” Many questions about possible employers must be answered before a list of alternatives can he generated. Do I have sector preference (private.

It hen highlights where gaps exist SO the employees know what is necessarY if they wish to be competitive for a given job.2° And with the use of resume databases constantly increasing as an initial screening tool. But job seekers need to understand that in the long run little can be gained from such practices.C H A P T E R 7 Recruitment 1. if necessary. Many companies now see job posting as an integrated component of an eftective career management system.21 the temptation to embellish one’s own qualifications might be difficult to ignore. It is here that the organization’s choice of a particular method of recruitment can make all the difference in the success of the re •uiti efforts. Today. It is difficult. however. job posting has become one of the more innovative recruiting techniques being used by organizations. it must effectively “get its message across” to external candidates. They do their “homework” and learn as much about the company as possible. To help with this problem. In fact. Whenever there is an madequate supply of labor and skills inside the organization.2 Once an organization has decided it needs additional or replacement employees. • Successful job seekers also prepare carefully for job interviews. it is faced with the decision of how to generate the necessary applications. Computer software ilows the employees o match an available job with their skills and experience.’ A survey conducted by Reid Psychological Systems found that as many as 95 percent of college students are willing to he less than truthful about themselves when they are searching for a job. however. Reason you seek employment. A model job posting program was implemented at National Semiconductor. characteristics such as these are primary determinants of recruiters’ firm-specific judgments about an applicant’s suitability. 2. especially since falsification of an application is typically grounds for dismissal. for HR managers to be \vare of all current employees who might he interested in the vacancy.22 Although it is not a good idea to present an unrealistic picture of one’s qualifications. they use “impression management” tactics to their advantage. An indication that you know something about the organization. OStings are computerized and easily accessible to employees. 4. not all job seekers provide truthful resumes. The organization can look to sources internal to the company and. Most organizations have to use both internal and external ources to generate a sufficient number of applicants. Position you seek. In addition. In the past. 5. interviewers are strongly influenced by an applicant’s interpersonal and communication styles during the interview.24 Amoco’s career management system includes a similar type of job posting program. to sources external to the company. nternaI Recruiting ob posting Organizations can make effective use of skills inventories for identifying nternal applicants for job vacancies. Your specific job objectives. job posting was little more than the use of bulletin boards and company publications for advertising job openings. 3. Openings in this organization are . Unfortunately for the organizational recruiter. they use an approach called job posting and bidding. Your career objectives.

c-recruiting. the organization can use inside moonlighting. found a history of racial discrimination that was related to recruitment. then the person who posted the job is requireti to send the “applicant” specific feedback about why he or she was not selected. For example. Other media used are billboards. Organizations also advertise for people in trade and professional publications. Before going outside to recruit. It could offer to pi’ bonuses of various types to people not on a time payroll to entice workers into wanting to take on a “second job. In developing a recruitment advertisement. the’ advertise for a situation wanted and reward anyone who tips them off about a job. This case suggests that employee referrals should be used cautiously. or if no great amount of additional work is necessary. There is also a separate section on college recruitment of potential managers and professionals. special-events recruiting.PA K T II Acquiring Human Resources posted on a worldwide electronic system. it also suggests that it might not be wise to rely exclusively on referrals but rather to use them as supplements to other kinds of recruiting activities. organizations are becoming more proactive in their recruitment efforts.” The copy continued. External Recruiting When an organization has exhausted its internal supply of applicants. radio. Some persons will clearly be motivated to accept the additional work if they are fairly compensated. referrals of this kind can be a powerful recruiting technique. Various media are used. however. Sonic organizations even offer “finders fees” in the form of monetary incentives for a successful referral. Nationally. If an employee applies for a transfer to a posted position and is turned down. prevention of conflict of interest. “Now you’re au MBA who’s look— . employment agencies. The court stated: The practice of relying on relerrals by a predominantly white worktorce rather than seeking new employees in the iiiarketplace for jobs was found to be discriiiinating.S. Court of Appeals.. Media advertising. The ad featured the Trix rabbit with the headline. Some job seekers do a reverse twist. When used wisely.1 Inside moonlighting and employees’ friends If there is a short-term shortage. not to accidentally violate equal employment laws while they are using employee referrals. telephone. a good place to begin is with the corporate image. “It’s Not Kid Stuff Anymore. and television.2 ihus. in EEOC i l)ctroit Ediso. however. it must turn to external sources to supjilement its workforce. Media advertisements Organizations advertise to acquire recruits.2b Moonlighting is so common at some Organizations that HR departments consider issiing “moonlighting policies’ that include the communication of performance expectations. and summer internships are discussed here. Research indicates that walk-ins provide an important external source of applicants. A number of methods are available for external recruiting.z (1 975). As labor shortages increase. it is estimated that approximately 6 percent of all employed people have held more than one job at the same tiIlle. General Mills used its Trix cereal logo to create instant recognition among MBA graduates. subway and bus cards. Sixth Circuit.2X the U. especially if the workforce is already racially or culturally imbalanced.. and protection of proprietary information. Organizations must be careful. many organizations ask present employees to encourage friends or relatives to apply. executive search firms. the most common being help—wanted ads in daily newspapers.

itional recruitment practices--as the Internet. It’s your Future. Apple Computer’s advertising campaign has been very successful. and screening procedures for too many people can be costly. it must be representative of the values that the corporation is seeking in its employees. coded for -rudy. The advertisement shown in Exhibit 7—3 is the type that will care trouble for a firm. the impact may not be as great. The ad appealed to nurses’ sense of pride in themselves and their profession. Therefore. hut if the name is used. E-Recruiting Perhaps no method has ever had as revolutionary an effect on orgam/ .” “Nurses arc kind and hey don’t laugh whet’ you cry”—were written in a child’s handwriting and coinhitied with pictUres of nurses and children in the style of a child’s drawing. or gender or a particular ::. The ad ran in the Cincinnati Engineer newspaper. too many applicants may appear. HR recruiters find that including diversity in recruitment ads helps to attract more employees from diverse populations. Media must be chosen. Want ad recordings were used by 40 companies recruiting engineers and scientists at a New York City convention. in large part because it has achieved this congruence. job hunters were able to pick up a telephone and hear a three-minute taped recruiting message that included a jol description and details about how to ntact the company. however. I lie headlines—”Nurses are smart and they know how to make you feel better. In addition. that for a dynamic growth-directed career environment . and analyzed for impact afterward. ads need to comply with EEO requirements and not violate the law. Look to General This is a difficult decision to make in preparing recruitment advertisements. According to Forresrer Research of . If the organization’s name is not used and a box number is substituted. . Because it’s not kid stuff anymore.’’ Ads need to he written to ivoid indicating preferences for a particular race. Effective recruiting ad:ertising is consistent with the overall corporate image. For example. Help-wanted ads must he carefully prepared. At a special recruiting center. . ° An innovative way to attract nurses was used in an ad campaign for Children’s 1-lospital Medical Center in Cincinnati.ce of national origin. Look at the questions that could he raised by this ad. the advertisement is -een as an extension of the companY. religion. Another innovative way to attract prospective employees with particular skills • he use of recorded want.” urses are there to make sure you don’t get real scared. “ Simply using a corporate logo is not enough.

000 and 30.corn—Search for jobs.Com (http://www. location. such as e-mail resumes each year. while CareerBuildcr. From the organization’s perspective. job searchers can use any number of the following Internet-based job searching websites (for more information. It has become such an important source of job search information that GTE Corporation (Verizon) now receives between in wbch a job is posted for 60 days in a single geographic location at a cost of about $300.nionster. There are other online services. From the job seeker’s perspective. and use a salary calculator.37 Organizations are also beginning to see that having their own human resources Web page on the Internet can he an effective a. it is a relatively inexpensive way to attract qualified applicants. multicolored advertisement in a professional journal can easily cost $10.NationJob. there are many other.000 different websites devoted in some manner to job posting activities.Dice.3 There are many reasons for the popularity of the Internet as a method of recruitment. Current estimates are that over 95 percent of all U.Cambridge. the c-recruiting market in the United States in expected to grow from just $500 million in 2000 to $4. For example. • wwttjobson1zne. • www. Monster. • u’ww. A typical organizational home page will provide background .com (http://www.3 million resumes.corn indicated that it listed 2. post your resume. there are approximately 30. companies now utilize the Internet for some or all of their recruitment-related activities. keyword. more specialized online sites that focus on jobs in particular areas such as health care.000 traditional newspaper recruiting ads from large newspapers across the United States in one easily searchable datahas.33 The largest job-placement websites have reported huge increases iii the number of resumes that were posted in 2001.CareerBuilder. job—Search by career listed 8. • iuww. and company. Quite obviously.S. For example.corn—Job listings will be identified and sent to personal e-mail addresses.corn—Search by location.corn—Search job • www.ddition to their overall recruitment strategy. • wunv.corn—Search thousands of employment opportunities gathered directly from organizations’ websites. • www.5 billion in 2004. and federal employment. To assist them. the Internet has become one of the most prominent of all worldwide recruiting—Leading technology job hoard with permanent and contract jobs. find samples of resumes and cover letters.0 million. using an executive search firm might cost an organization as much as one-third of a position’s first-year salary as a commission. Compare these figures with the cost of using the “post a job express” option at Monster. A large. and salary. see http://jobsearch. Finally. which catalogs more than 100. higher education. the Internet allows for searches over a broader array of geographic and company postings than was ever before possible. Massachusetts. This c-recruiting option provides almost immediate access to thousands of prospective applicants. Overall. and review career resources.000 or more. seek career advice.careerpath.

employers can eIectroncally screen candidates’ soft attributes. Many recruiters.The legal risk is that candidates may assume that they did not get the job due to a discriminatory reason and may file a complaint with the recruiting manager’s supervisor or even the EEOC. Although such innovations are welcomed at a time of skills shortages and pressures to control internal costs. Recruiters need to figure out a way to track applicants who apply for online job postings. more so than s older individuals.HR JouRNAL E-REcIUJITING: A WONDERFUL TOOL BUT NOT WITHOUT ITS RISKS Many would agree that the Web has revolutionized job 3 hunting and recruitment in the 21st century.” Fortune. Due to the ease of sending an electronic resume. For example. Make sure the job opening is communicated to large portions of the target population.This relative informality in the communication process could lead to the recruiter saying something that could come back to haunt them if the candidate does not get the job.The legal risk can involve either poor selection of resumescreening software and/or using terms that disproportionately eliminate candidates from protected classes.” HRMagazine. conduct background checks over the Internet. Currently. all signs indicate that e-recruiting is here to stay. Companies are very excited and amazed at the potential cost savings. then company recruiters need to get the message out to those a individuals who are less likely to be Internet-savvy and a use the online job search websites. pp. E-mail communication might be too casual. 3. there can be a tendency to disclose more information than they typically would using newspaper ads or other more traditional recruiting techniques. and extended worldwide candidate reach such approaches offer. The Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP) requires companies that do business with the federal government to keep track of applicant flow data (e. . they run the risk of creating adverse impact in their recruiting methods. interview candidates via videoconferencing. younger r people will be more likely to be online. there are legal risks associated with the unbridled use of e-recruiting.The legal risk to employers is that they do not maintain adequate records and fail to be within compliance of the OFCCP. pp. s Even with the existence of these legal risks.g. “E-recruiting Ushers in Legal Dangers. recruiters sometimes find this tracking process to be a daunting task. HR managers and company recruiters need to keep the following issues in mind when developing and executing an e-recruitment program: I. in an attempt to avoid being deluged by resumes. In addition. the candidate has written documentation to show what the recruiter wrote. 4. direct potential hires to a special website for online skills assessment. 36—42. “Online and Overwhelmed. 66—78. recruiters and HR managers are encouraged to use e-recruiting in an appropriate way to increase the attraction and selection r rates of well-qualified individuals. Sources: Gillian Flynn (April 2002). use screening software that searches for (or deletes based on) certain words or phrases. speed enhancement. Bill Leonard (August 2000). pp. and manage the entire process with Web-based software. If recruiters don’t use traditional methods of job posting along with Internet-based approaches. If the target population for a given opening includes people of all ages.Jerry Useem (July l999). type and number of individuals who apply for different jobs). Be careful not to inadvertently screen out diverse candidates. 70—72. As with other important aspects of good management practice.’For Sale Online:You.” Work force. When individuals communicate via e-mail to potential candidates..

They may be scheduled on holidays to reach college students who are home at that time or to give people who are already employed a chance to look around. in fact. One of the most interesting approaches is to provide job fairs. expose themselves to talented potential employees who may become their “recruiters” at school. This technique is especially useful for smaller. Though sometimes challenging to manage in times of higher unemployment. while agencies deal primarily with middle. They allow organizations to get specific projects done. which means that the organization pays them a fee whether or not their efforts are successful. Most executive search firms are on retainer. some organizations have successfully used special events to attract potential employees. and provide trial-run employment to determine if they want to hire particular people full time.level management or below. 42 Internship programs have a number of purposes.000 job candidates in a little under four hours of operation. provide literature. A group of firms sponsors a meeting or exhibition at which each has a booth to puhlicie jobs available.40 some experts claim recruiting costs have been reduced by 80 percent using these methods. a recent job fair held in Virginia was able to generate 4. organizations may have hospitality suites at professional meetings. The use of internships is. less well known search/cfairs provides current listings of when and where job fairs will be held in the United States. First. schedule visits to headquarters. the life insurance industry. executive search firms usually charge higher fees for their services. some organizations have successfully used special events to attract potential . It appeals to job seekers who wish to locate in a particular area and those wanting to minimize travel and interview time.johweh. Finally.4 The realities of the job market of the I 990s have also introduced two new reasons for internship programs. One of the reasons that organizations are willing to pay these higher fees is that executive search firms frequently engage in their recruiting efforts while maintaining the confidentiality of both the recruiting or1ganization and the person being recruited. and so forth. many organizations now see them as a way to attract the best people in areas where there are labor shortages. while agencies deal primarily with middle.39 Special-events recruiting When the supply of employees available is not large or when the organization is new or not well known. One of the reasons that organizations are willing to pay these higher fees is that executive search firms frequently engage in their recruiting efforts while maintaining the confidentiality of both the recruiting or1ganization and the person being recruited.P A R T I I Acquiring Human Resources Employment agencies and executive search firms Although similar in purpose. They may stage open houses. Executive search firms tend to concentrate their efforts on higher-level managerial positions with salaries in excess of $50. employment agencies and executive search firms differ in many important ways. The list of organizations using intern.41 And. Finally. it includes AT&T General Motors.ships is extensive.000. executive search firms usually charge higher fees for their services. To attract professionals. companies such as Accenture and BAT Industries (a tobacco firm) actually begin identif Employment agencies and executive search firms Although similar in purpose. Some estimates suggest that nearly one out of every three students at four-year universities will have one or more internship experiences before graduation. most major accounting firms. The website www. dramatically increasing. there is an Internet site to help the recruit. agencies are usually paid only when they havc actually provided a new hire. Executives also make speeches at association meetings or schools to get the organization’s image across. Ford Motor Company has conducted symposia on college campuses and sponsored cultural events to attract attention to its qualifications as a good employer. In contrast. employment agencies and executive search firms differ in many important ways. and advertise these events in appropriate media. agencies are usually paid only when they have actually provided a new hire. which means that the organization pays them a fee whether or not their efforts are successful. To do so. Summer internships Another approach to recruiting and getting specialized work done that has been tried I’v organizations is to hire students as interns during the summer or part time during the school year. yes.000.39 Special-events recruiting When the supply of employees available is not large or when the organization is new or not well known.level management or below. Most executive search firms are on retainer. In contrast. Executive search firms tend to concentrate their efforts on higher-level managerial positions with salaries in excess of $50. For example.

