Tim Huggins is the new director of human resources of Sprowl Manufacturing, a division of the MBTI Corporation. Tim wanted to start a job analysis program immediately. Six weeks after he took over; job analysis questionnaires (six pages each) were given to employees. The results were puzzling. Responses from e the operating employees (machinists, lift operators, technicians, draftspeople, and mechanics) were quite different from responses from their supervisors about these jobs. The fact that supervisors viewed the jobs differently from those doing the work fueled Tim’s desire to do a job analysis. He wanted to study and specifically define the jobs so that misunderstandings, arguments, and false expectations could be kept to a minimum. The supervisors listed job duties as simple and routine. The operating employees disagreed and claimed that their jobs were complicated and constrained by limited resources.They complained ‘ that work areas were hot, stuffy, and uncomfortable. These disagreements soon E became the basis for some a open hostility between supervisors and workers. Finally, Nick Mannis, machinist, confronted a supervisor, Rog Wilkes, and threatened to punch him over the “lies” Rog and other supervisors had concocted in the job analysis. Tim was worried that the job analysis program was getting totally out of hand. He had to do something about it. Everyone was getting up in arms over a program Tim felt was necessary. Should a manager like Tim, who knows a lot about HRM, but who was not trained in the specifics of job analysis, undertake this kind of program?

Organizations have evolved because the overall mission and objectives of most institutions are too large for any single person to accomplish. Consequently, the organization must have a systematic way to determine which employees are expected to perform a particular function or task that must he accomplished. The cornerstone of the organization is, therefore, the set of jobs performed by its employees. These jobs, in turn, provide the mechanism for coordinating and linking the various activities of the organization that are necessary for success. As a result, studying and understanding jobs through the process known as job analysis is a vital part of any HRM program. job analysis provides answers to questions such as these: How much time is taken to complete important tasks? Which tasks are grouped together and considered a job? How can a job be designed or structured so that the employee’s performance can he enhanced? What kinds of behaviors are needed to perform the job? What kind of person (in terms of traits and experience) is best suited for the job? How can the information acquired by a job analysis be used in the development of HRM programs? This chapter claries the contributions made by job analysis to an organization’s HRM program and specific activities. Furthermore, the careful planning needed and the various techniques of a ob analysis program are highlighted. Finally,

the importance of job analysis in the design of jobs is discussed. The chapter shows that job analysis is a necessary part of HRM and in many respects is the foundation upon which all other 1-IRM activities must he constructed. As can be seen in the diagnostic model (see Exhibit 6—1), the nature of the work to be performed is one of the fundamental inputs into all major HRM functions. This is another way of saying that how workers’ responsibilities and duties are segmented helps to shape and determine virtually all other facets of organizational functioning. As such, understanding exactly what constitutes any particular job is critical to developing HRM activities that support the organization’s mission. Before considering the process and techniques involved in job analysis, on should THE VOCABULARY learn the language of job analysis. Although many of these terms are often used OF JOP ANALYSIS interchangeably by people who are unfamiliar with job analysis, the expert will Use them more precisely in order to avoid confusion and misinterpretation. Precision in the use of these terms is, in fact, required by federal and state legislation. it is therefore important for the HR manager to use each of them in a way that is consistent with such legislation.

The following definitions are consistent with those provided by the U.S. Employment Service and the U.S. Office of Personnel Management:2 Job analysis. A purposeful, systematic process for collecting information on the important work-related aspects of a job.3 Job description. The principal product of a job analysis. It represents a written summary of the job as an identifiable organizational unit. Job specification. A written explanation of the knowledge, skills, abilities, traits, and other characteristics (KSAOs) necessary for effective performance on a given job. Tasks. Coordinated and aggregated series of work elements used to produce an output (e.g., a unit of production or service to a client). Position. Consists of the responsibilities and duties performed by an individual. There are as many positions in an organization as there are employees. Job. Group of positions that are similar in their duties, such as computer programmer or compensation specialist Job family. Group of two or more jobs that have similar duties. THE STEPS IN The 1ob analysis process involves a number of steps, which are outlined in Exhibit JOP ANALYSIS 6—2. As it appears in the exhibit, the process assumes that the job analysis is being conducted in an ongoing organization; in other words, an organization that is already in operation as opposed to a new venture. Step I provides a broad view of how each job fits into the total fabric of the organization. Organization charts and process charts (discussed later) are used to complete step I. Step 2 encourages those involved to determihe how the job analysis and job design information will be used. This step is further explained in the next section. Since it is usually too costly and time-consuming to analyze every job, a representative sample of jobs needs to be selected. In step 3, jobs that are to he analyzed are selected. Step 4 involves the use of acceptable job analysis techniques. The techniques are used to collect data on the characteristics of the job, the required behaviors, and the characteristics an employee needs to perform the job. The information collected in step 4 is then used in step 5 to develop a job description. Next, in step 6, a job specification is prepared. The knowledge and data collected in steps 1 through 6 are used as the foundation for virtually every other HRM activity. As shown in Exhibit 6—2, these include activities such as recruitment, selection, training, performance evaluation, and compensation. The information gathered during job analysis is essential to each of these. As is also shown in the exhibit, the information gathered is used in job design and redesign, which are discussed in detail later in this chapter. Job analysis provides information necessary for organizing work in ways that allow employees to he both productive and satisfied. Finally, information from job analysis can be used in an organization’s follow—up evaluations of its job design. At this step, it is important for an organization to evaluate its efforts and determine whether the goals of productivity and satisfaction are in fact being achieved.

In addition to helping organizations satisfy their legal requirements. The UGESP emphasizes that job analysis should be used when validating or assessing the accuracy of organizational selection procedures. It must yield information about the relationship between job duties and these KSAOs. clear job description. 2. Administrative guidelines accompanying various civil rights and EEO laws and judicial recommendations are clear. The quality of job analysis conducted by an organization is frequently a primary determinant of whether it has acted properly. It is used extensively in each of the following areas: . job analysis is critical to assessments of discrimination under most employment-related laws. it must clearly determine which KSAOs are important for each job duty. abilities. The question has become how to conduct a legally defensible job analysis rather than whether to conduct such an analysis at all.5 In terms of staffing and selection activities. job analysis is closely tied to HRM programs and activities. In addition. and managers in general know that job analysis has manyJOP ANALYSIS T uses. The frequency and importance of task behaviors should be assessed. job analysis plays an important role in the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures (1978). Job analysis is linked with these discrimination laws through rulings from numerous Supreme Court decisions. It must allow for an accurate assessment of the knowledge. 3. and other characteristics (KSAOs) required by the job. a good job analysis must provide the following if it is to be viewed favorably: 1. It should yield a thorough. 4.THE USES OF HR managers. That is. On the basis of these court decisions. a set of policies designed to minimize or prevent workplace discrimination practices. skills. including the Civil Rights Act of 1991 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. Some of these individuals now believe that there is no longer even a choice A about whether job analysis should be conducted. specialists.

controlling.1. proper compensation demands accurate time to conduct job assessments of what various jobs entail. It is. cooperation is critical. But the value of job analysis doesn’t end with HRM. In addition. HR managers will 4. Recruitment and selection. 2. This information comes from job analysis. . appraise. Thus. Effective job analysis can help organizations to change. Moreover helping people to Line managers. Still other organizations will use supervisors. managers are beginning to realize that need to convince line job analysis is another important tool in an organization’s overall strategic managers that their planning efforts. Strategic planning. and the ultimate intended purpose of the results of the analysis. the choice of who should analyze a job depends on many factors. may not 3. aid the total organizational system. Managers involved in virtually all aspects of planning.9 Regardless of who collects the information. On the other hand. Part of that planning should involve carefully choosing the people who will JOP ANALYSIS? conduct the analysis. In cases like these. job incumbents. It should be obvious from this list that the potential uses of job analysis cover the entire domain of HRM activities. or utilize its human resources without the kinds of information derived from job analysis. and directing in the organization also benefit from job analysis information. or some combination of these to collect job analysis information. job analysis information helps recruiters seek and find the right persons for the organization. WHO SHOULD The steps spelled out in Exhibit 6—2 suggest that care and planning are important features of CONDUCT THE any job analysis. busy with move efficiently from one career stage to another can only be accomplished with their day-to-day information from job analysis. Training and career development. it may hire a temporary job analyst from outside. And. eliminate. or otherwise restructure work and work flow processes to meet the changing demands of uncertain environments. Knowing the skills necessary for jobs is HRMEMO essential to building effective training programs. Other organizations will have job analysis experts employed full-time. difficult to imagine how an organization could effectively hire. Because incumbents tend to exaggerate the responsibilities and importance of their work. selection testing must assess the most critical skills and abilities needed to perform a jo6. this objectivity might be difficult to achieve when incumbents conduct the job analysis. the individuals should thoroughly understand people. Thus. They should also have considerable knowledge about how work is expected to flow within the organization. For example. in fact. including the location and complexity of the jobs to be analyzed. Compensation. job incumbents are a good source of information about what work is actually being done rather than what work is supposed to be done. how receptive incumbents might be to an external analyst. to hire the right person. More and more. organizing. involving incumbents in the job analysis process might increase their acceptance of any work changes stemming from the results of the analysis. Compensation is usually tied to the duties and always be able to find responsibilities of a job. jobs. train. compensate. analyses. If an organization has only an occasional need for job analysis information. responsibilities. Each of these choices has strengths and weaknesses. job analysis should describe the work activities of a job independent of any personal attributes of a given job incumbent.

According to its author. pp. Heal Thyself.” Nation’s & Business. An organization chart presents the relationships among departments and units of the firm. Fixes. 71— 74.S. this overview will provide the job analyst with a better understanding of the flow of work through the organization.000 employees. reengineering designs jobs around outcomes rather than tasks . with most of the time spent passing the application between departments.’ Management Today. the heart of reengineering is the need for organizations to break away from their traditional rules about work and from the assumptions that underlie how that work is efficiently accomplished. Typical turnaround time was between 5 and 25 days. 40—42. pp. and the formal reporting relationships that exist. To gain these useful insights about the structure and process of the organization. Their job analyses indicated that the application process included 30 separate steps that spanned five different departments. The initiative focuses on creating and implementing a new global standard for manufacturing which will attempt to realize new synergies between the company’s IT and production systems. 42—43. Mutual Benefit Life Insurance implemented a complete reengineering program several years ago. the company created a new job titled case manager.This means that a single individual will be responsible for performing all aspects of a process rather than a limited subset of tasks. In order to make this project a reality. THE However. This requires a complete redesign of existing work into jobs that previously didn’t exist. john Teresko (January 00 I). pp. Obliterate: introduced managers to the concept of reengineering.HR JOURNAL REENGINEERING: THE STRATEGIC JOB ANALYSIS CHALLENGS A 1990 Harvard Business Review article entitled. “Bureaucracy. pp. John Thackray (June 1993). The line functions (the individuals performing the work duties) and staff functions (the advisers) are also spelled out. Specifically. the number of different functional departments. In response to this inefficiency. Sources: Michael Hammer (November—December 2001). the company will need to redesign several existing jobs to support these new initiatives. The project will be aimed at Toyota’s North American parts supply network that includes 1.500 Lexus and Toyota dealers and its 450 suppliers. Similar efforts to streamline operations and make bureaucracy more efficient and less cumbersome are promised by Toyota Motor Corporation. “Reengineering Work: Don’t Automate. units. Job analysis is likely to play an important role in this change process. pp.”Reen6gineering Work: Don’t Automate. David Warner (October I 993). The reengineering doubled the volume work that was being completed. and Fiction. “Toyota’s New Challenge. 66—68. “The New Business Agenda Strategy & Leadership. A case manager became responsible for the entire application process for any given individual. even before this selection is made.$ 106 billion and 215. An overview provides the job analyst with an informed picture of the total arrangement CHARTS of departments. A typical organizational chart will yield information about the number of vertical levels in the organization. the company was able to eliminate 100 unnecessary field office positions. the world’s fourth largest automobile manufacturer with 2001 sales of U. at the same time. “Fads. Additionally. Obliterate’ Harvard Business Review. Michael Hammer (July—August 1990). two types of charts are especially helpful. an overview of the organization and its jobs is USE OF required. Michael Hammer.” Industry Week. 04--I 12. and jobs. The job analyst has to select the best methods and procedures available to conduct the analysis. .

of collecting job analysis data—observation. questionnaire. some questions may not be answered or can’t be answered because the job incumbent doesn’t know the answer) are then used to specifically structure the data collection technique that will eventually be implemented. a job can be analyzed in terms of behaviors or what the job incumbent does to perform the job (such as computing. interview. The four methods—or any combination of them—must focus on critical information. and. or incumbent diary or log. Both of these orientations are acceptable under the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures as long as they identify job duties and behaviors that are critical to performing the job. the information about the job is collected and then the job is studied in terms of tasks completed by the job incumbent (person presently working on the job).oriented. This is important because research indicates that too little knowledge about a job can lead to inaccurate job descriptions.A second type of chart. On the other hand. These answers (of course. rather than simply showing the structural relationships among job titles (as iii a METHODS OF typical organizational chart). and high. Job incumbents are asked to complete the JAIF. some form of core information is needed no matter what data collection method is used. A safeguard against developing a distorted picture of a job is for the job analyst to collect information from a variety of incumbents. This type of job analysis is referred to as job. valid data. directly observes the job incumbents performing the job. 1-Observation Direct observation is used for jobs that require manual.and low-performing incumbents (the research is mixed about whether there will he differences between them in terms of their view of the job). A questionnaire called the job analysis information format (JAIF) can provide the basic core information for use with any job analysis method—observation. Consequently.12 A professional job analyst typically conducts extensive interviews with incumbents and supervisors. The job analyst should probably try to get information from males and females. and job incumbent diaries or logs. collects records about the job. jobs performed by an inventory stockroom employee are examples of these. coordinating. standardized. shows how a specific set of jobs are related to each other. if feasible. managers need to collect comparable. This is referred to as work-oriented job analysis. ‘ Finally. It permits the job analyst to collect information that provides a thorough picture of the job. The job analyst should not assume that all incumbents or their supervisors will view a job in the same way. job duties. the process chart shows the flow of activities and work necessary DATA to produce a desired product or service.1° Thus. The job analyst must observe a representative sample of individuals performing these . Since time and cost are considerations. the job analyst should not assume that all incumbents and supervisors have the same amount of knowledge about a job. the process chart. older and younger workers. In each of these methods. Exhibit 6—3 presents a portion of one type of JAIE Differences among job incumbents should he considered during the analysis of JAIF information. and short-job cycle activities. interview. or negotiating). COLLECTION There are four basic methods. questionnaires. in addition to the actual job analysis. and requirements. which can he used separately or in combination.

EXHIBIT 6-3 JOB ANALYSIS INFORMATION FORMAT Your Job Title _______________________ Code _________________ Date__________________ Class Title _________________________ Department __________________________________ Your Name _________________________ Facility______________________________________ Supervisors Title _____________________ Prepared by __________________________________ superior s Name_____________________ Hours Worked _____ _________ to ________________ AM AM 1. What is the general purpose of your job? What was your last job? If it was in another organization, please name it. 3. To what job would you normally expect to be promoted? 4. II you regularly supervise others, list them by name and job title. 5. If you supervise others, please check those activities that are part of your supervisory duties: -Hiring -Orienting -Training -Scheduling -Developing -Coaching -Counseling -Budgeting -Directing -Disciplining -Measuring performance -Terminating -Promoting -Other ‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬ -Compensating

6. How would you describe the successful completion and results of your work? 7. Job Duties—Please briefly describe what you do and, if possible, how you do it. Indicate those duties you consider to be most important and/or most difficult. a. Daily duties— h. Periodic duties (please indicate whether weekly, monthly, quarterly, etc.)— c. Duties performed at irregular intervals— d. How long have you been performing these duties? e. Are you now performing unnecessary duties? If yes, please describe. f. Should you be performing duties not now included in your job? If yes, please describe.

EXHIBIT 6-3 CONCLUDED 8. Education. Please check the blank that indicates the educational requirements for the job, not your own educational background. a. ________ No formal education required b. _______ Less than high school diploma c. High school diploma or equivalent. d. _______ 2-year college certificate or equivalent. e. ______ 4-year college degree. F. _______ Education beyond undergraduate degree and/or professional license.

List advanced degrees or specific professional license or certificate required. Please indicate the education you had when you were placed on this job. 9. Experience. Please check the amount needed to perform your job. a. _______ None. b. ______ Less than one month. c. _______ One month to less than six months. d. ______ Six months to one year. e. _______ One to three years. f. ______ Three to five years. g. _______ Five to 10 years. h. ______ Over 10 years.

Please indicate the experience you had when you were placed on this job. 10. Skill. Please list any skills required in the performance of your job. (For example, degree of accuracy, alertness, precision in working with described tools, methods, systems, etc.) Please list skills you possessed when you were placed on this job. 11. Equipment. Does your work require the use of any equipment? Yes _____ No _____ If yes, please list the equipment and check whether you use it rarely, occasionally, or frequently. Equipment a. ________________ b. ________________ c. ________________ d. ________________ Rarely __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ Occasionally __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ Frequently __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________

jobs. Observation is usually not appropriate where the job involves significant mental activity, such as the work of a research scientist, a lawyer, or a mathematician. The observation technique requires that the job analyst be trained to observe relevant job behaviors. In conducting an observation, the job analyst must remain as unobtrusive as possible. He or she must stay out of the way so that the work can he performed. 2-1lnterviews Interviewing job incumbents is often done in combination with observation. Interviews are probably the technique used most widely in collecting data for job analysis. They permit the job analyst to talk face to face with job incumbents. The job incumbent can ask questions of the job analyst, and this interview serves as an opportunity for the analyst to explain how the knowledge and information gained from the job analysis will be used. Interviews can be conducted with a single job incumbent, with a group of individuals, or with a supervisor who is knowledgeable about the job. Usually a structured set of questions will be used in interviews so that answers from individuals or groups can be compared. Although interviews can yield useful job analysis information, an awareness of their potential limitations is also needed. Interviews are difficult to standardize—different interviewers may ask different questions and the same interviewer might unintentionally ask different questions of different respondents. There is also a real possibility that the information provided by the respondent will he unintentionally distorted by the interviewer. Finally, the costs of interviewing can he very high, especially if group interviews are not practical.16 3-uestionnaires The use of questionnaires is usually the least costly method for collecting information. It is an effective way to collect a large amount of information in a short period of time. The JAIF in Exhibit 6—3 is a structured questionnaire. It includes specific questions about the job, job requirements, working conditions, and equipment. A less structured, more open-ended approach would be to ask job incumbents to describe their job in their own terms. This open-ended format would permit job incumbents to use their own words and ideas to describe the job. The format and degree of structure that a questionnaire should have are debatable issues. Job analysts have their own personal preferences on this matter. There really is no best format for a questionnaire. However, here arc a few hints that will make the questionnaire easier to use: • • Keep it as short as possible—people do not generally like to complete forms. Explain what the questionnaire is being used for—’-people want to know why it must be completed. Tim Huggins (in this chapter’s Career Challenge) failed to explain his job analysis questionnaire. Employees wanted to know why the questions were being asked and how their responses would be used. Keep it simple—do not try to impress people with technical language. Use the simplest language to make a point or ask ‘a question. Test the questionnaire before using it—in order to improve the questionnaire, ask some job incumbents to complete it and to comment on its features. This test will permit the analyst to modify the format before using the questionnaire in final form.

• •

it does offer one distinct advantage over any of the basic methods used alone: the quality of information derived from a more comprehensive approach is strongly endorsed by the courts in cases that rely on job analysis information. be relatively expensive and time-consuming. the position analysis questionnaire. The four methods of data collection for job analysis just described were presented in general SPECIFIC terms. for example. This permits an examination of the routineness or nonroutineness of job duties. it can provide good information about the job. and the management position description questionnaire. of course. Finally. There might. weekly.4-Job Incumbent Diary or Log The diary or log is a recording by job incumbents of job duties. a task survey based on expert judgments is constructed and administered. . a statistical analysis of the responses to the task survey is conducted in order to assess their consistency and to identify any systematic variation in them. most organizations base their choice on their current needs. When they arc used properly. Since these four basic methods seem to have different strengths and weaknesses. Using a comprehensive process such as the multimethod job analysis approach will. If a diary or log is kept up to date. certain methods seem to be better suited to a given situation than other In the absence of a strong theoretical reason why one method should be superior to another. and when the duties are accomplished. the choice of a method is determined by circumstances such as the purpose of the analysis and time and budget constraints. be variation in the descriptions provided by incumbents and supervisors. differences in how the job has been described need to be resolved so there is general agreement about its true nature. Three of the more popular quantitative techniques are functional job analysis. the various methods may not be interchangeable. such as those performed by engineers. there is no general agreement about which methods of job analysis yield the best information. these specific techniques can TECHNIQUES provide systematic and quantitative procedures that yield information about what job duties are being accomplished and what knowledge. the job analyst first conducts interviews with incumbents and supervisors in conjunction with on-site observation. This technique requires the job incumbent to keep a diary or log. abilities. Unfortunately. and other human characteristics (KSAOs) are needed to perform the job. However. by incumbents at different geographic locations. and senior executives. Regardless. or monthly basis can be made. Which Method to Use? Although any of these four basic methods can be used either alone or in combination. skills.2° In this approach. interviews should not be relied on as the sole data collection method. at very least. Comparisons on a daily. scientists. most individuals are not disciplined enough to keep such a diary or log.’9 In other words. frequency of the duties. or by members of different departments.’7 In addition. Many experts agree that. They form the basis for construction of specific techniques that have gained popularity QUANTITAVE across many types of organizations. Next. The diary or log is useful when attempting to analyze jobs that are difficult to observe. many organizations are turning to a multimethod job analysis approach.

& kin. and machinery safeguarded. Negotiators with domestic customers. photographs. 184.167-094 Manager. May visit workers’ homes to observe their housing and general living conditions and recommend improvements if necessary. mules. opens fingers. Baseball Glove (sports equip. fishing. The first three digits of any one of these listings (for example. May examine invoices and shipping manifests for conformity to tariff and customs regulations. Dude Ranch (amuse. waybilling. and strikes glove pocket with fist while examining glove visually and tactually to ensure comfortable fit. Prepares special forecasts and briefings for those involved in air and sea transportation. such as recommending day nurseries for their children and counseling them on personality frictions or emotional Maladjustments. and credit.062-010 Meteorologist (profess. hunting. The next three digits (062) designate the degree to which a job incumbent typically has responsibility for and judgment over data.117-014 Manager. and industry. and smoothes seams to shape baseball gloves. and dancing.117-022 Import-Export Agent (any ind.22 which was the primary source used by the U. May assist employees in the solution of personnel problems. & rec. May conduct basic or applied research in meteorology. guest rates. Forms pocket. The lower the numbers. documentation. sanitary facilities are adequate and in good order. satellites. Employee Welfare (profess. the greater the responsibility and judgment. ‘horseback riding. recreational facilities.) Directs operation of dude ranch: Formulates policy on advertising. Directs preparation and maintenance of financial records. Coordinates activities of international traffic division of import-export agency and negotiates settlements between foreign and DOT DESCRIPTION OF JOBS domestic shippers: Plans and directs flow of air and surface traffic moving to overseas destinations.EXHIBIT 6-4 025. people. welfare. Current versions of the DOT use the basic descriptive language of FJA to describe more than 20. The final three digits (010) re used to classify the alphabetical order of the job titles within the occupational group . using heated forms. If someone is interested in a general description of a job. and livestock.and short-range weather conditions. and things.S. Issues hurricane and severe storm warnings. Organizes dances. the DOT serves as a good starting point. and hammers: Pulls glove over heated hand-shaped form to open and stretch finger linings. and air-pollution control. Functional job analysis Functional job analysis (FJA) is the cumulative result of approximately 50 years of research on analyzing and describing jobs. to resolve problems and arrive at mutual agreements. May contact customs officials to effect release of incoming freight and resolve customs delays.) foreign agent. and other medical attention. title. assessing charges.). lunchrooms.684-106 Shaper. Removes glove from form. Directs activities of DUDE WRANGIERS (amuse. & rec. such as breeding. & kin. entertainment. raising. rneteorologist—025) specify the occupational code. mallets. and showing horses. Directs welfare activities for employees of stores. It was originally conceived in the late 1940s and was developed as a mechanism for improving the classification of jobs contained in the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT). and outings. and form glove pocket. publicity. Exhibit 6—4 shows DOT descriptions of several jobs. May prepare reports of transactions to facilitate billing of shippers and foreign carriers. Plans recreational and entertainment activities. 187. 732. Pounds fingers and palm of glove with rubber mallet and hall-shaped hammer to smooth seams and bulges. The DOT classifies these jobs by means of a nine-digit code. as intermediary for foreign customers.000 jobs. maps. and other industrial and commercial establishments: Arranges for physical examinations. May establish and staff observation stations. manager. 166. Arranges for installation and operation of libraries. inserts hand into glove. Directs other activities. factories. Ensures that lighting is sufficient. first aid.) employee-service officer. Negotiates with foreign shipping interests to contract for reciprocal freight-handling agreements. and radar to prepare reports and forecasts for public and other users: Studies and interprets synoptic reports.) Ana1y and interprets meteorological data gathered by surface and upper-air stations. and educational courses.) steamer and shaper. Issues weather information to media and other users over teletype machine or telephone. May direct forecasting services at weather station. fire prevention. agriculture. and prognostic charts to predict long. such as camping. Supervises workers engaged in receiving and shipping freight. and collecting fees for shipments. Employment Service for descriptive information about jobs.

2 DOT descriptions help a job analyst to begin learning what is involved in a particular job.having the same degree of responsibility and judgment. . FIA can then be used to elaborate and more thoroughly describe.

