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Tim Huggins is the new director of human resources of Sprowl Manufacturing, a division of the MBTI Corporation. Tim wanted to start a job analysis program immediately. Six weeks after he took over; job analysis questionnaires (six pages each) were given to employees. The results were puzzling. Responses from e the operating employees (machinists, lift operators, technicians, draftspeople, and mechanics) were quite different from responses from their supervisors about these jobs. The fact that supervisors viewed the jobs differently from those doing the work fueled Tim’s desire to do a job analysis. He wanted to study and specifically define the jobs so that misunderstandings, arguments, and false expectations could be kept to a minimum. The supervisors listed job duties as simple and routine. The operating employees disagreed and claimed that their jobs were complicated and constrained by limited resources.They complained ‘ that work areas were hot, stuffy, and uncomfortable. These disagreements soon E became the basis for some a open hostility between supervisors and workers. Finally, Nick Mannis, machinist, confronted a supervisor, Rog Wilkes, and threatened to punch him over the “lies” Rog and other supervisors had concocted in the job analysis. Tim was worried that the job analysis program was getting totally out of hand. He had to do something about it. Everyone was getting up in arms over a program Tim felt was necessary. Should a manager like Tim, who knows a lot about HRM, but who was not trained in the specifics of job analysis, undertake this kind of program?
Organizations have evolved because the overall mission and objectives of most institutions are too large for any single person to accomplish. Consequently, the organization must have a systematic way to determine which employees are expected to perform a particular function or task that must he accomplished. The cornerstone of the organization is, therefore, the set of jobs performed by its employees. These jobs, in turn, provide the mechanism for coordinating and linking the various activities of the organization that are necessary for success. As a result, studying and understanding jobs through the process known as job analysis is a vital part of any HRM program. job analysis provides answers to questions such as these: How much time is taken to complete important tasks? Which tasks are grouped together and considered a job? How can a job be designed or structured so that the employee’s performance can he enhanced? What kinds of behaviors are needed to perform the job? What kind of person (in terms of traits and experience) is best suited for the job? How can the information acquired by a job analysis be used in the development of HRM programs? This chapter claries the contributions made by job analysis to an organization’s HRM program and specific activities. Furthermore, the careful planning needed and the various techniques of a ob analysis program are highlighted. Finally,
the importance of job analysis in the design of jobs is discussed. The chapter shows that job analysis is a necessary part of HRM and in many respects is the foundation upon which all other 1-IRM activities must he constructed. As can be seen in the diagnostic model (see Exhibit 6—1), the nature of the work to be performed is one of the fundamental inputs into all major HRM functions. This is another way of saying that how workers’ responsibilities and duties are segmented helps to shape and determine virtually all other facets of organizational functioning. As such, understanding exactly what constitutes any particular job is critical to developing HRM activities that support the organization’s mission. Before considering the process and techniques involved in job analysis, on should THE VOCABULARY learn the language of job analysis. Although many of these terms are often used OF JOP ANALYSIS interchangeably by people who are unfamiliar with job analysis, the expert will Use them more precisely in order to avoid confusion and misinterpretation. Precision in the use of these terms is, in fact, required by federal and state legislation. it is therefore important for the HR manager to use each of them in a way that is consistent with such legislation.