The website www. schedule visits to headquarters. It appeals to job seekers who wish to locate in a particular area and those wanting to minimize travel and interview time. They may be scheduled on holidays to reach college students who are home at that time or to give people who are already employed a chance to look around. employment agencies and executive search firms differ in many important ways.41 And. One of the reasons that organizations are willing to pay these higher fees is that executive search firms frequently engage in thçir recruiting efforts while maintaining the confidentiality of both the recruiting oranizarion and the person being recruited Special-events recruiting When the supply of employees available is not large or when the organization is new or nor well known. They may be scheduled on holidays to reach college students who are home at that rime or to give people who are already employed a chance to look around. less well known employers.40 some experts claim recruiting costs have been reduced by 80 percent using these methods. and advertise these events in appropriate media. while agencies deal primarily with middle. yes. One of the most interesting approaches is to provide job fairs. The website www. A group of firms sponsors a meeting or exhibition at which each has a booth to publicize jobs available. Though sometimes challenging to manage in times of higher unemployment. This technique is especially useful for smaller. They may stage open houses. In contrast. provide literature. and so forth. dramatically increasing. Ford Motor Company has conducted symposia on college campuses and sponsored cultural evcnts to attract attention to its qualifications as a good employer. it includes AT& search/cfairs provides current listings of when and where job fairs will be held in the United States. Summer internships Another approach to recruiting and getting specialized work done that has been tried by organizations is to hire students as interns during thc summer or part time during the school ycar.000 job candidates in a little under four hours of operation. Finally. Executives also make speeches at association meetings or schools to get the organization’s image across. the life insurance industry.000 job candidates in a little under four hours of operation. compaiiies such as Accenture and BAT Industries (a tobacco firm) actually begin identif Employment agencies and executive search firms Although similar in purpose. which means that the organization pays them a fee whether or not their efforts are successful.johweb.employees. A group of firms sponsors a meeting or exhibition at which each has a booth to publicize jobs available. some organizations have successfully used special events to attract potential eiriployees. schedule visits to headquarters. Most executive search firms are on retainer. First. a recent job fair held in Virginia was able to generate 4.40 some experts claim recruiting costs have been reduced by 80 percent using these methods. executive search firms usually charge higher fees for their services. Executives also make speeches at association meetings or schools to get the organization’s image across.41 And.43 The realities of the job market of the 1 990s have also introduced two new rcaSOflS for internship programs. General search/cfairs provides . agencies are usually paid only when they have actually provided a new hire. Some estimates suggest that nearly one out of every three students at four-year universities will have one or more internship experiences before graduation. provide literature. The list of organizations using intern.ships is extensive. They allow organizations to get specific projects done. Executive search firms tend to concentrate their efforts on higher-level managerial positions with salaries in excess of $50. organizations may have hospitality suites at professional meetings. most major accounting firms. a recent job fair held in Virginia was able to generate 4. The use of internships is. 42 Internship programs have a number of purposes. there is an Internet site to help the recruit. For example. many organizations now see them as a wa to attract the best people in areas where there are labor shortages. yes.level management or below. One of the most interesting approaches is to provide job fairs. there is an Internet site to help the recruit. They may stage open houses.000. in fact. It appeals to job seekers who wish to locate in a particular area and those wanting to minimize travel and interview time. Ford Motor Company has conducted symposia on college campuses and sponsored cultural events to attract attention to its qualifications as a good employer. Though sometimes challenging to manage in times of higher unemployment. expose themselves to talented potential employees who may become their “recruiters” at school. For example. organizations may have hospitality suites at professional meetings. To attract professionals. and advertise these events in appropriate media. To do so. and provide trial—run employment to determine if the want to hire particular people full time. less well known employers. To attract professionals. This technique is especially useful for smaller.

Nonetheless. The use of internships is. and their work is not always the best. and AT&T. First. The organization may also run ads to attract students or may conduct seminars at which company executives talk about various facets of the organization.4 From i-be student’s point of view. In a way. There are costs to these programs. College recruiting There is a growing gap between the skills that organizations will need over the next several years and those currently possessed by potential employees.44 A second new reason that organizations are using more internships is to improve the diversity of their recruitment efforts. and expensive for the organization. Coinciding with the visit. At the placement service. dramatically increasing. of course. they get negative impressions about the organization they have worked for. and provide paid work experiences. in fact. for example. time-consuming. many organizations now see them as a way to attract the best people in areas where there are labor shortages.4” An internship can also mean real work experience for the student. companies such as Accenture and BAT Industries (a tobacco firm) actually begin identify talented students in their senior year in high school. General Motors. Such disillusioned students become re vers recruiters. But the major prob1cm some organizanons have encountered concerns the expectations of students. a possible future job. they reserve preliminary interviews with employers they want to see and are given brochures arid other literature about the . However. Their hope is to develop a lasting relationship with these talented young people. the organization sends an employee.4 The realities of the job marker of the 1 990s have also introduced two new rcasons for internship programs. Sometimes the interns take up a lot of supervisory time. GE Capital Services. it includes AT&T. those seeking employment register at the college placement service. Seine students expect everything to be perfect at work. Summer internships Another approach to recruiting and getting specialized work done that has been tried Lw organizations is to hire students as interns during the summer or part rime during the school year. help them with college expenses. During the recruiting season (from about mid-October to mid-March). and so forth. the summer internship means a job with pay. earning course credit hours. When it is not. This placement service is a labor market exchange providing opportunities for students and employers to meet and discuss potential hiring. The list of organizations using intern. usually called a recruiter. in college recruiting. College recruiting can be extremely difcult. recruiters generally believe that college recruiting is me of the most effective ways of identifying talented employees. most major accounting firms. To help.current listings of when and where job fairs will be held in the United States. but that organizations will be careful about controlling expenses.4 All this suggests that college recruiting will continue to play an important role in organizations’ overall recruitment strategies. the life insurance industry. and SO forth. to a campus to interview candidates and describe the organization to them. In the typical procedure. expose themselves to talented potential employees who may become their “recruiters” at school. The college recruiting process is similar in some ways to other recruiting. mailings. To do so. brochures and other literature about the organization arc often distributed. assuming that it is less well organized than others in the field. a chance to use one’s talents in a realistic environment.ships is extensive. They allow organizations to get specific projects done. Inroads has working relationships with organizations in 33 different states. provides students with approximately 600 paid internships each year. NCR. cases. Many companies claim that they want to he more aggressive in recruiting minorities but say that the competition for talented people is severe. it is a short form of some co-op college work and study programs. candidates are advised of scheduled visits through student newspapers. Some estimates suggest that nearly one out of every three students at four-year universities will have one or more internship experiences before graduation. bulletin hoards. of Saint Louis locates and places high-performing minority students in internship programs. and in some . 42 Internship programs have a number of purposes. Inroads Inc. Its major supporters include NationsBank. and provide trial—run employment to determine if they want to hire particular people full time.

depending on the current labor market. The trcnd seems to he for an organization to develop a stronger. They are entertained and may he given a series of tests as well. also unanimously reject stressful or sarcasth interviewing styles. recruiters should be very familiar with the company they represent.4X Some bargaining may take place on salary and benefits. friends. First. They. . in part. Students infer indifference if the recruiter’s presentation is mechanical. however. personal interest in the applicant. Second. recruiters must be carefully chosen• b the organization. he or she is given an offer before leaving the site or shortly thereafter by mail or phone. One of the most important influences remains. Characteristics they want most in the recruiter are friendliness. fcirat least two reasons. and truthfulness. and obviously good salespeople. like most people. This reduction is. their parents. family. and it may reduce the size of that list even further—down to as few as 10 or 12 schools—for its recruiting activities in engineering. bureaucratic. The candidate then decides whethetto accept or reject the offer.” Lack of enthusiasm. and so forth. applicants want to discuss opportunities with someone they perceive to be knowledgeable about the company. good recruiters also possess welldeveloped interpersonal skills because part of their responsibility should be to determine why job offers are accepted or rejected by candidates. the recruiter. ongoing relationship with a relatively select number of schools. The recruiter is the filter and the matcher. and programmed. They must he outgoing.r flaws students have found in typical recruiters include the following: Lack of interest in the app1iant. In addition. For example. however. spouse. knowledge. Students’also have preferences for specific behavior during the recruiting interview. For these reasbns. made possible by Monsanto’s increased activity in internship programs. students infer that he or she represents a dull and uninterestingcompany. Students prefer recruiters who have work experience in their specialties and have some personal knowledge of the university they are visiting.Students who are invited to the site are given more job information and meet appropriate potential supervisors and other executives. and professors. If the recruiter seems bored.’° MajG. Good recruiters convey’ an image and appearance that reflects fa1vorably on the organization. They want to be evaluated for their own acomplishments. One student reported. Some’ ipplicants prefer enthusiastic and knowledgeable communicators. “The company might justas well have sent a tape recorder. the recruiters need to be able to determine whether the applicant will fit into the value system of the organization.sion of the organization. Monsanto recently cut the size of its university recruiting list by 50 percent. the one who is actually ‘seen by the applicants and is viewed as an exte4. Intervieu’s that are stress ful or too persona1 Students resent too many personal questions about their social class. Finally.49 The effective college recruiter Various people influence the applicant during the process of choosing a job: peers. The recruiter is seen as a primary example of the kind of person the organization values and wants to attract in the futUre. Many of the changes are designed to reduce overall recruiting costs while maintaining a strong flow of applicants into the organization. selfmotivated. As with other forms of recruiting. organizations are becoming more creative in their use of colleges and universities. If the organization wants to hire an individual. The organization bears all expenses.

however. source: Adopted from John P.0] TRADITIONAL PREVIEW REALISTIC PREVIEW CONSEQUENCES Sets initial job expectations too high. Sonic accept. . infrequent thoughts of quitting. interesting. most jobs have some unattractive features. When they do so. Time allocation by recruiters. sonic reject job offer. canned history of the company. depending stimulating. w job survival. branches. Job may or may not he attractive. and Socialization of Newcomers Boston:Addison. Although they can and do make a difference. they can have a negative effect on applicants even when the job and the organization are both appealing. Orientation. DPREEVEW Job is typically viewed as attractive.” Personnel. ‘Tell It Like It Is at Realistic Job Preview. as suggested in Exhibit 7—4. pension plans. needs matched to job. Work experience confirms expectations. and the same nurn. From the point of view of the applicant. thoughts of quitting. there is significantly lower turnover of new employees. Wanous (992). Some jobs are all of these things. and so forth. much of the recruiter’s time is wasted if it includes a long.CH A P T ER7 Recruitment 2 0 7 . applicants’ decisions are affected more by characteristics of the job and the organization than they are by particular characteristics of recruiters. The final criticism of recruiters has to do with how much rime they talk and how much they let applicants talk or ask questions. and imulating. Researchers have found that most recruiters give general. assets. Good recruiters are not going to guarantee success in filling positions. “Dissatisfaction and realization that job is not Satisfaction. 53—86. REALISTIC JOB . Many of the questions the recruiter asks applicants are answered on the application blank anyway. and challenging. High rate of acceptance of oh offers.52 A realistic job preview provides the prospective employee with pertinent information about the job without distortion or exaggerat. Organizational Entry: Recruitment. satisfaction. Work experience disconfirms expectations. In this case. Sets oh expectations realistically. john P Wonous (july—August 1975). matched to needs.Wesley). In traditional job previews.1 EXHIBIT 7-4. Recruiters do make a difference when they do riot present themselves well. 54. However. on individual’s needs. frequent High job survival.51 It is important for recruiters to provide realistic expectations about the job. dissatisfaction.ber of people apply. the job is presented as attractive. p. Other research also suggests that recruiters may have very little positive influence Ofl an applicant’s choice. Research suggests that recruitment can he made more effective PREVIEWS through the use of realistic job previews (RJPs). glowing descriptions of the company rather than a balanced or truthful presentation.1 The RJP presents the full picture. warts and all.on. pp. products. number of employees.

On a limited. employce benefits. there is no conclusive evidence supporting the effectiveness of realistic job prcviews. Prudential Insurance Co. there are potential problems: fatigue.57 Temporary Employment One of the most noticeable effects of the downsizing epidemic and the labor shortages of the past two decades has been a dramatic rise in the usc of temporary employees. Texas Instruments. though.Exhibit 7—4 presents the typical consequences of traditional previews versus realistic previews. Military Academy have used and reported on the RJP. However. however. because of the cost and permanence of recruiting TO RECRUITMENT individuals. RJPs do not reduce the flOW of highly capable applicants. But while small businesses can expect to save from 15 to 30 percent of benefit costs such as health insurance premiums by using leased employees. short-term basis. Historically. leaving approximately 36. An organization’s human resource plan may suggest that additional or replacement ALTERNATIVES employees are needed. at present there is still uncertainty as to why RJPs have the effects they do and in what contexts they are likely to be the most effective. organizations avoid the costs of recruiting and having additional employees. increased accidents. temporary employment agencies were seen only as sources of .. In recent years. Overtime When a firm faces pressures to irleet a production goal. at least six leasing companies have gone bankrupt. Although it seems clear that RiPs can have beneficial effects.S.4 The results indicated that: Newly hired employees who received RJPs have a higher rate of job survival than those hired using traditional previews. However. Leasing is especially attractive to small and midsize firms that might not otherwise be able to afford a full-service human resources department. Employees hired after RjPs indicate higher satisfaction. By having employees work overtime. sometimes called “staff sourcing. has often resulted in higher labor costs and reduced productivity. and increased absenteeism. Overtime can also provide employees with additional income. having some employees work overtime may be an alternative to recruitment. RJPs can set the job expectations of new employees at realistic levels.000 workers and hundreds of small businesses liable for millions of dollars associated with health care and other workers’ compensation claims. Studies conducted at Southern New England Telephone. and routine human resource management functions for the client company. an alternative to recruitment may be used. and the U. These findings suggest that RJPs can be used as an inoculation against’disappointment with the realities of a job. Continuous overtime. Employee Leasing Employee leasing.” involves paying a fee to a leasing company or professional employer organization (PEO) that handles payroll. care must he exercised in choosing a leasing company. it may mean that employees need to work overtime. At this stage of development.