Sets a vision as to why development is important. Bargains over price with customer. Refers customer to production manager. n/a Evaluates learning of trainees. Directs trainees to additional resources. Convinces customer to purchase product. Asks for larger budget from vice president of human resource department. Sends product samples to customers. Teaches trainees new computer software. Gives encouragement to new assistant salesperson. Asks questions to assess needs of customers. Defines and clarifies key concepts. Creates entertaining class environment. Checks on and helps trainees posrprogram. Advises new trainer (in how to deliver a training program. Counsels assistant salesperson on career issues. n/a Structures job of assistant salesperson. lightens mood with customer when appropriate.EXHIBIT 6-5 Worker function scale and examples from functional job analysis ( FJA ) Organizational Examples PEOPLE FUNCTIONS SCALE ENTRY-LEVEL SALEPERSON COMPANY TRAINER IA: Taking instructions—helping 1B: Serving 2: Exchanging information 3A: Sourcing information 3B: Persuading 3C: Coaching 3D: Directing 4A: Consulting 4B: Instructing 4(.: Treating 5: Supervising 6: Negotiating 7: Mentoring 8: Leading Stays within assigned territory. Delivers requested programs. Asks trainees for feedback. Informs customer a bout product specifications. Answers trainees’ questions. . Models behavior for new salespeople. Persuades trainees of importance of topic. Demonstrates how product works.

tracings. highways.. and other mechanical devices which are sources of information when observed during use oroperation) 8 3 Matcrials in process (parts. calipers. vegetation. railroads. tables of numbers. worked on. articles. items being inspected. etc. etc. scales. such as bread dough being mixed.. dams. maps.. machines. work output. etc. x-ray films. etc. . TV pictures. do not include here materials described in item 3 above) 5 2 Visual displays (dials. workpiece being turned in a lathe. used to obtain visual information about physical measurements. pipettes. handled.. reports. materials. used as sources of information when observed during use. protractors. stencils. and other job characteristics. distributed. etc. etc. bridges. relationships with others.) 4 1 Patterns/related devices (templates. not in the process of being changed or modified.1 Soutces of Job Information NA Does not apply QUESTIONNAIRE Rate each of the following items in terms of 1 Normal/very infrequent the extent to which it is used by the worker 2 Occasional as a source of information in performing his or her job. storage.1 EXHIBIT 6-6. job instructions.) 9 4 Materials not in process (parts. objects. do not include here devices described in item S above) 7 4 Mechanical devices (tools. etc. which are sources of information when being inspected. fields. which are sources of information when being modified. clocks. blueprints. and other “man-made” or altered aspects of the indoor and outdoor environment which are observed or inspected to provide job information.) 10 3 Features of nature (landscapes. diagrams. accounts.. eqöiprnent. fabric being cut. 3 Moderate 4 Considerable 5 Very substantial 1. machinery. photographic films.) 3 1 Pictorial materials (pictures or picture like materials used as sources of information. signal lights. and other features of nature which are observed or inspected to provide information) 11 2 Man-made features of environment (structures. office notes. such as items or materials in inventory. that an individual uses in his or her work. such as graphs. etc. gauges. patterns. cloud formations. Source Position. materials. thermometers.4 -C H A P T E R 6 Job Analysis and Design 169 . speedometers. tire pressure gauges.1. or otherwise processed.) 6 5 Measuring devices (rulers. for example. job context. docks. objects. or distribution channels.0] INFORMATION INPUT PORTIONS OF A COMPLETED PAGE INFORMATION INPUT Extent of Use (U) FROM THE POSITION ANALYSIS 1. etc. drawings. etc. or selected.1 Visual Sources of Job Information 1 4 Written materials (books. geological samples. shoe being resoled. buildings.) 2 2 Quantitative materials (materials which deal with quantities or amounts. signs. Other PAQ pages contain questions regarding mental processes. as covered by item 7) Noie:Th. do not consider equipment. packaged. thickness gauges..s shows II of the “information input” questions or elements. specifications. etc. radarscopes. etc.

decision-making. The job analyst must decide whether each item applies to a particular job. What reasoning. Information input. and planning processes are used to perform the job? 3. In addition. the profiles for a typist. What physical activities and tools are used to perform the job? 4. Relationship with other people. One of its biggest advantages is that it has been widely used and researched. That is. In what physical and social context is the job performed? 6.27 It is reliable in that there is little variance among job analysts’ ratings of the same jobs.questionnaire requires considerable experience and a high level of reading comprehension to complete properly. Where and how does the job incumbent get job information? 2. then the PAQ may he providing little more than common knowledge about a job. Other job characteristics. behavioral activities performed in jobs may distort actual task differences in the jobs. the PAQ has advantages and disadvantages. (4) performing skilled activities.29 Some research suggests that the PAQ is capable only of measuring job stereotypes. (6) operating vehicles or equipment. It seems to be an effective way of establishing differences in abilities required for jobs. conditions. A major problem with the PAQ is its length. since all involve fine motor movements. For example. belly dancer. since no specific work activities are described. What relationships with others are required to perform the job? 5. Job context. For example. and male ballet dancer may be quite similar. Work output. (5) being physically active. Like other job analysis techniques. (3) social responsibilities. ratings on the PAQ might represent information that makes up the job analyst’s stereotype about the work in question rather than actual differences among jobs. (2) communication. and (7) processing information. or characteristics other than those described in sections 1 through 5 are relevant? Computerized programs are available for scoring PAQ ratings on the basis of seven dimensions—( 1) decision ma king. measuring devices (item 6) play a very substantial role (5) for the job being analyzed in Exhibit 6—6.3° If this is true. What activities. it is often filled out by a trained job analyst. These scores permit the development of profiles for jobs analyzed and the comparison of jobs. It requires time and patience to complete. The 195 items contained on the PAQ are placed in six major sections: 1. Mental processes. . The available evidence indicates that it can be an effective technique for a variety of intended purposes.25 It also seems valid in that jobs rated higher with the PAQ prove to be those that are compensated at higher rates.

which may increase the number of intrajob skill-based comparisons that may he made. 9. and to help with the interpretation of responses: 1. thereby making it easier for incumbents to rate their jobs. The MPDQ is a checklist of 208 items related to the concerns and responsibilities of managers. Controlling. levels in the hierarchy. many other methods of quantitative job analysis are also receiving attention. The items are at a reading level more appropriate for many jobs. 3. PAQ. Supervising. 10. Consulting and innovating. The result of the work is the management position description questionnaire (MPDQ). it is designed to he a comprehensive description of managerial work. government).33 which is completed by an incumbent. General information. 6. Monitoring business indicators.Management Position Description Questionnaire Conducting a job analysis for managerial jobs offers a significant challenge to the analyst because of the disparity across positions. skills. Decision making. medical. 2. . The latest version of the MPDQ is classified into 15 sections. 5. and MPDQ are all intended for use across a large range of jobs. 15. and type of industry (for example. Overall ratings. The common metric questionnaire (CMQ). Contacts (section 8 apj5ears in Exhibit 6—7). Items were grouped into sections in order to reduce the time it requires to complete. is a job analysis instrument with several potential advantages over existing measures. Knowledge. 8. 11. Organization chart. industrial. Representing. Administering. 4. Comments and reactions. and abilities. 14. 13. 7. Coordinating. 12. Planning and organizing. Although the FJA. and the CMQ is applicable to both exempt and nonexempt positions. and it is intended for use across most industrial settings. they are more behaviorally concrete. An attempt to systematically analyze managerial jobs was conducted at Control Data Corporation.

it is worth noting that the U. In Germany. the Department of Labor’s recent creation. the automated and Internet accessible O*NET is expected to replace the more cumbersome Dictionary of Occupational Titles. and current job descriptions are to an organization. was developed as a comprehensive system to describe occupations. As previously mentioned.Considerable research on job analysis is currently being conducted in Europe. the O*NET (Occupational Informational Network). Employment and Training Administration has undertaken a major job analysis initiative. Department of Labor. Many changes occurring in recent years have increased the need for such job . Simply stated. these approaches are expected to he well suited to situations where job content or manufacturing technology is changing. independent of any particular incumbent’s perceptions. accurate. a job description is a D written description of what the job entails.35 Incorporating the last 60 years of knowledge about the nature of jobs and work. focusing on alternative quantitative methods. for example. several techniques have the common goal of analyzing and describing work at the task level. difficult to overemphasize ow important thorough. however. Thus. and workplace requirements in the country. In cooperation with several other sources of funding. Finally.S. the job description (see Exhibit 6—2) is one of the primary Outputs provided by a systematic job analysis. worker KSAOs. It is.

I(IU (liii hut.: For each contact checked.3 If von have am other contacts please elaborate on them r ii a to re and i°’ rpose be 111W.her hetsveeli I) mitd 4 ill each coitinum to Indicate Ii os’ S ugh I tie a lii a part oh VII or (sit (((It ti it P U R P( )S F is.i ((in a id Sv di ii Ii Ucliti a I people (mitts mdc t he orpl Ira ti iii. o DcfnitcIy not a part (It the position.lCts lily ITi(II.\ crucial and most significant lilrt of the positIon.rrs old clIlitilta its may rcqtiircd to CoIfltotIIiaate with (Ill IS (1. 2-A moderate part of the pIIs(tmon. STEP 2 . I --\ minor part imt the position. 4-. tattat. STEP . 226 STEP I Mark an X’ ii the box to the left of the k iiids (if I id is mdii a Is di at represent m (Or ni a I or contacts Internal a id external to (‘I nitro I 1) ata ( tI rp Irat 1(111. t molts as: • lnhmrmuiimg • Receis mug Information • lntlueimciimg • Promoting • Selling • Directing • (‘oordiiiitimig • I iltilarati ii g • Negotiitmiig DIRECTIONS: 1)ese rm 1w t he ia tim ri It I (10 nitacts iomplettmmg the harts ott the opposite as hi IIl1)W. . Retiieiim her to consIder bothIts mImlfIot!aIIcc in light of all (It lie r p ISttI Oh ictiv it ics and Its /reqmuucv of occu rrerice. IrgaIll/atlonil goals. 3-A substantial hart ut the position.1 t it an V Ii is ‘vi th mm mIte c IP( r. print a (0111. lie purposes (It these oiU.RATING INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL CONTACTS USING THE MANAGEMENT POSITION DESCRIPTION QUESTIONNAIRE (MPDQ) I (I iehic .

PURIOSF Share infornation Influence others to . or executive consultant I .8 212 219 Customers at a level lower than .i rd og p. government inspectors.CONTINUED 1 srEP2 STEI I CoNTACTS I INTERNAL.xeciitive or senior V1CC president and above Vice president Genera l/regii ma I ma niger. or senior consnlraiit Secto mn/branch na nager m 0l?%LiItailt I ‘6 1 7 1S4 I 85 162 I0 I ‘X 186 163 171 ISO I’9 I Unit flianager 164 Exempt employees I2 168 I I 188 181 189 190 Nonexenipt employees 66 182 . or ant ci pa ted act cIt es or otegra te the iii n s.— regional manager 191 198 20.89 16fi 169 decision of others I6 I IS 16)) 161 Deparmient/district manager. etc. EXTERNAL.iniplr.1st.oittrol Data with parts or services Representatives of nfl urn t i a I coinniun it organhiations I id iv id ual s such as applicants.3 204 211) 21 I II 2 IX 224 . 193 94 195 200 2(11 202 207 208 209 215 216 22 I 222 22. sertlements. services Negotiate contracts. director. orga iii . 213 220 major contracts — Em pl o’ees of suppliers svh ii provide ( . joint ventures. Provide. 22 . icti VitW5.) 96 I9 20. Customers at a Ies’el equivalent to or above a ( lilt rol Data genera IJ . subcontractors for 192 199 206 . ((I’ decisions 1’. obtain. p resent. for e\.t am trol Data general! regional manager Representatives of nia)or suppliers.. ( ir exchange iii formation i ir ads’ice Promote the . ii ni or its po Id ucts! services Sell p r id iict s/ . stockholders Representatives of federal or sIt te gi nero ments s tmch as detcn se contract auditors.tct or decide n a n at flCt (list sten t ni th nit object yes I )irrct and/or re..

descriptions. suppose that you were looking for an HR professional to fill the position described in Exhibit 6—8.kltc A’t the . 38—45. Each skill that has been identified needs to he specifically linked to each job task. 4. Any other characteristics necessary for performing the job should he.000 per project Source: Mark Frigo and Heather Kos (August 1999). While there is no standard format for a job description. (2) the need to implement new and creative ways to motivate and reward employees. a leading transportation firm that has reengineered the way they identifr and manage projects with high strategic fit and economic impact for the firm. you would know that the successful applicant would have a college education and would already have at least six years of experience in HRM.6 Though some HR managers feel that technology and rapidly changing jobs will eventually decrease the need for job descriptions. • Activities—includes a description of the job duties.. or abilities are required for performing a particular job must he done systematically. Navistar realized an average of $200. For example. and (4) new. All job tasks must be identified and rated in terms of importance using sound job analysis techniques. the location of the job. knowledge. Also describes the social interactions associated with the work (for example. or supervisors should specify the necessary skills for performing each of the job tasks identified. It addresses the question “What personal traits and experience are needed to perform the job effectively?” The job specification is especially useful in offering guidance for recruitment and selection. useful descriptions will include information on:3i • Job title—title of the job and other identifying information such as its wage and benefits classification. responsibilities. • Surnmary—brief one. Any trait or skill that is stated on the job specification should actually he re £ C i ml A .or two-sentence statement describing the purpose of the job and what outputs are expected from job incumbents. R. amount of dependency in the work). incumbents. J. These changes include (1) the incredible number of organizational restructurings that have occurred (e. Determining what skills. ey • Environment—description of the working conditions of the job. and behaviors performed on the job. A panel of experts.g. he rated. equipment. Can process changes yield savings? Ask Navis tar international Corporation. 3. downsizing). F e. and other relevant characteristics of the immediate work environment such as hazards and noise levels. 5. more stringent federal regulation of employment practices through legislation like the Americans with Disabilities Act and the Civil Rights Act of 199 1. From the job specification. 2.. • Equipment—clear statement of the tools. The job specification evolves from the job description. almost all well-written. The importance of each skill must. size of work group. (3) the accelerated rate at which technology is changing work environments. Harvey offers the following guidelines for arriving at the characteristics that should be included on a job specification:39 1.Navistar’s Dream Team Strategic Finance.HRMEM0 . These include things such as physical requirements and professional certification. identified. pp..37 it still seems unlikely that there are any relevant aspects of human resources that do not depend on accurate job descriptions. and information hat required for effectively performing the job. it’s working! After completing 200 projects. i.

There are many signs that the fundamental nature of work may be changing. evaluates qualifications. Confers with supervisors on personnel matters. Works under general supervision. skills. . appointment. and personal contact. exercising initiative and independent judgment in the performance of assigned tasks. job evaluation. retention or release of probationary employees. and a system of communication for disseminating necessary information to workers. ruits and screens applicants to fill vacancies and reviews applications of qualified persons. business administration. then it should be done. and one secretary. and dismissals of permanent employees. Education Graduation from a four-year college or university. Job Analysis and Strategic Human Resource Management he HR Journal appearing earlier in this chapter suggests that process and work engineering will be the strategic HR challenge for the coming years. Functional areas are not as important as they once were for defining a person’s job. Initiates personnel training activities and coordinates these activities with work of officials and supervisors. Responsibility Supervises a department of three HRM professionals. Communicates policy through organization levels by bulletins. Nonessential skills can be accommodated by changing the structure or work methods of the job. . Supervises administration of tests. or industrial psychology. trains unit supervisors in making employee evaluations. transfers. Interviews applicants. including placement problems.1. General qualification requirements Experience and training should have considerable experience in area of FIRM administration. demotions. Six-year minimum.40 Essential skills are those for which alternative ways of accomplishing the job are not possible. knowledge. one clerk. Establishes effective service rating system. Performs related work as assigned. examination. meetings. transfer.ciieral description of the 1ob Performs responsible administrative work managing personnel activities of a large state agency or institution. with major work in human resources. and recommended change of status of agency employees. promotion. Maintains employee personnel files. ferentiate clearly between essential and nonessential skills. Supervises a group of employees directly and through subordinates. evaluation. instead. Job activities Participates in overall planning and policy making to provide effective and uniform personnel services. Work involves responsibility for the planning and administration of an HRM program that includes recruitment. If disabled people could accomplish the job successfully after such accommodation. selection. and abilities Considerable knowledge of principles and practices of HRM selection and assignment of personnel. classifies applications.

Much more general than traditional knowledge. there is a growing acknowledgment of the need to match human resource activities with an organization’s strategic planning.4 Job Analysis and Employee Competencies Over the past decade.4’ Despite these potential difficulties. and abilities needed to perform one specific job. strategic job analysis will have to be capable of capturing both the present and the future.4 . • I)escribe and measure the organization’s orkforce in mdre general. Also termed “competency modeling. and rewarding a variety of broad-based competencies that successful employees should possess. Hewlett-Packard. organizations will have to continually adapt to rapidly changing business environments. many work environments will also offer employees much greater flexibility in when and how they work. and the value of teamwork is emphasized. communicating. reengineering of one kind or another is likely in a majority of organizations. These programs include variations on traditional work such as compressed work schedules.4 Although it is currently unclear whether these new work arrangements will lend themselves to accurate description through the quantitative methods covered in this chapter.interdisciplinary or cross-functional teams comprised of pers6ns with extremely diverse backgrounds are becoming increasingly common. skills.” As jobs are reengineered. one of the major complaints about reengineering is that once an organization’s processes have been reconstructed. Not surprisingly. and Pfizer have all implemented flexible working environments to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse workforce. I QM programs arc implemented. the new job analyst will also have to describe jobs that will exist in the future organization. therefore. For example. cornpetencies might include anything from “teamwork” to “leadership potential.4 In the future. Organizations such as AT&T. job sharing. new job responsibilities may he poorly defined for the new environment. competency terms. it is safe to assume that effective organizational functioning will require some type of job analysis to be competently conducted.44 Compounding the potential problems that reengineering can introduce. and flexible hours.” such usage of competencies in HR practices reflects an organization’s desire to achieve the following: • Communicate job requirements in ways that extend beyond the specific jot? itself. As mentioned elsewhere in this text. This inevitability creates a new problem for the job analyst. telecommuting. Thus. cwnpetencies are general attributes employees need to do well across multiple jobs or within the organizatioll as a whole. job descriptions will no longer be snapshots of a static entity called a “job. some HR departments have increasingly analyzed jobs in a way that is consistent with the changing nature of business and management practices.42 An important part of this task vill he an ability for job analysts to write job specifications that accurately detail the knowledge and skills that will complement the future strategic initiatives of the organization. and — • I)esign and implement stathng programs focused around conipetencics (rather than specific jobs) as a way of increasing staffing flexibility in job a ssign nwnts. While the job analyst has traditionally been charged with creating descriptions of jobs as they exist in an organization.” To the contrary. many organizations are identifying.

In addition. many of the principles are still relevant today.49 Both the perceptual-motor approach and the biological approach have their roots in human factors engineering. approaches to job design place different emphasis on performance and satisfaction as desired outcomes.45 Perspectives on the design of work can he classified into four major categories: I) the perceptual-motor approach. however. ‘The work of Taylor and the principles of scientific management initiated a great deal of interest in systematically studying the structure of jobs. and tasks in a manner that will help to achieve Optimal perft) rmance and satisfaction. and each man receives in most cases complete written instructions. Taylor’s model of scientific management. Thus. The emphasis was clearly on structuring jobs so that they were broken down into simple. Scientific Management and the Mechanistic Approach Job design was a central issue in F. (3) the mechanistic approach. repetitive tasks. Their major focus is on the integration of human and machine systems. he stated: Perhaps the most prominent single element in modern scientific management is the task idea. In 1911. such as the‘dlowing: . His use of job design is an excellent example of the rational approach and shows how certain perspectives focus more heavily on productivity than on satisfaction. Thus. and (4) the motivational approach. certain methods of job design are primari lv interested in improving performance. Among these •re recommendations stemming from Taylor’s scientific management. 1)ifferent situations call for different arrangements of job characteristics. no one best way to design a literature. W. This means that the choice of job design will involve making trade—offs based on the more critical needs of the organization. Once learned. In other words. it is unlikely that any one approach will fully satisfy all of the goals’of a manager. They are also the two that have received the most attention in the. The two remaining approaches more clearly highlight the potential trade-offs that must frequently he made by organizations with regard to job design. others are more concerned with satisfaction. The mechanistic approach is best exemplified by Taylor’s scientific management and the motivational approach by job enrichment. these tasks could he done quickly and efficiently. The work of every workman is fully planned out by the management at least one day in advance. This information iS very useful for structuring job elements. an organization can USC this information for designing or redesigning jobs. This task specifies not only what is to be done hut how it is to be done and the exact time allowed for doing it. they emphasize equipment design and the proper match between machines aiid operators. Although the principles of scientific management were formally introduced in the early I 900s and many current methods of job design criticize the use of the repetitive-task structure. . describing in detail the task whiji he is to accomplish. There is. . (2) the biological approach.Once a thorough job analysis has been conducted and there are high-quality job JC descriptions and job specifications available.

S1 Thus. they are merely allowed to do a greater number of tasks. Rather. but it may not be any more meaningful. research has found that repetitive. • Monetary compensation should be tied directly to performance and should be used to reward the performance of employees. It is assumed that the specialization and routine nature of jobs designed according to scientific management principles will lead to higher levels of output and require minimal training before employees are able to master the work. Early strategies for overcoming some of the problems associated with jobs designed according to scientific management focused on job enlargement. The expansion of the work is. highly specialized work can lead to dissatisfaction among employees. . considered horizontal. however. since the employees are not given more responsibility or authority in decision making. the gains in efficiency that scientific management may offer can he offset by losses in satisfaction and higher levels of absenteeism and turnover. Despite the appeal of these potential advantages. Thus.) • Employees should be trained to perform the job. an enlarged job is not as specialized or routine as a job designed according to scientific management.52 Job en largement attempts to increase satisfaction by giving employees a greater variety of things to do. (Job descriptions and job specifications used iii recruitment and selection should achieve this.• Employees selected for work should be matched to the demands of the job. Many managers find the scientific management approach to job design appealing because these kinds of recommendations point toward improving organizational performance.

recognition. It shows that for a job to lead to desired outcomes it must Possess certain “core job dimensions. — • Task significance—degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the . Thus.” These include • Skill variety—degree to which the job requires a variety of different activities in carrying out the work. the job characteristics model is one of the most widely publicized. The notion of satisfying employees’ needs as a way of designing jobs comes from Frederic Herzberg’s two-factor theory of work motivation. • Task identity—degree to which the job requires completion of a “whole” and identifiable piece of work—that is. doing a job from beginning bo end with a visible outcome.job Enrichment: A Motivational Approach In the past two decades. which involves the use of a number of an individual’s skills and talents.55 This model is depicted in Exhibit 6—9. Rather than simply increasing the variety of tasks performed by an employee. His basic idea is that employees will be motivated by jobs that enhance their feelings of self-worth. enrichment differs from enlargement because the job is expanded vertically. employees are given responsibility that might have previously been part of a supervisor’s joh. job enrichment tries to design jobs in ways that help incumbents satisfy their needs for growth. much work has been directed at changing jobs in more meaningful ways than job enlargement was able to do.4 Although there are many different approaches to job enrichment. and responsibility.

2. and worthwhile. p. . Experienced responsibility—extent to which the job incumbent feels personally responsible and accountable for the results of the work performed.” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance. determining the procedures to he used in carrying it out.Source:Ado pied from J. *Autonomy—degree to which the job provides substantial freedom. he or she will then he motivated to perform well and will be satisfied with the job. Richard Hackman and R. G. valuable. and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in . independence. • Feedback—degree to which carrying out the activities required by the job results in the individual’s obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance. they are expected to create three critical psychological states in job incumbents. 256. 3. “Motivation through the Design of Work: Test of a Theory. The more these three states are experienced. To the extent that these three states are important to the job incumbent. Qldham (August 1976). the more internal work motivation the job incumbent will feel.’ The key psychological states that are necessary for motivation and satisfaction are: 1. Experienced meaningfulness—degree to which the job incumbent experiences work as important. If these core dimensions are present in a job. Knowledge of results—understanding that a job incumbent receives about how effectively he or she is performing the job.

In Some cases. Driving this work-family tension are a number of variables related to the changing demographics of the workforce. improved morale. Since different people have different capabilities and needs. It is believed that by allowing employees more control over their work lives. This sense comes from feedback. task identity.As presented in Exhibit 6—9. Often viewed as primary caregivers. How are organizations responding to these challenges? Although nor as dramatic as originally anticipated. they will he better able to balance their work-home demands. After 20 years of research. (3) personal and work-related outcomes. the relationships between the critical psychological states and employees’ reactions to enrichment are not yet fully understood. As the baby boom generation reaches retirement age. a trend is emerging in which some organizations are trying to accommodate diverse employees’ needs by offering flexible work arrangements. (2) psychological states. a person dues not have a strong need for personal growth. caregiving responsibilities may he shared. If. Many job enrichment programs have been implemented in the United States and in other countries around the world. . and telecommuting. Another example of demographic changes includes the increase in dual-career couples. three job dimensions—skill variety. the more they will feel responsible. Generally. Autonomy is directly related to feelings of responsibility. On the other hand. The aging population will he another factor that requires a response from working-age caregivers. and (4) strength of needs. Examples of flexible work arrangements include job sharing. lower absenteeism and tardiness. For job incumbents to be internally motivated. these individuals vill continue to experience stress as they attempt to balance career and family priorities. they must have a sense of the quality of their performance. then job enrichment will probably have less effect than it would for a person who values personal growth. it is important to be aware of the potential for individual differences to moderate the linkages shown in Exhibit 6—9. leading both working spouses to require flexible work arrangements to meet family life and career cycle needs. this issue will grow in importance. The more control 1ob incumbents feel they have over their jobs. the number of women and single parents entering the workforce is expected to increase. and higher levels of employee productivity. studies support the expectation that jobs perceived to possess the core dimensions of the job characteristics model are more satisfying. Work-Family Balance and Job Design Organizations are directing more attention and resources toward helping employees balance their work and family demands.’ Research also suggests that increasing the scope of a job beyond certain levels can have detrimental effects on workers. however there are no clear answers about the effectiveness of enrichment. For example. The job characteristics model describes the relationships that are predicted to exist among four sets of factors—( I ) core job dimensions. for example. Many have argued that companies that offer and encourage participation in such famil— friendly work arrangements will reap one or more of the following benefits: higher recruitment and retention rates. flextime. Feedback is related to knowledge of results. and task significance— AB contribute to a sense of meaningfulness.