The following definitions are consistent with those provided by the U.S. Employment Service and the U.S. Office of Personnel Management:2 Job analysis. A purposeful, systematic process for collecting information on the important work-related aspects of a job.3 Job description. The principal product of a job analysis. It represents a written summary of the job as an identifiable organizational unit. Job specification. A written explanation of the knowledge, skills, abilities, traits, and other characteristics (KSAOs) necessary for effective performance on a given job. Tasks. Coordinated and aggregated series of work elements used to produce an output (e.g., a unit of production or service to a client). Position. Consists of the responsibilities and duties performed by an individual. There are as many positions in an organization as there are employees. Job. Group of positions that are similar in their duties, such as computer programmer or compensation specialist Job family. Group of two or more jobs that have similar duties. THE STEPS IN The 1ob analysis process involves a number of steps, which are outlined in Exhibit JOP ANALYSIS 6—2. As it appears in the exhibit, the process assumes that the job analysis is being conducted in an ongoing organization; in other words, an organization that is already in operation as opposed to a new venture. Step I provides a broad view of how each job fits into the total fabric of the organization. Organization charts and process charts (discussed later) are used to complete step I. Step 2 encourages those involved to determihe how the job analysis and job design information will be used. This step is further explained in the next section. Since it is usually too costly and time-consuming to analyze every job, a representative sample of jobs needs to be selected. In step 3, jobs that are to he analyzed are selected. Step 4 involves the use of acceptable job analysis techniques. The techniques are used to collect data on the characteristics of the job, the required behaviors, and the characteristics an employee needs to perform the job. The information collected in step 4 is then used in step 5 to develop a job description. Next, in step 6, a job specification is prepared. The knowledge and data collected in steps 1 through 6 are used as the foundation for virtually every other HRM activity. As shown in Exhibit 6—2, these include activities such as recruitment, selection, training, performance evaluation, and compensation. The information gathered during job analysis is essential to each of these. As is also shown in the exhibit, the information gathered is used in job design and redesign, which are discussed in detail later in this chapter. Job analysis provides information necessary for organizing work in ways that allow employees to he both productive and satisfied. Finally, information from job analysis can be used in an organization’s follow—up evaluations of its job design. At this step, it is important for an organization to evaluate its efforts and determine whether the goals of productivity and satisfaction are in fact being achieved.
It must yield information about the relationship between job duties and these KSAOs. clear job description. The frequency and importance of task behaviors should be assessed. and managers in general know that job analysis has manyJOP ANALYSIS T uses. The question has become how to conduct a legally defensible job analysis rather than whether to conduct such an analysis at all. 2.THE USES OF HR managers. The quality of job analysis conducted by an organization is frequently a primary determinant of whether it has acted properly. It should yield a thorough. a set of policies designed to minimize or prevent workplace discrimination practices. It must allow for an accurate assessment of the knowledge. It is used extensively in each of the following areas: .5 In terms of staffing and selection activities. Administrative guidelines accompanying various civil rights and EEO laws and judicial recommendations are clear. it must clearly determine which KSAOs are important for each job duty. That is. and other characteristics (KSAOs) required by the job. In addition to helping organizations satisfy their legal requirements. Some of these individuals now believe that there is no longer even a choice A about whether job analysis should be conducted. job analysis is closely tied to HRM programs and activities. The UGESP emphasizes that job analysis should be used when validating or assessing the accuracy of organizational selection procedures. skills. including the Civil Rights Act of 1991 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. In addition. a good job analysis must provide the following if it is to be viewed favorably: 1. job analysis is critical to assessments of discrimination under most employment-related laws. Job analysis is linked with these discrimination laws through rulings from numerous Supreme Court decisions. 3. 4. abilities. job analysis plays an important role in the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures (1978). On the basis of these court decisions. specialists.
and directing in the organization also benefit from job analysis information. Thus. Effective job analysis can help organizations to change. Thus. HR managers will 4. it may hire a temporary job analyst from outside. In addition. Part of that planning should involve carefully choosing the people who will JOP ANALYSIS? conduct the analysis. Each of these choices has strengths and weaknesses. organizing. or utilize its human resources without the kinds of information derived from job analysis. Other organizations will have job analysis experts employed full-time. busy with move efficiently from one career stage to another can only be accomplished with their day-to-day information from job analysis. job analysis should describe the work activities of a job independent of any personal attributes of a given job incumbent. Because incumbents tend to exaggerate the responsibilities and importance of their work. or some combination of these to collect job analysis information. job incumbents. cooperation is critical. the individuals should thoroughly understand people. proper compensation demands accurate time to conduct job assessments of what various jobs entail. Moreover helping people to Line managers. or otherwise restructure work and work flow processes to meet the changing demands of uncertain environments. managers are beginning to realize that need to convince line job analysis is another important tool in an organization’s overall strategic managers that their planning efforts. to hire the right person. the choice of who should analyze a job depends on many factors. how receptive incumbents might be to an external analyst. difficult to imagine how an organization could effectively hire. And. in fact. 2. eliminate. For example. this objectivity might be difficult to achieve when incumbents conduct the job analysis. jobs. It should be obvious from this list that the potential uses of job analysis cover the entire domain of HRM activities. analyses. Recruitment and selection. This information comes from job analysis. Compensation is usually tied to the duties and always be able to find responsibilities of a job. Managers involved in virtually all aspects of planning. selection testing must assess the most critical skills and abilities needed to perform a jo6. More and more. compensate. In cases like these. controlling. may not 3. Knowing the skills necessary for jobs is HRMEMO essential to building effective training programs. responsibilities. appraise. and the ultimate intended purpose of the results of the analysis. Compensation.9 Regardless of who collects the information. Training and career development. involving incumbents in the job analysis process might increase their acceptance of any work changes stemming from the results of the analysis. Strategic planning. WHO SHOULD The steps spelled out in Exhibit 6—2 suggest that care and planning are important features of CONDUCT THE any job analysis. job incumbents are a good source of information about what work is actually being done rather than what work is supposed to be done. If an organization has only an occasional need for job analysis information. . It is.1. job analysis information helps recruiters seek and find the right persons for the organization. Still other organizations will use supervisors. They should also have considerable knowledge about how work is expected to flow within the organization. But the value of job analysis doesn’t end with HRM. train. On the other hand. including the location and complexity of the jobs to be analyzed. aid the total organizational system.