A disadvantage of hiring temporary help is that these individuals do not know the culture or work flow of the firm.. an easily accessible source of experienced labor. the leading C I. or 100 machinists.60 The cost advantage of using temporary help sterns from the fact that the organization does not have to provide fringe b nefits.’’ The major advantages of temporary employees include relatively low labor costs. including suburban and ethnic papers.000 temporary employment agencies across the United States that have been in business for more than one year. the leading black newspaper. He also investigated the ti leading radio stations and c selected the one that had in the highest rating of the top M three and the lowest commercial cost. Then the organization can decide who are the best recruiters. such as the effectiveness of recruiters. He chose commuter times to run the C radio ads. They may he those who meet or exceed quotas and those whose recruits stay with the organization and are evaluated well by their superiors. or a compensation and career plan. ANALYSIS OF Organizations assign goals to recruiting by types of employees. in fact. “just—in-time” employees can be found staffing all types of )obS in organizations.’ H I. Li Hispanic paper. In college recruiting. and flexibility in responding to future changes in the demand for workers. COST-BENEFIT Many aspects of recruitment. Sources of recruirs can also be evaluated.The job was now to select the best applicants.s tive. Today.n ing numbers of applicants: Managerial positions 68 hi Professional-technical I 0 Clerical 78 Skilled employees 110 Semjskilled employees 720 Clark notified Ed of the results. Effective selection and hiring are the subjects of Chapter 8. the organiza‘n can divide the number of job acceptances by the number of campus interviews compute the cost per hire at each college. Then it drops from the list those cain— [“uses that are not productive. semiskilled clerical help (luring peak work periods. he had the follow. and higher executive positions. including professional.The advertising Sl approach was innovative. He also discussed the impact and readership of the papers with the human resource managers he’d befriended. After Clark’s recruiting C campaign. he chose the ajor Tampa afternoon aper. training. For example. a goal for RECRUITING a recruiter might be to hire 350 unskilled and semiskilled employees.58 There are. This unfamiliarity detracts from their commitment to organizational and departmental goals. or 100 technicians. In addition.Clark Kirby got prices of ads from all the Tampa papers. Sc luded The pay and working conditions offered at the r Tampa plant were competi. The methods of recruiting that are used Lw a company can he evaluated along :ariotls dimensions. Clark knew that would be no easy job. or 100 managerial employees per year. technical. On this basis. can be evaluated. nearly 7. the Orgafli/atloli can calculat the cost of each . The temporary worker can ye in and out of the firm when the workload requires such movement. and a suburban paper in an area c near the plant.

in smaller organizations. attitudes. Internal sources can be tapped through the use of ‘ob posting and bidding. A good new employee can he driven away by a lack of opportunities for promotion.. and shown who recruits. External factors that affect the recruiting process include influences such as government and union restrictions. suggested the importance of recruiting. and others. affect them in two ways: how they set job preferences.6 I The quality—of—hire measure is calculated as follows: QH = (PR + HP + HR)/N where where QH quality of recruits hired PR = average job performance ratings (20 items on scale) of new hirees (e. Some caution must he exercised with the quality-of-hire measure when evaluating the recruitment strategy. where.6% The 66 percent quality-of-hire rate is a relative val-ue. Nevertheless.g. a. . 6.PART I I Acquiring Human Resources method (such as advertising) and divide it by the benefits it yields (acceptances of offers). Two sources of recruits could be used to fill needs for additional employees: present employees (internal) or those not presently affiliated with the organization (external). based on past work experiences and influences by parents. organizational policies and procedures. The organization can also examine how much accurate job information was provided during the recruitment process. 4 on a 5-point scale or 20 items x 4) HP = percent of new hirees promoted within one year (such as 35 percent) 1-IR = percent of hirees retained after one year (e. multipurpose HR people or operating managers recruit and interview applicants. and the location of the organization. good. and how. or poor level. To summarize the major points covered in this chapter: 1. the quality-of-hire measure can provide some insight into the recruiter’s ability to attract employees.The passage of 3. the composition of the labor force. Recruiting is the set of activities an organization uses to attract job candidates who have the abilities and attitudes needed to help th organization achieve its objectives.. It will be up to management to determine whether this represents an excellent. 66. 5. the state of the labor market. the HR department does the recruiting. Another aspect of recruiting that can be evaluated is what is referred to as the quality of hire. and preferences. and the organization’s image. 4. Three factors affect recruiting from the organization’s viewpoint: recruiting requirements. 2. teachers. and how they go about seeking a job. fair. inequitable performance ratings. = This chapter has demonstrated the process whereby organizations recruit additional employees.g. Performance ratings and promotion rates are all bey()nd the control of a recruiter. Applicants’ abilities. In larger organizations. 35 percent) N = number of indicators used Therefore. moonlighting by present employees. This measure can provide management with an assessment of the quality of new employees being recruited and hired. or job market conditions that have nothing to do with the effectiveness of the recruiter.

3 (U. while rhe Facts 1)etroits labor force was 59. External sources include walk-ins. recruiting employees.. 211 a. computerized matching services. What guidelines should be followed to make sure that recruitment advertising does not violate equal employment laws? Give some do’s and don’ts in recruiting interviews in terms of the legality of questions asked. What are the characteristics of an effective and an ineffective college recruiter? 10. Being enthusiastic.. Sixth Ci. Michigan. 138 F3d \X’arren’s labor force was compnscd of 0. Describe a realistic job preview.2 percent African 108. c. S. and employee leasing.Which of the three websites is most useful to job seekers? Explain your answer.. Considering that there are millions of resumes posted on the Web. \Varren placed advertisements in three adiaccnt to l)ctroit. (enus reports in 1980 indicated that newspapers that were circulated primarily in 1acomb . The African American labor force in the remainder of Macomb County was 1 3 percent. applicants. in.. special-event recruiting. b. Americans. App.-—. Allotting enough time for applicants’ comments and questions. In Flie city of Warren. personal recruiting. and state employment offices. 9.cum e. 4ichgan. Showing a genuine interest in the applicant. Alternatives to recruiting personnel when work must be completed include overtime.C H A P T E R 7 Recruitment and seeking recommendations from present employees regarding friends who might fill vacancies. Advertising.recruiting ciuployce leasing eiuploynicnt agencies executive search rms lmmigrarionReform and Control Act (1RCA) of 1986 job posting and bidding job search Monster. Discuss how the Internet has changed recruiting. 7. . The Internet is revolutionizing organizational recruitment and may become the primary job search tool in the coming years.corn online recruiting realistic ob preview recrii itillent 1.S. temporary employees. How can it be used to reduce turnover? . Employing a style that is neither too personal nor too stressful. Search for a job in a particular region of the United States. 10. Caree rPa th. Visit three different job search websites. . What has led to an increased use of temporary employees in organizations? What are the major advantages of using temporary employees? 6. A better job of recruiting and matching employees to jobs will mean lower employee turnover and greater employee satisfaction and organizational effectiveness.7 percent African American. The City of Warren. referrals from schools. II. is located in Macowl’ County. and summer internships are among the methods that can be used to recruit external II. What are the relative strengths and weaknesses of promotion from within as a recruitment technique? HRM LEGAL ADVISOR Based on U. d. What role do job descriptions and job specifications play in an effective recruitment program? 4.S.£.: 1998). 1. what steps should recruiters follow to screen out unqualified candidates in a fair and nondiscriminatory manner? Explain your answer. v.

” in Wayne F. “A Smarter Squeeze. In February of 1986. “America’s Most Admired: What’s So Great about GE?” Fortune. . Dean Foust (Decen her 2001). 14—19. “Recent Legal Decisions Affect You. Jacqueline A. produced a de facto barrier between employment opportunities and members of a protected class. After its investigation indicating that Warren’s residency requirement and recruiting media had an adverse impact against African Americans. and Betty Southard Murphy (April 1996).” Business Horizons. Cascio (ed.” Further. 4. Supreme Court has indicated that a company’s proper geographic recruiting area should include locations from which applicants or employees are likely to commute. p. Additionally. 142. 73—102. “External and Internal Recruitment. the U. pp. 414—427. pp. “Corporate Image. the court held that “Warren’s limitation of its applicant pool to the residents of the overwhelmingly white city. Barlow. Wayne F. Recruitment: Science and Practice (Boston: Kent). pp. pp. Justin Fox (March 2002). 34—35.S. Gatewood. “Engagement or I)isengagement? Older Workers and the Looming Labor Shortage. pp. Employers may avoid discrimination problems related to recruiting by ensuring that its internal and external recruiting tools are unbiased and sufficiently reach the company’s qualified labor market. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit ruled that the’ disparate impact theory of discrimination was applicable to any “facially neutral pohcv with a discriminatory effect to Title VII. “The Immigration Reform and Control Act Demands a Closer Look. As a result. “The Looming Leadership Crisis. 61—7b A Competitive \X’eapon.). 2 Gillian Flyim (August 1995). 126—130. J. Department of Justice notified the City of Warren that it planned to initiate an investigation of Warren’s recruiting practices.” Human Resource Implications A basic assumption of this case is that the City of Warren should have been recruiting employees from the greater Detroit area. Wairen required applicants for all lobs except police and firefighters to be residents of Warren. Peter Fraiiccse (ovcmhcr 2001).County and placed job postings in municipal buildings. pp.” Busines:. and Initial lob Choice Dcci Sions. and John M. alleging that they potentially discriminated against African Americans on the basis of race. pp. pp. Gowan. “Too Many Workers? Not for Long. Glenn McEvoy and Mary Jo Blahna (September—Octobcr 2001). 42—44. Recruitment Image. 151 . Diane D. (. Ivancevich (August 1999). the city’s municipal workforce was approximately I percent African American. Robert I). 75—92. I)C: Bureau of National Affairs). p. The City of Warren argued that sparate impact analysis was not applicable to recruiting cricea The Court’s Decision The U. “Iooniing Labor Shortages. 2 Aaron Bernstein (May 2002). “Pop Quiz: How Do You Recruit the Best College Grads?” I’ersonnel Journal. the United States filed a suit in district court alleging race discrimination under Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act. 267—268ff. &Ite Ann Stead. Employment. “I)iversity Management: A New Organizational Paradigm. 1999). pp.” A cadem of Management Journal. James A. “1)o I Really Want to Work for This Company?” Across the Board. “The World’s Most Admired Companies.” Personnel Journal.” Fortune.” Journal of Business Ethics.S. Alexandra Harkavy (july—August 2000).” Business Week.illiaii Finn (Sepn’mher 1995). 46—52.” Work force. pp. pp. 64—67. and Gary j.S. pp. 153. pp. Human Resource’ Planning. Jeremy Kahn (October 11. Week. “I)ivcrsitv Man. John Ivancevich and Jacqueline Gilbert (Spring 2000).” Managenu’nt Review. 24—30.” Personnel lournal. Shari Caudron (September 1999). Companies should consider general commuting patterns as well as public transportation availability in determining where to recruit employees. Lautcnschlager (April 1993).” Public Personnel Alanagement.” Anzcrican Demographics. pp. & Placement (Washington. Breaugh 1992). Hatch. Gilbert.igement: Time for a New Approach. pp. Warren did not advertise municipal jobs in Detroit newspapers. Scott Lord (1989). combined with its refusal to publicize jobs outside the racially homogeneous county. Mary A. The U. 72—79.

. op.n(. 31.” in Wayne F. Sixth Circuit (Cincinnati). 2—9.” Personnel Psychology. pp. 107—114. ° Bibi S. 2 Marlene Piturro (JanLiary 2000). “Recruitment Ad Vantages. Scott Lord (1989). “The Amoco Plan. Jon Swartz (February 19. Human Resource Plannin’. 92—100.fl. pp. 28. 2(1 Elaine McShulskis (August 1997).” Personnel Journal. Watson (June 1995). Samuel Greengard (March 1996). pp. “Beware College Grads Willing to Lie for a lob. “ Jeffrey Kluger (June 2002). pp. pp.” HRMagazine.n. and Laurie Levesque (2001). 29 Margaret Magnus (August 1986). pp . “Job Fair Challenges for HR.. pp. Detroit Edison Company (1975). 76—80. ‘ Steart Deck (March 2000). (December 3.. and Face-to-Face Media oil Interviewer and Applicant Judgments in Employment Interviews. 62—66. “Effects of Impression Management on Performance 4 Ratings. 25 Marc Hequet (April 1995). 13—36.” Acade. 4 2 ilan Moravec (September 1990). 10. “Do You Need a Moonlighting Policy?” HRMagazine. Bewayo (May 1990). “Diversify Your Recruitment Advertising. pp. ° Martha Frase-Blunt (April 2002).58—79.nv of Manal.idance Journal. Shirley Duglin Kennedy (July—August 1996). “Resume Databases to I)ominate Field. Andrew Bargerstoek (August 1 990). 363—381. “The Relative Influence of Interview Communication Satisfaction on Applicants’ Recruitment Interview Decisions. “Resume Preparation: An Empirical Study of Personnel Managers’ PerLeptions. pp. “Low Cost Recruiting for Quality.” Journal of Busmess Communication.S. “External and Internal Recruitn1ent. pp. 25 Sara Rynes and Barry Gerhart (Spring 1990). pp. pp. 50 Jennifer Koch MarcIi 1990). 33—37.n.” USA Today. IN Hubert Field and William Holley (March 1976). 1999). 59—60. 33—37. “The Effects of Videoconference.rt .r.” Management Review.301. I 213 Piturro.s.” Personnel fourizal. Telephone.). “Need a New lob? (jet to Work on the Web.” Journal of Management. 232—252. 229—237.ember 3. 4 21 Bill Leonard (April 1993).” HRMagazme. “Students Offer Views on Career ( lmices. 68—().. 1998—2008: A Balancing Act. “The Intern Turnaround.” HRMagazine. pp. 45—47. cit. ° AP Online (D. Chad Fleetwood and Kristina Shelley (FaIl 2000).’nient. “1 he Outlook for College Graduates. David Bowman and R. op. 38—39. 22—24. 1999). ° Edward 1). “Interviewer Assessments of Applicant ‘Fit’: An Exploratory Investigation. U. 61—77. ‘ Matthew Mariani (Spring 1996). AP Online. Jeffrey Miles. 16 Susan Strauss. pp.’enzent Journal. Einplo’.’cuunt Rei’u’u’. p. 51SF.” ()cczipatuozal ( )utlook Ouartcrlv. “Rate of Moonlighting among Workers Holds a Steady Pace. Kweskin (1990). 73—102.30—34. Cascio (ed. Court of Appeals.” Time.12—18. 3B. cit. Steven M. “E-Recruiters Swim through a Sea of Resumes. 9—12. “Effective Job Posting Fills Dual Needs. 2d .” Vocational Gi.” 1-IRMagazine. pp.” ( )ccupatiunal ( )utlook Quart e’ilv..” Personnel. “Employers Use \Veb to 12 rr.” HRMagazine. p. “Recruitment: Apple Ads Target Intellect.” HRMagaz. “Pumping Up Your Past. pp. DC: Bureau of National Affairs). 4 22 Sandy Wayne and Robert Liden (February 1995). pp. pp. and Placement (Washington. ‘The Power of E-cruiting. 26 Bill Leonard (J lily 1997).” Mana.” Personnel fournal. 29 EEOC v. “What College Recruits Expect of Employers. Ralston and Robert Brady (january 1994). pp. pp. 46—54.” Training.fl. J.” Information Today.” HR Magazine. “10 Tips for Getting Net Results. 0 Ruth Thaler-Carter (June 2001). Q: Hou’ Do I Find the Right Job (New York: Wiley). 2001). p. pp. “6 1)cgrees of Hire . 2 Carolyn Hirschrnan (October 2000). pp.