66 In order to make these programs an accepted part of the organization. fax. many organizations have learned the hard way that reengineering cannot succeed unless careful attention is also paid to the effects on how employees use their skills. Telecommuting refers to the work arrangement that allows employees to work in their homes part. 1o avoid peak rush hour. J the Occupational Safety and Health Act! Job Design: The Next Challenge In the late I 980s and early 1 990s. Merrill Lynch. 4. First. 2. hoping to regain their competitive advantage. oine applicable laws include the Fair Labor Standards Act. General Electric. Procter & Gamble. Third. Managers need to be aware that excluded employees can create a backlash . Kraft. Federal Express. The appropriate response to these changes is exemplified by Coopers & Lybrand’s competency alignment process (CAP).) organizations need to consider three important issues when developing and implementing such flexible work arrangement options. flextime. These authors also reported that flextiine programs should not be too unstructured and that they lose some of their effectiveness over time. American orporations—including Chevron.. organizations need to be mindful of the laws that may impact how these flexible work arrangement policies are developed and managed. Companies that offer fiextime options include I lewlctr-Packard.!ainst work-family programs!’ Second.roups are offered these options. and Xerox. S. motivate. other employees might use their flex— time to arrive at and leave from work one hour later Monday through Friday. took the following steps to establish their program: I. Coca-Cola.or fulltime. Motorola. Many career-minded employees do not take advantage of job sharing. Regardless of the specific nature of redesign. and computer. having the CEO of an organization anoiince these programs is not enough to effect change. one company has aken a methodical approach to implementing a telecommuting program. every attempt should be made to open these programs to all employees. analysis. they may prefer to work a 4—day!! 0— mr per day work schedule. Chose a small division to pilot the telecommuting initiative. and Cigna. 3. then excluded group’ may feel discriminated against.“partners” who have complementary scheduling needs and skills.’9 Countless others are reengineering their work processes. Opened the program to all employees of the division. and Household International all have oh-sharing options available for their employees. or telecommuting for fear of being derailed from their career progression.64 Though oftentimes resisted by managers who fear loss of control and subordinate accessibility. Pfizer Inc. With this schedule. managers need to he trained and rewarded for encouraging their subordinates to use them without fear of derailing their good standing within the firm. General Motors. because of the competitive pressures that foreign business has placed on them. Flextime is another type of flexible work arrangement in which employees can choose when to be at the ofce. self-directed teams hav become important ingredients in the success of manufacturers worldwide! And now. CAP involves the systematic study. workers’ compensation. job satisfaction. AT&T. a large health care company. and retain employees with diverse nonwork needs. employees may decide that instead (it working 5 days a week for 8 hours a day. and absenteeism. Required interested employees to satisfy a formal proposal and performance standards. The risk here is that if only certain e.61 Companies such as CoreStates Financial. One research study concluded that flexible workweek schedules had a positive influence on employee performance. Limited the number of days to work at home to two per week.62 I—or example. European and Asian competitors of American corporations were revolutionizing job design by turning away from the basic dc1i1t of scientific management and embracing the quality management movement More recently. Required demonstration that the work could be accomplished off-site and that the employee could sustain and/or enhance performance. Although organizations like Pizer and the other faniily-friendiy firms are movmg forward to attract. to name a few—are also implementing self-directed work teams. maintaining their connection and communication with the office through phone. the employees do not have to be at the of&e on Friday. and assessment of .

12. interviews. methods. To accomplish this goal.000 jobs on the basis of occupational code. and provide details on job specifications. Reengineering is more than job redesign. prepare job descriptions. CAP determines current skill levels of employees in order to identify skill gaps. Training is required. Each part of the diagnostic HRM model is in some way affected by job analysis. 1. The management position description questionnaire (MPDQ) is a checklist of 208 items that assesses the concerns and responsibilities of managers. The job is the major building block of an organization. and job design all benefit immensely from job analysis information. . it cannot succeed. organization and process charts should be consulted to acquire an overview of the organization. industry. job analysts and other HR professionals are a crucial link in the reengineering processes upon which so many corporations are staking their competitive future. title. 14. The uses of job analysis information seem endless. duties. . It is a comprehensive approach and is currently viewed very favorably from a legal respective. This chapter has emphasized the major role that job analysis plays in HRM activities and programs. Thus. recognition.3. and things. selection.7° Without these or similarly intense efforts. Therefore. operating vehicles or equipment. Functional job analysis (FjA) is used to describe the nature of jobs. being physically active. and processing information. people. performing skilled activities. Strategic planning. and tasks to achieve optimal performance and satisfaction. Conducting job analysis is not for amateurs. and job incumbent diaries or logs. training. When a skill deficiency exists for the reengineered organization. it is essential that each characteristic of each job in an organization he clearly understood. It is taking a new look at the entire flow of work through an organization. 11. 6. redeployment. There are six sequential steps in job analysis. Without adaptable job descriptions. it can then be eliminated through a variety of programs including training. 7. the famous industrial engineer and father of what is called scientific management. however. communication and social responsibilities. Before conducting a job analysis. job design was a concern of F. and the skills needed to perform them in the reengineered organization. Four general job analysis techniques can be used separately or in combination observation. 2. and outsourcing. I 3. recruitment. starting with examining the total organization and the fit of jobs and concluding with the preparation of a job specification (see Exhibit 6—2). Job design involves structuring job elements. . The job is described in terms of data. 5. compensation. the reengineering will probably not succeed. job enrichment involves designing jobs so that employees’ needs for growth. and responsibility are satisfied. To summarize the major points covered in this chapter: .WTaylor. 9. The multimethod approach to job analysis uses a combination of these four general. The position analysis questionnaire (PAQ) is a I95item structured instrument used to quantitatively assess jobs on the basis of decision making. 10. The Dictionary of Occupational Titles is a listing of over 20. 4.

How might job analysis be helpful to an organization that is being sued for sex discrimination in . What are the six steps in the job analysis process? 2. Perhaps distributing memos. Using questionnaires requires preparation and conch careful initial steps. and this alone was threatening to many people. and using the expertise of trained job analysts can improve the atmosphere at Sprowl. Do you agree? Why? 3.Tim failed to plan thoroughly what he wanted to do. holding TERMS open discussions with informal leaders.A new person luded has to establish rapport o with emp’oyees before ir changing things. Job analysis is often referred to as the “cornerstone” of HRM.What do you now think about Tim Huggins’s job analysis process? Do you see why some type of training in job analysis is required Tim really lacked sufficient training. ti In the case of Sprowl ai Manufacturing. .Tim’s haste a and lack of preparation have now caused the situation to T reach a boiling point. He a needs to backtrack and slow down. What would you advise Tim to do about job analysis at this point? autonomy common metric questionnaire (CMQ) competency alignment process (CAP) feedback functional job analysis (FJA) job job analysis job analysis information format (JAIF) job characteristics model job description job enlargement job enrichment job family specification management position description questionnaire (MPDQ) niultimethod job analysis approach Occupational Information Network (0 *NET) organization chart POSItiOn position analysis questionnaire (PAQ) process chart skill variety strategic job analysis task task identity task significance 1.A trained job analyst knows that distribution of questionnaires without an explanation is bound to set off negative feelings. He was a new boss. and this lack was clearly revealed as the process got out of hand.

What is the difference between an essential and a nonessential skill? How are these related to the Americans with Disabilities Act? . skills.What is the emphasis of each? . and abilities? Both? Explain your answer. 5. What core information should be included in most job descriptions and job specifications? 6. As a current (or future) manager. how will you communicate the requirements of an entry-level customer service representative to a candidate who just arrived at your office for an interview? \Iill you describe the job in terms of cornpetencies? Knowledge.promotion? 6 4. Describe the mechanistic and motivational models of job design.

or (3) being regarded as having such an impairment. Worthington ceased working on March 25. Following the accident.S. On April 13. the Account Clerk I position required bookkeeping. maintenance (if accounts and parking tag books. (2) a record of such impairment. a plaintiff must prove that he or she is a “qualified individual with a disability who can perform the essential functions of their job. 9. checking receipts and vouchers. Worthington’s job. and skills for the Account Clerk I position. On July 1 3.” According to the AI)A. Ms. Worthington had a disability under the ADA. \Vorthington requested three accommodations from the City: (1) an ergonomic chair with neck and back support.000 in compensatory damages. 1 993. Following surgery for spinal problems aggravated by her fall at work. After an investigation.S. and checking receipts and vouchers. Dist. City of New Has en. Howevei the court disagreed and awarded Ms. she suffered neck and lower back pain when sitting For extended times. with or without accommodations. LEXIS 16104. she hled a grievance with the union. maintaining accounts. (2) replacement of overhead shelves with waist level shelves. As a result of the fall. The Facts Patricia Worthington was hired 1w the City of New Haven on December 23. Later in that same month. 1992. the Cit agreed to provide Ms. Worthingwn could perform the essential functions of the ob either with or without accommodations. and various other clerical duties. the City provided Ms. complaining that she was still required to stand for long periods of time.8. holding that she was a qualified individual with a disability who could perform the essential functions of the Account Clerk I position with reasonable accommodations. Ms. 1993. repeatedly denied Ms. Worthington with an ergonomic chair. 1994. Worthington’s requests for accommodai ions based on a lack of funds. Ms. preparing payrolls and financial reports. Worthington had a physical impairment of her musculoskeletal system that substantially limited her ability to walk and stand for long periods of time. The City claimed that filling in for an employee who collected parking fines which involved standing for long periods of time was also an essential function of Ms. who had preexisting back. 1995. she filed a grievance with the City. the City . The court found that Ms. Worthington $150. District Court for the District of Connecticut. The court examined the City’s job description for Account Clerk I to determine if Ms. . experience. due to her disability. Ms. neck. which could all he performed with only occasional standing. Despite recominendanons from her doctor for the ergonomic chair and letters froii ti’e Connecticut Bureau of Rehabilitative Services suggestinj a worksite evaluation. receiving payments. a disability is I) a physical or mental illpairmcilt that substantially limits one or more major life activities. Further. Describe the major components of the job characteristics model of job enrichment. According to the City’s job description. The court found that the essential functions of Account Clerk I involved preparation of payrolls and financial reports. Vorthington did indeed possess the required education. Worthington with a more comfortable chair. What challenges does the concept of reengineering pose for job analysis and human resources Based on Worthington v. On May 24. and (3) modification of her job duties so that she avoided standing for long periods of time. What is the ONET? How and when would a job analyst use the ONET? Do you think it will replace the Dictionary of Occupational Titles? Why or why not? 10. 199 I. the court found that Ms. as an Account Clerk I in its Tax Office. fell at work. Ms. Worthington filed a disability discrinnnation suit under the Americans with Disabilities Act in U. On February 3. The Court’s Decision To recover under the ADA. and knee in)uries. Worthington. 1999 U. Thus.

’. 3rd ed.. op. Sims (1990). Compensation Management: R en ‘a ‘ding Performance. Ronald Buckle’ (eds. pp. “Can Recruiters with Reduced . Vol. NJ: Prentice-Hall). pp. Harvey. and Got ‘er. 134—144. Levine (November—December 1980).Human Resource Implications Organizations must carefully define essential and nonessential job functions in their job descriptions and be prepared to provide reasonable accommodations requested by employees. Ferris.nnent. Gorham & Larnont). Judge. and 1-leneman.acl (ed. Veres 111. CA: Cansulting Psychologists Press).. and Ronald R. cit. cit. op. Heneman. S Robert •J. 2nd ed. Edward ‘F. 779_7$9 .). Kendrith M. Ash and Edward L. Human Resource Management: Perspectives and Issues. 3 I 2. . I (New Yorl Wilev. 53—59. p. A job duty is essential if (I) the position exists to perform the function.33. 1—larvey (1991). pp.3..” in Si d ne (. “Practical Findings from Job Analysis Research. p. 441—472. Bureau of Intergovernmental Personnel Programs (1 973). ‘Toni S. pp..’. “Job . op. 1 38—139. 2 Henderson.27— 3. 1. Staffing Organizations. (Boston: Allyn and Bacon). Harvey (Winter 1986). The Job A nalvsis Handbook /or I3usiness. (2) there are a limited number of employees who are available to perform the function. Atchison (Summer 1980). Henderson (1 989).’. pp. 86—89. Rowland. Government Printing Of6ce(. “Job Analysis in Practice: A Brief Review of the Role of Job Analysis in Human Resources Management. (Burr Ridge..S. (Englewood Cliffs. “Job Analysis. 2nd ed. Panaro. and Ronald A.33. . 198—1 99. pp. I-’anplovnu’nt Lan’ Manual (Boston: Warren. pp.27—3. 1)unnerte and I eaetra M. DC: U. IL: McGraw-Hill/Irwin). pp. essential functions are the fundamental hut not marginal duties of a job. ).” in Marvin 1). op. “A Framework for Evaluating Job Analysis Methods.). cit.. and (3) the employee was hired for an expertise or ability to perform a particular function.” Personnel. and M. Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psvchokg. Friedman and Robert J. In differentiating between essential and nonessential job functions in job descriptions. 71—163.. Vol. Gerard P Panaro (1991)). Richard I.Job Description Information Provide Accurate Position Analysis Questionnaire ( PAQ) Ratings?” Personnel Ps’t’cholog’. Jai Ghorpadc and Thomas J. Ivan Robertson anc Mike Smith (November 200 “Personnel Selection.” Public Personnel Management Journal. 1--lerhert 1-leneinan. cth ed. 2 (Palo Alto. Cornelius (198$).” in Gerald R. Hough (eds. employers should also consider how much time an emplace spends performing a jot) duty and the consequences of not requiring an employee to perform the duty. 3. Tiniothv Judge. pP 198—199. pp. Industry. pp.” Journal 01 ( )ccupatumal and Organizational l’sb)lnç”. cit. Ii John C. 48—68. “The Concept of Job Analysis: A Review and Some Suggestions. and Robert Heneman (2000).-\nalvsis: Developing and Dcuinenting Data” (Washington. pp. Locklear. 100. According to the ADA.

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each of these outlets has a store manager who reports directly to Mary. and jewelry. pp. shoes. Mary had been both a store manager and an assistant manager in a casual-wear department. Balkin. Hauser (May 1996). and several different combinations of departments can be found in Mary’s region. 66 Keith Hammonds. David B. formal wear. pp. 6 Sharon Leonard (July 2000). “Work and Family. “i Michael W. pp.” Work force.” lournal of Applied Psychology. “Self-Directed Work Teams: A Guide to Implementation. Janson. Gomez—Mejia et al. and George A. and Paul ludge (September 1997). cosmetics. cit. Mary is the regional manager for the Pacific Coast. “Flexible and Compressed Workweek Schedules: A Meta-Analysis of Their Effects on WorkRelated Criteria. NJ: Prentice Hall). and Implications for Managers.” California Management Review. Richard Hackman.” Training and Development. 68 Jane Gibson and Dana Tesone (November 2001). Vandenberg (Summer 1995).” Journal of Organizational Behavior. pp. (Upper Saddle River. The departments include casual wear. 496—513. Thomas E. 37—43. R. 96--lOl. 250—279. Ganstec çy 1. Managing Human Resources. “The Missing Piece in Reengineering. 368—370. 1288—1309. 61 Charlenc Solomon (September 1994). Managing Human Resources. which is one of Today’s Fashion’s largest markets. and K. “A New Strategy for Job Enrichment. pp. 62—66. “The Interactive Effects of Variety. Briggs. depending on the number of specialty departments. Jia Lin Xie and Gary Johns (October 1995). Purdy (Summer 1975). Prior to being appointed to the regional sales manager position. Oldham. 3rd ed. Joseph \V.ornez-Mejia Ct al. “The Legalities of Flextirne. Baltes. Managing Human Resources. 122—1 33. 8 1—87..1. Each outlet: has between three and five assistant store managers. Gomez-Mejia. Evolution.” journal of Management. C. 6’ Gillian Flynn and Sarah E Gale (October 2001). Autonomy. ‘ Nancy G.. pp. and Robert L. pp. ‘ Boris B. “The Baby Gap. a national chain of specialty clothing stores with 200 outlets across the country. Steve Hamm. 70 Nicholas F. These departments vary considerably in size and in the number of sales clerks reporting to the assistant manager. Piczak and Reuben Z. 56 Hackman and Oldham. pp. pp. “Management Fads: Emergence. Mary had often thought that she was responsible for many aspects of store management that other . 250—279. Wright. and Feedback on Attitudes and Performance. pp. pp. Double Headache?” Personnel Journal. “The Critical Psychological States: An Underrepresented Component in Job Characteristics Model Research. Mary Watson was recently promoted to the position of regional sales manager for Today’s Fashion. Neuman (August 1999). Dodd and Damel. 8 Robert W.996). Greg R. 64 (. “Job Sharing: One job. and . 187 60 Luis R. 279—303. 329—347.” Business Week. pp. Homey and Richard Koonce (December 1995). Each assistant manager is responsible for one particular specialty department..Performance. each store has a different collection of merchandise. pp. op.” HRMagazine. Rcnn and Robert J. 88—93.While she was an assistant manager.” The Academy of Management Executive. Pp. “Job Scope and Stress: Can job Scope Be Too High?” Academy of Management Journal. Because the chain’s success lies in being receptive to local customers tastes and buying habits. Roy Furchgott. Huff. Julie A. Cardy (2000).” Quality Progress. She manages 35 outlets in California and Oregon. 57—71.

lanages the daily functions of a specialty department in the retail (iperatio s. she was confident that she could construct an accurate and useful job description and specification for the assistant manager job. General Qualification Requirements I—lzicati . In addition. Maintains inventory records. Isiioivk’ilgc. training of new einph ivecs. Although she had no formal training in job analysis. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS I. and supervises department salcsclcrks daily. returns. primarily because of her personal experience with that position. The assistant store manager has responsibilit v for customer service. despite the chain’s success. 2. and layaway as needed. Mary interviewed three current assistant store managers from the outlet closest to her regional office in Sacramento. one of the first things Mary did after being appointed to the regional sales position was to initiate a job analysis for the job of assistant store manager. and maintenance of inventory.i: Minimum: Four-year college degree in marketing or related discipline from an accredited program. rather than simply writing from her own experience. L x/wrieIuce: • Minimum: 5ux months to one year in a retail environment. inerchatidising. Prepares the department for opening at the beginning of each day. Mary constructed the job description and job specification shown in Exhibit I She hopes that these documents will form the basis of a new selection program that she wants to implement for her region. Do they appear to be thorough? Do you think that they are adequate to serve as a basis for a new selection system? How well do you think these documents will work if Mary is sued for discrimination in her hiring practices? Why? Job Title: Assistant Store Manager Reports to: Store Manager General Description of the Job .Thus. She believes that the best way to improve store management is to hire assistant store managers who are qualified to perform successfully. 4. Critically evaluate the job analysis that Mary conducted for the position of assistant store manager.assistant managers were not held responsible for. However. Carefully read the job description and job specification that Mary prepared. On the basis of these interviews and her own experience.cnordinates. Mary had earned a BBA degree with a marketing emphasis from Wyoming State University. 2. Basic math . S. Mary felt that there was considerable room for improvement in how Today’s Fashion was managed. Ensures that the department remains professionally organized and orderly. cilnliti’s: I . directs. Principal Duties and Responsibilities • Assists customers in mcrrhandise sclecti ms.As a result. Has she used appropriate methods? What are the strengths and weaknesses of her efforts? 2. What kinds of factors about Today’s Fashion and its operations should Mary have examined more seriously in order to improve her job analysis? 3. supervision of saleselerks. skills. . (larilies any qiicstiu s or problems that a salesclerk encounters. she never really felt comfortable that her store manager had clearly defined her areas of responsibility. Preferred: One to three years as a salesclerk for Today’s Fashion. Frains.

He moved up in the department headquarters during the next seven years. Ed Humphrey. He was very excited as he entered Lois’s office. I hope you realize how much we are counting on you in Tampa. For a medium-sized operation. After that. High integrity 6. Clark Kirby was just entering the office of the vice president of human resource management. Clark. “Well. Now Gunther as opening a new plant in e quickly expanding Tampa market. but excessive . Self-starter/highly motivated S. Lois had selected Clark to be the human resource manager for the Tampa plant. in effect. These are. After a short management training program. Shortly you’ll be meeting your new plant manager. a position opened up in the HR department. who had been very supportive of his career. 2. it had one of the fastest growth records in the industry. Good udgmeni and independent thought 4. “You and Ed should work out the details. Ability to lift and can y boxes weighing approximately 15 pounds or less. Clark spent almost two years as •erating supervisor in a plant. Lois greeted him with. your recruiting quotas: Managers 38 Professional and technical 10 Clerical 44 Skilled employees 104 Semiskilled employees 400 You’ll receive a budget for maximum initial pay for this group shortly. and for Gunther. Lois Yates. Clark had majored in personnel at California State University at Los Angeles and wanted to try HRM work. Effective interpersonal skills . Clark had worked for Gunther Manufacturing for 10 years in Los Angeles.You’ll be working r for him but responsible to me to see that Gunther’s HRM policies are carried out. Good typing and computer skills •lvslcal reqiurelilents: Standing and walking required for more than 90 percent of work time. “The plant will be staffed initially with the following employees. Gunther was a growing firm.You can recruit some employees from the home office and other plants.2.This was what Clark had been waiting for: a chance to be on his own and to show what he could do for Lois.

raiding is not allowed. Remember, too, that Gunther has an equal employment opportunity problem. Wherever possible, try to hire qualified minorities and women to help us meet our internal goals. f “Your own HR office consists of yourself, one HR specialist to help you run the empleyment office, and one clerical employee. Good c luck!” F Clark quickly arranged a for a meeting with Ed, his v new boss. Ed, about 50 g years old, was a high school p graduate who had started a with Gunther as a blue- n collar employee when he u was 18 years old.After 10 years in various blue-collar E positions, Ed became a f foreman. Eight years later he i was selected as an assistant e to the plant manager. After e several years in this h position, he was made one tI of three assistant plant n managers at a Gunther plant n in Chicago. He held that position until being given h this new position of plant manager at the Tampa plant. After introductions, C Clark and Ed talked. p Clark Here are the figures t for employees that Lois gave e me. She also said we could recruit some people from p Gunther, but not to raid beyond company policy. E Also. Lois said we needed to rr do an exceptional job ti recruiting minorities and u women because we have an a EEO problem. ti Ed Let’s get something straight right off. You working for me now, not Lois. Here’s o a list of 20 manager I want F to take with me. It’s your a ‘job to persuade them to come to Tampa with me. In in cases where my help might persuade some to come along, call on me. But I’m very stressed now trying to get machinery ordered, the plant laid out, financing arranged, and so on. Call on me only When you must, understand? Oh, one more thing. That EEO *#/OX_you can forget that.The Tampa plant is going to be the most efficient in the company, or else! And if that means hiring the best workers and they all turn out to be white men, that’s tough, you get me? Keep me posted on what’s happening. Good to have you on board.

After some thought, Clark decided to use job posting as a method of attracting professionaltechnical and managerial employees at the Los Angeles office to the new plant in Tampa. He also made the personal contacts Ed asked for in recruiting managerial employees, and the skills inventory was used to come up with more applicants. Clark contacted these also. He did not use job posting or the skills inventory for clerical, skilled, or semiskilled employees. He knew that for Gunther, as with most organizations, these categories of employees rarely wish to (continued on next page)

move to another location. IMost companies don’t want t’ to pay relocation costs for h these categories of a employment, either. r Clark went to Tampa and set up the employment office at the new location. ‘ He ran an ad in Tampa’s F afternoon paper and placed a job listing with a private employment agency for the HR specialist and clerk- a typist for his office.Then he a, hired these two employees p and set up the office to a receive walk-ins. He ir provided application blanks . b and policy guidelines on n when selection would I proceed. Clark listed the available s positions with the U.S. v Employment Service. He also contacted private in agencies. He selected the hi private agencies after calling cc a number of HR managers w in the Tampa area in similar w businesses who were also hi members of the Society of tF Human Resource Management.The HR a specialist notified all the vocational-technical schools, a junior colleges, and colleges t[ Ii L.4 in the Tampa area. Also, all high school guidance counseling departments were notified. Clark wondered what other media he ought to use to publicize the positions. Clark found out quickly, as you will find in this chapter, that recruftment is a little more complicated than he originally thought. Before an organization can fill a job vacancy, it must find people who not only are qualified for the position but also want the job. This chapter descril)es the recruiting process as one of the ways that an organization can deal with shortages in its human resources needs. Recruitment refers to organizational activities that iiifluence the number and types of applicants who apply for a job and whether the applicants accept jobs that are offered. I Thus, recruitment is directly related to both human reour e

planning and selection. En addition, recruiting often represents the first coti— tact between organizations and prospective employees. As such, care should be taken to create a positive hrst impression with these job applications. Although recruitment can be quite expensive, organizations have not always treated it as systematically a other HR functions, such as selection. l)uring the coming years, however, the importance of recruitment will probably increase for many organizations. Even with a modest rise in recession-based unemployment at the beginning of the 21st century. fears of a looming tight labor market in the United States continue to plague organizations of all sizes..2 I)riven by the inevitable retirements of baby hoomers and fewer numbers of young people entering into the work- force, the labor shortage has caused many companies to develop retention strategies to hold onto their valued employees. For example, Hewlett—Packard Co. and Charles Schwab Corp. have preferred freezes or cut pay to avoid layoffs.4 Despite the fact that organizational layoffs reached a 10-year high at the end of the 1990s, experts anticipate a growing number of iabor shortages in high-skills areas. Exhibit 7—1 shows how the recruiting process is affected liv various factors in the environment. The recruiting process begins with an attempt to find employees with the abilities and attitudes desired lw the organization and to match them with the tasks to he performed. Whether potential employees viIl respond to the recruiting effort depends on the attitudes they have developed toward those tasks and the organization on the basis of their past social and working experiences. Their percepnon of the task will also he affecte.l liv the work climate in the organization and the Important interaction of the organization as a recruiter and the employee as a recruit is examined in the next section.