the company was able to eliminate 100 unnecessary field office positions. and jobs. the world’s fourth largest automobile manufacturer with 2001 sales of U. pp. The initiative focuses on creating and implementing a new global standard for manufacturing which will attempt to realize new synergies between the company’s IT and production systems. A typical organizational chart will yield information about the number of vertical levels in the organization. even before this selection is made. Fixes. pp. “The New Business Agenda Strategy & Leadership. In order to make this project a reality.HR JOURNAL REENGINEERING: THE STRATEGIC JOB ANALYSIS CHALLENGS A 1990 Harvard Business Review article entitled. . pp. Their job analyses indicated that the application process included 30 separate steps that spanned five different departments. at the same time. According to its author. reengineering designs jobs around outcomes rather than tasks . and the formal reporting relationships that exist. and Fiction. “Reengineering Work: Don’t Automate.000 employees. The line functions (the individuals performing the work duties) and staff functions (the advisers) are also spelled out.S.” Industry Week. 04--I 12. In response to this inefficiency.500 Lexus and Toyota dealers and its 450 suppliers.$ 106 billion and 215. the company will need to redesign several existing jobs to support these new initiatives. john Teresko (January 00 I). An organization chart presents the relationships among departments and units of the firm.This means that a single individual will be responsible for performing all aspects of a process rather than a limited subset of tasks. Obliterate: introduced managers to the concept of reengineering. two types of charts are especially helpful. David Warner (October I 993).’ Management Today. “Toyota’s New Challenge. Mutual Benefit Life Insurance implemented a complete reengineering program several years ago. Michael Hammer. 66—68. THE However. the number of different functional departments. Typical turnaround time was between 5 and 25 days. The job analyst has to select the best methods and procedures available to conduct the analysis. The reengineering doubled the volume work that was being completed. Obliterate’ Harvard Business Review. units. pp. Similar efforts to streamline operations and make bureaucracy more efficient and less cumbersome are promised by Toyota Motor Corporation.” Nation’s & Business. the heart of reengineering is the need for organizations to break away from their traditional rules about work and from the assumptions that underlie how that work is efficiently accomplished. “Fads. pp. Additionally. The project will be aimed at Toyota’s North American parts supply network that includes 1. the company created a new job titled case manager. Specifically. with most of the time spent passing the application between departments. To gain these useful insights about the structure and process of the organization. this overview will provide the job analyst with a better understanding of the flow of work through the organization. Heal Thyself. 71— 74. an overview of the organization and its jobs is USE OF required. Job analysis is likely to play an important role in this change process. Sources: Michael Hammer (November—December 2001). 42—43. An overview provides the job analyst with an informed picture of the total arrangement CHARTS of departments.”Reen6gineering Work: Don’t Automate. A case manager became responsible for the entire application process for any given individual. 40—42. “Bureaucracy. This requires a complete redesign of existing work into jobs that previously didn’t exist. John Thackray (June 1993). Michael Hammer (July—August 1990).