Bergman and M. Jean M.” Personnel Management. Brenda Paik Sunoo (April 1999). Andrea Poe (May 2000). “Temp Firms Turn Up the Heat on Hiring.” HR Magazine. SS Steven L. Michelle Neely Martinez (March 1996). Rosalind Resnick (November 1992). “Comprehensive College Strategy Strengthens NCR’s Recruitment.... Wanous (October 1982). 9—12. Odiorne (July 1990). John McClendon. 34—44. pp. and James A. “Crushed Hopes: When a New lob Proves to Be Something 1)1 ffercnt. “Trust and the Role of Professional Erp1oyer Organizations: Managing HR in Small and Medium Enterprises. I . p. 706—719. Brenda Paik Sunoo (April 1996). Joe Willey (Winter 1993). 1987). “Giving It the Old Cullege Try.” TI. “Beating the 1990s’ Labor Shortage. 58—62. Rrian Kiass. i. pp.” f’ersonnel Administrator. pp. Jnhn Botidreau and Sara Rvnes (March 1987). . W7 . Susan Taylor (May—June 1984).1. 20—28. “From Santa to CEO—Temps Play All Roles.” Academy of Management Review. 6 73—6 90. “Effects of Realistic Job Previews on Multiple Organizitioial Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis. op. pp. “Looking for Young Talent? Inroads Helps Diversify Efforts. Phillips (December 1998).” HRMagazzne.” W/ork/orce. “A Meta-Analysis of Realistic Job Preview Experiments. “Leasing Workers.” journal of Managerial Issues. pp. Dipbove (Winter 1990). “The Realistic Job Preview as a Persuasive Communication. pp. John Poison (Spring 2002). Popovich and John P. T.. “Eniplovers in Rush to Capture Young Talent.” Human Resources Professional. 16—17. pp.” Personnel.” Journal of Applied Psvcholog. Wanous (December 1985). pp. 745—76 8. 7L25.” Personnel journal.—.” HR Focus. cit. 1 8—20. jilly Welch (September 12.Learning. pp. “The PEO Phenomenon: Co-Employment at Work.” Training. “College Recruitment: What Attracts Students to Organizations.” Academy of Management Ret’ieu pp. 570—578.” Personnel Psycholo. 73—76. Therese Hoff Macan and Robert L. 31—48. “The Relationship of Interviewers’ I’reinterview Impressions to Selection and Recruitment Outcomes. Larry Reibstein (June 10.amer ($pring 2002). “Employee Leasing Comes of Age.” Academy of Management foidYlhil. 50—54.. and Thomas C. pp. PP 78—85.II c . pp. 34—36.. Thomas .” Personnel Journal. 132—140.. pp. pp. pp. 60—68. George S. Watson. [)avid E. “The Search for Effective Methods.. 86—87.” Employee Relations Law Journal. 1996). “Realistic Job Previews: A Critical Appraisal and Future Research Directions.” Nations Business. I ç P. pp.. °‘ Dawn Gunsch (September 1993). pp. Pp. “Face Value..” Cio.. Premack and John P. Terpstra (May 1996). 612—6 19.ç’. 32—35. 9. pp. 61 This measure was developed by Jac Fitz-Enz (1984) in Hou’ to Measure Human ResOurce Management (New York: McGraw-Hill). pp. Breaugh (October 1983).

He or she is not affiliated with an employment agency and does not receive a commission or a percentage of the hiree’s salary. and et?%preneurial opportunities.This specialist is contracted on a temporary basis to •erform recruiting functions for different job openings. pp. . GTE turned to 12 contract recruiters who became an instant employment department. The recruiting is performed without hiring permanent (and later unnecessary) staff.The ad’s text showcases Mr. These self-employed specialists are becoming popular because they can provide several benefits to client companies. Pers. bag-stuffers that picture a broken fortune cookie and proclaim “Not everyone will have the good fortune to work at Quik Wok.” The stuffer describes job opportunities. .employed and is paid at an hourly rate negotiated with the client company. For example.” Personnel Administrator. Other users have found the strategy to be a low-cost. “Campus Recruiters Upgrade Their Pitch.They set up the system. employers have turned to emphasizing certain intangible benefits of the company such aportunitiesfQç adva. One such ad is entitled “Net Gain:’ Featuring a tennis racket and tennis balls in a partly closed briefcase. Massachusetts. pp. between traditjqn and technology . Some contract recruiters develop expertise in certain employment fields (such as electrical engineering or computer software design). between performance and opportunity”). pp.” The Saint Paul Medical Center has developed a series of one-word headline ads that promote certain themes such as “Cornrnitrnent’ (describing the center’s commitment to patients’ care and employees’ career development) and “Balance” (“Between caring professionals . General Dynamics has run a series of ads that. regularly calls on contract recruiters to help the company handle its 15 to 20 percent yearly growth.The Quik Wok Chinese food take-out chain uses Written by Kim Stewart and adapted from: Bob Martin (August 1 987). and then trained their replacements before departing 16 months later. 2. completed the task. and accomplishments. prepares and executes formal offers.The cosmetics manufacturer Helene Curtis. cive freedom. when a new position needs to be filled..” The coupon provides a mini. g about their skills. conducts telephone and in-person interviews. (s Your Recruitment All It Can Be?” Personnel Journal.Maury Hanigan (November 1987).”Personnel Administrator. “Recruitment Ad Ventures.Their means: i vative recruiting approaches that bring imagination and a essiveness to a company’s overall recruiting function. in the pursuit of technology excellence and discovery..cement. Lockheed Missile & Space Company makes a point-of providing employees with truly comprehensive recreational programs and facilities. Rather. 3. . Pizza Hut places recruiting coupons on its carry-out boxes. Featuring a drawing of a large lead pencil. a recruiter can be quickly brought in to handle the suddenly burdensome task. 46—54. apply for a position with us. Promotion of Intangible Benefits In cases where a job is highly attractive and thus doesn’t need promoting. Lockheed Miss. one ad headline in the series proclaims. one of General Dynamic’s senior project engineers). Use of Employees in Ads instead of the traditional testimonials. These ads are essentially a company’s resume and cover letteidesigned to send ainique and memorable message about the company to sought-after prospective applicants Recently.. highly efficient. jobs. Who knows You might become the next Newman. Point-of-Purchase Recruitment A growing number of service companies with high turnover in low-skill jobs are recruiti9g using pointof-purchase ads. Inno ations are occurring in several elements of the recruiting process. For e pie. objective advisers to the company’s human resource function. more company ads are spotlighting employees. When a company is undergoing exceptionally fast growth with immediate hiring needs. . For example. compliments profiled employees and their colleagues.The recruiter screens resumes. coordinates campus recruiting. CONTRACT RECRUITING Companies in fast-growing industries are seeking the expertise of a relatively new type of external specialist: the contract recruiter. a growing number of HR departments are changing the ways they recruit. and in one ad entitled. For example. the recruiter is self. by comparisons with great inventors. “Along with a diverse and challenging project list. Here is a look at innovations in several areas. Recruiters can also serve as external.nneI journal reviewed several hundred ads submitted by subscribers and reported some trends in this type of advertising. get the lead out.. “We’re looking for another Newton • .le & Space Company has run a series of sports-related ads that promote company benefits.Their goal: to boost recruiting efficiency(reducing recruiting costs per hp-e). this series portrays the corporation as a place where very talented and dedicated people work and reach their potential. RECRUITMENT ADVERTISING An increasing number of companies are supplementing and even replacing the traditional classified ad with creative.”Even you-know-who rested on the seventh day.Washington University in Saint Louis uses creative advertising to promote its flexible work schedules. clever. 55—58: and Margaret Magnus (February 1987). suddenly found itself with a Department of •efense contract requiring 1. Scott Lord (November 1987). Like many employee-spotlight ads developed by other companies. the text says. and performs any number of contractual recruiting responsibilities. Inc. . and flexible form of recruiting. Newman’s accomplishments and long tenure with the company and then urges those interested and qualified to “join Howard. eye-catching ads.. when GTE in Needham. eoyment security. 54--63. . pp.” In some other ads in the series.” the company published its nursing salaries. they simply distribute the bag stuffers.J. . And another Hardison’ (electrical engineer Cor’ine Hardison).” Personnel Journal. And another Newman” (Howard Newman. the ad suggests. . 49—53. “W’e’re looking for another Edison .In a time when many companies are cutting costs across their operations. IThey include: I. “If you want a good job. General Dynamics has declared.resume form for prospective applicants who don’t have resumes.The success of point-of-purchase ads has eliminated Quik Wok’s use of classified ads.200 professional employees to be hired in 16 months.”Contract Recruiting Comes ofAge.

The network provides job listings (up to 20 lines each provided by companies) and is available for all students. information on cost of living and community recreation facilities). Demand for these individuals is currently very high. For example. Some college placement centers are also establishing computer databases to link students with prospective jobs. What type of company (in what kind of industry) would benefit most from contract recruiters? What type would benefit least? 3. Pennsylvania. the plant manager. has established Job Search. some companies are identifying a number of students in their junior year and focusing efforts on these select recruits. Rather than providing the traditional. and most of the applicants had completed an application blank. Ed said that he had time to choose only his top management . very general brochure on the company.catching ads.The fee: $75 for 90 days’ access to the network.Which 596 of the 986 should be .A company can search the database by specifying any of a number of criteria. a computer database of job information.s work at no charge. Some companies hire the same recruiters time and again. Other companies. hire professors to lecture in the company’s training programs. finding that the subsequent knowledge of the company’s recruiting needs and functions that the recruiter acquires helps to further reduce per-hire costs. But where should he go from there Clark called Ed Humphrey. many are launching strategies to both boost their offer-acceptance rates and lower their recruiting costs. Suppose you are faced with the task of developing a college recruiting strategy for obtaining talented business school graduates with degrees in management information systems (developing and managing a company computer information network). highly visual. eye. which it is hoped will be communicated to students. supply is limited. companies are adding pizzazz to the widely used employee referral and bounty system. More companies are producing recruiting videos for show on campus. Any company can list its job openings on the net. c JobNet. Companies are also paying more attention to the quality of their on-campus interviewers. CAMPUS RECRUITING With declining college enrollments and growing demand for recruits with college degrees.ed. providing their recruiters with training in communications skills. Many referral programs are periodically given a boost with new bonuses and new themes. he realized that there wa a big job ahead of him. has developed a franchise chain of “stop and shop” employment centers located in high-traffic shopping malls. A growing number of companies are aggressively promoting referral campaigns with special themes and prizes. More firms are establishing programs that educate professors more fully on the company’s career opportunities for graduates. As a result. For example. Firms are mindful of the impact that a word-of-mouth reputation created by an inconsiderate. more individualized publications that provide information on particular jobs and departments and information on the community where a prospective applicant would work (for instance. often explaining why the company is interested in that particular student.onalassociations and societies. a job hunter can tap the Job Stores Network computer database by obtaining a computer printout on job openings in the local area and nationwide. Job Stores. C Companies pay a fee for access to the database. Organizations such as Texas Instruments also provide executives as guest lecturers at several universities. advertising. Inc. COMPUTER DATABASES Computer databases are being developed as job and resume data banks. In seeking participation from businesses. companies are finding that recruiting on college campuses has become very competitive. At any center. and exclusive contracts with over 20 profes. For example. firms are now developing smaller. which has over I million resumes of technical professionals onhine. And many firms are replacing the form rejection letter with one that is more tactful and considerate. These actions are designed to enhance the professor’s knowledge of the company. Invitation letters to a campus interview are personalized.. Assess the effectiveness of a recruitment advertising strategy that relies on imaginative. Referral bonuses run the gamut from money and trips to time off and credit used to “buy” items from a special catalog. EMPLOYEE REFERRALS Lastly. Some companies are also refining their recruitment brochures. such as how recent the resume is. f Job Stores’ franchises focus on job openings that companies ii usually don’t fill via employment agencies. another computer database network. and to develop executives’ relationships with certain schools. Develop a recruiting strategy that addresses innovations discussed in the case and includes your own ideas. Macy’s brings professors to a showcase store where the educators spend a day observing trainees and meeting with managers. allows job hunters to place their resumes in the network at no charge. Rather than select recruits from the placement office’s resume file. and asked if he wanted to be involved in the who should do e hiring? The HR specialist had done some preliminary screening. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS I. the Career Connection Company of State College. Clark Kirby and his assistants had recruited 986 applicants for the 596 positions Gunther would have at its Tampa plant. Career Technologies runs the network and obtains resumes via job fairs.What are the potential strengths and drawbacks of this approach to recruitment advertising? 2. such as Citibank. uninterested recruiter can have on a company’s campus recruiting efforts. But before getting too satisfl.Companies with hiring needs in these areas benefit from the specialists’ contacts and highly focused capabilities.