Government and Union Restrictions government regulations prohibiting discrimination in hiring and employment have INFLUENCES 1 direct impact on recruiting practices. As described in derail in (chapter 3, government agencies can and do review the following information about recruiting to see 1 [I organization has violated the law: • List of recruitment sources (such as employment agencies, civic organizations, schools) for each job category. • Recruiting advertising. • Estimates of the employment needs k)r the coming \ear. Source: Kenneth Sovereign (1999). Personnel Law. 4th ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall), pp. 46—51; Gerord Panoro (1990), Employment Law Manual (Boston: Warren, Gorham, and Lamont), pp. 1—10. • Statistics on the number of applicants processed by demographic category (sex, race, and SO on) and by job category or level. • Checklists to show what evidence was used to verify the legal right to work. Although there is no guaranteed way to avoid legal entanglements associated with recruiting, Exhibit 7— 2 provides some basic principles of sound recruiting practices. The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986 has placed a major responsibility on employers for stopping the floW of illegal immigration to the United States. The employer—not the government—is the chief enforcer of the prohibition against the unauthorized recruitment and employment of foreign-horn individuals. ’ Under the law’s “employer sanctions” arrangement, all employers are required to screen every applicant’s eligibility for lawful employment and maintain records demonstrating employment authorization. The IRCA is a complex piece of legislation, but its basic features fit into four broad categories: ‘—i’ Employer’s duty not to recruit, hire, or continue to employ “unauthorized aliens.” 2. Employer’s duty to verify the identity and work authorization of every new employee. ‘L_3 Employer’s duty not to discriminate on the basis of citizenship or national origin. _4. Amnesty rights of certain illegal aliens who are eligible to achieve temporary or permanent resident status in the country. Despite the difficulty that organizations have determining whether a worker is legally employable, the

5. 3. Labbr Market Conditions Another external environmental factor affecting recruiting is labor market conditions (these were described in some detail in Chapter 2). attorneys. Additional money will be spent on hiring more investigators. 4. . Do not rely only on word—of-mouth sources (if recruits. even informal attempts at recruiting will probably attract Post notices regarding the availability of a job. qualifications and desirable ones.government is currently planning to step up its enforcement of the IRCA. Use recruiting sources that will reach the greatest number of potential applicants in the job market. 1. lENT Publish a list of qualifications necessary to fill the job. and support staff. Be sure the job qualifications are applied to every applicant in a consistent manner. . 6.i PS. If there is a surplus of Iabor at recruiting time. Distinguish between essential 2. but some money will also he devoted to ensuring that legal applicants are not discriminated against because of the stepped-up enforcement activities. g wary of establishing qualifications that might directly or indirectly exclude members of protected groi.

To remain mpetitive. and The Wall Street Journal also regularly report on employment conditions .The talent auction has arrived. the Internet is one of the tools being used more and more frequently to satisfy these difficult recruiting goals. skillful and prolonged recruiting may be necessary to attract any applicants who fulfill the expectations of the organization. Nielsen. There are also sources of information on local employment conditions as they affect their members. experts are predicting no end to critical shortages of skilled labor. including Recruiting-Online. find resumes of people with any skill set or in any location in the world. Contract and temporary workers can now register at the website. These shortages are expected to be especially acute in high-tech industries such as computers and wireless communications. there is often an oversupply of qualified labor. Recently. A similar online auction site dedicated solely to high-tech talent can be found at www. and organizations are given the opportunity to bid against one another for a given worker. and obtain e-mail addresses of employees at companies that are merging or downsizing.html). and the Endicort Report. It should be kept in mind that in spite of the meteoric e in the use of the Internet for recruitment and job search activities. despite massive layoffs in some industries. when full employment is nearly reached in an (http://www. unemployment in the United States has recently hit record low levels and.At the same time. attract. and state divisi ofls of efriployrnent security and labor usually can provide information about specific types of employees. which appears in the Journal of College Placement. there has been another twist to Internet use in organizational recruitment and selection. An employer can find out about the current employment picture in several ways. C. it is difficult if not impossible for an organization to capture the degree of fit between an applicant’s personality and the organization’s culture from an electronic resume alone. In addition. organizations in these industries must find new innovative ways to identify. the unwary user should not be lulled into believing that the Internet can easily replace other forms of recruiting.Web postings still only represent approximately 2 percent of all job listings. Clearly.Though little research has been conducted to assess the success of these recruiting innovations. One way to stay current regarding online recruiting is to enroll in Internetbased courses that teach the latest in advanced online recruiting The largest job posting site in the world. Chances are virtual recruiting is here to stay. Various personnel journals. However. manage contact with thousands of passive jobseeker candidates. organizations that do not begin to capitalize on the Internet might soon find themselves at a competitive disadvantage. The federal Department of Labor issues employment reports.Bid4geeks. Course content at Recruiting. new developments occur almost daily that make the Internet more effective. take advantage of newsgroups and listservs. Such courses are available from a variety of verdors.As mentioned earlier in this chapter. there appears to be a considerable organizational interest in the concept.Online includes the following “how-tos”: build a candidate database. has added another capability to its Internet services. and hire people with the skills needed. Current college recruiting efforts are analyzed by the Conference Board. For example. how many applicants are available also depends on whether the economy is growing. the Month/-v Labor Review. In addition. Obviously. When companies are not creating new more than enough A.

This can help the organization avoid unrealistic expectations for potential employees: An employer might expect applicants who stand first in their class. the nature of the organization and the goals of the managers are highlighted. their abilities and past work experience affect how they go about seeking a job. progressive orgamzations now ul7derstand that effective diversity management is an integral strategic tool for enhancing competitiveness. the number of African American.’ \Xithout these. The location of the organization and the relevant labor market will play a major role in the CompoSition of the workforce. and job specifications in Chapter 6). Due in part to skills shortages. Such an analysis is done to determine whether the hrni’s employment practices are discriminatory. Then it uses these as its beginning expectations for recruits (see the sections on oL analysis. this policy means that many nrganizations recruit from outside the organization only at the initial hiring level. Hispanic.IIRM policies and prctices affect recruiting and who is recruited. are good-looking. Contrasting with this unrealistic approach. . the effective organization examines the specifications that are absolutely necessary for the job. and the organization’s image. and are willing to work long hours for almost no money. That is. One of the most significant of these is promotion from within. however. it must be valued by the organization. Native American. have 10 years’ experience (at age 21). Organizational policies and practices In some organizations.Composition of Labor Force and Location of Organization The influence of FIRM law on activities was noted in Chapter 3. It should be made clear to the recruiter which requirements are absolutely essential and which arc merely desirable. Fdr all practical purposes. organizational policies and procedures. job description. it is impossible for recruiters to determine how well any particular applicant fits the job. or Alaskan native employees in the workforce depends largely on the availability of these minority employees in the relevant labor market. labor market OF THE RECRUIT conditions. The techniques used and sources of recruits vary with the job. the next step in understanding the recruiting process is to consider the interaction between the applicants and the organization in recruiting. ORGANIZATION In Exhibit 7—2 (the diagnostic model). Asian or Pacific Islander. For diversity management to work. have worked their way through school. are presidents of extracurricular activities. unions. it has become important for an organization to anal‫غ‬ze the composition of its workfor . composition of the workforce. Recruiting requirements The recruiting process necessarily begins with a detailed oh description and job specification. the benefits can be tremendous in terms of outcomes ranging from higher 1ItI’ tfl I I(’tP1 (11crc11l1r ci ticfntiin X INTERACTIONS After considering how external factors such as government. an aggressive diversity management program will be essential for organizations entering the 21st century. The Organization’s View of Recruiting Several aspects affect recruiting from the organization’s viewpoint: the recruiting requirements set. as is the nature of the task. and location of the organization restrict AND THE recruiting options. Regardless of the location of the organization. But for those organizations such as Allstate Insurance with the foresight to embrace diversity. As far as the applicants are concerned. As the number of legal requirements has increased.

. teachers. and preferences based on past work experiences and influences of parents. it should be easier for an organization with a positive corporate image to attract and retain employees than an organization with a negative image.e. I the time and effort needed to recruit high—quality workers may be less than for competitors who rank poorly. For example. Others i1ay be involved in nepotism and favor relatives. A student leaving college generally expects to obtain a job that actually requires college-level education and skills. harriers created 1w economic conditions.Most employees favor this approach. SO do recruits have a set of preferences for jobs. The graduate might also have strong geographic preferences and expectations about salary and may anticipate that advancement will occur rapidly. These factors affect recruits in two Ways: how they set their job preferences. 0 Thus. Organizational image The image of the employer generally held by the public can affect recruitment. working in positions that Jo not require a bachelor's degree). the organization may have to adjust the job to fit the best applicant or increase its recruiting efforts. Is promotion from within a good policy Not always. In sum. Recruitment should also be somewhat easier for companies that exude a strong cumulate presence or positive flame recognition. promotion from within may be detrimental. The business does not compete effectively. In such cases. All these policies affect who is recruited. Understanding these is vital to effective recruiting. there yill still be approximately 6 million college graduates either unemployed or underemployed (i. Recruits also face barriers to Iinding their ideal job. If an inadequate number of high—quality people apply. and how they go about seeking a job. Other policies cait also affect recruiting. attitudes. All else being equal. such a recruit is not necessarily going to nd her or his ideal job. motor vehicle operators.. significant numbers of college radiates will Likely he working as retail sales employees. the limitations of its policies and practices. The Potential Employee’s View of Recruiting Exhibit 7—i highlighted several factors relevant to how a recruit looks for a job. and its image. or union restrictions. or the government bureau will not adjust to legislative requirements.level job openings between NOW and 2008 will nearly equal rhe number of college. the ideal job specifications preferred by an organization may have to be adjusted to meet the realities of the labor market. The incant has abilities. veterans. food preparers and wavers. Certain organizations have always hired more than their fair share of the disabled. for example. such as Coca-Cola or the most recent two— time winner. The techniques used for inrernal recruiting will be discussed later in this chapter. and they may look to these sources first. Although the Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts that the total number of college. Preferences of recruits for organizations and jobs Just as organizations have ideal speciation for recruits. Some employers also feel this practice helps protect trade secrets. government. or ex-convicts. and others. They feel this is tair to present loyal employ— ees and assures them of a secure future and a fair chance at promotion. for those organizations that reach the top of Fortune magazine’s “most admired” list.educated entrants to the labor force. However. An organization ma become SO stable that it is set in its vavs. and in administrative support roles. and new employees from outside might be helpful. General Electric.

product.-l : 8 T1. This information is used later in the search to help the applicant assess whether there is a fit with a particular job offer. trade publications.uir rciinw should include these items. and preferred lifestyles. self-presentation becomes critical.4 million job openings for job seekers. friends.1 Research also suggests that satisfaction with the communication process in recruitment is critical to attracting applicants.1 rr.ajb. What kinds of industries interest me? This question is usually based on interests in products or services.chi. and successful self-presentation. 1. networking. or service has a good future and will lead to growth and opportunity? Once these kinds of questions have been answered. An effective job search involves several steps including self-assessment.S. and the limits of organizational policies and practices. just as the organization must. hut from the perspective of the applicant. The recruit must anticipate compromises.’4 As previously mentioned. 4.tential employers and jobs. Sources of information include newspapers. many recruits prefer larger.” Many questions about possible employers must be answered before a list of alternatives can he generated. or large. the individual chooses an occupation—perhaps in high school or early in college. Deportment of Labor and the Public Employment Service. ‘ The job search is a process that begins with self-assessment. What factors affect the choice of occupation and organization? Obviously. it is also affected by unconscious processes. not for profit. First. the job seeker can generate a list of prospective employers using a wide variety of sources including fle\VSpapers. Then she or he chooses the organization to work for within that broader occupation. information gathering. career counselors. or no particular size? 2. Additionally. choosing an organization involves at least two major steps. and the Internet. 16 In reality. personal contacts. The purpose pf self-assessments is for job searchers to recognize their career goals and their strengths and weaknesses. however. and luck. Do 1 prefer working with mechanical objects or counseling people? This is a crucial question. Do I have sector preference (private.HRMEM0 Americas Job Fank is a coo perative eflbrt between the U. interests and values. Information gathering and networking are methods for generating lists of p0. medium. targeting specific jobs. there are many. followed by teachers. Have I checked to make sure that the government and union restrictions. chance.. and relatives. in order of . Currently. choice of an organization might be influenced by corporate image. When the job seeker has decided where he or she will send a resume.. Do I have a size preference: small. Source: ww-w. But a survey conducted by the National Association of Colleges and Employers found that occupational choice is most heavily influenced by parents. or public sector)? 3. From the individual’s point of view. college recruitment offices. The effective job searcher creates opportunities in a systematic way. Research suggests that recruiters want to see a resume and cover letter that is tailored to the position . it lists over 1. and organizational “insiders. well-established firms over smaller organizations. many factors that influence these decisions. The assessment is similar to what organizational recruiters will be doing. this decision isn’t always purely rational. Job search and finding a job: The recruit People who are successful at finding the “right job” tend to follow similar research processes.. It is not always enough to simply be in the right place at the right time.

Today. however. To help with this problem. An indication that you know something about the organization.21 the temptation to embellish one’s own qualifications might be difficult to ignore. 5. • Successful job seekers also prepare carefully for job interviews.24 Amoco’s career management system includes a similar type of job posting program. however. Whenever there is an madequate supply of labor and skills inside the organization. In the past. They do their “homework” and learn as much about the company as possible. job posting has become one of the more innovative recruiting techniques being used by organizations. it must effectively “get its message across” to external candidates. A model job posting program was implemented at National Semiconductor.2° And with the use of resume databases constantly increasing as an initial screening tool. Unfortunately for the organizational recruiter. 2. Reason you seek employment. Your specific job objectives. they use “impression management” tactics to their advantage. not all job seekers provide truthful resumes. The organization can look to sources internal to the company and. 4. they use an approach called job posting and bidding.’ A survey conducted by Reid Psychological Systems found that as many as 95 percent of college students are willing to he less than truthful about themselves when they are searching for a job. it is faced with the decision of how to generate the necessary applications. Computer software ilows the employees o match an available job with their skills and experience. 3. Openings in this organization are . especially since falsification of an application is typically grounds for dismissal. But job seekers need to understand that in the long run little can be gained from such practices. if necessary. for HR managers to be \vare of all current employees who might he interested in the vacancy. Many companies now see job posting as an integrated component of an eftective career management system. Most organizations have to use both internal and external ources to generate a sufficient number of applicants. to sources external to the company. nternaI Recruiting ob posting Organizations can make effective use of skills inventories for identifying nternal applicants for job vacancies. In addition. characteristics such as these are primary determinants of recruiters’ firm-specific judgments about an applicant’s suitability. It is difficult. Position you seek. OStings are computerized and easily accessible to employees. It is here that the organization’s choice of a particular method of recruitment can make all the difference in the success of the re •uiti efforts.22 Although it is not a good idea to present an unrealistic picture of one’s qualifications. job posting was little more than the use of bulletin boards and company publications for advertising job openings. interviewers are strongly influenced by an applicant’s interpersonal and communication styles during the interview. Your career objectives. It hen highlights where gaps exist SO the employees know what is necessarY if they wish to be competitive for a given job.2 Once an organization has decided it needs additional or replacement employees. In fact.C H A P T E R 7 Recruitment 1.

1 Inside moonlighting and employees’ friends If there is a short-term shortage. Organizations must be careful. the organization can use inside moonlighting. it must turn to external sources to supjilement its workforce. Court of Appeals. referrals of this kind can be a powerful recruiting technique. Other media used are billboards. organizations are becoming more proactive in their recruitment efforts. Various media are used. and television. The ad featured the Trix rabbit with the headline. the most common being help—wanted ads in daily newspapers. Organizations also advertise for people in trade and professional publications. A number of methods are available for external recruiting. Before going outside to recruit. Nationally. and summer internships are discussed here. then the person who posted the job is requireti to send the “applicant” specific feedback about why he or she was not selected... employment agencies. Sixth Circuit. executive search firms. it also suggests that it might not be wise to rely exclusively on referrals but rather to use them as supplements to other kinds of recruiting activities. telephone.PA K T II Acquiring Human Resources posted on a worldwide electronic system. Some job seekers do a reverse twist. If an employee applies for a transfer to a posted position and is turned down. or if no great amount of additional work is necessary. Some persons will clearly be motivated to accept the additional work if they are fairly compensated.” The copy continued. and protection of proprietary information. Media advertisements Organizations advertise to acquire recruits. External Recruiting When an organization has exhausted its internal supply of applicants. however. found a history of racial discrimination that was related to recruitment. In developing a recruitment advertisement. special-events recruiting. For example. There is also a separate section on college recruitment of potential managers and professionals. This case suggests that employee referrals should be used cautiously. c-recruiting.2 ihus. Media advertising. As labor shortages increase. Research indicates that walk-ins provide an important external source of applicants.z (1 975). Sonic organizations even offer “finders fees” in the form of monetary incentives for a successful referral. General Mills used its Trix cereal logo to create instant recognition among MBA graduates. The court stated: The practice of relying on relerrals by a predominantly white worktorce rather than seeking new employees in the iiiarketplace for jobs was found to be discriiiinating. especially if the workforce is already racially or culturally imbalanced. prevention of conflict of interest. It could offer to pi’ bonuses of various types to people not on a time payroll to entice workers into wanting to take on a “second job.S. it is estimated that approximately 6 percent of all employed people have held more than one job at the same tiIlle. the’ advertise for a situation wanted and reward anyone who tips them off about a job. When used wisely. however. a good place to begin is with the corporate image. “It’s Not Kid Stuff Anymore. many organizations ask present employees to encourage friends or relatives to apply. not to accidentally violate equal employment laws while they are using employee referrals.2X the U. “Now you’re au MBA who’s look— .2b Moonlighting is so common at some Organizations that HR departments consider issiing “moonlighting policies’ that include the communication of performance expectations. radio. subway and bus cards. in EEOC i l)ctroit Ediso.

ce of national origin. E-Recruiting Perhaps no method has ever had as revolutionary an effect on orgam/ . Look at the questions that could he raised by this ad. The advertisement shown in Exhibit 7—3 is the type that will care trouble for a firm. The ad appealed to nurses’ sense of pride in themselves and their profession. coded for -rudy. Another innovative way to attract prospective employees with particular skills • he use of recorded want. Effective recruiting ad:ertising is consistent with the overall corporate image. In addition. and screening procedures for too many people can be costly. Help-wanted ads must he carefully prepared. that is. and analyzed for impact afterward. “ Simply using a corporate logo is not enough.” urses are there to make sure you don’t get real scared. Want ad recordings were used by 40 companies recruiting engineers and scientists at a New York City convention. ads need to comply with EEO requirements and not violate the law. ° An innovative way to attract nurses was used in an ad campaign for Children’s 1-lospital Medical Center in for a dynamic growth-directed career environment . According to Forresrer Research of .ads. Because it’s not kid stuff anymore. job hunters were able to pick up a telephone and hear a three-minute taped recruiting message that included a jol description and details about how to ntact the company. Look to General Mills.itional recruitment practices--as the Internet.” “Nurses arc kind and hey don’t laugh whet’ you cry”—were written in a child’s handwriting and coinhitied with pictUres of nurses and children in the style of a child’s drawing. For example. or gender or a particular ::. Apple Computer’s advertising campaign has been very successful. the impact may not be as great. hut if the name is used. The ad ran in the Cincinnati Engineer newspaper. . in large part because it has achieved this congruence. it must be representative of the values that the corporation is seeking in its employees. This is a difficult decision to make in preparing recruitment advertisements. religion. At a special recruiting center. I lie headlines—”Nurses are smart and they know how to make you feel better. too many applicants may appear. . HR recruiters find that including diversity in recruitment ads helps to attract more employees from diverse populations. Media must be chosen.’’ Ads need to he written to ivoid indicating preferences for a particular race. the advertisement is -een as an extension of the companY. Therefore. however. It’s your Future. If the organization’s name is not used and a box number is substituted.

com—Leading technology job hoard with permanent and contract jobs. Monster.CareerBuilder.000 different websites devoted in some manner to job posting activities. This c-recruiting option provides almost immediate access to thousands of prospective applicants.Dice.corn—Job listings will be identified and sent to personal e-mail addresses. From the organization’s perspective. there are approximately 30. Compare these figures with the cost of using the “post a job express” option at Monster. • wwttjobson1zne.3 million resumes.NationJob.FlipDog. From the job seeker’s perspective.S. it is a relatively inexpensive way to attract qualified applicants.corn indicated that it listed 2. keyword. To assist them.000 or more. while CareerBuildcr.3 There are many reasons for the popularity of the Internet as a method of recruitment.corn—Search by career field. higher education. • wunv. job searchers can use any number of the following Internet-based job searching websites (for more information. post your resume.37 Organizations are also beginning to see that having their own human resources Web page on the Internet can he an effective a. using an executive search firm might cost an organization as much as one-third of a position’s first-year salary as a commission.Com (http://www. find samples of resumes and cover letters. There are other online services.corn—Search job postings. and use a salary calculator. seek career advice. It has become such an important source of job search information that GTE Corporation (Verizon) now receives between listed 8. the Internet has become one of the most prominent of all worldwide recruiting methods.Cambridge.corn—Search for jobs.000 traditional newspaper recruiting ads from large newspapers across the United States in one easily searchable datahas.5 billion in For example. Quite obviously. • u’ww. • iuww.0 million.000 and 30. companies now utilize the Internet for some or all of their recruitment-related activities.careerpath. the Internet allows for searches over a broader array of geographic and company postings than was ever before possible. and review career resources. job • www. Finally.000 e-mail resumes each year. the c-recruiting market in the United States in expected to grow from just $500 million in 2000 to $4. multicolored advertisement in a professional journal can easily cost $10. Current estimates are that over 95 percent of all U. which catalogs more than 100.HotJobs. location.33 The largest job-placement websites have reported huge increases iii the number of resumes that were posted in 2001. there are many other. and salary.corn—Search by (http://www. and in wbch a job is posted for 60 days in a single geographic location at a cost of about $300. Overall. more specialized online sites that focus on jobs in particular areas such as health care. see http://jobsearch.nionster.ddition to their overall recruitment strategy. and federal employment. For example. A typical organizational home page will provide background .corn—Search thousands of employment opportunities gathered directly from organizations’ • www. Massachusetts. A large. such as CareerPath. • www.