and low-performing incumbents (the research is mixed about whether there will he differences between them in terms of their view of the job). a job can be analyzed in terms of behaviors or what the job incumbent does to perform the job (such as computing. rather than simply showing the structural relationships among job titles (as iii a METHODS OF typical organizational chart). of collecting job analysis data—observation. older and younger workers. which can he used separately or in combination. questionnaire. It permits the job analyst to collect information that provides a thorough picture of the job. the job analyst should not assume that all incumbents and supervisors have the same amount of knowledge about a job. and short-job cycle activities. in addition to the actual job analysis. The job analyst should not assume that all incumbents or their supervisors will view a job in the same way. collects records about the job. jobs performed by an inventory stockroom employee are examples of these. Since time and cost are considerations. or negotiating). if feasible. The job analyst should probably try to get information from males and females. This is referred to as work-oriented job analysis. or incumbent diary or log. some questions may not be answered or can’t be answered because the job incumbent doesn’t know the answer) are then used to specifically structure the data collection technique that will eventually be implemented.A second type of chart. The four methods—or any combination of them—must focus on critical information. The job analyst must observe a representative sample of individuals performing these . and requirements. shows how a specific set of jobs are related to each other. and high. the process chart. job duties. Job incumbents are asked to complete the JAIF.1° Thus. A questionnaire called the job analysis information format (JAIF) can provide the basic core information for use with any job analysis method—observation. On the other hand. ‘ Finally. 1-Observation Direct observation is used for jobs that require manual. Exhibit 6—3 presents a portion of one type of JAIE Differences among job incumbents should he considered during the analysis of JAIF information. This is important because research indicates that too little knowledge about a job can lead to inaccurate job descriptions. This type of job analysis is referred to as job. These answers (of course. and. managers need to collect comparable. and job incumbent diaries or logs. coordinating. the process chart shows the flow of activities and work necessary DATA to produce a desired product or service. Both of these orientations are acceptable under the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures as long as they identify job duties and behaviors that are critical to performing the job. interview. the information about the job is collected and then the job is studied in terms of tasks completed by the job incumbent (person presently working on the job). interview.12 A professional job analyst typically conducts extensive interviews with incumbents and supervisors. COLLECTION There are four basic methods. standardized. questionnaires. A safeguard against developing a distorted picture of a job is for the job analyst to collect information from a variety of incumbents. directly observes the job incumbents performing the job. In each of these methods. some form of core information is needed no matter what data collection method is used. valid data.oriented. Consequently.
EXHIBIT 6-3 JOB ANALYSIS INFORMATION FORMAT Your Job Title _______________________ Code _________________ Date__________________ Class Title _________________________ Department __________________________________ Your Name _________________________ Facility______________________________________ Supervisors Title _____________________ Prepared by __________________________________ superior s Name_____________________ Hours Worked _____ _________ to ________________ AM AM 1. What is the general purpose of your job? What was your last job? If it was in another organization, please name it. 3. To what job would you normally expect to be promoted? 4. II you regularly supervise others, list them by name and job title. 5. If you supervise others, please check those activities that are part of your supervisory duties: -Hiring -Orienting -Training -Scheduling -Developing -Coaching -Counseling -Budgeting -Directing -Disciplining -Measuring performance -Terminating -Promoting -Other ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ -Compensating
6. How would you describe the successful completion and results of your work? 7. Job Duties—Please briefly describe what you do and, if possible, how you do it. Indicate those duties you consider to be most important and/or most difficult. a. Daily duties— h. Periodic duties (please indicate whether weekly, monthly, quarterly, etc.)— c. Duties performed at irregular intervals— d. How long have you been performing these duties? e. Are you now performing unnecessary duties? If yes, please describe. f. Should you be performing duties not now included in your job? If yes, please describe.
EXHIBIT 6-3 CONCLUDED 8. Education. Please check the blank that indicates the educational requirements for the job, not your own educational background. a. ________ No formal education required b. _______ Less than high school diploma c. High school diploma or equivalent. d. _______ 2-year college certificate or equivalent. e. ______ 4-year college degree. F. _______ Education beyond undergraduate degree and/or professional license.
List advanced degrees or specific professional license or certificate required. Please indicate the education you had when you were placed on this job. 9. Experience. Please check the amount needed to perform your job. a. _______ None. b. ______ Less than one month. c. _______ One month to less than six months. d. ______ Six months to one year. e. _______ One to three years. f. ______ Three to five years. g. _______ Five to 10 years. h. ______ Over 10 years.