heft. all selection programs attempt to identify the applicants who have the highest chance of meeting or exceeding the organization’s standards of he will follow a selection process infhienced by many actorc. however. employees’ satisfaction. Employee selection is important because the goals of the organization can be accomplished only if the right match is made between the person and the job. Compounding the problem uf developing an effective selection system is the fact that the goal isn’t always to find applicants who have the most of a given quality. Selection is a vital and continuous process in an organizaton.The rest was up to Clark. Clark said he knew 1 that and would abide by c company policy.’ This situation can easily lead to the selection of overqualified candidates. a Clark was faced with r making 596 selection l decisions. At a basic level. Or. and career development. more intelligence isn’t always better than less. Ed r reminded Clark that the company didn’t want them c to raid other plants—that c was simply against company s policy. there are actually multiple goals associated with an Organization’s 5Cion process. Although this definition emphasizes the effectiveness of selection. performance does not refer simply to quantity of ‘urput. such as quality of output. Rather. selection is the search for an optimal match between the job and the amount of any particular characteristic that an applicant may possess. As a result. As this chapter I shows. ic of the initial tasks involved in developing and implementing an effective selecrn process is for the organization to identify which objective is most important for As Clark Kirby sets out to hire 596 employees. absenteeism. It can also involve other objectives. Thus. it is highly unlikely that a selection system can effectively cope with all possible objectives. selection involves making many decisions. We’ll begin by examining the factors in the internal and external environments. it is possible for an applicant to he too socially skilled if the job doesn’t require high levels of such skills. . decisions about whom to hire must also be made efficiently and within the boundaries set forth in equal employment opportunity legision.2 Thus. Ihese tactors are highlighted in the diagnostic model in Exhibit 8—1. In this case. depending on the job. Selection is the process by which an organization chooses from a list of applicants the person or persons who best meet the selection criteria for the position available. For example. :)nsidering current environmental conditions.

and technological volatility are a few of these.Environmental Circumstances Influencing Selection Internal environment A number of characteristics of the organization can influence the amount and type of selection process it uses to hire needed employees. For an organization to recover the costs of developing an expensive selection system. complex selection systems are most often found in larger organizations with the economic resources necessary to pay for such systems. however. complexity. Size. doesn’t deteriiiine how selection is approached. Size alone. there must be a suftcient number of jobs that need to be .Since the development and implementation of large-scale selection efforts can 1w very costly.

the selection process is short and unsophisticated. skilled. One of the most significant environmental influences on selection is the size. Some states. when there is an oversupply of qualified applicants. likely. These. When the selection ratio gets close to 1:1. more likely that employees who fit the organization’s criteria for success will be hired. a number of states provide past employers with more protection against being sued by a former employee because of information that may have been divulged during checking of references. Those who work in human resource management evaluate the effects of the labor market on selection decisions by using a selection ratio: number of applicants hired Selection ratio = total number of applicants Consider Clark Kirby’s problem at Gunther. for example 1:2. other organizations look more quickly to external supplies of new employees. clerical. It is. in turn. Many organizations have elaborate internal job posting programs (as was discussed in Chapter 7) designed to help fill as many job vacancies as possible from within. This is where the critical role of oh analysis in selection becomes most apparent. each will also focus to some extent on different criteria and different techniques: External environment The external environment is an equally important determinant of the kind of selection system that an organization utilizes. The selection ratios are as follows: managers 38/68. hut there are •ny state-specific regulations that also affect what an organization can and cannot do in its selection system. the number of years needed to get back the money invested in such a selection system may be too great to justify its initial expense. and hire the number of people it needs. Similarly. that the Organization will have to invest more time and money in the selection decision when the ratio is 1:2. It is also. and political pressures on a community. With a lower selection ratio. 104/110. A ratio of 1:2 also means that the organization can he more selective in its choice than when the ratio is 1:1. the process becomes more detailed. it is called a high selection ratio. therefore. have imposed much tighter limits than others Ofl an organization’s ability to test applicants for drug use. composition. and availability of local labor markets. it may he difficult for an organization to identify.C H A P T E R 8 Selection filled. or almost 1:2. the goal of . the selection ratio is said to he low. In structurally complex organizations with many job titles hut very few occupants. social. or about 1:2. As the number of applicants increases relative to the number who are hired. however. While these two models of filling job vacancies will have some overlapping selection processes. Under these circumstances. Not only are most organizations subject to federal employment laws and regulations. On the other hand. Another characteristic of the organization that is an important determinant of the kind of selection system it develops is its attitude about hiring from within. or about 1:2. attract. or 1:1. selection strategies can be very different. At a basic level. semiskilled. Thus. for example. because that list of characteristics should have been identified diirig the process of job analysis and should now he accurately reflected in the job specification. 400/720. 10/10. • At the core of any effective selection system is an understanding of what characteristics are essential for high performance. or about 1:1. when unemployment rates are low. although it may not he effective. 44/78. Any or all of these state-specific issues can affect the selection system that is ultimately used. from a performance perspective. are affected by economic. professional/technical.

Experience and past performance Another useful criterion for selecting employees is experience and past performance. the employer may stipulate that the education (especially for college-level requirements) is in a particular area of expertise. One of the more common cost-effective ways to screen for many of these abilities is by using educational accomplishment as a surrogate for or summary of the measures of those abilities. should two applicants applying for a job as an internal auditor he given the same credit for previous work experience if both have five years in the accounting profession but one has been an auditor for another organization and the other a tax specialist for the IRS? Physical characteristics In the past. Care must be exercised not to set standards that are higher than actually required by the job. experience. physical characteristics. Their reasoning is that a prospective employee who has performed the job before and is applying for a similar job must like the work and must be able to do the job well. Additionally. those that are systematically acquired during training. and airlines chose flight attendants and companies hired receptionists on the . be needed to assess these qualitatively different KSAOs. and interpersonal attributes are present becauseofgenetic predispositions and because they were learned at home. educational standards such as these must be related to successful performance of the job. Over a large number of studies. For example. and those that are routinely developed after a person has been placed on the job. that the grade point average b higher than some minimum. at school. Research supports these assumptions. For example. employers often consider experience to be a good indicator of ability and work-related attitudes. For certain jobs. on the job. Categories of Criteria With these potential differences in mind. and interpersonal skills. To he legal. abilities. Many selection specialists believe that past performance on a similar job might be one of the best indicators of future performance.” Not all previous experiences are equally good predictors of performance on a given job. skills. it usually is safe to assume that anyone who has successfully completed high school or its equivalent has basic reading. In addition. writing. and that certain honorshave been achieved. indeed. experience is related to job performance.any selection system is to accurately determine which applicants possess the knowledge. and other personal characterjstics. although this is unfortunately not always true. the criteria typically used by organizations for making selection decisions can be sunimrized in several broad categories: education. arithmetic. motor. physical. Different selection criteria may. the selection system must he capable of disi:inguishing between characteristics that are needed at the time of hiring. many employers consciously or unconsciously used physical characteristics (including how an applicant looked) as a criterion. such as accounting or management. and so on. Studies found that employers were more likely to hire and pay better ages to taller men.3 But the organization must have a rational basis for defining what it means by “relevant experience. The employer might also prefer that the degree be from certain institutions. Formal education An employer selecting from a pooi of job applicants wants to nd the person who has the right abilities and attitudes to be successful. A large number of cognitive. and other characteristics (KSAOs) dictated by the job.

On the other hand. Rather. the organization wishing to use personality as a criterion must he certain that successful and unsuccessful employees can he distinguished in terms of their personalities. sex. Many employers also prefer to hire people with certain personality types. age should be used as a selection criterion only after very careful thought and consideration. This issue will certainly become more important by the year 2010. For example. Some employers have. minimum and maximum age restrictions for jobs can be used only if they are clearly jobrelated. Age. caseworkers. Thus. the Big Five describe behavioral traits that may explain up to 75 percent of an individual’s personaliry. Although education and past experience are often used as measures of ability.6 years. and handicapped people. one particular aspect of personality—such as being outgoing—may be useful for salespeople. or similar requirements. there is no federal law that specifically addresses this issue for younger people. Many personality measures run an even greater risk of being legally challenged as an invasion of privacy than other kinds of selection tools. Personal characteristics and personality type The final criterion category is a catchall that includes personal characteristics and personality types. and so on. for example. preferred “stable” married employees over single people because they have assumed that married people have a lower turnover rate.7 As with other personal characteristics. weight. me jobs. Known as emotional stability. since a single person might be more ely to accept a transfer or a lengthy overseas assignment. they are now illegal unless it can be shown that a physical characteristic is directly related to effectiveness at work. other employrs might seek out single people for some jobs. Although once viewed in an unfavorable light due to perceptions of low preJictive validity. has sometimes been used as a criterion. and conscientiousness. selection using any aspect of personalty should always he based on whether it is really necessary for high performance. more than half of all Ameri. extroversion. recent findings on personality tests have been much more positive regarding the link between personality and job performance. too.5 Much of this change can be attributed to the development and validation of the Big Five personality factors.h Of the five dimensions. this is when the median age in the United States will he 40. By that time. age. These can be used as selection criteria only when the job involves tasks that require them. visual acuity (eyesight) would he a physical characteristic that could he used to hire commercial airline pilots. the military uses spatial-relations aptitude as one criterion. openness to experience. women. It might not. candidates for a job cannot he screened out by arbitrary height. a successful applicant for pilot training in the military does not need actual flying experience. In a similar way. however. Thus. may require essentially no consideration of an applicant’s personality. Personal characteristics include marital workers will be legally protected by the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA). For example. While it is illegal to discriminate against people who are over the age of 40. many organizations also try to assess whether applicants possess certain aptitudes. However. such as being a lifeguard. or others who work extensively with the public. con— scientiousness and emotional stability have been shown to predict performance across most occupational groupings. agreeableness. Many jobs fall between these extremes. It is probably .variation against ethnic groups. For example. For this reason. .4 Certain specific aptitudes and skills can also be considered part of this category of criteria. be legally used for hiring a telephone reservations agent for an airline.

If these decisions are going to be correct. Once the measurements become too inconsistent. broad personality measures or more specific ones are the best to use in selection. imagine that you tried to use a tape measure to determine how tall an applicant for a job as a refighter was. . a measuring tool can still he useful if it is only somewhat unreliable.P A R T I I Acquiring Human Resources unwise to use personality asa general criterion for screening out “undesirable” applicants. 0 As a simple example. psychological tests of aptitude and personality. When a measuring tool relies on the judgments of people (such as in an employment interview). En part. however. work sample tests of present skills. Reliability refers to how stable or repeatable a measurement is over a variety of testing conditions. This is called test-retest reliabilit. all of which are assumed to be reliable. the primary concern is whether the assessment technique results in accurate predictions about the future success or failure of an applicant. 6 feet 1/2 inch. An applicant’s score should not vary much according to which form of the test he or she happens to take. In other words. and 5 feet II / inches. The alternatives are numerous: application blanks and biodata forms. Both legally and organizationally. Alternative-form reliabilit’ is determined by correlating scores from two alternate forms of the same test. they become meaningless. The organization wants to make its best guess about who will he a successful employee. If you measured a given applicant three successive times and obtained values of 6 feet. 6 feet 6 inches. In this way. Most standardized academic achievement tests like the SAT and the GMAT have numerous forms. there is still considerable debate whether general. the measures that it yields must also be valid. Validity addresses the questions of what a test measures and how well it has measured it. the main purpose of selection is to make decisions about people. This refers to the extent to which two or more interviewers’ assessments are consistent with each other. Validity For a selection tool to be useful. imagine that your three attempts yielded values of 6 feet. reliability is often determined by using interrater reliability. a technique for assessing each of these must be chosen. Reliability The main goal of selection is to make accurate predictions about people. the organization must be certain that the information is both reliable and valid. the organization can avoid hiring the wrong person for a job. one common way to assess reliability is to correlate the scores of applicants given the same test on two different occasions. but you would have a fairly good idea. since the same personality characteristic that leads to failure in one job might lead to success in another. because there are both minimum and maximum height restrictions for the job. interviews. and 5 feet 4 inches. II In selection. There are many ways of assessing validity but all of them focus on two iSSUeS. In this latter case. In practice. Regardless of the method chosen for collecting information about applicants. you may not know the applicant’s exact height. The point is that although reliability is rarely perfect.9 Reliability and Validity of Selection Criteria Once an organization has decided upon a set of selection criteria. The reliability of a selection tool can he judged in a variety of ways. you would have virtually no idea how tall the applicant actually was. physical and medical testing. because of this fact. and checks of previous experience through references. On the other hand. it is not sufficient for it to be repeatable or stable. the techniques used for making them must yield reliable information.

for instance. In selecting a project manager. knowledge. interview. there must be evidence that the test validly measures leadership. and put to the use for which it was actually intended. we can only assume that it exists from the behavior someone displays. construct validity cannot be established in a single study but can be assumed to exist only on the basis of a large body of empirical work yielding consistent results. If so. Because traits cannot be directly observed. tabular data) using the same kind of typewriter or word processor that would he encountered on the actual job. construct validity rather than content validity is appropriate. then the test is said to be content-valid.C H A P T E H 8 Selection To illustrate these two issues and the relationship between validity and reliability. the applicant would be asked to type a typical piece of work (letter. internal memo. and (3) criterion-related. it will be almost impossible to accurately determine the applicant’s height. then it will be impossible to determine his or her correct height. if the measurement is too unreliable. For example. this tape measure might he perfectly reliable and an accurate way to measure height. it must be reliable. A detailed explanation of the various strategies for determining the validity of election tool can he found in the Principles for the Validation and Use of Peronizel Selection Procedures. or work ethic. The test must measure one of those constructs. Content validity is not appropriate for more abstract job behaviors. Thus. When selection procedures inye the use of tests to measure leadership characteristics or personality. 4 I. Construct validity A construct is a trait that is not typically observable. A job analysis must systematically dene both the work behaviors involved in the job and the constructs that are believed to he important to job performance. are brief descriptions of three types of validity that the HR specialist should be familiar with: (1) content. For evample. To summarize. or performance evaluation measures the skill. or ability to perform the job is called content validity.12 The following. Finally. it might still have very little accuracy (validity). let’s return to our example of measuring the frcfghter applicant’s height. An example of a content-valid test is a typing test for a secretarial position. 2. valid. however. a set of professional standards developed by a committee of members from the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP). we cannot see leadership. If the content of the typing test is actually representative of the work that is done on the job. the tape measure may no: have been calibrated properly at the factory where it was made (the manufacturer may have thought it was marking in feet and inches when it was actually using centimeters). (2) construct. scores on the test might correlate with leadership . As noted previously. hut if you try to weigh applicants with it. A test therefore has construct validity when ii actually measures the unobservable trait that it claims to measure. The applicant can be given a typical sample of typing work under “normal” working conditions. it will yield totally Llseiess information. For example. for a measuring tool to be useful. Such a test can roughly replicate conditions on the job. however. Even if the tape gives the same measurements (high reliability). such as . leadership style. dership potential. The Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures have established three stringent requirements for demonstrating the construct validity of a selection technique. Content validity The degree to which a test.