In addition.” HRMagazine. more so than s older individuals. there can be a tendency to disclose more information than they typically would using newspaper ads or other more traditional recruiting techniques. 4. The Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP) requires companies that do business with the federal government to keep track of applicant flow data (e. Be careful not to inadvertently screen out diverse candidates. When individuals communicate via e-mail to potential candidates. Due to the ease of sending an electronic resume. employers can eIectroncally screen candidates’ soft attributes. s Even with the existence of these legal risks. there are legal risks associated with the unbridled use of e-recruiting. they run the risk of creating adverse impact in their recruiting methods.Jerry Useem (July l999). 36—42. pp. and extended worldwide candidate reach such approaches offer. all signs indicate that e-recruiting is here to stay. in an attempt to avoid being deluged by resumes. Recruiters need to figure out a way to track applicants who apply for online job postings. 66—78. direct potential hires to a special website for online skills assessment. pp.This relative informality in the communication process could lead to the recruiter saying something that could come back to haunt them if the candidate does not get the job. 3. type and number of individuals who apply for different jobs). . “E-recruiting Ushers in Legal Dangers. younger r people will be more likely to be online. As with other important aspects of good management practice. E-mail communication might be too casual.g. interview candidates via videoconferencing.The legal risk can involve either poor selection of resumescreening software and/or using terms that disproportionately eliminate candidates from protected classes.’For Sale Online:You. then company recruiters need to get the message out to those a individuals who are less likely to be Internet-savvy and a use the online job search websites. Many recruiters. “Online and Overwhelmed. Make sure the job opening is communicated to large portions of the target population. Although such innovations are welcomed at a time of skills shortages and pressures to control internal costs. pp. If the target population for a given opening includes people of all ages. conduct background checks over the Internet. HR managers and company recruiters need to keep the following issues in mind when developing and executing an e-recruitment program: I. speed enhancement. Bill Leonard (August 2000). For example. the candidate has written documentation to show what the recruiter wrote.HR JouRNAL E-REcIUJITING: A WONDERFUL TOOL BUT NOT WITHOUT ITS RISKS Many would agree that the Web has revolutionized job 3 hunting and recruitment in the 21st century.” Work force. Currently. 70—72.The legal risk is that candidates may assume that they did not get the job due to a discriminatory reason and may file a complaint with the recruiting manager’s supervisor or even the EEOC. recruiters and HR managers are encouraged to use e-recruiting in an appropriate way to increase the attraction and selection r rates of well-qualified individuals. and manage the entire process with Web-based software. Sources: Gillian Flynn (April 2002). If recruiters don’t use traditional methods of job posting along with Internet-based approaches.” Fortune. recruiters sometimes find this tracking process to be a daunting task. Companies are very excited and amazed at the potential cost savings..The legal risk to employers is that they do not maintain adequate records and fail to be within compliance of the OFCCP. use screening software that searches for (or deletes based on) certain words or phrases.

while agencies deal primarily with middle. Ford Motor Company has conducted symposia on college campuses and sponsored cultural events to attract attention to its qualifications as a good employer.40 some experts claim recruiting costs have been reduced by 80 percent using these methods. Finally. Most executive search firms are on retainer. Finally. provide literature. while agencies deal primarily with middle. In contrast. companies such as Accenture and BAT Industries (a tobacco firm) actually begin identif Employment agencies and executive search firms Although similar in purpose.000 job candidates in a little under four hours of operation. The list of organizations using intern.johweh. Executives also make speeches at association meetings or schools to get the organization’s image across. the life insurance industry. it includes AT&T General Motors. The use of internships is. most major accounting firms. some organizations have successfully used special events to attract potential employees. a recent job fair held in Virginia was able to generate 4. in fact. many organizations now see them as a way to attract the best people in areas where there are labor shortages. agencies are usually paid only when they have actually provided a new hire. expose themselves to talented potential employees who may become their “recruiters” at school. Most executive search firms are on retainer. employment agencies and executive search firms differ in many important ways. schedule visits to headquarters. Executive search firms tend to concentrate their efforts on higher-level managerial positions with salaries in excess of $50. It appeals to job seekers who wish to locate in a particular area and those wanting to minimize travel and interview time. organizations may have hospitality suites at professional meetings.level management or below. They allow organizations to get specific projects done. One of the reasons that organizations are willing to pay these higher fees is that executive search firms frequently engage in their recruiting efforts while maintaining the confidentiality of both the recruiting or1ganization and the person being recruited.4 The realities of the job market of the I 990s have also introduced two new reasons for internship programs. Executive search firms tend to concentrate their efforts on higher-level managerial positions with salaries in excess of $50. and so forth. Though sometimes challenging to manage in times of higher unemployment. which means that the organization pays them a fee whether or not their efforts are successful. To attract professionals.P A R T I I Acquiring Human Resources Employment agencies and executive search firms Although similar in purpose. agencies are usually paid only when they havc actually provided a new hire. there is an Internet site to help the recruit. employment agencies and executive search firms differ in many important ways. Some estimates suggest that nearly one out of every three students at four-year universities will have one or more internship experiences before graduation. One of the reasons that organizations are willing to pay these higher fees is that executive search firms frequently engage in their recruiting efforts while maintaining the confidentiality of both the recruiting or1ganization and the person being recruited.39 Special-events recruiting When the supply of employees available is not large or when the organization is new or not well known. dramatically increasing. some organizations have successfully used special events to attract potential .39 Special-events recruiting When the supply of employees available is not large or when the organization is new or not well known. less well known employers. To do so. The website www. executive search firms usually charge higher fees for their services. In contrast. 42 Internship programs have a number of purposes.000. yes.000. For example. and provide trial-run employment to determine if they want to hire particular people full time. They may be scheduled on holidays to reach college students who are home at that time or to give people who are already employed a chance to look around. One of the most interesting approaches is to provide job fairs. This technique is especially useful for smaller. First.level management or below.41 And. They may stage open search/cfairs provides current listings of when and where job fairs will be held in the United States. Summer internships Another approach to recruiting and getting specialized work done that has been tried I’v organizations is to hire students as interns during the summer or part time during the school year. A group of firms sponsors a meeting or exhibition at which each has a booth to puhlicie jobs available. which means that the organization pays them a fee whether or not their efforts are successful. and advertise these events in appropriate media.ships is extensive. executive search firms usually charge higher fees for their services.

For example.ships is extensive.40 some experts claim recruiting costs have been reduced by 80 percent using these methods. Executives also make speeches at association meetings or schools to get the organization’s image across. yes. executive search firms usually charge higher fees for their services. and so forth. To attract professionals. They may stage open houses. This technique is especially useful for smaller. less well known employers. less well known employers. it includes AT&T.000 job candidates in a little under four hours of operation. The website www. employment agencies and executive search firms differ in many important ways. Most executive search firms are on retainer. Summer internships Another approach to recruiting and getting specialized work done that has been tried by organizations is to hire students as interns during thc summer or part time during the school ycar.johweb. They may stage open search/cfairs provides . most major accounting firms. there is an Internet site to help the recruit. agencies are usually paid only when they have actually provided a new hire. there is an Internet site to help the recruit.level management or below. and advertise these events in appropriate media. Executives also make speeches at association meetings or schools to get the organization’s image across. schedule visits to headquarters.41 And. while agencies deal primarily with middle. organizations may have hospitality suites at professional meetings. and advertise these events in appropriate media. They allow organizations to get specific projects done. a recent job fair held in Virginia was able to generate 4. They may be scheduled on holidays to reach college students who are home at that rime or to give people who are already employed a chance to look around. search/cfairs provides current listings of when and where job fairs will be held in the United States.41 And. organizations may have hospitality suites at professional meetings. First. General Motors.000. The use of internships is. schedule visits to headquarters. Some estimates suggest that nearly one out of every three students at four-year universities will have one or more internship experiences before graduation. The website www. To attract professionals. Ford Motor Company has conducted symposia on college campuses and sponsored cultural events to attract attention to its qualifications as a good employer. yes.43 The realities of the job market of the 1 990s have also introduced two new rcaSOflS for internship programs. Ford Motor Company has conducted symposia on college campuses and sponsored cultural evcnts to attract attention to its qualifications as a good employer. The list of organizations using intern. One of the most interesting approaches is to provide job fairs. a recent job fair held in Virginia was able to generate 4. Executive search firms tend to concentrate their efforts on higher-level managerial positions with salaries in excess of $50. provide literature. in fact. To do so. expose themselves to talented potential employees who may become their “recruiters” at school. One of the most interesting approaches is to provide job fairs.000 job candidates in a little under four hours of operation. It appeals to job seekers who wish to locate in a particular area and those wanting to minimize travel and interview time. provide literature. the life insurance industry. some organizations have successfully used special events to attract potential eiriployees. In contrast. 42 Internship programs have a number of purposes.40 some experts claim recruiting costs have been reduced by 80 percent using these methods.employees. For example.johweb. dramatically increasing. which means that the organization pays them a fee whether or not their efforts are successful. Though sometimes challenging to manage in times of higher unemployment. One of the reasons that organizations are willing to pay these higher fees is that executive search firms frequently engage in thçir recruiting efforts while maintaining the confidentiality of both the recruiting oranizarion and the person being recruited Special-events recruiting When the supply of employees available is not large or when the organization is new or nor well known. They may be scheduled on holidays to reach college students who are home at that time or to give people who are already employed a chance to look around. This technique is especially useful for smaller. compaiiies such as Accenture and BAT Industries (a tobacco firm) actually begin identif Employment agencies and executive search firms Although similar in purpose. many organizations now see them as a wa to attract the best people in areas where there are labor shortages. Though sometimes challenging to manage in times of higher unemployment. A group of firms sponsors a meeting or exhibition at which each has a booth to publicize jobs available. and provide trial—run employment to determine if the want to hire particular people full time. It appeals to job seekers who wish to locate in a particular area and those wanting to minimize travel and interview time. A group of firms sponsors a meeting or exhibition at which each has a booth to publicize jobs available.

In a way. The list of organizations using intern. of course. To do so. the summer internship means a job with pay. and provide trial—run employment to determine if they want to hire particular people full time. brochures and other literature about the organization arc often distributed. During the recruiting season (from about mid-October to mid-March). and in some .ships is extensive. and AT&T. of Saint Louis locates and places high-performing minority students in internship programs. This placement service is a labor market exchange providing opportunities for students and employers to meet and discuss potential hiring.current listings of when and where job fairs will be held in the United States. NCR. The college recruiting process is similar in some ways to other recruiting. In the typical procedure. many organizations now see them as a way to attract the best people in areas where there are labor shortages. recruiters generally believe that college recruiting is me of the most effective ways of identifying talented employees. The use of internships is. to a campus to interview candidates and describe the organization to them.4 From i-be student’s point of view. a chance to use one’s talents in a realistic environment. Seine students expect everything to be perfect at work. help them with college expenses. Sometimes the interns take up a lot of supervisory time. But the major prob1cm some organizanons have encountered concerns the expectations of students. but that organizations will be careful about controlling expenses. candidates are advised of scheduled visits through student newspapers. 42 Internship programs have a number of purposes. When it is not. The organization may also run ads to attract students or may conduct seminars at which company executives talk about various facets of the organization. Summer internships Another approach to recruiting and getting specialized work done that has been tried Lw organizations is to hire students as interns during the summer or part rime during the school year. time-consuming. dramatically increasing. the life insurance industry. most major accounting firms. usually called a recruiter. Coinciding with the visit. General Motors. They allow organizations to get specific projects done. GE Capital Services. However.4” An internship can also mean real work experience for the student. At the placement service. the organization sends an employee. they reserve preliminary interviews with employers they want to see and are given brochures arid other literature about the . for example. assuming that it is less well organized than others in the field. and expensive for the organization. those seeking employment register at the college placement service. mailings. Many companies claim that they want to he more aggressive in recruiting minorities but say that the competition for talented people is severe. Nonetheless. Its major supporters include NationsBank. First. bulletin hoards. they get negative impressions about the organization they have worked for. Their hope is to develop a lasting relationship with these talented young people. cases. and so forth. and their work is not always the best. it is a short form of some co-op college work and study programs. earning course credit hours. companies such as Accenture and BAT Industries (a tobacco firm) actually begin identify talented students in their senior year in high school.4 The realities of the job marker of the 1 990s have also introduced two new rcasons for internship programs. Some estimates suggest that nearly one out of every three students at four-year universities will have one or more internship experiences before graduation. in fact. and provide paid work experiences. Such disillusioned students become re vers recruiters.4 All this suggests that college recruiting will continue to play an important role in organizations’ overall recruitment strategies. provides students with approximately 600 paid internships each year. To help. College recruiting There is a growing gap between the skills that organizations will need over the next several years and those currently possessed by potential employees. it includes AT&T.44 A second new reason that organizations are using more internships is to improve the diversity of their recruitment efforts. expose themselves to talented potential employees who may become their “recruiters” at school. a possible future job. College recruiting can be extremely difcult. in college recruiting. and SO forth. Inroads has working relationships with organizations in 33 different states. There are costs to these programs. Inroads Inc.

They want to be evaluated for their own acomplishments. the recruiter. like most people. “The company might justas well have sent a tape recorder. students infer that he or she represents a dull and uninterestingcompany. Students’also have preferences for specific behavior during the recruiting interview. This reduction is. Finally. also unanimously reject stressful or sarcasth interviewing styles. If the recruiter seems bored. Second. the one who is actually ‘seen by the applicants and is viewed as an exte4. They. The recruiter is the filter and the matcher.4X Some bargaining may take place on salary and benefits. Characteristics they want most in the recruiter are friendliness. personal interest in the applicant. and it may reduce the size of that list even further—down to as few as 10 or 12 schools—for its recruiting activities in engineering. Intervieu’s that are stress ful or too persona1 Students resent too many personal questions about their social class. bureaucratic. and obviously good salespeople. applicants want to discuss opportunities with someone they perceive to be knowledgeable about the company. They must he outgoing. spouse. he or she is given an offer before leaving the site or shortly thereafter by mail or phone.sion of the organization. selfmotivated. and professors. Students infer indifference if the recruiter’s presentation is mechanical. however. fcirat least two reasons. For example.Students who are invited to the site are given more job information and meet appropriate potential supervisors and other executives. Monsanto recently cut the size of its university recruiting list by 50 percent. The trcnd seems to he for an organization to develop a stronger. One of the most important influences remains. and truthfulness. In addition. in part. however. Many of the changes are designed to reduce overall recruiting costs while maintaining a strong flow of applicants into the organization. and so forth. As with other forms of recruiting. One student reported. recruiters should be very familiar with the company they represent. The recruiter is seen as a primary example of the kind of person the organization values and wants to attract in the futUre. . organizations are becoming more creative in their use of colleges and universities. Good recruiters convey’ an image and appearance that reflects fa1vorably on the organization. made possible by Monsanto’s increased activity in internship programs. The candidate then decides whethetto accept or reject the offer. and programmed. If the organization wants to hire an individual. good recruiters also possess welldeveloped interpersonal skills because part of their responsibility should be to determine why job offers are accepted or rejected by candidates. friends. family.49 The effective college recruiter Various people influence the applicant during the process of choosing a job: peers. For these reasbns.’° MajG. knowledge. depending on the current labor market. recruiters must be carefully chosen• b the organization. ongoing relationship with a relatively select number of schools. Students prefer recruiters who have work experience in their specialties and have some personal knowledge of the university they are visiting. the recruiters need to be able to determine whether the applicant will fit into the value system of the organization. The organization bears all expenses. their parents. First. They are entertained and may he given a series of tests as well.r flaws students have found in typical recruiters include the following: Lack of interest in the app1iant. Some’ ipplicants prefer enthusiastic and knowledgeable communicators.” Lack of enthusiasm.

Work experience disconfirms expectations. 54. REALISTIC JOB . Time allocation by recruiters. High rate of acceptance of oh offers. satisfaction.52 A realistic job preview provides the prospective employee with pertinent information about the job without distortion or exaggerat.0] TRADITIONAL PREVIEW REALISTIC PREVIEW CONSEQUENCES Sets initial job expectations too high. Some jobs are all of these things. number of employees.1 The RJP presents the full picture. Research suggests that recruitment can he made more effective PREVIEWS through the use of realistic job previews (RJPs). and challenging. needs matched to job. Other research also suggests that recruiters may have very little positive influence Ofl an applicant’s choice.on. much of the recruiter’s time is wasted if it includes a long. as suggested in Exhibit 7—4. DPREEVEW Job is typically viewed as attractive. The final criticism of recruiters has to do with how much rime they talk and how much they let applicants talk or ask questions. From the point of view of the applicant. and imulating. infrequent thoughts of quitting. thoughts of quitting. john P Wonous (july—August 1975). When they do so. ‘Tell It Like It Is at Realistic Job Preview. Good recruiters are not going to guarantee success in filling positions. p.ber of people apply. Wanous (992). branches. In this case.” Personnel. and so forth. frequent High job survival. pp. products. most jobs have some unattractive features. canned history of the company. Job may or may not he attractive. Although they can and do make a difference. depending stimulating. Many of the questions the recruiter asks applicants are answered on the application blank anyway. Orientation. on individual’s needs. In traditional job previews. Sonic accept. they can have a negative effect on applicants even when the job and the organization are both appealing.51 It is important for recruiters to provide realistic expectations about the job. however. and Socialization of Newcomers Boston:Addison. there is significantly lower turnover of new employees. Organizational Entry: Recruitment. pension plans. and the same nurn.Wesley). the job is presented as attractive. sonic reject job offer. warts and all. glowing descriptions of the company rather than a balanced or truthful presentation. . applicants’ decisions are affected more by characteristics of the job and the organization than they are by particular characteristics of recruiters. w job survival.1 EXHIBIT 7-4. However.CH A P T ER7 Recruitment 2 0 7 . source: Adopted from John P. Work experience confirms expectations. matched to needs. Researchers have found that most recruiters give general. dissatisfaction. assets. interesting. Recruiters do make a difference when they do riot present themselves well. 53—86. Sets oh expectations realistically. “Dissatisfaction and realization that job is not Satisfaction.

On a limited. at least six leasing companies have gone bankrupt. there is no conclusive evidence supporting the effectiveness of realistic job prcviews. short-term basis.” involves paying a fee to a leasing company or professional employer organization (PEO) that handles payroll. temporary employment agencies were seen only as sources of . RJPs do not reduce the flOW of highly capable applicants. Leasing is especially attractive to small and midsize firms that might not otherwise be able to afford a full-service human resources department.. Employees hired after RjPs indicate higher satisfaction. organizations avoid the costs of recruiting and having additional employees. Studies conducted at Southern New England Telephone. An organization’s human resource plan may suggest that additional or replacement ALTERNATIVES employees are needed.Exhibit 7—4 presents the typical consequences of traditional previews versus realistic previews. Overtime can also provide employees with additional income. But while small businesses can expect to save from 15 to 30 percent of benefit costs such as health insurance premiums by using leased employees. though. employce benefits. and increased absenteeism. sometimes called “staff sourcing. at present there is still uncertainty as to why RJPs have the effects they do and in what contexts they are likely to be the most effective. At this stage of development. an alternative to recruitment may be used. RJPs can set the job expectations of new employees at realistic levels. Continuous overtime. leaving approximately 36. Overtime When a firm faces pressures to irleet a production goal. In recent years.000 workers and hundreds of small businesses liable for millions of dollars associated with health care and other workers’ compensation claims. increased accidents. These findings suggest that RJPs can be used as an inoculation against’disappointment with the realities of a job. Although it seems clear that RiPs can have beneficial effects. By having employees work overtime. because of the cost and permanence of recruiting TO RECRUITMENT individuals. and routine human resource management functions for the client company. it may mean that employees need to work overtime. However. and the U. having some employees work overtime may be an alternative to recruitment. care must he exercised in choosing a leasing company.4 The results indicated that: Newly hired employees who received RJPs have a higher rate of job survival than those hired using traditional previews. has often resulted in higher labor costs and reduced productivity. Historically. however. Military Academy have used and reported on the RJP.S. Employee Leasing Employee leasing. there are potential problems: fatigue.57 Temporary Employment One of the most noticeable effects of the downsizing epidemic and the labor shortages of the past two decades has been a dramatic rise in the usc of temporary employees. Texas Instruments. Prudential Insurance Co. However.

Then it drops from the list those cain— [“uses that are not productive. training. or 100 technicians. “just—in-time” employees can be found staffing all types of )obS in organizations.58 There are. semiskilled clerical help (luring peak work periods. an easily accessible source of experienced labor. the Orgafli/atloli can calculat the cost of each .The advertising Sl approach was innovative.000 temporary employment agencies across the United States that have been in business for more than one year. including suburban and ethnic papers.’ H I. They may he those who meet or exceed quotas and those whose recruits stay with the organization and are evaluated well by their superiors. nearly 7. and higher executive positions. On this basis. This unfamiliarity detracts from their commitment to organizational and departmental goals. or 100 managerial employees per year. In addition. Today.60 The cost advantage of using temporary help sterns from the fact that the organization does not have to provide fringe b nefits. including professional. Clark knew that would be no easy job. he had the follow.’’ The major advantages of temporary employees include relatively low labor costs.n ing numbers of applicants: Managerial positions 68 hi Professional-technical I 0 Clerical 78 Skilled employees 110 Semjskilled employees 720 Clark notified Ed of the results. can be evaluated. or a compensation and career plan. Sc luded The pay and working conditions offered at the r Tampa plant were competi. He also discussed the impact and readership of the papers with the human resource managers he’d befriended.Clark Kirby got prices of ads from all the Tampa papers. In college recruiting. The methods of recruiting that are used Lw a company can he evaluated along :ariotls dimensions.The job was now to select the best applicants. technical. the organiza‘n can divide the number of job acceptances by the number of campus interviews compute the cost per hire at each college. Effective selection and hiring are the subjects of Chapter 8. ANALYSIS OF Organizations assign goals to recruiting by types of employees. in fact. Sources of recruirs can also be evaluated. He chose commuter times to run the C radio ads. the leading C I. and flexibility in responding to future changes in the demand for workers. a goal for RECRUITING a recruiter might be to hire 350 unskilled and semiskilled employees. and a suburban paper in an area c near the plant. After Clark’s recruiting C campaign.. such as the effectiveness of recruiters. Li Hispanic paper. COST-BENEFIT Many aspects of recruitment. or 100 machinists. He also investigated the ti leading radio stations and c selected the one that had in the highest rating of the top M three and the lowest commercial cost. Then the organization can decide who are the best recruiters. The temporary worker can ye in and out of the firm when the workload requires such movement.s tive. he chose the ajor Tampa afternoon aper. For example. A disadvantage of hiring temporary help is that these individuals do not know the culture or work flow of the firm. the leading black newspaper.

. 66. multipurpose HR people or operating managers recruit and interview applicants. Recruiting is the set of activities an organization uses to attract job candidates who have the abilities and attitudes needed to help th organization achieve its objectives.The passage of 3. a. . 2. Another aspect of recruiting that can be evaluated is what is referred to as the quality of hire. the composition of the labor force. inequitable performance ratings. affect them in two ways: how they set job preferences. Some caution must he exercised with the quality-of-hire measure when evaluating the recruitment strategy. and how.PART I I Acquiring Human Resources method (such as advertising) and divide it by the benefits it yields (acceptances of offers). teachers. and the location of the organization. moonlighting by present employees. the state of the labor market. good. In larger organizations. 6. The organization can also examine how much accurate job information was provided during the recruitment process. the HR department does the recruiting. in smaller organizations. 5. Three factors affect recruiting from the organization’s viewpoint: recruiting requirements. Two sources of recruits could be used to fill needs for additional employees: present employees (internal) or those not presently affiliated with the organization (external). suggested the importance of recruiting. Internal sources can be tapped through the use of ‘ob posting and bidding. and how they go about seeking a job. A good new employee can he driven away by a lack of opportunities for promotion.g. where. It will be up to management to determine whether this represents an excellent. Applicants’ abilities. and the organization’s image. or job market conditions that have nothing to do with the effectiveness of the recruiter. organizational policies and procedures.. the quality-of-hire measure can provide some insight into the recruiter’s ability to attract employees. 35 percent) N = number of indicators used Therefore.6% The 66 percent quality-of-hire rate is a relative val-ue. and preferences. This measure can provide management with an assessment of the quality of new employees being recruited and hired. 4.g.6 I The quality—of—hire measure is calculated as follows: QH = (PR + HP + HR)/N where where QH quality of recruits hired PR = average job performance ratings (20 items on scale) of new hirees (e. External factors that affect the recruiting process include influences such as government and union restrictions. or poor level. fair. = This chapter has demonstrated the process whereby organizations recruit additional employees. and shown who recruits. and others. 4 on a 5-point scale or 20 items x 4) HP = percent of new hirees promoted within one year (such as 35 percent) 1-IR = percent of hirees retained after one year (e. Performance ratings and promotion rates are all bey()nd the control of a recruiter. attitudes. To summarize the major points covered in this chapter: 1. based on past work experiences and influences by parents. Nevertheless.

C H A P T E R 7 Recruitment and seeking recommendations from present employees regarding friends who might fill vacancies.. What role do job descriptions and job specifications play in an effective recruitment program? 4. d. and summer internships are among the methods that can be used to recruit external II. . 1. App.. 4ichgan.: 1998).cum e. Being enthusiastic. Caree rPa th.3 (U. 9. The Internet is revolutionizing organizational recruitment and may become the primary job search tool in the coming years. what steps should recruiters follow to screen out unqualified candidates in a fair and nondiscriminatory manner? Explain your answer. 7.. Considering that there are millions of resumes posted on the Web. Sixth Ci. 138 F3d \X’arren’s labor force was compnscd of 0. special-event recruiting. 10. Visit three different job search websites.S. personal recruiting. in. Allotting enough time for applicants’ comments and questions. applicants. temporary employees. . What guidelines should be followed to make sure that recruitment advertising does not violate equal employment laws? Give some do’s and don’ts in recruiting interviews in terms of the legality of questions asked. What has led to an increased use of temporary employees in organizations? What are the major advantages of using temporary employees? 6. referrals from schools. Advertising. External sources include walk-ins. Showing a genuine interest in the applicant. What are the characteristics of an effective and an ineffective college recruiter? 10. Discuss how the Internet has changed recruiting. and employee leasing. II. b.2 percent African 108. (enus reports in 1980 indicated that newspapers that were circulated primarily in 1acomb . Search for a job in a particular region of the United States. The City of Warren. v. recruiting employees. Alternatives to recruiting personnel when work must be completed include overtime.corn online recruiting realistic ob preview recrii itillent 1. 211 a. Michigan. while rhe Facts 1)etroits labor force was 59. The African American labor force in the remainder of Macomb County was 1 3 percent. computerized matching services. S. How can it be used to reduce turnover? .-—.recruiting ciuployce leasing eiuploynicnt agencies executive search rms lmmigrarionReform and Control Act (1RCA) of 1986 job posting and bidding job search Monster.Which of the three websites is most useful to job seekers? Explain your answer. and state employment offices. \Varren placed advertisements in three adiaccnt to l)ctroit. Employing a style that is neither too personal nor too stressful.7 percent African American. c.S.. Americans. In Flie city of Warren. A better job of recruiting and matching employees to jobs will mean lower employee turnover and greater employee satisfaction and organizational effectiveness. Describe a realistic job preview. is located in Macowl’ County.£. What are the relative strengths and weaknesses of promotion from within as a recruitment technique? HRM LEGAL ADVISOR Based on U.