Please indicate the experience you had when you were placed on this job. 10. Skill. Please list any skills required in the performance of your job. (For example, degree of accuracy, alertness, precision in working with described tools, methods, systems, etc.) Please list skills you possessed when you were placed on this job. 11. Equipment. Does your work require the use of any equipment? Yes _____ No _____ If yes, please list the equipment and check whether you use it rarely, occasionally, or frequently. Equipment a. ________________ b. ________________ c. ________________ d. ________________ Rarely __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ Occasionally __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ Frequently __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________
jobs. Observation is usually not appropriate where the job involves significant mental activity, such as the work of a research scientist, a lawyer, or a mathematician. The observation technique requires that the job analyst be trained to observe relevant job behaviors. In conducting an observation, the job analyst must remain as unobtrusive as possible. He or she must stay out of the way so that the work can he performed. 2-1lnterviews Interviewing job incumbents is often done in combination with observation. Interviews are probably the technique used most widely in collecting data for job analysis. They permit the job analyst to talk face to face with job incumbents. The job incumbent can ask questions of the job analyst, and this interview serves as an opportunity for the analyst to explain how the knowledge and information gained from the job analysis will be used. Interviews can be conducted with a single job incumbent, with a group of individuals, or with a supervisor who is knowledgeable about the job. Usually a structured set of questions will be used in interviews so that answers from individuals or groups can be compared. Although interviews can yield useful job analysis information, an awareness of their potential limitations is also needed. Interviews are difficult to standardize—different interviewers may ask different questions and the same interviewer might unintentionally ask different questions of different respondents. There is also a real possibility that the information provided by the respondent will he unintentionally distorted by the interviewer. Finally, the costs of interviewing can he very high, especially if group interviews are not practical.16 3-uestionnaires The use of questionnaires is usually the least costly method for collecting information. It is an effective way to collect a large amount of information in a short period of time. The JAIF in Exhibit 6—3 is a structured questionnaire. It includes specific questions about the job, job requirements, working conditions, and equipment. A less structured, more open-ended approach would be to ask job incumbents to describe their job in their own terms. This open-ended format would permit job incumbents to use their own words and ideas to describe the job. The format and degree of structure that a questionnaire should have are debatable issues. Job analysts have their own personal preferences on this matter. There really is no best format for a questionnaire. However, here arc a few hints that will make the questionnaire easier to use: • • Keep it as short as possible—people do not generally like to complete forms. Explain what the questionnaire is being used for—’-people want to know why it must be completed. Tim Huggins (in this chapter’s Career Challenge) failed to explain his job analysis questionnaire. Employees wanted to know why the questions were being asked and how their responses would be used. Keep it simple—do not try to impress people with technical language. Use the simplest language to make a point or ask ‘a question. Test the questionnaire before using it—in order to improve the questionnaire, ask some job incumbents to complete it and to comment on its features. This test will permit the analyst to modify the format before using the questionnaire in final form.
be relatively expensive and time-consuming. or by members of different departments. or monthly basis can be made. a task survey based on expert judgments is constructed and administered. The four methods of data collection for job analysis just described were presented in general SPECIFIC terms. Which Method to Use? Although any of these four basic methods can be used either alone or in combination. the job analyst first conducts interviews with incumbents and supervisors in conjunction with on-site observation. and other human characteristics (KSAOs) are needed to perform the job. scientists. and when the duties are accomplished. and senior executives. interviews should not be relied on as the sole data collection method. Using a comprehensive process such as the multimethod job analysis approach will. and the management position description questionnaire. most individuals are not disciplined enough to keep such a diary or log.2° In this approach. certain methods seem to be better suited to a given situation than other In the absence of a strong theoretical reason why one method should be superior to another.4-Job Incumbent Diary or Log The diary or log is a recording by job incumbents of job duties. This technique requires the job incumbent to keep a diary or log.’9 In other words. However. frequency of the duties. Unfortunately. there is no general agreement about which methods of job analysis yield the best information. There might. differences in how the job has been described need to be resolved so there is general agreement about its true nature. Many experts agree that. . by incumbents at different geographic locations. it does offer one distinct advantage over any of the basic methods used alone: the quality of information derived from a more comprehensive approach is strongly endorsed by the courts in cases that rely on job analysis information. The diary or log is useful when attempting to analyze jobs that are difficult to observe. the various methods may not be interchangeable. weekly. most organizations base their choice on their current needs.’7 In addition. They form the basis for construction of specific techniques that have gained popularity QUANTITAVE across many types of organizations. of course. skills. the choice of a method is determined by circumstances such as the purpose of the analysis and time and budget constraints. Regardless. these specific techniques can TECHNIQUES provide systematic and quantitative procedures that yield information about what job duties are being accomplished and what knowledge. Comparisons on a daily. the position analysis questionnaire. Since these four basic methods seem to have different strengths and weaknesses. This permits an examination of the routineness or nonroutineness of job duties. a statistical analysis of the responses to the task survey is conducted in order to assess their consistency and to identify any systematic variation in them. If a diary or log is kept up to date. Next. be variation in the descriptions provided by incumbents and supervisors. for example. many organizations are turning to a multimethod job analysis approach. When they arc used properly. abilities. Finally. at very least. such as those performed by engineers. Three of the more popular quantitative techniques are functional job analysis. it can provide good information about the job.