Assess the strength of the predictor-criterion relationship (typically by calculating a correlation coefficient). it is necessary to conduct a criterion validity study between leadership and job performance. it would be a candidate for future use with applicants in the selection process. the first step is to administer the tests to present employees performing the job. Predictive validity is an important form of criterion-related validity. accidents. sales.ratings given to other employeCS in other organizations Upon previous administration of the test. For example. the choice of a criterion is’at the very heart of determining whether a selection system is legal. If the test is significantly related to performance. Wait an appropriate amount of time and then collect measures of job performance. absenteeism. Predictive validity is determined by using the scores obtained from a sample of applicants for a job. Select individuals for the job. Criteria relevant to personnel selection include measures such as quality or quantity of output. the time it takes to determine who is a good employee can he long. It is actually preferable if the test whose validity is being measured is not used in the hiring decisions. the performance score is referred to as a criterion. ‘ Two popularly used types of criterion-related validity are predictive and concurrent. 3. However. it must be shown that leadership ability is correlated with job performance for the position of project manager. Administer the test to a large sample of applicants. At approximately the same time. In concurrent validation. They are puzzled by the request to take a battery of tests and often wi11 not provide honest answers or . Not all criteria can be predicted equally well from any particular type of selection tool. there are several potential problems associated with the use of concurrent validation. For some jobs. The employer first must wait until it has hired a large number of people for whom it has predictor scores and then until it can obtain meaningful measures of job performance for the people who were hired. Criterion-related validity The extent to which a selection technique can accurately predict one or more imp(’rtanr elements of job behavior is referred to as criterion—related validity. The test is called a Predictor. Scores on a test or performance in some simulated exercise are correlated with measures of actual on-the-job performance. The test scores are then correlated with the performance measures. Therefore. this method uses experienced employees. present employees often balk at completing tests. supervisory ratings. The construct must be related to the performance of critical work behavior. Concurrent validity is also used to determine whether a selection test can predict job performance. The biggest advantage of concurrent validation is tlat it can be conducted relatively quickly. That is. First. The steps in a predictivevalidity study for a given test are: 1. but it does have drawbacks. 3. 4. However. such validation will be biased in favor of applicants with experience. it is usully less expensive than predictive validation.’5 The organization must exercise care in choosing a measure that best reflects the actual contributions of employees to its effectiveness. If experience is important in job performance. or whatever the organization deems most relevant. or to use such data collected by another test to support the claim of construct validity. Second. 2. performance measures for thes employees are also collected.

there is a self-selection bias that can restrict the range of test scores. there is likely to he a restriction because the least skilled and least able workers have been terminated. This series is not universal. For example. In the past.their best answers. for they can he time-consuming and cxpensive and some steps. Among present employees. it should not automatically be used as an alternative to predictive validation simply because it can he done more quickly. Selection tools were designed to aid this gut reaction.’7 However. Decisions were THE SELECTION PROCESS based on the subjective likes or dislikes of the boss. Third. selection is viewed as much more than simply relying on Intuition. or more applicants accept other job offers and drop from the list of applicanfs.and third-sector employers. the most skilled and most able have been placed in more responsible jobs. The organization should carefully analyze its circumstances before choosing which of the methods to use. such as 3 and 4. Despite these potential problems. Today. more applicants are screened out by the organization. may he performed concurrently or at . demoted. as do some private. At each step. government employers test at step 2 instead of step 3. Exhibit 8—2 illustrates a typical series of steps for the selection process. concurrent validation can be an effective method for assessing the validity of certain kinds of selection tests. The selection decision is usually perceived as a series of steps through which applicants pass. It is important to note that few organizations use all steps. selection was often thought to be an easy decision. or transferred.

and (3) (one of the newest) grievances: a statement indicating that the applicant. Generally speaking. a teaching certificate). asking applicants for the year in which they graduated from high school can narrow down their age to within one or two years. age. (2) the scope of an employment contract. Nearly all application blanks ask for enough information to determine whether the individual is minimally qualified for the position. Care should be taken to ask only for information that will help the organization make a better job-related assessment of the applicant. For example. natural origin. color. many organizations arc now adding very important clauses at the beginning or end of their application blanks. Some terms of these clauses appear in employee handbooks as well. race. by reducing the number of applicants that need to be interviewed and. Thus.g. is twofold. the employee. organizations must never forget that they are subject to the same legal standards as any other Selection method. A potentially useful supplement to the traditional application blank is the biographical information blank (131B). The legal subtleties of these clauses arc too complex to cover in detail at this time. Three of the more common clauses that now appear on application blanks and in employee handbooks cover (1) applicant’s rights as they relate to the organization’s hiring practices.. second. The same guidelines hold true for Web-based or online applications. the application blank can eliminate the need for subsequent interviews to gather this information. Step I: Preliminary Screening The most common first step in any selection process usually involves asking an applicant to complete an application form.g. especially information related to sex. communication skills) that is perhaps more difficult to obtain.’9 The application blank should not he designed in a way that forces applicants to reveal irrelevant information about themselves. First. A BIB usually contains many more items than a . In this way. Since a physical exam should be given only after a conditional offer of employment. the application blank is not an appropriate place to gather most information of this kind. they help ensure that applicants and employees understand the terms of their employment relationship with the organization. care must be taken that the application blank does not directl or indirectly violate federal or state laws related to employment discrimination. first. they help protect the organization against unjustified lawsuits. the more each step is likely to he used formally. as these are typically referred to. personality. but examples of the wording currently h’ing used by organizations appear in Exhibit 8—3. regardless of where the’ appear. Although application blanks can he very useful selection tools. religion. Is it important to know in what year someone graduated. or simply that he or she graduated? Currently accepted application blanks also generally limit questions that imply something about the applicant’s physical health. and second. or disabilitie. This makes the selection process far more efficient. For example. by allowing interviewers to focus on other kinds of information (e. vary in length and sophistication.about the same time. The purpose of the clauses. application blanks can he a useful initial screening tool for jobs that require some type of professional certification (e. With a dramatic increase in the number of lawsuits being filed against organizations for “wrongful termination” and with an erosion of organizations’ right to hire and fire whomever they wish. Application blanks.. the more important the job. or both agree to resolve all grievances against the organization through arbitration and mediation rather than through a lawsuit.

” It can therefore terminated at any time and For any reason not expressly ohihited by state or federal law at the discretion of the company. education. your employment wi11 be corsidered “at will. national origin. and general mental ability. Any written or oral statements by an agent of this company that contradict these policies are invalid and should not be relied ott. Mandatory Arbitration Clause By signing this application blank. modify. all vacancies will he llcd by qualied candidates without regard to race.THE NOT-SO-FINE PRINT OF MODERN APPLICATION BLANI Statement on Affirmative Action-Equal Employment Opportunity It is the policy of this company to afford all applicants the right to equal employment opportunities. your employment contract or breach thereof shall he settled by arbitration administered by the American Arbitration Association in accordance with its applicable rules. color. you agree that any controversy or claim arising out of or relating to your application and/or if you are offered and accept employment with this company. without having to give cause or ustihcation to any cinpk)vee. For example. Whether such an item should he included on a BIB.. Statement on Employment at Will If you are offered and accept employment with this companY. they will he provided. a recent research study found that BIB items can account for incremental predictability of key performance variables bed that accounted for by incumbent experience on the job. . typical application blank and asks for information related to a much wider array of attitudes and experiences. years of experience. and ±2 for a large difference. or disabi litv status except where there is a bona fde occupational qualihcation. Use of i:he responses to an item such as this assumes that people who preferred English will perform differently on a given job from people who preferred science or math. In accordance with this policy.” ±1 for a small difference. high and low performers who currently work for the company are compared on a variety of characteristics (e. To develop the scoring system for a weighted application blank. and so on) that were known at the time they applied for a job. or cancel any pokes or practice that pertains to your NKS employment without advance notice. and the one with the highest score is the preferred choice. however. an application form that is designed to be scored more systematically and is more like the BIB. The weights are then totaled for each applicant. Weights are assigned to the degree of difference on each characteristic.2 Another ariarion to the traditional application blank is the weighted application blank. only the president of this compa ii y can a mend this policy.g. depends on its ability to differentiate the performance of good and poor workers on the job in question. The next step will often be one or more interviews and/or additional employment testing. You further agree that should you submit any controversy or claim to arbitration tinder this policy. suspend. A zero may be assigned for “no difference. a common BIB item asks applicants to list their favorite subjects in high school. It you are disabled and need reasonable forms of accommodation in order to complete this application blank or any other component ot the application process. Recognition of these rights is a conditin of employment for anyone accepting a job offer from this company. Recent research indicates that BIBs can help to predict job performance in certain instances. Applicants who are judged as minimally qualified on the basis of the application blank will then proceed to the next phase of the selectim process.11 For example. The company retains the right to change. you agree to abide by and perform any award rendered by the arbitrator(s). age. sex.. religion. BIB items are based on an assumption that these prior behaviors and experiences will he strongly related to an applicant’s future behavior. relevant Big Five personality constructs.

and (2) training managers to use the best available interviewing techniques.23 Because interviews are so widely used to select new employees. and preinrerview impressions (for a complete review. tell me about a time when you resolved a conflict with a customer?” Follow-up questions would include “What was the outcome?” and “How did you control your frustration?” The . Typically. In addition. impression management. 2002).Step 2: Employment Interview Other than application blanks. This. an applicant for a pharmaceutical sales position might be asked “If one of the physicians in your sales territory asked you to provide supporting research and other documentation regarding the efficacy of a new drug.24 Duiing the st ied mTëT7tew. When used by some highly skilled interviewers. Questions are not prepared in advance. should lead to less differential impact on women and minorities25 and a better chance for the organization to successfully defend itself if it happens to be sued. These questions should have been generated with the aid of a thorough job analysis in order to identify specific types of information sought during the interview.25 An example of this type of interview question would be “Thinking back to your last job. Morgenson. regardless of their specific for-.26 The second dimension along which interviews can vary is whether they focus on ast ex erience and behavior or on hypothetical future behavior. will generally be more reliablid an unstructured mt rviëws. the unstructured interview may lead to useful insights about an applicant. the topic of interviews has generated hundreds of research studies over the past 20 years. in turn. a scoring form similar to the one shown in Exhibit 8—4 will be used by the interviewer for recording applicants’ responses. and Campion. covering such topics as verbal-nonverbal behavior. mat. In recent years. SI questions encourage applicants to respond to hypothetical situations they might encounter on the job for which they applied. Types of interviews Employment interviews vary along at least two important dimensions: how structured the interview is and whether it focuses on historical information about the applicant or attempts to place the applicant in hypothetical situations to assess how she or he might respond in the future. there is no attempt to guarantee that applicants are asked the same questions. how would you go about finding that information?” Responses to this and other hypothetical questions are then scored according to their appropriateness for the job. interviewer-interviewee similarity. the interview is definitely the selection technique host often encountered by persons applying for a job in the United States. two types of structured interviews avee erd anZf lnepopulirity in the United States. but it achieves this goal in a different manner. An unstructured interview has no predetermined script or protocol. they must maximize their potential for identifying qualified persons. ih iiirrviwrh sasi a thz1ist of questions to ask of all applicants. substantial research over the past 30 years indicates that structured interviews. the interviewer does not have a scoring protoLsol either. personality characteristics. the behavioral description interview (BDI). However. The importance of structure in the interview is further underscored by the fact that standardization should lower the possibility that intentional or unintentional biases hel yr the interviewer will affect the outcomes of the process.22 Not surprisingly. asks applicants to relate actual incidents from their past relevant work experience to the job for which they are applying. see Posthuma.27 The first. . BDIs are based on the assumption that the past is the best predictor of the future.29 For example. Two strategies for making the most out of an interview are (1) structuring the interview to be reliable and valid.sjtupional zyzterview (SI) also seeks to identify whether an applicant possesses relevant job knowledge and motivation.