).” Fortune.igement: Time for a New Approach. “Pop Quiz: How Do You Recruit the Best College Grads?” I’ersonnel Journal. Wayne F. “The Looming Leadership Crisis. 142.S. combined with its refusal to publicize jobs outside the racially homogeneous county. I)C: Bureau of National Affairs). 75—92. The City of Warren argued that sparate impact analysis was not applicable to recruiting cricea The Court’s Decision The U. pp. 151 .” Further. p. & Placement (Washington. “Corporate Image. pp. Shari Caudron (September 1999). Jeremy Kahn (October 11.” Business Horizons.” Business Week. After its investigation indicating that Warren’s residency requirement and recruiting media had an adverse impact against African Americans. 1999). “I)ivcrsitv Man. Wairen required applicants for all lobs except police and firefighters to be residents of Warren. 73—102. alleging that they potentially discriminated against African Americans on the basis of race. “Recent Legal Decisions Affect You. pp. (. “A Smarter Squeeze. Hatch. Gatewood.” in Wayne F. “The Immigration Reform and Control Act Demands a Closer Look.” Managenu’nt Review. Barlow. 34—35. Ivancevich (August 1999). 2 Gillian Flyim (August 1995). 64—67. pp. “Engagement or I)isengagement? Older Workers and the Looming Labor Shortage. Dean Foust (Decen her 2001).S. John Ivancevich and Jacqueline Gilbert (Spring 2000). Companies should consider general commuting patterns as well as public transportation availability in determining where to recruit employees. the U. 46—52.illiaii Finn (Sepn’mher 1995).” Anzcrican Demographics. p. Robert I). As a result. 126—130. Lautcnschlager (April 1993). &Ite Ann Stead. and Initial lob Choice Dcci Sions. 267—268ff. Breaugh 1992). 2 Aaron Bernstein (May 2002). and Gary j. pp. pp. J. Cascio (ed. “Iooniing Labor Shortages. Human Resource’ Planning. 414—427.” A cadem of Management Journal. pp. Peter Fraiiccse (ovcmhcr 2001). Recruitment: Science and Practice (Boston: Kent). pp.S. The U. Week. Gilbert. “America’s Most Admired: What’s So Great about GE?” Fortune.” Journal of Business Ethics. Recruitment Image. pp. Mary A. Additionally. pp. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit ruled that the’ disparate impact theory of discrimination was applicable to any “facially neutral pohcv with a discriminatory effect to Title VII. 61—7b A Competitive \X’eapon.” Personnel lournal. Alexandra Harkavy (july—August 2000). . the United States filed a suit in district court alleging race discrimination under Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act. pp.” Busines:. Department of Justice notified the City of Warren that it planned to initiate an investigation of Warren’s recruiting practices. Warren did not advertise municipal jobs in Detroit newspapers. Employment.” Human Resource Implications A basic assumption of this case is that the City of Warren should have been recruiting employees from the greater Detroit area. Glenn McEvoy and Mary Jo Blahna (September—Octobcr 2001).” Work force. Supreme Court has indicated that a company’s proper geographic recruiting area should include locations from which applicants or employees are likely to commute. pp. produced a de facto barrier between employment opportunities and members of a protected class. and John M.” Public Personnel Alanagement. 42—44. 72—79. 24—30. “Too Many Workers? Not for Long. “External and Internal Recruitment. 153. “1)o I Really Want to Work for This Company?” Across the Board. the city’s municipal workforce was approximately I percent African American. James A. Scott Lord (1989). Jacqueline A. pp. Justin Fox (March 2002).” Personnel Journal. the court held that “Warren’s limitation of its applicant pool to the residents of the overwhelmingly white city. Diane D. 14—19.County and placed job postings in municipal buildings. Gowan. In February of 1986. pp. and Betty Southard Murphy (April 1996). Employers may avoid discrimination problems related to recruiting by ensuring that its internal and external recruiting tools are unbiased and sufficiently reach the company’s qualified labor market. “I)iversity Management: A New Organizational Paradigm. pp. 4. “The World’s Most Admired Companies.

“Do You Need a Moonlighting Policy?” HRMagazine. 22—24. 76—80. ° AP Online (D.” HRMagazine. “E-Recruiters Swim through a Sea of Resumes.’enzent Journal. Samuel Greengard (March 1996). pp. 25 Marc Hequet (April 1995). pp.” Information Today. 2(1 Elaine McShulskis (August 1997). “10 Tips for Getting Net Results. 26 Bill Leonard (J lily 1997). Scott Lord (1989). “6 1)cgrees of Hire . “Job Fair Challenges for HR.s. “Beware College Grads Willing to Lie for a lob. pp . “Employers Use \Veb to 12 rr. 61—77.. 2—9. 31. 232—252. 59—60. David Bowman and R.” Vocational Gi.idance Journal. Bewayo (May 1990). pp.” ( )ccupatiunal ( )utlook Quart e’ilv. pp. pp. pp. 2001). 28. pp. op. 29 Margaret Magnus (August 1986).” Acade. 4 22 Sandy Wayne and Robert Liden (February 1995). ° Martha Frase-Blunt (April 2002). “The Relative Influence of Interview Communication Satisfaction on Applicants’ Recruitment Interview Decisions.30—34.” Personnel fourizal. 1999). “Diversify Your Recruitment Advertising.” 1-IRMagazine. pp. Chad Fleetwood and Kristina Shelley (FaIl 2000). 51SF. 50 Jennifer Koch MarcIi 1990). Watson (June 1995). (December 3. “Recruitment: Apple Ads Target Intellect. pp. 45—47. and Face-to-Face Media oil Interviewer and Applicant Judgments in Employment Interviews. Human Resource Plannin’. 9—12. pp. ‘The Power of E-cruiting. pp. 46—54. “Rate of Moonlighting among Workers Holds a Steady Pace. “Recruitment Ad Vantages. “Resume Preparation: An Empirical Study of Personnel Managers’ PerLeptions. 2 Carolyn Hirschrnan (October 2000).” Personnel Journal. pp. 62—66.” HR Magazine.” HRMagaz.301. “Resume Databases to I)ominate Field. “Low Cost Recruiting for Quality. “The Effects of Videoconference. Sixth Circuit (Cincinnati).nv of Manal.” Training. and Laurie Levesque (2001). 3B.” in Wayne F.r. DC: Bureau of National Affairs). 68—(). cit. “Effects of Impression Management on Performance 4 Ratings. 38—39.” Personnel fournal. 1998—2008: A Balancing Act. Telephone. p.” Mana.S. Steven M. Einplo’.” Journal of Management. . Cascio (ed. ‘ Steart Deck (March 2000). 29 EEOC v. “Students Offer Views on Career ( lmices.’nient. “The Intern Turnaround.” Personnel Psychology. IN Hubert Field and William Holley (March 1976)..fl. 107—114. Detroit Edison Company (1975). I 213 Piturro.n. “External and Internal Recruitn1ent. Shirley Duglin Kennedy (July—August 1996). ‘ Matthew Mariani (Spring 1996).. p.ember 3. Kweskin (1990). “What College Recruits Expect of Employers.’cuunt Rei’u’u’.n.” HRMagazme. Court of Appeals. 2d . “Effective Job Posting Fills Dual Needs. 2 Marlene Piturro (JanLiary 2000). 16 Susan Strauss. 73—102. Andrew Bargerstoek (August 1 990). “Interviewer Assessments of Applicant ‘Fit’: An Exploratory Investigation. pp.12—18. 363—381.” USA Today. 0 Ruth Thaler-Carter (June 2001). “The Amoco Plan. pp.). pp. 1999). and Placement (Washington. “Need a New lob? (jet to Work on the Web.. 4 2 ilan Moravec (September 1990). 10. pp. 4 21 Bill Leonard (April 1993).fl. 25 Sara Rynes and Barry Gerhart (Spring 1990). 13—36. ° Bibi S. pp. ° Edward 1).” HRMagazine. pp. p. 33—37.” Time. U. 33—37. p. pp. Jon Swartz (February 19. 229—237.58—79. op. pp.” Management Review.rt . Jeffrey Miles.” Personnel.” ()cczipatuozal ( )utlook Ouartcrlv. 92—100.” HRMagazine. “ Jeffrey Kluger (June 2002). Q: Hou’ Do I Find the Right Job (New York: Wiley).” Journal of Busmess Communication.. pp. “1 he Outlook for College Graduates. Ralston and Robert Brady (january 1994). “Pumping Up Your Past.n(. cit. AP Online.

°‘ Dawn Gunsch (September 1993). cit. “Face Value. 7L25. 34—44. “Crushed Hopes: When a New lob Proves to Be Something 1)1 ffercnt.. “The Search for Effective Methods. Thomas . pp.Learning.. 132—140. 1987). 612—6 19.. op. “Looking for Young Talent? Inroads Helps Diversify Efforts. Susan Taylor (May—June 1984).ç’. 1996).” Journal of Applied Psvcholog. 34—36.” HR Magazine. “Beating the 1990s’ Labor Shortage. T. “Temp Firms Turn Up the Heat on Hiring.. pp.” Nations Business. W7 . pp.. pp. Joe Willey (Winter 1993). “Leasing Workers. Rrian Kiass. “A Meta-Analysis of Realistic Job Preview Experiments. and Thomas C.” Personnel Journal.” Cio. pp. Wanous (December 1985). “Realistic Job Previews: A Critical Appraisal and Future Research Directions.” W/ork/orce.” HR Focus. 86—87. pp.II c . and James A. I ç P. p. Bergman and M. “College Recruitment: What Attracts Students to Organizations. pp. Michelle Neely Martinez (March 1996). Phillips (December 1998). 6 73—6 90. George S. 20—28. pp. 570—578. Andrea Poe (May 2000).” Personnel. “Employee Leasing Comes of Age. I . John Poison (Spring 2002). . Wanous (October 1982). Odiorne (July 1990). 61 This measure was developed by Jac Fitz-Enz (1984) in Hou’ to Measure Human ResOurce Management (New York: McGraw-Hill). “The PEO Phenomenon: Co-Employment at Work. Jnhn Botidreau and Sara Rvnes (March 1987). 16—17.. Therese Hoff Macan and Robert L. Terpstra (May 1996).. pp.” f’ersonnel Administrator.” Human Resources Professional. 9.” Personnel journal. Watson. Pp.” journal of Managerial Issues. 60—68. “Comprehensive College Strategy Strengthens NCR’s Recruitment. Dipbove (Winter 1990).” Training. pp. i.. Breaugh (October 1983). pp. Rosalind Resnick (November 1992). pp. Brenda Paik Sunoo (April 1999).. jilly Welch (September 12. pp. 58—62. 50—54. pp. Larry Reibstein (June 10.—. Popovich and John P. 32—35.. “Effects of Realistic Job Previews on Multiple Organizitioial Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis.” Academy of Management foidYlhil. [)avid E.” Personnel Management. pp. 73—76.” Personnel Psycholo. 31—48..amer ($pring 2002). pp.1. pp. 745—76 8.” TI. Premack and John P. “The Relationship of Interviewers’ I’reinterview Impressions to Selection and Recruitment Outcomes. Brenda Paik Sunoo (April 1996). “Eniplovers in Rush to Capture Young Talent. “Trust and the Role of Professional Erp1oyer Organizations: Managing HR in Small and Medium Enterprises. 9—12. “The Realistic Job Preview as a Persuasive Communication.” Academy of Management Review.” Employee Relations Law Journal.” Academy of Management Ret’ieu pp. “From Santa to CEO—Temps Play All Roles. PP 78—85. 1 8—20. 706—719. pp. Jean M. SS Steven L. “Giving It the Old Cullege Try. John McClendon.” HRMagazzne.

200 professional employees to be hired in 16 months. . And another Newman” (Howard Newman.. The recruiting is performed without hiring permanent (and later unnecessary) staff.Washington University in Saint Louis uses creative advertising to promote its flexible work schedules. this series portrays the corporation as a place where very talented and dedicated people work and reach their potential. For example.. 49—53.” Personnel Journal. CONTRACT RECRUITING Companies in fast-growing industries are seeking the expertise of a relatively new type of external specialist: the contract recruiter..The Quik Wok Chinese food take-out chain uses Written by Kim Stewart and adapted from: Bob Martin (August 1 987). Newman’s accomplishments and long tenure with the company and then urges those interested and qualified to “join Howard.” Personnel Administrator. in the pursuit of technology excellence and discovery. RECRUITMENT ADVERTISING An increasing number of companies are supplementing and even replacing the traditional classified ad with creative. and flexible form of recruiting. . . highly efficient.resume form for prospective applicants who don’t have resumes.” The coupon provides a mini.cement. compliments profiled employees and their colleagues. eye-catching ads. Like many employee-spotlight ads developed by other companies. between performance and opportunity”). coordinates campus recruiting.”Personnel Administrator. jobs. IThey include: I. . one ad headline in the series proclaims. For example. One such ad is entitled “Net Gain:’ Featuring a tennis racket and tennis balls in a partly closed briefcase. Pizza Hut places recruiting coupons on its carry-out boxes. Here is a look at innovations in several areas. . These self-employed specialists are becoming popular because they can provide several benefits to client companies. the ad suggests. “We’re looking for another Newton • . Who knows You might become the next Newman. a growing number of HR departments are changing the ways they recruit. and performs any number of contractual recruiting responsibilities. clever. eoyment security. When a company is undergoing exceptionally fast growth with immediate hiring needs. .J. Inc.” The Saint Paul Medical Center has developed a series of one-word headline ads that promote certain themes such as “Cornrnitrnent’ (describing the center’s commitment to patients’ care and employees’ career development) and “Balance” (“Between caring professionals . a recruiter can be quickly brought in to handle the suddenly burdensome task. “If you want a good job. Rather. and in one ad entitled. bag-stuffers that picture a broken fortune cookie and proclaim “Not everyone will have the good fortune to work at Quik Wok. Some contract recruiters develop expertise in certain employment fields (such as electrical engineering or computer software design). and accomplishments.Their goal: to boost recruiting efficiency(reducing recruiting costs per hp-e).employed and is paid at an hourly rate negotiated with the client company. Featuring a drawing of a large lead pencil. Promotion of Intangible Benefits In cases where a job is highly attractive and thus doesn’t need promoting.” In some other ads in the series. Scott Lord (November 1987). the recruiter is self. g about their skills. Use of Employees in Ads instead of the traditional testimonials.The cosmetics manufacturer Helene Curtis. 46—54. when a new position needs to be filled. get the lead out. Recruiters can also serve as external. and then trained their replacements before departing 16 months later. General Dynamics has run a series of ads that. 54--63.The success of point-of-purchase ads has eliminated Quik Wok’s use of classified ads. prepares and executes formal offers. Pers..” The stuffer describes job opportunities. Lockheed Missile & Space Company makes a point-of providing employees with truly comprehensive recreational programs and facilities. “Recruitment Ad Ventures. more company ads are spotlighting employees. “Along with a diverse and challenging project list. Lockheed Miss.le & Space Company has run a series of sports-related ads that promote company benefits. pp. . Other users have found the strategy to be a low-cost.In a time when many companies are cutting costs across their operations. the text says. And another Hardison’ (electrical engineer Cor’ine Hardison). .” the company published its nursing salaries. when GTE in Needham. Point-of-Purchase Recruitment A growing number of service companies with high turnover in low-skill jobs are recruiti9g using pointof-purchase ads. apply for a position with us. regularly calls on contract recruiters to help the company handle its 15 to 20 percent yearly growth. pp. employers have turned to emphasizing certain intangible benefits of the company such aportunitiesfQç adva.. objective advisers to the company’s human resource function. General Dynamics has declared. completed the task.Their means: i vative recruiting approaches that bring imagination and a essiveness to a company’s overall recruiting function. suddenly found itself with a Department of •efense contract requiring 1.”Contract Recruiting Comes ofAge. These ads are essentially a company’s resume and cover letteidesigned to send ainique and memorable message about the company to sought-after prospective applicants Recently.”Even you-know-who rested on the seventh day. Massachusetts. For e pie. “Campus Recruiters Upgrade Their Pitch. cive freedom. by comparisons with great inventors. pp. and et?%preneurial opportunities. conducts telephone and in-person interviews. GTE turned to 12 contract recruiters who became an instant employment department. one of General Dynamic’s senior project engineers). they simply distribute the bag stuffers.Maury Hanigan (November 1987). Inno ations are occurring in several elements of the recruiting process. 2. “W’e’re looking for another Edison . 55—58: and Margaret Magnus (February 1987). 3. pp. between traditjqn and technology . He or she is not affiliated with an employment agency and does not receive a commission or a percentage of the hiree’s salary.They set up the system.nneI journal reviewed several hundred ads submitted by subscribers and reported some trends in this type of advertising.This specialist is contracted on a temporary basis to •erform recruiting functions for different job openings. (s Your Recruitment All It Can Be?” Personnel Journal.The ad’s text showcases Mr. For example.The recruiter screens resumes.

has established Job Search. But where should he go from there Clark called Ed Humphrey. Inc.s work at no charge.The fee: $75 for 90 days’ access to the network. uninterested recruiter can have on a company’s campus recruiting efforts. COMPUTER DATABASES Computer databases are being developed as job and resume data banks. Many referral programs are periodically given a boost with new bonuses and new themes. Job Stores. These actions are designed to enhance the professor’s knowledge of the company. and to develop executives’ relationships with certain schools. many are launching strategies to both boost their offer-acceptance rates and lower their recruiting costs. Develop a recruiting strategy that addresses innovations discussed in the case and includes your own ideas. A growing number of companies are aggressively promoting referral campaigns with special themes and prizes. highly visual. allows job hunters to place their resumes in the network at no charge. and exclusive contracts with over 20 profes. which it is hoped will be communicated to students. hire professors to lecture in the company’s training programs..ed. Other companies. information on cost of living and community recreation facilities). some companies are identifying a number of students in their junior year and focusing efforts on these select recruits. Companies are also paying more attention to the quality of their on-campus interviewers. a computer database of job information. Any company can list its job openings on the net. And many firms are replacing the form rejection letter with one that is more tactful and considerate. Demand for these individuals is currently very high. such as Citibank. Rather than select recruits from the placement office’s resume file. Invitation letters to a campus interview are personalized. Assess the effectiveness of a recruitment advertising strategy that relies on imaginative. the plant manager. Some companies hire the same recruiters time and again. he realized that there wa a big job ahead of him.onalassociations and societies.catching ads. and most of the applicants had completed an application blank. the Career Connection Company of State College. another computer database network. and asked if he wanted to be involved in the who should do e hiring? The HR specialist had done some preliminary screening.What are the potential strengths and drawbacks of this approach to recruitment advertising? 2. f Job Stores’ franchises focus on job openings that companies ii usually don’t fill via employment agencies. Organizations such as Texas Instruments also provide executives as guest lecturers at several universities. very general brochure on the company. For example. such as how recent the resume is. C Companies pay a fee for access to the database. EMPLOYEE REFERRALS Lastly. Career Technologies runs the network and obtains resumes via job fairs. companies are finding that recruiting on college campuses has become very competitive. Macy’s brings professors to a showcase store where the educators spend a day observing trainees and meeting with managers. Ed said that he had time to choose only his top management . more individualized publications that provide information on particular jobs and departments and information on the community where a prospective applicant would work (for instance. In seeking participation from businesses.A company can search the database by specifying any of a number of criteria. Firms are mindful of the impact that a word-of-mouth reputation created by an inconsiderate. Some companies are also refining their recruitment brochures. providing their recruiters with training in communications skills. a job hunter can tap the Job Stores Network computer database by obtaining a computer printout on job openings in the local area and nationwide. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS I. For example. supply is limited. firms are now developing smaller. advertising. Some college placement centers are also establishing computer databases to link students with prospective jobs.Which 596 of the 986 should be . As a result. At any center. Pennsylvania. which has over I million resumes of technical professionals onhine. More companies are producing recruiting videos for show on campus. companies are adding pizzazz to the widely used employee referral and bounty system. Suppose you are faced with the task of developing a college recruiting strategy for obtaining talented business school graduates with degrees in management information systems (developing and managing a company computer information network). What type of company (in what kind of industry) would benefit most from contract recruiters? What type would benefit least? 3. eye. Clark Kirby and his assistants had recruited 986 applicants for the 596 positions Gunther would have at its Tampa plant.Companies with hiring needs in these areas benefit from the specialists’ contacts and highly focused capabilities. Rather than providing the traditional. More firms are establishing programs that educate professors more fully on the company’s career opportunities for graduates. has developed a franchise chain of “stop and shop” employment centers located in high-traffic shopping malls. CAMPUS RECRUITING With declining college enrollments and growing demand for recruits with college degrees. often explaining why the company is interested in that particular student. For example. Referral bonuses run the gamut from money and trips to time off and credit used to “buy” items from a special catalog. But before getting too satisfl. c JobNet. finding that the subsequent knowledge of the company’s recruiting needs and functions that the recruiter acquires helps to further reduce per-hire costs.The network provides job listings (up to 20 lines each provided by companies) and is available for all students.

Or. We’ll begin by examining the factors in the internal and external environments. he will follow a selection process infhienced by many actorc. Ed r reminded Clark that the company didn’t want them c to raid other plants—that c was simply against company s policy. selection is the search for an optimal match between the job and the amount of any particular characteristic that an applicant may possess.2 Thus. it is highly unlikely that a selection system can effectively cope with all possible objectives. absenteeism. Clark said he knew 1 that and would abide by c company policy. depending on the job. :)nsidering current environmental conditions. all selection programs attempt to identify the applicants who have the highest chance of meeting or exceeding the organization’s standards of perormance. selection involves making many decisions. In this case. performance does not refer simply to quantity of ‘urput.’ This situation can easily lead to the selection of overqualified candidates. ic of the initial tasks involved in developing and implementing an effective selecrn process is for the organization to identify which objective is most important for As Clark Kirby sets out to hire 596 employees. however. Selection is a vital and continuous process in an organizaton. . For example. Ihese tactors are highlighted in the diagnostic model in Exhibit 8—1. it is possible for an applicant to he too socially skilled if the job doesn’t require high levels of such skills. employees’ satisfaction. Thus. As a result. more intelligence isn’t always better than less. a Clark was faced with r making 596 selection l decisions. It can also involve other objectives. Employee selection is important because the goals of the organization can be accomplished only if the right match is made between the person and the job. As this chapter I shows. Compounding the problem uf developing an effective selection system is the fact that the goal isn’t always to find applicants who have the most of a given such as quality of output. Rather. there are actually multiple goals associated with an Organization’s 5Cion process.The rest was up to Clark. Although this definition emphasizes the effectiveness of selection. decisions about whom to hire must also be made efficiently and within the boundaries set forth in equal employment opportunity legision. At a basic level. and career development. Selection is the process by which an organization chooses from a list of applicants the person or persons who best meet the selection criteria for the position available. heft.

Since the development and implementation of large-scale selection efforts can 1w very costly. there must be a suftcient number of jobs that need to be . however. complexity. and technological volatility are a few of these. doesn’t deteriiiine how selection is approached. complex selection systems are most often found in larger organizations with the economic resources necessary to pay for such systems.Environmental Circumstances Influencing Selection Internal environment A number of characteristics of the organization can influence the amount and type of selection process it uses to hire needed employees. For an organization to recover the costs of developing an expensive selection system. Size. Size alone.

skilled. 104/110. It is. however. The selection ratios are as follows: managers 38/68. It is also. or 1:1. Many organizations have elaborate internal job posting programs (as was discussed in Chapter 7) designed to help fill as many job vacancies as possible from within. for example 1:2. the selection ratio is said to he low. in turn. or about 1:2. 44/78. semiskilled. have imposed much tighter limits than others Ofl an organization’s ability to test applicants for drug use. Those who work in human resource management evaluate the effects of the labor market on selection decisions by using a selection ratio: number of applicants hired Selection ratio = total number of applicants Consider Clark Kirby’s problem at Gunther. and availability of local labor markets. professional/technical. attract. Under these circumstances. Similarly. Some states. that the Organization will have to invest more time and money in the selection decision when the ratio is 1:2. or about 1:1. At a basic level. 400/720. Any or all of these state-specific issues can affect the selection system that is ultimately used. when there is an oversupply of qualified applicants. or almost 1:2. 10/10. the selection process is short and unsophisticated. As the number of applicants increases relative to the number who are hired. or about 1:2. the goal of . In structurally complex organizations with many job titles hut very few occupants. hut there are •ny state-specific regulations that also affect what an organization can and cannot do in its selection system. Another characteristic of the organization that is an important determinant of the kind of selection system it develops is its attitude about hiring from within. likely. One of the most significant environmental influences on selection is the size.C H A P T E R 8 Selection filled. more likely that employees who fit the organization’s criteria for success will be hired. although it may not he effective. social. Not only are most organizations subject to federal employment laws and regulations. it is called a high selection ratio. This is where the critical role of oh analysis in selection becomes most apparent. clerical. other organizations look more quickly to external supplies of new employees. A ratio of 1:2 also means that the organization can he more selective in its choice than when the ratio is 1:1. • At the core of any effective selection system is an understanding of what characteristics are essential for high performance. it may he difficult for an organization to identify. for example. With a lower selection ratio. the process becomes more detailed. While these two models of filling job vacancies will have some overlapping selection processes. from a performance perspective. On the other hand. the number of years needed to get back the money invested in such a selection system may be too great to justify its initial expense. because that list of characteristics should have been identified diirig the process of job analysis and should now he accurately reflected in the job specification. selection strategies can be very different. when unemployment rates are low. and hire the number of people it needs. Thus. therefore. a number of states provide past employers with more protection against being sued by a former employee because of information that may have been divulged during checking of references. each will also focus to some extent on different criteria and different techniques: External environment The external environment is an equally important determinant of the kind of selection system that an organization utilizes. When the selection ratio gets close to 1:1. composition. These. and political pressures on a community. are affected by economic.