Supervises workers engaged in receiving and shipping freight.) employee-service officer. Employee Welfare (profess. The next three digits (062) designate the degree to which a job incumbent typically has responsibility for and judgment over data. welfare. Exhibit 6—4 shows DOT descriptions of several jobs. and livestock. & rec. the DOT serves as a good starting point. factories. 732. guest rates. Directs activities of DUDE WRANGIERS (amuse. rneteorologist—025) specify the occupational code. and radar to prepare reports and forecasts for public and other users: Studies and interprets synoptic reports. May assist employees in the solution of personnel problems. Functional job analysis Functional job analysis (FJA) is the cumulative result of approximately 50 years of research on analyzing and describing jobs. lunchrooms.167-094 Manager.684-106 Shaper.S. Baseball Glove (sports equip. sanitary facilities are adequate and in good order. and other industrial and commercial establishments: Arranges for physical examinations. title. & kin. manager. and industry. Issues weather information to media and other users over teletype machine or telephone. and collecting fees for shipments.) Ana1y and interprets meteorological data gathered by surface and upper-air stations. mules. May visit workers’ homes to observe their housing and general living conditions and recommend improvements if necessary.and short-range weather conditions. assessing charges.) steamer and shaper. agriculture. such as camping. May contact customs officials to effect release of incoming freight and resolve customs delays. Directs preparation and maintenance of financial records. mallets. raising. photographs. Plans recreational and entertainment activities. Coordinates activities of international traffic division of import-export agency and negotiates settlements between foreign and DOT DESCRIPTION OF JOBS domestic shippers: Plans and directs flow of air and surface traffic moving to overseas destinations. satellites. and prognostic charts to predict long. opens fingers. Ensures that lighting is sufficient.22 which was the primary source used by the U. Arranges for installation and operation of libraries. hunting. using heated forms. entertainment. inserts hand into glove. Employment Service for descriptive information about jobs. Directs welfare activities for employees of stores. fire prevention. If someone is interested in a general description of a job. and hammers: Pulls glove over heated hand-shaped form to open and stretch finger linings. first aid. May establish and staff observation stations. Current versions of the DOT use the basic descriptive language of FJA to describe more than 20.117-014 Manager. Removes glove from form. fishing. May conduct basic or applied research in meteorology. the greater the responsibility and judgment. waybilling. The first three digits of any one of these listings (for example. and strikes glove pocket with fist while examining glove visually and tactually to ensure comfortable fit. and outings. The DOT classifies these jobs by means of a nine-digit code. and air-pollution control. such as recommending day nurseries for their children and counseling them on personality frictions or emotional Maladjustments. and other medical attention. Dude Ranch (amuse. and things. Issues hurricane and severe storm warnings. The final three digits (010) re used to classify the alphabetical order of the job titles within the occupational group . & kin.000 jobs. as intermediary for foreign customers. to resolve problems and arrive at mutual agreements. and machinery safeguarded.) Directs operation of dude ranch: Formulates policy on advertising. Prepares special forecasts and briefings for those involved in air and sea transportation. May examine invoices and shipping manifests for conformity to tariff and customs regulations. Pounds fingers and palm of glove with rubber mallet and hall-shaped hammer to smooth seams and bulges. publicity. and smoothes seams to shape baseball gloves. and form glove pocket. May prepare reports of transactions to facilitate billing of shippers and foreign carriers. Negotiates with foreign shipping interests to contract for reciprocal freight-handling agreements.117-022 Import-Export Agent (any ind. Negotiators with domestic customers. Forms pocket. ‘horseback riding.EXHIBIT 6-4 025. 187. Directs other activities. 166. maps. 184. recreational facilities. and showing horses. people. Organizes dances.). such as breeding. The lower the numbers. It was originally conceived in the late 1940s and was developed as a mechanism for improving the classification of jobs contained in the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT). and credit.) foreign agent. and educational courses. & rec. May direct forecasting services at weather station. documentation.062-010 Meteorologist (profess. and dancing.
having the same degree of responsibility and judgment. .2 DOT descriptions help a job analyst to begin learning what is involved in a particular job. FIA can then be used to elaborate and more thoroughly describe.