Present address . Experience in Armed Forces should be covered as a job (in New Jersey exclude military questions). ni. --— Interviewer: job considered for: .1 EXHIBIT 8-4. IAST OR PRESENT POSITION Company From _________ 19 ______ to ___________ 19 _____ How was job obtained? ____________________________________________ Whom did you know there? — ____________________________________ Has a pplicanr shown self—reliance in getting ribs? Nature of wnrk at start __________________________________________________________________ .. why nor? ______ Were you hospitalized in the service? Are you drawing compensation? Yes._.Hos/ closely does (or did) he/she supervise you? What authority do (or did) you have? ______________________________________________ Number of people you supervised What did they do? _______________________________________________ Is applicant a leader? Responsibility for policy formulation Has applicant had managemetit responsibility? To whar e*rent could you use initiative and judgment? Did applicant actively seek responsibility? Rating [jj Comments: In inak cog final rating. No_ Are you einploed now? YesD NoD (11 yes) How soon available? ______________________________________ ‘OChar are relationshirs with present employer? Why are you applying for this position? Is his/her underlying reason a desire for prestige. Starring salary Will applicant’s previiius experience be helpful on this job? In what way did the job change? i-las applicant made good work progress? Narur of work at leaving --___________________________________ .._. or earnings? WORK EXPERIENCE. are at least 4)) but less than 65 rears oi age. < ti iM . ahili tv to get a long with others. A P T E R 8 Selection 2 3 I .? Yes. .S. dii nit also his/her sialiilitv. If nor.. security.I’ Acts prohibit discrimination with respect to individuals whc..City State _____________ How long there? ___________________ Were you in the Armed Fortes of the ________ 19_.. . leadership. branch _______________________________ Date _____________ 19 — to ___________ 19 — (Not to be asked in Nc’sv jerses I ______________ 19__._. Every month since leaving school should he accounted for. Iovalt. self-reliance.. be sore to consider tilt unIv what the applicant can perseveranc i-. This information is very important.C H.. Sal-aty at leaving Host much responsibility has applicant had? Any indication iii a mhiiioit? Superior Title ___________________ What is he/she like? _____________________________________________________ Did applicant get along with superior? . industry.itnrits nod niotivation.0] STRUCTURED EMPLOYMENT INTERVIEW FORM—EXECUTIVE POSITION Date ______________________________ 19 — Name ______________________________________________________ Date of birth _______________________________ Phone no. _______________ The Age I >iscrlmination in the Enipli. Interviewer should record last position first..vmcnr Act and relevant [1. Cover isil positions..

and the potential for bias always exists. 10. This appears to be especially true when the training is used in conjunction with a structured interview format. Source: Robert D. and to some extent how to he aware of potential biases. the University of Houston’s psychology department has sponsored the 1n tervierping Institute. 11. 12. Errors such as these have been the focus of many training programs for inturvieweis. futureoriented questions can also be useful if used properly. Feud (1998). Generally speaking. 5. 8. address e—mail to PsychService@uh. recent evidence suggests that when a trained interviewer takes behaviorally oriented notes during the interview. Favorably evaluating an applicant because he or she is similar to the interviewer in some way (similar—to—me error). An employment test is a mechanism Icither a paper-and-pencil test or . 7. Being influenced 1w the nonverbal behavior of applicants. Moreover. Human Resource Selection.’2 Training can provide managers with a better understanding of how to ask questions. Inconsistency in the questions used with applicants. For more information. Allowing the quality of the applicants who preceded the present applicant to influence the ratings of the present applicant (contrast effect). Inability to put the interviewee at ease during the interview. Making an evaluation of the applicant within the first minutes of the interview (first impression error). such as superior (leniency error). or poor (stringency error). Gotewood and Hubert S. reprinted by permission of the publisher. 4. Rating many applicants the same in evaluations. 2. however. average (central tendency error). properly designed training programs do seem capable of reducing many of the errors found in traditional unstructured interviews. Asking questions that are either unrelated or only slightly related to performance on the job. 494—495. which offers public workshops in all aspects of employment interviewing. Step 3: Employment Tests A technique that some organizations use to aid their selection decisions is the employment test.3’ For the past 20 years. TX: Dryden). Overconfidence in the interviewer’s ahiliry to evaluate ()verall. many questions about their effectiveness remain unanswered. which results in hasty decisions. which results in different types of information being gathered from each applicant. I Training for interviewing Despite recent optimism about the validity of employment interviews. 3. validity can he enhanced.1. ‘° However. there have been significant concerns that interviewers may differ considerably in their accuracy. Allowing one or two either good or bad characteristics of an applicant to influence the evaluation of all other characteristics (halo effect). pp. (Fort Worth. the research findings on situational interviews indicate that questions about past experience have higher validity than the future-oriented hypothetical questions. since the interview relies so heavily on personal judgments. making it difficult to gather spontaneous or follow-up information. how to properly record applicants’ responses. 4th ed. Excessive talking by the interviewer that limits the amount of job-related information obtained from interviewees. 9. Stereotyping applicants and allowing personal bias to influence evaluations. Exhibit 8—5 summarizes many of the problems that might limit the accui acy of a typical interview. For years. Copyright © 1998 by The Dryden Press. 6.

abilities. skills. The presumed superitv of these tests wer other types of selection tools lies in their direct and obvious relationship with performance on the job. • Auditions used by a symphony orchestra or ballet company. A standardized set of memos. Variations of these job sample performance tests are used in many organizations.C H A P T E R 8 Selection a simulation e 4it—.‘onstrated some of the highest validities of all selection tests. The type of test that is ultimately used will depend on a number of factors. However. In su nstances. is given to the applicant. In adJition. In the following sections. the organization is expected to validate its selection devices separately for members of majority and minority groups. It can be very expensive to develop a test to measure these kinds of characteristics. There are literally hundreds of published tests from which to choose. Then the quantity and quality of their work are systematically graded and compared with the work of other applicants.ztempsto measure certain characteristics of individu. • Standard driving course for delivery persons. ese charactciistics range from tidssiJchas manual dexterity. and Sc) Ofl. validation studies are expensive if they are conducted properly. Job sample performance tests A job sample performance test requires the applicant actually do a sample of the work that the job involves in a controlled situation. Various kinds of tests can be used for selecting employees. to intelligence to personality. Over a large number of selection situations. Regardless of whether an organization develops its own test or purchases an existing one. the size and quality of applicant populations. Despite the potentially staggering costs associated with employment tests. for this relationship to actually \it. who must dispense with them as she or he would if the work were real. word processing. and of course the knowledge. irs. including the budgetary contraints of the organization. requests. Care must .•4 which summarizes many of the tests and includes a brief evaluation of their effectiveness. • Simulated “in basket” tests for managers. and some of the more useful tests cost as little as $1 per applicant. . additional costs are associated with using tests in selection.. research suggests that contrary to a perception that applicants avoid applylug for jobs that involve extensive testing. However. or spreadsheet applications problems for secretarial and clerical help. For this reason alone. 1any more than pay for themselves through increased efficiency in selection. many employers purchase existing tests from a variety of sources. job sample performance tests have . applicant withdrawal from any given Seection system is unrelated to the presence of testing. several of the ire common categories of selection tests will be described.\pplicants are frequently asked to run the machines they would run if they got the oh. and ither characteristics required by the job. Any of these devices should he validated before it is actually used to make hiring decisions. the Content of the pub must he well documented through job analyses. the complexity and difficulty of the job. Anyone interested in selecting a test for use in personnel selection can begin with the Mental Measurezents Yearbook. • Standardized typing. The validat n process becomes even more expensive if questions of discrimination arise. Examples of performance tests include: rogra mm ing test for computer program mers.

and multiple aptitude tests. the SRA Primary Mental Abilities Test. Verbal and math abilities are also measured by a variety of tests developed specifically for use in human resource selection. All rights reserved. researchers have identified a large number of specific mental abilities for which selection tests are now available. . NY. vocabulary. object assembly. (Other well-known tests include the Differential Aptitude Test. The verbal score includes general information. arithmetic. similarities. Nonetheless. Sometimes a test that appears to have no logical relationship to a particular job may prove to he a valid predictor of performance on that job. Scores are developed from a series of short testS on spatial relationships. Ivlany tests that are valid also look valid. Perhaps the two best known cognitive abilities are math and verbal. picture arrangement. be taken not to confuse face validity with actual validity.) California Test of Mental Maturity (adult level) This is a test of mental ability administered to groups and scored by machine. The performance score includes picture completion. verbal. Copyright I 941 renewed 1969 by The Psychological Corporation. logic and reasoning. job sample tests are a proven method of selection in many organizations. Wonderlic Personnel Test The Wonderlic uses a variety of perceptual. verbal concepts. Cognitive ability tests Over the years. These form the basis for tests such as the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) and the Graduate Record Examination (GRE). numerical reasoning. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale The Wechsler is a comprehensive paper-and-pencil test of 14 sections grouped into two scores. Face validity is how good a test looks for a given situation. hut that is not always the case. New York. and arithmetical items that provide a total score. and similar items.Source: Reproduced by permtssion. to name two. and other items. Still other tests that measure these abilities were developed for use in other areas of psychology but now have been successfully adapted to selection.

Exhibit 8—6 shows an excerpt from a test called the Minnesota Paper Forni Board Test (MPFB). renewed 1961 by The Psychological Corporation. NY All rights reserved. especially in secretarial and clerical jobs. An architect or draftsperson must be able to look at a set of blueprints and clearly know what the actual object (building. The scores are converted to IQ equivalents. The ability to rapidly compare entries such as these is a good predictor of many types of job per formance. Similarly. pilots must be able to quickly orient themselves even when they are flying other than straight and level with the groLind. Copyright I 933. Other cognitive tests There are numerous other examples of cognitive tests that have used successfully in selection but may not be as well known as measures of verba and math ability or general intellectual ability. memory. which is a measure of spatial relations. house. bndge. Exhibit 8—7 is the first page of the Minnesota Clerical Test. etc.) will look like. Clerical aptitude is still another cognitive ability that has proved useful in selecting people for a wide array of jobs. This test requires applicants xo rapidly check numbers and names for accuracy. New York. and profiles are developed for analyzing performa nec. and others. . For example. Tests of spatial relations have proved effective for these and certain other jobs. one of the more popular measures of clerical aptitude. Spatial relations refers to an ability to visualize things on paper as they might appear in actual three-dimensional space.Source: Reproduced by permission.

A more optimistic picture of the value of personality inventories comes from efforts to specifically construct a measure for a particular job.3 A different approach. the least reliable of the employment tests are instruments that attempt to measure a person’s personality or temperament. pulse and skin response associated with sweating of palms. The reactions provide data Ofl which psychologists base their assessment and interpretation of a personality. utilizes projective techniques to present vague stimuli. on each of which is printed a bilateral symmetrical inkblot similar to that illustrated in Exhibit 8—9. emotional expressions. Then a trained interpreter analyzes the data and reaches conclusions about the pcrsonality patterns of the person being examined. The examiner keeps a verbatim record of the responses. The person responding is asked to tell what he or she sees in the inkblot. The most common are the Rorschach Inkblot Test and the ihematic Apperception Test. The stim1ii are purposely vague to reach unconscious aspects of the personality. The Rorschach Inkblot Test was rst described in 1921. not as direct as the se f-reporting inventory. The person being tested picks up pins with the tweezer and row by row inserts them in the holes across the hoard with the hand normally used. the time taken to make the responses. blood pressure.They include choice reaction time. speed of limb movement. some of the disappointing results previously obtained with personality inventories in selection could be attributed to a mismatch between the test and the situation in which it was being used. they can show good validities. Personality inventories and temperament tests Potentially. The test involves 10 cards. the Manifest Anxiety Scale. The most frequently used inventory is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. 6 When personality tests are constructed to measure work-related characteristics such as achievement_and ability. and other incidental behavior. That is. such as assembling radio or TV components and watches. Many tech niques are used. and nger dexterity. and rhen plots these reactionS . sometimes erroneously called a lie detcctoi: The polygraph is an instrument that records changes in breathing. These tests are used for positions with high manual requirements. Other paper-and-pencil inventories are the California Psychological Inventory. the Minnesota Counseling Inventory. and the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule. One of these is the O’Connor Finger and Tweezer Dexterity Test (see Exhibit 8—8). Polygraph and honesty tests Another method currently used 1w some employers to rest employees is the polygraph.

“Is your name Smith?” Then. This legislation has made it illegal for most private organizations to use the polygraph as a selection device. it was estimated that dishonest employees cost employers about $65 billion per year in theft and other acts of dishonesty. In recent years. Finally. The person being tested with a polygraph attached is asked a series of questions.42 Organizations searching for an alternative to the polygraph are increasingly turning to paper-and-pencil tests of honesty. However. to achieve a normal response. nearly 2 million polygraph tests had been administered each year by private employers in the United States. which would be a violation of the Fifth Amendment to the Constitution.000 to 6. Government agencies and certain contractors for the Department of Defense and the Department of Energy are exempt from the act. Thus. the mot serious question concerning the polygraph was whether it was. It has been estimated that.000 rms in the United States now use these during screening. In a recent quantitative review of polygraph tests. it was reported that electrodermal measures correctly idenried 76 percent of participants with concealed knowledge. “Have you ever stolen from an employer?” Although originally developed for police work. 4° Since a polygraph will cost only about $25. to indicate a response made under pressure. private employers whose business involves security and controlled substances are also allowed to continue’ using the polygraph.4 The two most common types of preemplovirwnt honesty tests are overt integrity tests and personality-based integrity .4’ These concerns became serious enough that the federal government passed the Employee Polygraph Protection Act of 1988. the applicant may he asked.on paper. indicating that 24 percent of subjects were able to conceal information without detection. There are concerns that it is an invasion of an applicant’s privacy and that its use can lead to self-incrimination. it is still legal to use the polygraph a hart of an ongoing investigation of dishonesty as long as the individual employee’s rights are safe-guarded. the polygraph had become an extremely popular selection tool by the mid-1980s. In addition. prior to 1988. a reliable and valid method for predicting on-the-job dishonesty. in fact. others are stressful. Some are neutral. objections have been raised to the use of the polygraph in per •rne selection.39 This popularity was understandable because on-the-job crime had increased tremendously. it seems like a small investment to help reduce dishonesty in the workplace. Estimates are that 5.

and managers should not have to fear being sued simply for being honest about a former employee. Many argue that they will seldom provide an organization with meaningful information about applicants. Rather than risk a lawsuit. These requirements do not mean that an organization must hire an individual with a disability if that person cannot perform the job.e. clergy.46 several researchers have provided evidence that certain honesty tests have acceptable levels of validity and reliability. a comprehensive meta-analysis on over a half million subjects reported that honesty tests are valid for predicting counterproductive behaviors on the job such as theft. at least 32 states have passed laws that give managers some immunity from being sued for providing good-faith.based integrity tests aftempt to assess an individual’s predisposition toward deviant and disruptive behavior. it might find itself in “legal hot water. however. help to protect the rights of individuals with disabilities who . The trend in this direction has also caused orgaruzations to include explicit statements in their employee handbooks about corporate policies on checking references.45 Most reasonable people would agree that managers should not be allowed to lie about a former employee or to be malicious while providing reference information. and giving a negative recommendation opens the reference up to a defamation lawsuit. or family members).4 Although some critics believe that preemployment honesty tests generate an unacceptable level of false positive results (i. it is almost certain that references will be of little or no value to the hiring organization except as a check on the accuracy of information contained on the application blank. Under these circumstances. fears of being sited have led many managers to refuse to provide references for former employees. disciplinary problems. or they might have been personal (such as friends.50 Most of these laws are. to the extent that you could.4 Step 4: Reference Checks and Recommendations If you h ev ppliedf?ajF.y ere probably asked to provide a list of people whom the organization could contact to get information about you. Giving out confidential information about a former employee could he construed as a violation of the employee’s right to privacy. On the other hand. in fact. all individuals who arc conditionally offered employment should he required to have one. if an organization is going to use such examinations. when given the opportunity. Perhaps because references have become such dangerous business. For example. managers are instructed to give out only verifiable kinds of information such as dates of employment and job title.44 Overt integrity tests ask more direct questions to assess dishonest behavior. you provided the organization with a list of people who you believed would generally speak favorably about you. These references might have been work-related (such as a former supervisor or co-worker). Employment attorneys are cautioning organi7a. job-related information about their employees.tions to he aware of a new problem which they are labeling “negligent referrals. In either case. They do. and absenteeism. the legal status sur rounding referencechecking and providing recommendations is just not clear at all. a job candidate is incorrectly classified as a potential thief when. In army event. however. Rarely. he or she is not). personality..”4 At the present time. as well as gather a history of theft and other illegal activities. This built-in bias in favor of the applicant is precisely the reason that general references have often been criticized as sources of useful information. Equally important. however. does someone knowingly include the name of a reference who will give a negative impression to the new organization. are genuine concerns over the legality of asking for and providing such information. too new to determine whether they will he effective.’ If an organization is aware of important negative information about a former emplo) cc and fails to reveal this information during an inquiry by a prospective employer. Step 5: Physical Examinations Careful adherence to the Americans with Disabilities Act indicates that physical examinations can he used to screen out unqualied individuals hut generally should be required only after a conditional offer of employment has been made. Tn addition.tests. not all references can be positive. Organizations must also he wary of any policy which suggests that all references should he neutral in nature. However. this study reported that lob candidate scores on honesty tests could also he used to predict future supervisory ratings of job performance. In comparison.