Additionally. Different selection criteria may. indeed.3 But the organization must have a rational basis for defining what it means by “relevant experience. physical characteristics. and other characteristics (KSAOs) dictated by the job. those that are systematically acquired during training. it usually is safe to assume that anyone who has successfully completed high school or its equivalent has basic reading. that the grade point average b higher than some minimum. For example. experience is related to job performance. and so on. many employers consciously or unconsciously used physical characteristics (including how an applicant looked) as a criterion. such as accounting or management. on the job. arithmetic. writing.” Not all previous experiences are equally good predictors of performance on a given job. at school. Over a large number of studies.any selection system is to accurately determine which applicants possess the knowledge. be needed to assess these qualitatively different KSAOs. should two applicants applying for a job as an internal auditor he given the same credit for previous work experience if both have five years in the accounting profession but one has been an auditor for another organization and the other a tax specialist for the IRS? Physical characteristics In the past. employers often consider experience to be a good indicator of ability and work-related attitudes. experience. The employer might also prefer that the degree be from certain institutions. Formal education An employer selecting from a pooi of job applicants wants to nd the person who has the right abilities and attitudes to be successful. Categories of Criteria With these potential differences in mind. Studies found that employers were more likely to hire and pay better ages to taller men. abilities. For example. skills. In addition. and airlines chose flight attendants and companies hired receptionists on the . the selection system must he capable of disi:inguishing between characteristics that are needed at the time of hiring. Many selection specialists believe that past performance on a similar job might be one of the best indicators of future performance. physical. Their reasoning is that a prospective employee who has performed the job before and is applying for a similar job must like the work and must be able to do the job well. Experience and past performance Another useful criterion for selecting employees is experience and past performance. For certain jobs. Research supports these assumptions. motor. One of the more common cost-effective ways to screen for many of these abilities is by using educational accomplishment as a surrogate for or summary of the measures of those abilities. educational standards such as these must be related to successful performance of the job. and interpersonal skills. and interpersonal attributes are present becauseofgenetic predispositions and because they were learned at home. A large number of cognitive. the criteria typically used by organizations for making selection decisions can be sunimrized in several broad categories: education. and other personal characterjstics. To he legal. and that certain honorshave been achieved. although this is unfortunately not always true. and those that are routinely developed after a person has been placed on the job. Care must be exercised not to set standards that are higher than actually required by the job. the employer may stipulate that the education (especially for college-level requirements) is in a particular area of expertise.

Although education and past experience are often used as measures of ability. agreeableness. . preferred “stable” married employees over single people because they have assumed that married people have a lower turnover workers will be legally protected by the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA). In a similar way. Personal characteristics include marital status. age should be used as a selection criterion only after very careful thought and consideration. con— scientiousness and emotional stability have been shown to predict performance across most occupational groupings. they are now illegal unless it can be shown that a physical characteristic is directly related to effectiveness at work. For example. the Big Five describe behavioral traits that may explain up to 75 percent of an individual’s personaliry. Some employers have. many organizations also try to assess whether applicants possess certain aptitudes. women. Known as emotional stability. such as being a lifeguard. However. It might not. For example. These can be used as selection criteria only when the job involves tasks that require them. more than half of all Ameri. Age.5 Much of this change can be attributed to the development and validation of the Big Five personality factors. This issue will certainly become more important by the year 2010.7 As with other personal characteristics. a successful applicant for pilot training in the military does not need actual flying experience. there is no federal law that specifically addresses this issue for younger people. caseworkers. visual acuity (eyesight) would he a physical characteristic that could he used to hire commercial airline pilots. one particular aspect of personality—such as being outgoing—may be useful for salespeople. Personal characteristics and personality type The final criterion category is a catchall that includes personal characteristics and personality types. weight. Thus. other employrs might seek out single people for some jobs. age. has sometimes been used as a criterion.h Of the five dimensions. For this reason.4 Certain specific aptitudes and skills can also be considered part of this category of criteria. me jobs. openness to experience.6 years. selection using any aspect of personalty should always he based on whether it is really necessary for high performance. While it is illegal to discriminate against people who are over the age of 40. the organization wishing to use personality as a criterion must he certain that successful and unsuccessful employees can he distinguished in terms of their personalities. Many employers also prefer to hire people with certain personality types. may require essentially no consideration of an applicant’s personality. and handicapped people. since a single person might be more ely to accept a transfer or a lengthy overseas assignment. It is probably . sex. candidates for a job cannot he screened out by arbitrary height. For example. Many jobs fall between these extremes. Rather. and conscientiousness. Although once viewed in an unfavorable light due to perceptions of low preJictive validity. By that time. this is when the median age in the United States will he 40. however.variation against ethnic groups. for example. recent findings on personality tests have been much more positive regarding the link between personality and job performance. On the other hand. Thus. or others who work extensively with the public. and so on. be legally used for hiring a telephone reservations agent for an airline. or similar requirements. minimum and maximum age restrictions for jobs can be used only if they are clearly jobrelated. Many personality measures run an even greater risk of being legally challenged as an invasion of privacy than other kinds of selection tools. extroversion. too. the military uses spatial-relations aptitude as one criterion.

imagine that you tried to use a tape measure to determine how tall an applicant for a job as a refighter was. because there are both minimum and maximum height restrictions for the job. work sample tests of present skills. psychological tests of aptitude and personality. you would have virtually no idea how tall the applicant actually was. the organization must be certain that the information is both reliable and valid. II In selection. they become meaningless. On the other hand. En part. In this way. it is not sufficient for it to be repeatable or stable. The point is that although reliability is rarely perfect. Regardless of the method chosen for collecting information about applicants. a technique for assessing each of these must be chosen. and 5 feet 4 inches. Once the measurements become too inconsistent. the primary concern is whether the assessment technique results in accurate predictions about the future success or failure of an applicant. the main purpose of selection is to make decisions about people. there is still considerable debate whether general. Reliability The main goal of selection is to make accurate predictions about people. you may not know the applicant’s exact height. In practice. 0 As a simple example. and checks of previous experience through references. the organization can avoid hiring the wrong person for a job. but you would have a fairly good idea.P A R T I I Acquiring Human Resources unwise to use personality asa general criterion for screening out “undesirable” applicants.9 Reliability and Validity of Selection Criteria Once an organization has decided upon a set of selection criteria. The organization wants to make its best guess about who will he a successful employee. Validity For a selection tool to be useful. the measures that it yields must also be valid. Reliability refers to how stable or repeatable a measurement is over a variety of testing conditions. Alternative-form reliabilit’ is determined by correlating scores from two alternate forms of the same test. Both legally and organizationally. because of this fact. interviews. broad personality measures or more specific ones are the best to use in selection. reliability is often determined by using interrater reliability. This refers to the extent to which two or more interviewers’ assessments are consistent with each other. 6 feet 1/2 inch. since the same personality characteristic that leads to failure in one job might lead to success in another. In this latter case. The reliability of a selection tool can he judged in a variety of ways. and 5 feet II / inches. imagine that your three attempts yielded values of 6 feet. The alternatives are numerous: application blanks and biodata forms. however. If you measured a given applicant three successive times and obtained values of 6 feet. physical and medical testing. a measuring tool can still he useful if it is only somewhat unreliable. When a measuring tool relies on the judgments of people (such as in an employment interview). Validity addresses the questions of what a test measures and how well it has measured it. one common way to assess reliability is to correlate the scores of applicants given the same test on two different occasions. If these decisions are going to be correct. Most standardized academic achievement tests like the SAT and the GMAT have numerous forms. This is called test-retest reliabilit. . the techniques used for making them must yield reliable information. all of which are assumed to be reliable. 6 feet 6 inches. In other words. There are many ways of assessing validity but all of them focus on two iSSUeS. An applicant’s score should not vary much according to which form of the test he or she happens to take.

or performance evaluation measures the skill. 2. it might still have very little accuracy (validity). leadership style. we can only assume that it exists from the behavior someone displays. For evample. hut if you try to weigh applicants with it. there must be evidence that the test validly measures leadership. it will yield totally Llseiess information. An example of a content-valid test is a typing test for a secretarial position. however. To summarize. construct validity rather than content validity is appropriate. Construct validity A construct is a trait that is not typically observable. (2) construct. it must be reliable. then it will be impossible to determine his or her correct height. Even if the tape gives the same measurements (high reliability). for a measuring tool to be useful. internal memo. The test must measure one of those constructs. if the measurement is too unreliable. In selecting a project manager. Thus. When selection procedures inye the use of tests to measure leadership characteristics or personality. interview.12 The following. it will be almost impossible to accurately determine the applicant’s height. such as . we cannot see leadership. A test therefore has construct validity when ii actually measures the unobservable trait that it claims to measure. If so. are brief descriptions of three types of validity that the HR specialist should be familiar with: (1) content. and put to the use for which it was actually intended. then the test is said to be content-valid. valid. dership potential. and (3) criterion-related. however. A job analysis must systematically dene both the work behaviors involved in the job and the constructs that are believed to he important to job performance. Content validity is not appropriate for more abstract job behaviors. Content validity The degree to which a test. If the content of the typing test is actually representative of the work that is done on the job. let’s return to our example of measuring the frcfghter applicant’s height. Such a test can roughly replicate conditions on the job. 4 I.C H A P T E H 8 Selection To illustrate these two issues and the relationship between validity and reliability. the applicant would be asked to type a typical piece of work (letter. or work ethic. knowledge. or ability to perform the job is called content validity. Finally. construct validity cannot be established in a single study but can be assumed to exist only on the basis of a large body of empirical work yielding consistent results. The applicant can be given a typical sample of typing work under “normal” working conditions. The Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures have established three stringent requirements for demonstrating the construct validity of a selection technique. A detailed explanation of the various strategies for determining the validity of election tool can he found in the Principles for the Validation and Use of Peronizel Selection Procedures. this tape measure might he perfectly reliable and an accurate way to measure height. the tape measure may no: have been calibrated properly at the factory where it was made (the manufacturer may have thought it was marking in feet and inches when it was actually using centimeters). tabular data) using the same kind of typewriter or word processor that would he encountered on the actual job. a set of professional standards developed by a committee of members from the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP). for instance. As noted previously. Because traits cannot be directly observed. For example. For example. scores on the test might correlate with leadership .

it must be shown that leadership ability is correlated with job performance for the position of project manager. It is actually preferable if the test whose validity is being measured is not used in the hiring decisions. 4. it is necessary to conduct a criterion validity study between leadership and job performance. performance measures for thes employees are also collected. First. For example. Scores on a test or performance in some simulated exercise are correlated with measures of actual on-the-job performance.ratings given to other employeCS in other organizations Upon previous administration of the test. In concurrent validation. If experience is important in job performance. it would be a candidate for future use with applicants in the selection process. the time it takes to determine who is a good employee can he long. For some jobs. However. Not all criteria can be predicted equally well from any particular type of selection tool. absenteeism. Second. Predictive validity is an important form of criterion-related validity. The test scores are then correlated with the performance measures. The biggest advantage of concurrent validation is tlat it can be conducted relatively quickly. That is. there are several potential problems associated with the use of concurrent validation. Select individuals for the job.’5 The organization must exercise care in choosing a measure that best reflects the actual contributions of employees to its effectiveness. supervisory ratings. but it does have drawbacks. Assess the strength of the predictor-criterion relationship (typically by calculating a correlation coefficient). present employees often balk at completing tests. the performance score is referred to as a criterion. If the test is significantly related to performance. it is usully less expensive than predictive validation. The employer first must wait until it has hired a large number of people for whom it has predictor scores and then until it can obtain meaningful measures of job performance for the people who were hired. Predictive validity is determined by using the scores obtained from a sample of applicants for a job. or to use such data collected by another test to support the claim of construct validity. The test is called a Predictor. The construct must be related to the performance of critical work behavior. At approximately the same time. the first step is to administer the tests to present employees performing the job. Wait an appropriate amount of time and then collect measures of job performance. such validation will be biased in favor of applicants with experience. Criterion-related validity The extent to which a selection technique can accurately predict one or more imp(’rtanr elements of job behavior is referred to as criterion—related validity. 2. Administer the test to a large sample of applicants. However. or whatever the organization deems most relevant. this method uses experienced employees. sales. Concurrent validity is also used to determine whether a selection test can predict job performance. 3. accidents. Therefore. They are puzzled by the request to take a battery of tests and often wi11 not provide honest answers or . ‘ Two popularly used types of criterion-related validity are predictive and concurrent. the choice of a criterion is’at the very heart of determining whether a selection system is legal. Criteria relevant to personnel selection include measures such as quality or quantity of output. 3. The steps in a predictivevalidity study for a given test are: 1.

Among present employees. selection is viewed as much more than simply relying on Intuition. Third. Today. or more applicants accept other job offers and drop from the list of applicanfs. may he performed concurrently or at . This series is not universal. It is important to note that few organizations use all steps. In the past. Despite these potential problems. it should not automatically be used as an alternative to predictive validation simply because it can he done more quickly. government employers test at step 2 instead of step 3. Selection tools were designed to aid this gut reaction. there is a self-selection bias that can restrict the range of test scores. as do some private. The organization should carefully analyze its circumstances before choosing which of the methods to use.their best answers. concurrent validation can be an effective method for assessing the validity of certain kinds of selection tests. more applicants are screened out by the organization. or transferred. for they can he time-consuming and cxpensive and some steps. such as 3 and 4. selection was often thought to be an easy decision. demoted. At each step. The selection decision is usually perceived as a series of steps through which applicants pass. there is likely to he a restriction because the least skilled and least able workers have been terminated. Decisions were THE SELECTION PROCESS based on the subjective likes or dislikes of the boss.’7 However.and third-sector employers. the most skilled and most able have been placed in more responsible jobs. Exhibit 8—2 illustrates a typical series of steps for the selection process. For example.

A BIB usually contains many more items than a . the employee. (2) the scope of an employment contract.’9 The application blank should not he designed in a way that forces applicants to reveal irrelevant information about themselves. or disabilitie. In this way. The legal subtleties of these clauses arc too complex to cover in detail at this time. race. Care should be taken to ask only for information that will help the organization make a better job-related assessment of the applicant. a teaching certificate). and second. the more important the job. First. the application blank is not an appropriate place to gather most information of this kind. For example. For example. Although application blanks can he very useful selection tools.about the same time.g. religion. Is it important to know in what year someone graduated. by reducing the number of applicants that need to be interviewed and.. natural origin.g. as these are typically referred to. they help protect the organization against unjustified lawsuits. and (3) (one of the newest) grievances: a statement indicating that the applicant. Three of the more common clauses that now appear on application blanks and in employee handbooks cover (1) applicant’s rights as they relate to the organization’s hiring practices. Thus.. the more each step is likely to he used formally. organizations must never forget that they are subject to the same legal standards as any other Selection method. personality. communication skills) that is perhaps more difficult to obtain. The same guidelines hold true for Web-based or online applications. With a dramatic increase in the number of lawsuits being filed against organizations for “wrongful termination” and with an erosion of organizations’ right to hire and fire whomever they wish. A potentially useful supplement to the traditional application blank is the biographical information blank (131B). Since a physical exam should be given only after a conditional offer of employment. vary in length and sophistication. The purpose of the clauses. they help ensure that applicants and employees understand the terms of their employment relationship with the organization. is twofold. Generally speaking. regardless of where the’ appear. asking applicants for the year in which they graduated from high school can narrow down their age to within one or two years. or both agree to resolve all grievances against the organization through arbitration and mediation rather than through a lawsuit. application blanks can he a useful initial screening tool for jobs that require some type of professional certification (e. color. by allowing interviewers to focus on other kinds of information (e. many organizations arc now adding very important clauses at the beginning or end of their application blanks. first. Some terms of these clauses appear in employee handbooks as well. but examples of the wording currently h’ing used by organizations appear in Exhibit 8—3. This makes the selection process far more efficient. age. or simply that he or she graduated? Currently accepted application blanks also generally limit questions that imply something about the applicant’s physical health. Step I: Preliminary Screening The most common first step in any selection process usually involves asking an applicant to complete an application form. second. the application blank can eliminate the need for subsequent interviews to gather this information. Application blanks. care must be taken that the application blank does not directl or indirectly violate federal or state laws related to employment discrimination. Nearly all application blanks ask for enough information to determine whether the individual is minimally qualified for the position. especially information related to sex.

The weights are then totaled for each applicant. In accordance with this policy.. education. sex.” It can therefore terminated at any time and For any reason not expressly ohihited by state or federal law at the discretion of the company. Any written or oral statements by an agent of this company that contradict these policies are invalid and should not be relied ott. modify. they will he provided. without having to give cause or ustihcation to any cinpk)vee. color. typical application blank and asks for information related to a much wider array of attitudes and experiences. suspend. Whether such an item should he included on a BIB. For example. and general mental ability. high and low performers who currently work for the company are compared on a variety of characteristics (e.11 For example. years of experience.” ±1 for a small difference. however.THE NOT-SO-FINE PRINT OF MODERN APPLICATION BLANI Statement on Affirmative Action-Equal Employment Opportunity It is the policy of this company to afford all applicants the right to equal employment opportunities. BIB items are based on an assumption that these prior behaviors and experiences will he strongly related to an applicant’s future behavior. Recognition of these rights is a conditin of employment for anyone accepting a job offer from this company. . an application form that is designed to be scored more systematically and is more like the BIB. To develop the scoring system for a weighted application blank. age. national origin. or disabi litv status except where there is a bona fde occupational qualihcation. depends on its ability to differentiate the performance of good and poor workers on the job in question. all vacancies will he llcd by qualied candidates without regard to race. and ±2 for a large difference. a recent research study found that BIB items can account for incremental predictability of key performance variables bed that accounted for by incumbent experience on the job. Applicants who are judged as minimally qualified on the basis of the application blank will then proceed to the next phase of the selectim process. your employment contract or breach thereof shall he settled by arbitration administered by the American Arbitration Association in accordance with its applicable rules. Use of i:he responses to an item such as this assumes that people who preferred English will perform differently on a given job from people who preferred science or math. Statement on Employment at Will If you are offered and accept employment with this companY. You further agree that should you submit any controversy or claim to arbitration tinder this policy. a common BIB item asks applicants to list their favorite subjects in high school. or cancel any pokes or practice that pertains to your NKS employment without advance notice. religion.2 Another ariarion to the traditional application blank is the weighted application blank. The company retains the right to change. and so on) that were known at the time they applied for a job.. and the one with the highest score is the preferred choice. you agree to abide by and perform any award rendered by the arbitrator(s). It you are disabled and need reasonable forms of accommodation in order to complete this application blank or any other component ot the application process. Recent research indicates that BIBs can help to predict job performance in certain instances. only the president of this compa ii y can a mend this policy. your employment wi11 be corsidered “at will. The next step will often be one or more interviews and/or additional employment testing. relevant Big Five personality constructs. Weights are assigned to the degree of difference on each characteristic. you agree that any controversy or claim arising out of or relating to your application and/or if you are offered and accept employment with this company. Mandatory Arbitration Clause By signing this application blank. A zero may be assigned for “no difference.g.

in turn. An unstructured interview has no predetermined script or protocol. the interview is definitely the selection technique host often encountered by persons applying for a job in the United States. . there is no attempt to guarantee that applicants are asked the same questions. interviewer-interviewee similarity. However. SI questions encourage applicants to respond to hypothetical situations they might encounter on the job for which they applied. an applicant for a pharmaceutical sales position might be asked “If one of the physicians in your sales territory asked you to provide supporting research and other documentation regarding the efficacy of a new drug. regardless of their specific for-. see Posthuma. the topic of interviews has generated hundreds of research studies over the past 20 years.24 Duiing the st ied mTëT7tew. asks applicants to relate actual incidents from their past relevant work experience to the job for which they are applying.Step 2: Employment Interview Other than application blanks. BDIs are based on the assumption that the past is the best predictor of the future. will generally be more reliablid an unstructured mt rviëws.27 The first. Two strategies for making the most out of an interview are (1) structuring the interview to be reliable and valid. The importance of structure in the interview is further underscored by the fact that standardization should lower the possibility that intentional or unintentional biases hel yr the interviewer will affect the outcomes of the process. Morgenson. Typically. how would you go about finding that information?” Responses to this and other hypothetical questions are then scored according to their appropriateness for the job.26 The second dimension along which interviews can vary is whether they focus on ast ex erience and behavior or on hypothetical future behavior. the unstructured interview may lead to useful insights about an applicant. Questions are not prepared in advance. These questions should have been generated with the aid of a thorough job analysis in order to identify specific types of information sought during the interview.29 For example. the behavioral description interview (BDI). ih iiirrviwrh sasi a thz1ist of questions to ask of all applicants.22 Not surprisingly. In recent years. the interviewer does not have a scoring protoLsol either. Types of interviews Employment interviews vary along at least two important dimensions: how structured the interview is and whether it focuses on historical information about the applicant or attempts to place the applicant in hypothetical situations to assess how she or he might respond in the future.25 An example of this type of interview question would be “Thinking back to your last job. and (2) training managers to use the best available interviewing techniques. they must maximize their potential for identifying qualified persons. two types of structured interviews avee erd anZf lnepopulirity in the United States. mat. When used by some highly skilled interviewers. and Campion. tell me about a time when you resolved a conflict with a customer?” Follow-up questions would include “What was the outcome?” and “How did you control your frustration?” The . personality characteristics. substantial research over the past 30 years indicates that structured interviews.23 Because interviews are so widely used to select new employees.sjtupional zyzterview (SI) also seeks to identify whether an applicant possesses relevant job knowledge and motivation. covering such topics as verbal-nonverbal behavior. should lead to less differential impact on women and minorities25 and a better chance for the organization to successfully defend itself if it happens to be sued. impression management. and preinrerview impressions (for a complete review. 2002). but it achieves this goal in a different manner. In addition. This. a scoring form similar to the one shown in Exhibit 8—4 will be used by the interviewer for recording applicants’ responses.

This information is very ________ 19_. No_ Are you einploed now? YesD NoD (11 yes) How soon available? ______________________________________ ‘OChar are relationshirs with present employer? Why are you applying for this position? Is his/her underlying reason a desire for prestige. Sal-aty at leaving Host much responsibility has applicant had? Any indication iii a mhiiioit? Superior Title ___________________ What is he/she like? _____________________________________________________ Did applicant get along with superior? .vmcnr Act and relevant [1. or earnings? WORK EXPERIENCE. are at least 4)) but less than 65 rears oi age. IAST OR PRESENT POSITION Company From _________ 19 ______ to ___________ 19 _____ How was job obtained? ____________________________________________ Whom did you know there? — ____________________________________ Has a pplicanr shown self—reliance in getting ribs? Nature of wnrk at start __________________________________________________________________ . --— Interviewer: job considered for: .1 EXHIBIT 8-4. why nor? ______ Were you hospitalized in the service? Are you drawing compensation? Yes.? Yes. Every month since leaving school should he accounted for.. ni..I’ Acts prohibit discrimination with respect to individuals whc.. Cover isil positions.._._. If nor.Hos/ closely does (or did) he/she supervise you? What authority do (or did) you have? ______________________________________________ Number of people you supervised What did they do? _______________________________________________ Is applicant a leader? Responsibility for policy formulation Has applicant had managemetit responsibility? To whar e*rent could you use initiative and judgment? Did applicant actively seek responsibility? Rating [jj Comments: In inak cog final rating.0] STRUCTURED EMPLOYMENT INTERVIEW FORM—EXECUTIVE POSITION Date ______________________________ 19 — Name ______________________________________________________ Date of birth _______________________________ Phone no. . self-reliance. Starring salary Will applicant’s previiius experience be helpful on this job? In what way did the job change? i-las applicant made good work progress? Narur of work at leaving --___________________________________ .... Iovalt. . industry. Experience in Armed Forces should be covered as a job (in New Jersey exclude military questions)._... A P T E R 8 Selection 2 3 I . dii nit also his/her sialiilitv. be sore to consider tilt unIv what the applicant can perseveranc i-. _______________ The Age I >iscrlmination in the Enipli. ahili tv to get a long with others.itnrits nod niotivation.S. leadership. Interviewer should record last position first.C H. branch _______________________________ Date _____________ 19 — to ___________ 19 — (Not to be asked in Nc’sv jerses I ______________ 19__. security. Present address . < ti iM ..City State _____________ How long there? ___________________ Were you in the Armed Fortes of the U.

Copyright © 1998 by The Dryden Press. average (central tendency error). For years. 8. Inability to put the interviewee at ease during the interview. 3. For more information. TX: Dryden). Making an evaluation of the applicant within the first minutes of the interview (first impression error). 5. Stereotyping applicants and allowing personal bias to influence evaluations. 4. 12. (Fort Worth. Asking questions that are either unrelated or only slightly related to performance on the Being influenced 1w the nonverbal behavior of applicants. 6. Excessive talking by the interviewer that limits the amount of job-related information obtained from interviewees. which results in hasty decisions. 9. 7.1. An employment test is a mechanism Icither a paper-and-pencil test or . address e—mail to PsychService@uh. validity can he enhanced.’2 Training can provide managers with a better understanding of how to ask questions. 10. Generally speaking. recent evidence suggests that when a trained interviewer takes behaviorally oriented notes during the interview. ‘° However. Source: Robert D. and to some extent how to he aware of potential biases. Human Resource Selection. properly designed training programs do seem capable of reducing many of the errors found in traditional unstructured interviews. and the potential for bias always exists. Exhibit 8—5 summarizes many of the problems that might limit the accui acy of a typical interview. 2. 4th ed. many questions about their effectiveness remain unanswered. which results in different types of information being gathered from each applicant. such as superior (leniency error). Step 3: Employment Tests A technique that some organizations use to aid their selection decisions is the employment test. Overconfidence in the interviewer’s ahiliry to evaluate applicants. however. Errors such as these have been the focus of many training programs for inturvieweis. Favorably evaluating an applicant because he or she is similar to the interviewer in some way (similar—to—me error). 11. since the interview relies so heavily on personal judgments.3’ For the past 20 years. Allowing one or two either good or bad characteristics of an applicant to influence the evaluation of all other characteristics (halo effect). the research findings on situational interviews indicate that questions about past experience have higher validity than the future-oriented hypothetical questions. how to properly record applicants’ responses. making it difficult to gather spontaneous or follow-up information. futureoriented questions can also be useful if used properly. Rating many applicants the same in evaluations. Feud (1998). I Training for interviewing Despite recent optimism about the validity of employment interviews. pp. This appears to be especially true when the training is used in conjunction with a structured interview format. which offers public workshops in all aspects of employment interviewing. Inconsistency in the questions used with applicants. Moreover. reprinted by permission of the publisher. or poor (stringency error). the University of Houston’s psychology department has sponsored the 1n tervierping Institute. there have been significant concerns that interviewers may differ considerably in their accuracy. ()verall. Allowing the quality of the applicants who preceded the present applicant to influence the ratings of the present applicant (contrast effect). 494—495. Gotewood and Hubert S.