Sets a vision as to why development is important. Informs customer a bout product specifications. . Counsels assistant salesperson on career issues. Asks trainees for feedback. lightens mood with customer when appropriate. Teaches trainees new computer software. Models behavior for new salespeople. Asks for larger budget from vice president of human resource department. Sends product samples to customers. Defines and clarifies key concepts. Gives encouragement to new assistant salesperson. Asks questions to assess needs of customers. Bargains over price with customer.EXHIBIT 6-5 Worker function scale and examples from functional job analysis ( FJA ) Organizational Examples PEOPLE FUNCTIONS SCALE ENTRY-LEVEL SALEPERSON COMPANY TRAINER IA: Taking instructions—helping 1B: Serving 2: Exchanging information 3A: Sourcing information 3B: Persuading 3C: Coaching 3D: Directing 4A: Consulting 4B: Instructing 4(. Checks on and helps trainees posrprogram. Delivers requested programs. Answers trainees’ questions.: Treating 5: Supervising 6: Negotiating 7: Mentoring 8: Leading Stays within assigned territory. Refers customer to production manager. Creates entertaining class environment. Persuades trainees of importance of topic. n/a Structures job of assistant salesperson. n/a Evaluates learning of trainees. Directs trainees to additional resources. Convinces customer to purchase product. Demonstrates how product works. Advises new trainer (in how to deliver a training program.
. etc. diagrams. eqöiprnent. which are sources of information when being inspected. thickness gauges. railroads. not in the process of being changed or modified. buildings.) 2 2 Quantitative materials (materials which deal with quantities or amounts. stencils. blueprints. etc. that an individual uses in his or her work. such as graphs. photographic films. specifications.) 9 4 Materials not in process (parts. maps.) 3 1 Pictorial materials (pictures or picture like materials used as sources of information. 3 Moderate 4 Considerable 5 Very substantial 1. do not consider equipment. Source Position. such as bread dough being mixed. fields. relationships with others. work output. tables of numbers. tracings. such as items or materials in inventory. etc. machinery.1 EXHIBIT 6-6. used to obtain visual information about physical measurements.. scales. office notes.. docks. etc. articles. bridges. . objects. do not include here materials described in item 3 above) 5 2 Visual displays (dials. thermometers.. etc. which are sources of information when being modified. reports. etc.. and other mechanical devices which are sources of information when observed during use oroperation) 8 3 Matcrials in process (parts. for example.) 10 3 Features of nature (landscapes.1. etc. job instructions. signs. or selected. geological samples. gauges. clocks. vegetation. etc. objects.1 Visual Sources of Job Information 1 4 Written materials (books. packaged.1 Soutces of Job Information NA Does not apply QUESTIONNAIRE Rate each of the following items in terms of 1 Normal/very infrequent the extent to which it is used by the worker 2 Occasional as a source of information in performing his or her job. TV pictures.4 -C H A P T E R 6 Job Analysis and Design 169 . handled.) 4 1 Patterns/related devices (templates. distributed. patterns.) 6 5 Measuring devices (rulers. and other features of nature which are observed or inspected to provide information) 11 2 Man-made features of environment (structures. items being inspected. protractors. pipettes. as covered by item 7) Noie:Th. dams. machines. and other “man-made” or altered aspects of the indoor and outdoor environment which are observed or inspected to provide job information. calipers. cloud formations. or otherwise processed. etc. fabric being cut. speedometers. or distribution channels. highways. and other job characteristics. materials. worked on. signal lights. etc. accounts. storage. etc. etc. do not include here devices described in item S above) 7 4 Mechanical devices (tools. radarscopes. drawings.. workpiece being turned in a lathe. shoe being resoled.0] INFORMATION INPUT PORTIONS OF A COMPLETED PAGE INFORMATION INPUT Extent of Use (U) FROM THE POSITION ANALYSIS 1. job context. materials. x-ray films. Other PAQ pages contain questions regarding mental processes.s shows II of the “information input” questions or elements. tire pressure gauges. used as sources of information when observed during use.