S.2 Moreover. the implication is simply that the applicant has more math ability than he or she has in reality. First. The reliability of drug tests is. A recent survey by the American Management Association indicates. it is not possible to determine whether any particular drug-testing program that doesn’t fall under a federal mandate will.S. It is estimated that there are 14. however. • Establish a high-quality control testing procedure with a reliable testing laboratory. the personal consequences of heing falsely labeled as a Institute for a Drug-Free Workplace. Also. there is a potential for the test to yield a questionably high number of false positives— HRMEMO In a recent Gallup poll the test indicates that the applicant is using illegal drugs when in reality he or commissioned by the she is not. S4 Coupled with estimated losses of $120 billion annually attributable to drug abuse. the Department of Transportation mandates both drug and alcohol testing for virtually all employers ‘ho have truck and delivery drivers with commercial licenses. the legality of drug-testing programs has not been universally established. in the latter case. corporations 500 million lost work days each year. In the former case. the imPlication is Americans supported drug that the applicant has broken the law.A note on drug testing Perhaps no other selection practice elicits a more emotional reaction than an organizational drug-testing program. a major concern. for at least two reasons. Alcohol abuse costs U.56 Second. Why is there such a strong emphasis on alcohol and substance abuse in the workplace? Consider the following statistics compiled from a number of sources by the U. nonthreatening manner. More than one in three workers between the ages of 18 and 25 are hinge drinkers (i. in fact. however. a significant drug user are more severe than those of a false positive on other types of majority of selection tests—a math test.8 million illicit drug users in the United States and three-quarters of these persons are employed either full. five or more drinks on one occasion). although many organizational programs have withstood challenges in court.. More than 14 percent of employed Americans report being heavy drinkers. for example. Thus.e. even when a particular drug test is deemed very accurate if typical em •ymen test standards are applied.55 the costs to business are staggering. Department of Labor. . that approximately 80 percent of American corporations are now using drug tests.or part-time. • Keep all results confidential. the best guess is that most good-faith drug testing programs will he legally acceptable if the s organization has taken steps to: • Inform all job applicants of the organization’s drug-resting screening program. • Perform any drug tests in a professional. be legal. However.

and other methods. (Raters observe decision making under stress.’8 Exhibit 8—10 presents briefly a typical 21/2 day assessment center schedule. persuasiveness.) D. a rid propensity for taking risks. (Raters observe leadership ability and ability to work in a group. motivation. One of the best-known multiple selection methods used for these purposes is the assessment center. However. ability to react. Evaluation of other ratees. Psychological testing— Measure verbal and numerical skills.) B. (Raters observe planning ability. because of the costs associated with a had decision and the complexities of managerial work. 2. method of preparation. and ability to delegate.) C. ability to handle questions. Groups of approximately 12 individuals are evaluated. the type of employee being hired. projective testing.DAY I A. Individual case analysis and presentation. The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) in the United States began to use it in the mid-1940s. Interview with raters. and communicatIon skills. B. understanding of problem—solving procedures. and money hiring middle. role-playing. Others. Most. Small-group discussion of case incidents. Role-playing of performance evaluation interview. Orientation of approximately 12 ratees. American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T) introduced the assessment center to the world of business in the 1950s. objective testing. Individual and group activities are observed and upper-level executives than they spend hiring for positions lower on the organizational chart. and career plans. Individual decision—making exercise—Ratees are asked to make a decision about Sonic problem that must be solved.) DAY 2 A. counseling skills. (Raters observe problem-solving ability.7 An assessment center uses a wide array of methods. The assessment center was first used by the German military in World War II. (Peer evaluations. organizations frequently expend more time.) C. (Raters observe condence. including several interviews. and many kinds of paper-and-pencil tests of abilities and attitudes.000 prospective and current employees. memory. AT&T has used assessment centers to evaluate more than 200. interaction skills. and how information is used. .assessment centers are similar in a number of areas: 1. problem-solving skill. conimunication ability. for example) are common to most occupations. I). work samples and simulations. In-basket exercise.) B.) E. effort. such as cognitive ability testing. (Ratees discuss goals. (Raters observe factnding skills.) The particular types of employment tests that are used in an organization vary with. Many of the techniques that have been discussed in this chapter (the interview. Break up into groups of four or six to play management simulation game. Since 1956. decisionmaking flexibility. organizing al)ility. Multiple methods of assessment are used—interviewing. games. are used with a wide ass&trnent of jobs and occupations ranging from blue-collar to managerial positions. (Raters observe empathy.) DAY 3 A. Group problem solving.

resistance to stress. the assessment center report permits the organization to make a number of determinations about human resources: • Qualifications of individuals for particular positions. is a matter of THE SELECTION costs and benefits. Each assessee’s performance in the center can he described if the organization wants this type of report. I)irect costs include such things as the price of the tests. such as organizational and planning ability. Generally speaking. and tests. As a result of assessees participating as part of a group and as individuals. decisiveness. be consultants or outsiders trained to conduct assessments.3.60 erefore. rnoreover. The raters’ judgments are consolidated and developed into a final report. Once an organization has made a commitment to investigate what types of selection devices it will use. Overall. usually by one or more members of the assessment team. • Type of training and development needed to improve behaviors of individuals. As such. Generally speaking. • Promotal. ANALYSIS FOR Organizational utilit) which is dependent. Utility refers to the degree to which using a selection system improves the quality of the individuals being selected by the organization. interviews. Ultimately. however. there are circumstances in which less costly and less admin tratively complicated techniques are just as effective in managerial selection.dity of individuals. the assessors have a large volume of data on each individual. an analysis of the costs versus the benefits ot selection requires estimates of the direct and indirect costs associated with the selection systeni. on statistical utility. Assessors are usually a panel of line managers from the organization. in part. completing exercises. and thus have high appeal because of this relevance. they are not a reasonable alternative for many smaller organizat’ions. . the salary paid to an interviewer. Individuals are then evaluated on a number of dimensions. they are frequently not the technique of choice even for organizations that have the resources to utilize them.6’ Utility has two related components. • How good assessors are in observing. well-designed assessment centers are a relatively expensive way to hire managers. Assessment centers are relevant to the job. They can. answering the question whether the selection DECISION system should he developed arid used is ultimately an issue of whether it saves the organization more money than it costs. evaluating. Statistical utility is the extent to which a COST-BENEFIT selection technique allows an organization to better predict who will he successful. flexibility. Because it is an integrated attempt to measure a variety of characteristics of anagers. and personal styles. a large part of the answer to this question involves the utility of the selection process. and reporting on the performance of others (assessees). 4. it must attempt to evaluate whether its eftorts will he worthwhile. • How individuals function in a group. poise. Portions of the individual reports are fed back to each assessee. the results of research on assessment centers have indicated that they are a valid way to select rnanagers9—hut they are not without disadvantages. In other words. .

Much of his success is credited to dramatic shifts in strategic thinking. These savings can COIiiC from improved outcomes such as higher levels of quality or quantity of output.’ Journal of Financial and QuantitativeAnalysis. but two of the most important are the current CEO and his or her relationship with the company’s board of directors.”Eisner Explains Everything. In 1984 only I percent of Disney’s income came from movies and only 9 percent from overseas markets. the list was unnecessary and he has never revealed its contents. Indirect Costs include changes in public image associated with implementing procedures such as drug testing. Interestingly. The choice of an organization’s highest ranking manager depends on many factors. and the equipment used in a work sample test.” Fortune. Sonietiiiws. The selection process for a new CEO is. outsiders are often asked to infuse an organization with new direction and leadership when the company is facing a financial disaster. Outside Directors and CEO Selection. 45—59. reduced absenteeism.”Simultaneous Transformation and CEO Succession: Key to Global Competitiveness. Pilot errors can cost the company millions . however. therefore. 103—117. qualitatively different from most other forms of selection. they wonder whether it will ever have henefirs The answer to this ha . As it happened.” Ibor. Noel Tichy (Summer 1996).” Organizational Dynamics. there is CEO succession in the Magic Kingdom. Borokhovich. Research suggests that an outsider will be appointed CEO more often when there is a high percentage of outside directors on the board.When it comes to picking a new CEO. “How to Build a Better Mousetrap:’ Time. The Economist.4 billion today. Sources: “Disney or Doesn’t H& Face Value’ (January 2002). 43 percent comes from movies.Yet people generally agree that the right choice for CEO may never have been more critical to a corporatior’s success than it will be in the global marketplace of the next century. 1995). especiall’ in situations where the direct and indirect costs of hiring a poor performer are high. Eisner hurriedly made a list of possible successors and handed it to his wife minutes before he was supposed to undergo risky heart surgery. and overseas income accounts for 23 percent. pp. Michael Eisner is the CEO of Disney who took over a $2 billion company in 1984 and has helped make it worth more than $25. Outsiders also become the leading candidates in organizations that intend to delegate more power to their CEOs.Today. It is potentially influenced far more by political dynamics and idiosyncratic characteristics of the current CEO and the board of directors.Why are outsiders seen as the salvation of a dying organization? Current thinking suggests that outsiders have not been “brainwashed” by a corporate culture that apparently needs to be changed. all bets are off.’Top Management Successions: The Choice between Internal and External Sources. pp. pp. As the story goes. pp. The organization must also estimate how much money it will save 1w hiring more qualified employees using the selection system. 1ut valid selection procedures can yield enormou benefits.sic question depends on many factors. 40—42: Kenneth A. 337—355:John Huey (April 7.HR JOURNAL CEO SELECTION: SUCCESSION PLANNING AND THE CRYSTAL BALL Corporations differ in terms of their preference for hiring replacement managers from within their own ranks or from outside the organization. 61—62: David Jackson and Richard Corliss (February 2001). Then. and Teresa Trapani (September 1996). pp. of course. Robert Parrino. pp. and less turnover.The outsider is expected to bring a fresh perspective and be willing to question everything and anything about the organization’s past way of doing business. Imagine the costs associated with a single wrong hiring decisioii when airlines are selecting pilots. lower accident rates. when an organization’s managers see how costly systematic selecti ofl can be. 44—68: Beni Lauterbach and Jacob Weisberg (1996).

application blank. • Professional and technical: screening interview. and interviews for marginal applicants. • Clerical: screening interview. application blank. interview. tests. While these groups were being hired. qualified semiskilled sp employees. • Managers: screening interview.A similar th process was used to hire for the semiskilled employees. different jobs. tests. Clark himself hired the professionals.The HR specialist hired the clerical employees with help from the managers and professionals for the clerical personnel who were to be under their direct supervision. interview. tests. • Skilled: screening interview. • Semiskilled: screening interview. application blank. reference check. Clark and Ed hired the managers. application blank. While these groups were being hired. and interviews for marginal applicants. Professional and technical: screening interview. an HR specialist administered the tests to the clerical employees and supervised the reference checks for the managers and professionals.The HR specialist hired the clerical employees with help from the managers and professionals for the clerical personnel who were to be under their direct supervision. of Since there were few cle choices among professional. application blank. Clark las hired the clearly well. Clark himself hired the professionals. tests. Clerical: screening interview. reference check. tests. interview. tests. except in ap marginal cases. interview. interview. Candidates bu received a review and were co interviewed by the ga managers to whom they ne would report. he would use the following selection process. and interviews for marginal ) applicants. application blank. application blank. Then Clark and the HR fl specialist administered the w tests to skilled and bu semiskilled employees. application blank. an HR specialist administered the tests to the clerical employees and supervised the reference checks for the managers and professionals. application blank. • Skilled: screening interview. and interviews for marginal applicants. he would use the following selection process. Clark and Ed hired the managers. refrrence check. • Managers: screening interview. reference check. application blank. • Semiskilled: screening interview.ale .different jobs.

given these conditions. promising that he’d begin developing a list of qualified applicants in these categories in case they were needed. He had to generate the other half by paying less for the bottom 20 percent of the semiskilled and clerical employees. He was able to make a contribution to equal employment opportunity objectives by hiring somewhat more minorities and women than the total population. Clark appealed for a bigger budget. But pe in 18 additional cases. and generally with the required specifications. but more than Ed wanted. they po compromised.The home office gave him half of what he needed. These people generally wanted more pay than the budget called for. No reverse discrimination took place. All were qualified. Clark adj felt he had found better am candidates. on time. In the end. less than he could have and less than Lois wanted. Clark hired the people needed within the adjusted budget. whereas Ed rec wanted more Chicago wa people that he knew.Among coi Clark’s choices were many em more qualified minority and obj female managerial 501 candidates than Ed wanted am to accept. Clark alerted Ed to the probable competence problem. Ed There were also qu pr’oblems in the skilled dis professional categories. api Several problems cat developed. Ed gave up co half his choices to Clark. And the last 20 percent hired were somewhat below minimal specifications. . Loi and Clark did likewise. In sum.technical and skilled co employees. Clark and Ed had ne no trouble agreeing on 20 managerial candidates. it was more prc efficient not to involve the de new managers.