•4 which summarizes many of the tests and includes a brief evaluation of their effectiveness. several of the ire common categories of selection tests will be described. Regardless of whether an organization develops its own test or purchases an existing one. word processing. validation studies are expensive if they are conducted properly. Various kinds of tests can be used for selecting employees. In adJition. However. • Auditions used by a symphony orchestra or ballet company. including the budgetary contraints of the organization. Care must . Over a large number of selection situations. for this relationship to actually \it. The presumed superitv of these tests wer other types of selection tools lies in their direct and obvious relationship with performance on the job. • Standard driving course for delivery persons.. and some of the more useful tests cost as little as $1 per applicant. skills. Then the quantity and quality of their work are systematically graded and compared with the work of other applicants. Examples of performance tests include: rogra mm ing test for computer program mers. to intelligence to personality. In the following sections. It can be very expensive to develop a test to measure these kinds of characteristics. and ither characteristics required by the job. the Content of the pub must he well documented through job analyses. A standardized set of memos. Variations of these job sample performance tests are used in many organizations. abilities. There are literally hundreds of published tests from which to choose. The validat n process becomes even more expensive if questions of discrimination arise. additional costs are associated with using tests in selection. and of course the knowledge. requests. the organization is expected to validate its selection devices separately for members of majority and minority groups. research suggests that contrary to a perception that applicants avoid applylug for jobs that involve extensive testing. Anyone interested in selecting a test for use in personnel selection can begin with the Mental Measurezents Yearbook. 1any more than pay for themselves through increased efficiency in selection. and Sc) Ofl.ztempsto measure certain characteristics of individu. In su nstances. . However. the complexity and difficulty of the job. or spreadsheet applications problems for secretarial and clerical help. job sample performance tests have . The type of test that is ultimately used will depend on a number of factors. For this reason alone. who must dispense with them as she or he would if the work were real. Job sample performance tests A job sample performance test requires the applicant actually do a sample of the work that the job involves in a controlled situation. is given to the applicant. • Simulated “in basket” tests for managers. many employers purchase existing tests from a variety of sources.‘onstrated some of the highest validities of all selection tests. Despite the potentially staggering costs associated with employment tests. the size and quality of applicant populations. irs. Any of these devices should he validated before it is actually used to make hiring decisions.C H A P T E R 8 Selection a simulation e 4it—. • Standardized typing. applicant withdrawal from any given Seection system is unrelated to the presence of testing. ese charactciistics range from tidssiJchas manual dexterity.\pplicants are frequently asked to run the machines they would run if they got the oh.

Perhaps the two best known cognitive abilities are math and verbal. Ivlany tests that are valid also look valid.) California Test of Mental Maturity (adult level) This is a test of mental ability administered to groups and scored by machine. Scores are developed from a series of short testS on spatial relationships. Sometimes a test that appears to have no logical relationship to a particular job may prove to he a valid predictor of performance on that job. object assembly. Verbal and math abilities are also measured by a variety of tests developed specifically for use in human resource selection. These form the basis for tests such as the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) and the Graduate Record Examination (GRE). hut that is not always the case. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale The Wechsler is a comprehensive paper-and-pencil test of 14 sections grouped into two scores. arithmetic. researchers have identified a large number of specific mental abilities for which selection tests are now available. vocabulary. Cognitive ability tests Over the years. Face validity is how good a test looks for a given situation. to name two. verbal concepts. Still other tests that measure these abilities were developed for use in other areas of psychology but now have been successfully adapted to selection. logic and reasoning. and multiple aptitude tests. picture arrangement. job sample tests are a proven method of selection in many organizations. The performance score includes picture completion. Wonderlic Personnel Test The Wonderlic uses a variety of perceptual. (Other well-known tests include the Differential Aptitude Test. The verbal score includes general information. be taken not to confuse face validity with actual validity. and other items. . NY. All rights reserved. verbal.Source: Reproduced by permtssion. Copyright I 941 renewed 1969 by The Psychological Corporation. Nonetheless. and arithmetical items that provide a total score. New York. the SRA Primary Mental Abilities Test. and similar items. similarities. numerical reasoning.

For example. Spatial relations refers to an ability to visualize things on paper as they might appear in actual three-dimensional space. pilots must be able to quickly orient themselves even when they are flying other than straight and level with the groLind. memory. Exhibit 8—6 shows an excerpt from a test called the Minnesota Paper Forni Board Test (MPFB). This test requires applicants xo rapidly check numbers and names for accuracy. house. An architect or draftsperson must be able to look at a set of blueprints and clearly know what the actual object (building. NY All rights reserved. especially in secretarial and clerical jobs. Copyright I 933. Other cognitive tests There are numerous other examples of cognitive tests that have used successfully in selection but may not be as well known as measures of verba and math ability or general intellectual ability.) will look like. The ability to rapidly compare entries such as these is a good predictor of many types of job per formance. Clerical aptitude is still another cognitive ability that has proved useful in selecting people for a wide array of jobs. New York. Tests of spatial relations have proved effective for these and certain other jobs. etc. . Similarly.Source: Reproduced by permission. one of the more popular measures of clerical aptitude. The scores are converted to IQ equivalents. which is a measure of spatial relations. and others. renewed 1961 by The Psychological Corporation. bndge. Exhibit 8—7 is the first page of the Minnesota Clerical Test. and profiles are developed for analyzing performa nec.

The person responding is asked to tell what he or she sees in the inkblot. utilizes projective techniques to present vague stimuli. 6 When personality tests are constructed to measure work-related characteristics such as achievement_and ability. These tests are used for positions with high manual requirements. A more optimistic picture of the value of personality inventories comes from efforts to specifically construct a measure for a particular job. and nger dexterity. the Minnesota Counseling Inventory. the least reliable of the employment tests are instruments that attempt to measure a person’s personality or temperament. and the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule. Polygraph and honesty tests Another method currently used 1w some employers to rest employees is the polygraph. speed of limb movement. That is. and rhen plots these reactionS . on each of which is printed a bilateral symmetrical inkblot similar to that illustrated in Exhibit 8—9. Personality inventories and temperament tests Potentially. The examiner keeps a verbatim record of the responses. The test involves 10 cards. The stim1ii are purposely vague to reach unconscious aspects of the personality. The Rorschach Inkblot Test was rst described in 1921.They include choice reaction time. the time taken to make the responses. such as assembling radio or TV components and watches. not as direct as the se f-reporting inventory. they can show good validities. Many tech niques are used. The most frequently used inventory is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Other paper-and-pencil inventories are the California Psychological Inventory. The person being tested picks up pins with the tweezer and row by row inserts them in the holes across the hoard with the hand normally used. sometimes erroneously called a lie detcctoi: The polygraph is an instrument that records changes in breathing. The most common are the Rorschach Inkblot Test and the ihematic Apperception Test. and other incidental behavior.3 A different approach. the Manifest Anxiety Scale. blood pressure. some of the disappointing results previously obtained with personality inventories in selection could be attributed to a mismatch between the test and the situation in which it was being used. One of these is the O’Connor Finger and Tweezer Dexterity Test (see Exhibit 8—8). emotional expressions. pulse and skin response associated with sweating of palms. The reactions provide data Ofl which psychologists base their assessment and interpretation of a personality. Then a trained interpreter analyzes the data and reaches conclusions about the pcrsonality patterns of the person being examined.

It has been estimated that. nearly 2 million polygraph tests had been administered each year by private employers in the United States. the applicant may he asked. it is still legal to use the polygraph a hart of an ongoing investigation of dishonesty as long as the individual employee’s rights are safe-guarded. the polygraph had become an extremely popular selection tool by the mid-1980s. This legislation has made it illegal for most private organizations to use the polygraph as a selection device. In addition. a reliable and valid method for predicting on-the-job dishonesty. In recent years. Thus. Government agencies and certain contractors for the Department of Defense and the Department of Energy are exempt from the act. Finally. others are stressful. Estimates are that 5. In a recent quantitative review of polygraph tests. Some are neutral.4 The two most common types of preemplovirwnt honesty tests are overt integrity tests and personality-based integrity . to achieve a normal response. it was reported that electrodermal measures correctly idenried 76 percent of participants with concealed knowledge.42 Organizations searching for an alternative to the polygraph are increasingly turning to paper-and-pencil tests of honesty.39 This popularity was understandable because on-the-job crime had increased tremendously. However. to indicate a response made under pressure. private employers whose business involves security and controlled substances are also allowed to continue’ using the polygraph. it was estimated that dishonest employees cost employers about $65 billion per year in theft and other acts of dishonesty. The person being tested with a polygraph attached is asked a series of questions.on paper. There are concerns that it is an invasion of an applicant’s privacy and that its use can lead to self-incrimination. “Is your name Smith?” Then. in fact. “Have you ever stolen from an employer?” Although originally developed for police work. the mot serious question concerning the polygraph was whether it was.000 to 6. 4° Since a polygraph will cost only about $25. which would be a violation of the Fifth Amendment to the Constitution. objections have been raised to the use of the polygraph in per •rne selection. prior to 1988.4’ These concerns became serious enough that the federal government passed the Employee Polygraph Protection Act of 1988.000 rms in the United States now use these during screening. indicating that 24 percent of subjects were able to conceal information without detection. it seems like a small investment to help reduce dishonesty in the workplace.

4 Step 4: Reference Checks and Recommendations If you h ev ppliedf?ajF.y ere probably asked to provide a list of people whom the organization could contact to get information about you. help to protect the rights of individuals with disabilities who . he or she is not). Tn addition. a comprehensive meta-analysis on over a half million subjects reported that honesty tests are valid for predicting counterproductive behaviors on the job such as theft. They do.tions to he aware of a new problem which they are labeling “negligent referrals. in fact. Many argue that they will seldom provide an organization with meaningful information about applicants.44 Overt integrity tests ask more direct questions to assess dishonest behavior.50 Most of these laws are. a job candidate is incorrectly classified as a potential thief when.’ If an organization is aware of important negative information about a former emplo) cc and fails to reveal this information during an inquiry by a prospective employer. does someone knowingly include the name of a reference who will give a negative impression to the new organization. These requirements do not mean that an organization must hire an individual with a disability if that person cannot perform the job. however.46 several researchers have provided evidence that certain honesty tests have acceptable levels of validity and reliability. fears of being sited have led many managers to refuse to provide references for former employees. at least 32 states have passed laws that give managers some immunity from being sued for providing good-faith. are genuine concerns over the legality of asking for and providing such information. you provided the organization with a list of people who you believed would generally speak favorably about you. and giving a negative recommendation opens the reference up to a defamation lawsuit. Employment attorneys are cautioning organi7a.tests. This built-in bias in favor of the applicant is precisely the reason that general references have often been criticized as sources of useful information. too new to determine whether they will he effective. In either case.e. These references might have been work-related (such as a former supervisor or co-worker). In comparison. and absenteeism. However. all individuals who arc conditionally offered employment should he required to have one. and managers should not have to fear being sued simply for being honest about a former employee.45 Most reasonable people would agree that managers should not be allowed to lie about a former employee or to be malicious while providing reference information. or family members). not all references can be positive. this study reported that lob candidate scores on honesty tests could also he used to predict future supervisory ratings of job performance. it is almost certain that references will be of little or no value to the hiring organization except as a check on the accuracy of information contained on the application blank. when given the opportunity. Organizations must also he wary of any policy which suggests that all references should he neutral in nature. Equally important. to the extent that you could. if an organization is going to use such examinations. In army event. disciplinary problems. The trend in this direction has also caused orgaruzations to include explicit statements in their employee handbooks about corporate policies on checking references. it might find itself in “legal hot water. or they might have been personal (such as friends. however. however. clergy.”4 At the present time. For example. Under these circumstances. On the other hand. Giving out confidential information about a former employee could he construed as a violation of the employee’s right to privacy. managers are instructed to give out only verifiable kinds of information such as dates of employment and job title.based integrity tests aftempt to assess an individual’s predisposition toward deviant and disruptive behavior.4 Although some critics believe that preemployment honesty tests generate an unacceptable level of false positive results (i. as well as gather a history of theft and other illegal activities. job-related information about their employees.. Perhaps because references have become such dangerous business. personality. Step 5: Physical Examinations Careful adherence to the Americans with Disabilities Act indicates that physical examinations can he used to screen out unqualied individuals hut generally should be required only after a conditional offer of employment has been made. the legal status sur rounding referencechecking and providing recommendations is just not clear at all. Rarely. Rather than risk a lawsuit.

Why is there such a strong emphasis on alcohol and substance abuse in the workplace? Consider the following statistics compiled from a number of sources by the U.e. First. there is a potential for the test to yield a questionably high number of false positives— HRMEMO In a recent Gallup poll the test indicates that the applicant is using illegal drugs when in reality he or commissioned by the she is not. • Establish a high-quality control testing procedure with a reliable testing laboratory. five or more drinks on one occasion). S4 Coupled with estimated losses of $120 billion annually attributable to drug abuse. It is estimated that there are 14.56 Second. however.2 Moreover. even when a particular drug test is deemed very accurate if typical em •ymen test standards are applied. However.. Alcohol abuse costs U. for example.S. . in fact. Also. however.or part-time. • Keep all results confidential. Department of Labor. the personal consequences of heing falsely labeled as a Institute for a Drug-Free Workplace. a major concern. A recent survey by the American Management Association indicates. a significant drug user are more severe than those of a false positive on other types of majority of selection tests—a math test. More than 14 percent of employed Americans report being heavy drinkers. Thus. it is not possible to determine whether any particular drug-testing program that doesn’t fall under a federal mandate will.S. the imPlication is Americans supported drug that the applicant has broken the law. the best guess is that most good-faith drug testing programs will he legally acceptable if the s organization has taken steps to: • Inform all job applicants of the organization’s drug-resting screening program. that approximately 80 percent of American corporations are now using drug tests. The reliability of drug tests is. corporations 500 million lost work days each year. nonthreatening manner.A note on drug testing Perhaps no other selection practice elicits a more emotional reaction than an organizational drug-testing program. the implication is simply that the applicant has more math ability than he or she has in reality. the Department of Transportation mandates both drug and alcohol testing for virtually all employers ‘ho have truck and delivery drivers with commercial licenses.8 million illicit drug users in the United States and three-quarters of these persons are employed either full. In the former case. be legal. for at least two reasons. the legality of drug-testing programs has not been universally established. although many organizational programs have withstood challenges in court. More than one in three workers between the ages of 18 and 25 are hinge drinkers (i. in the latter case.55 the costs to business are staggering. • Perform any drug tests in a professional.

objective testing.7 An assessment center uses a wide array of methods.) B. a rid propensity for taking risks. (Raters observe factnding skills. motivation. such as cognitive ability testing. games. Orientation of approximately 12 ratees. Many of the techniques that have been discussed in this chapter (the interview.) E. However. the type of employee being hired.DAY I A. and money hiring middle. memory. projective testing. (Raters observe planning ability. ability to react. B.) The particular types of employment tests that are used in an organization vary with. 2. Small-group discussion of case incidents.) C. Interview with upper-level executives than they spend hiring for positions lower on the organizational chart. organizations frequently expend more time. American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T) introduced the assessment center to the world of business in the 1950s. Break up into groups of four or six to play management simulation game. Group problem solving. (Ratees discuss goals. The assessment center was first used by the German military in World War II.assessment centers are similar in a number of areas: 1. because of the costs associated with a had decision and the complexities of managerial work. One of the best-known multiple selection methods used for these purposes is the assessment center.) DAY 3 A. (Raters observe condence. and communicatIon skills. counseling skills. persuasiveness. Groups of approximately 12 individuals are evaluated. are used with a wide ass&trnent of jobs and occupations ranging from blue-collar to managerial positions. organizing al)ility. for example) are common to most occupations. The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) in the United States began to use it in the mid-1940s. problem-solving skill. I). ability to handle questions. decisionmaking flexibility. role-playing. (Raters observe leadership ability and ability to work in a group. (Peer evaluations. and career plans. work samples and simulations. AT&T has used assessment centers to evaluate more than 200. Evaluation of other ratees.’8 Exhibit 8—10 presents briefly a typical 21/2 day assessment center schedule.) D. . (Raters observe problem-solving ability. effort. Individual and group activities are observed and evaluated. Individual decision—making exercise—Ratees are asked to make a decision about Sonic problem that must be solved. understanding of problem—solving procedures. In-basket exercise. and many kinds of paper-and-pencil tests of abilities and attitudes. and other methods. Multiple methods of assessment are used—interviewing.) B. and how information is used.000 prospective and current employees. Role-playing of performance evaluation interview. and ability to delegate. conimunication ability. Others. method of preparation. (Raters observe decision making under stress. Most. interaction skills. Individual case analysis and presentation. including several interviews.) C. Psychological testing— Measure verbal and numerical skills. Since 1956. (Raters observe empathy.) DAY 2 A.

well-designed assessment centers are a relatively expensive way to hire managers. usually by one or more members of the assessment team. poise. Assessors are usually a panel of line managers from the organization. flexibility. Generally speaking. decisiveness. on statistical utility. rnoreover. the salary paid to an interviewer. Assessment centers are relevant to the job. . is a matter of THE SELECTION costs and benefits. there are circumstances in which less costly and less admin tratively complicated techniques are just as effective in managerial selection. they are frequently not the technique of choice even for organizations that have the resources to utilize them. 4. and reporting on the performance of others (assessees). a large part of the answer to this question involves the utility of the selection process. I)irect costs include such things as the price of the tests. the assessment center report permits the organization to make a number of determinations about human resources: • Qualifications of individuals for particular positions.60 erefore.dity of individuals. The raters’ judgments are consolidated and developed into a final report. it must attempt to evaluate whether its eftorts will he worthwhile. Statistical utility is the extent to which a COST-BENEFIT selection technique allows an organization to better predict who will he successful. the results of research on assessment centers have indicated that they are a valid way to select rnanagers9—hut they are not without disadvantages. they are not a reasonable alternative for many smaller organizat’ions. Generally speaking. Individuals are then evaluated on a number of dimensions. Once an organization has made a commitment to investigate what types of selection devices it will use. answering the question whether the selection DECISION system should he developed arid used is ultimately an issue of whether it saves the organization more money than it costs. completing exercises. and personal styles. however. and tests. Portions of the individual reports are fed back to each assessee. resistance to stress. • How good assessors are in observing. . • Promotal. and thus have high appeal because of this relevance. such as organizational and planning ability. • How individuals function in a group. interviews. In other words. an analysis of the costs versus the benefits ot selection requires estimates of the direct and indirect costs associated with the selection systeni. ANALYSIS FOR Organizational utilit) which is dependent. They can. As such.6’ Utility has two related components. be consultants or outsiders trained to conduct assessments. Because it is an integrated attempt to measure a variety of characteristics of anagers. the assessors have a large volume of data on each individual. in part. • Type of training and development needed to improve behaviors of individuals. Overall. As a result of assessees participating as part of a group and as individuals.3. Utility refers to the degree to which using a selection system improves the quality of the individuals being selected by the organization. evaluating. Each assessee’s performance in the center can he described if the organization wants this type of report. Ultimately.

4 billion today. 40—42: Kenneth A. Robert Parrino. 61—62: David Jackson and Richard Corliss (February 2001). especiall’ in situations where the direct and indirect costs of hiring a poor performer are high. Eisner hurriedly made a list of possible successors and handed it to his wife minutes before he was supposed to undergo risky heart surgery.”Simultaneous Transformation and CEO Succession: Key to Global Competitiveness.’Top Management Successions: The Choice between Internal and External Sources. In 1984 only I percent of Disney’s income came from movies and only 9 percent from overseas markets. Interestingly. Sonietiiiws.” Ibor. “How to Build a Better Mousetrap:’ Time. Outsiders also become the leading candidates in organizations that intend to delegate more power to their CEOs. Michael Eisner is the CEO of Disney who took over a $2 billion company in 1984 and has helped make it worth more than $25.sic question depends on many factors. pp. The organization must also estimate how much money it will save 1w hiring more qualified employees using the selection system. As it happened. It is potentially influenced far more by political dynamics and idiosyncratic characteristics of the current CEO and the board of directors. These savings can COIiiC from improved outcomes such as higher levels of quality or quantity of output. 337—355:John Huey (April 7. As the story goes. however. 1ut valid selection procedures can yield enormou benefits.Today.The outsider is expected to bring a fresh perspective and be willing to question everything and anything about the organization’s past way of doing business. and overseas income accounts for 23 percent. qualitatively different from most other forms of selection. there is CEO succession in the Magic Kingdom. all bets are off. 1995). The choice of an organization’s highest ranking manager depends on many factors. pp. when an organization’s managers see how costly systematic selecti ofl can be. The Economist.Why are outsiders seen as the salvation of a dying organization? Current thinking suggests that outsiders have not been “brainwashed” by a corporate culture that apparently needs to be changed. reduced absenteeism. Much of his success is credited to dramatic shifts in strategic thinking. Pilot errors can cost the company millions . 43 percent comes from movies. Research suggests that an outsider will be appointed CEO more often when there is a high percentage of outside directors on the board. pp. 103—117.HR JOURNAL CEO SELECTION: SUCCESSION PLANNING AND THE CRYSTAL BALL Corporations differ in terms of their preference for hiring replacement managers from within their own ranks or from outside the organization. Outside Directors and CEO Selection. outsiders are often asked to infuse an organization with new direction and leadership when the company is facing a financial disaster. and Teresa Trapani (September 1996). pp.” Fortune. Sources: “Disney or Doesn’t H& Face Value’ (January 2002). but two of the most important are the current CEO and his or her relationship with the company’s board of directors.Yet people generally agree that the right choice for CEO may never have been more critical to a corporatior’s success than it will be in the global marketplace of the next century.” Organizational Dynamics.”Eisner Explains Everything. Borokhovich. Noel Tichy (Summer 1996). and the equipment used in a work sample test. Indirect Costs include changes in public image associated with implementing procedures such as drug testing.When it comes to picking a new CEO. pp. the list was unnecessary and he has never revealed its contents. 45—59. 44—68: Beni Lauterbach and Jacob Weisberg (1996). Imagine the costs associated with a single wrong hiring decisioii when airlines are selecting pilots. of course. lower accident rates. pp.’ Journal of Financial and QuantitativeAnalysis. and less turnover. Then. The selection process for a new CEO is. they wonder whether it will ever have henefirs The answer to this ha . therefore.

Then Clark and the HR fl specialist administered the w tests to skilled and bu semiskilled employees. application blank. of Since there were few cle choices among professional. Clark and Ed hired the managers. tests. • Skilled: screening interview. application blank. an HR specialist administered the tests to the clerical employees and supervised the reference checks for the managers and professionals. application blank. application blank. interview. interview. Clark and Ed hired the managers. • Professional and technical: screening interview. Clerical: screening interview. an HR specialist administered the tests to the clerical employees and supervised the reference checks for the managers and professionals. tests. reference check. tests. different jobs. Clark himself hired the professionals. and interviews for marginal applicants. application blank. • Semiskilled: screening interview. reference check. interview.different jobs. • Clerical: screening interview. application blank. and interviews for marginal applicants. application blank. reference check. interview. and interviews for marginal applicants. except in ap marginal cases. • Managers: screening interview. Professional and technical: screening interview. Clark las hired the clearly well. Candidates bu received a review and were co interviewed by the ga managers to whom they ne would report. application blank. tests. • Managers: screening interview. he would use the following selection process.ale . interview. he would use the following selection process. • Skilled: screening interview. application blank. While these groups were being hired. and interviews for marginal ) applicants. tests. refrrence check. interview. application blank.A similar th process was used to hire for the semiskilled employees. • Semiskilled: screening qualified semiskilled sp employees.The HR specialist hired the clerical employees with help from the managers and professionals for the clerical personnel who were to be under their direct supervision.The HR specialist hired the clerical employees with help from the managers and professionals for the clerical personnel who were to be under their direct supervision. While these groups were being hired. tests. Clark himself hired the professionals.

He had to generate the other half by paying less for the bottom 20 percent of the semiskilled and clerical employees. whereas Ed rec wanted more Chicago wa people that he knew.Among coi Clark’s choices were many em more qualified minority and obj female managerial 501 candidates than Ed wanted am to accept. Clark hired the people needed within the adjusted budget.The home office gave him half of what he needed. .technical and skilled co employees. Clark appealed for a bigger budget. and generally with the required specifications. api Several problems cat developed. These people generally wanted more pay than the budget called for. but more than Ed wanted. promising that he’d begin developing a list of qualified applicants in these categories in case they were needed. In sum. But pe in 18 additional cases. Loi and Clark did likewise. He was able to make a contribution to equal employment opportunity objectives by hiring somewhat more minorities and women than the total population. All were qualified. And the last 20 percent hired were somewhat below minimal specifications. No reverse discrimination took place. Ed There were also qu pr’oblems in the skilled dis professional categories. In the end. Clark adj felt he had found better am candidates. Clark alerted Ed to the probable competence problem. it was more prc efficient not to involve the de new managers. given these conditions. they po compromised. Clark and Ed had ne no trouble agreeing on 20 managerial candidates. less than he could have and less than Lois wanted. on time. Ed gave up co half his choices to Clark.

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