For example. It requires time and patience to complete. What activities. it is often filled out by a trained job analyst. since no specific work activities are described. since all involve fine motor movements. Mental processes.25 It also seems valid in that jobs rated higher with the PAQ prove to be those that are compensated at higher rates. Where and how does the job incumbent get job information? 2. decision-making. (5) being physically active. The 195 items contained on the PAQ are placed in six major sections: 1. For example. Information input. In what physical and social context is the job performed? 6. These scores permit the development of profiles for jobs analyzed and the comparison of jobs.questionnaire requires considerable experience and a high level of reading comprehension to complete properly. In addition. Work output. (3) social responsibilities. That is. belly dancer. and (7) processing information. and male ballet dancer may be quite similar. (2) communication. What relationships with others are required to perform the job? 5. the profiles for a typist. It seems to be an effective way of establishing differences in abilities required for jobs.3° If this is true.27 It is reliable in that there is little variance among job analysts’ ratings of the same jobs. ratings on the PAQ might represent information that makes up the job analyst’s stereotype about the work in question rather than actual differences among jobs. the PAQ has advantages and disadvantages. What physical activities and tools are used to perform the job? 4. (4) performing skilled activities. One of its biggest advantages is that it has been widely used and researched. Other job characteristics. A major problem with the PAQ is its length. The job analyst must decide whether each item applies to a particular job. then the PAQ may he providing little more than common knowledge about a job. Like other job analysis techniques. behavioral activities performed in jobs may distort actual task differences in the jobs. (6) operating vehicles or equipment. conditions. The available evidence indicates that it can be an effective technique for a variety of intended purposes. Job context. Relationship with other people. .29 Some research suggests that the PAQ is capable only of measuring job stereotypes. and planning processes are used to perform the job? 3. What reasoning. measuring devices (item 6) play a very substantial role (5) for the job being analyzed in Exhibit 6—6. or characteristics other than those described in sections 1 through 5 are relevant? Computerized programs are available for scoring PAQ ratings on the basis of seven dimensions—( 1) decision ma king.
skills. The MPDQ is a checklist of 208 items related to the concerns and responsibilities of managers. 14. industrial. . medical. Items were grouped into sections in order to reduce the time it requires to complete. 4. thereby making it easier for incumbents to rate their jobs. and to help with the interpretation of responses: 1. The common metric questionnaire (CMQ). and type of industry (for example. Organization chart. 9. Coordinating. 2. The latest version of the MPDQ is classified into 15 sections. Monitoring business indicators. which may increase the number of intrajob skill-based comparisons that may he made. 8. PAQ. they are more behaviorally concrete. An attempt to systematically analyze managerial jobs was conducted at Control Data Corporation. Decision making. The result of the work is the management position description questionnaire (MPDQ).33 which is completed by an incumbent. government). Administering. 3. Consulting and innovating. Representing. Contacts (section 8 apj5ears in Exhibit 6—7). is a job analysis instrument with several potential advantages over existing measures. 6. 11. General information. many other methods of quantitative job analysis are also receiving attention. and abilities. and it is intended for use across most industrial settings. Supervising.Management Position Description Questionnaire Conducting a job analysis for managerial jobs offers a significant challenge to the analyst because of the disparity across positions. 13. 7. 5. 10. Although the FJA. Comments and reactions. 12. Planning and organizing. 15. Controlling. it is designed to he a comprehensive description of managerial work. levels in the hierarchy. and MPDQ are all intended for use across a large range of jobs. The items are at a reading level more appropriate for many jobs. Overall ratings. Knowledge. and the CMQ is applicable to both exempt and nonexempt positions.
a job description is a D written description of what the job entails. Department of Labor. the Department of Labor’s recent creation. the automated and Internet accessible O*NET is expected to replace the more cumbersome Dictionary of Occupational Titles. these approaches are expected to he well suited to situations where job content or manufacturing technology is changing. Many changes occurring in recent years have increased the need for such job . several techniques have the common goal of analyzing and describing work at the task level. Finally. Employment and Training Administration has undertaken a major job analysis initiative. and workplace requirements in the country. Thus. independent of any particular incumbent’s perceptions. was developed as a comprehensive system to describe occupations.Considerable research on job analysis is currently being conducted in Europe.35 Incorporating the last 60 years of knowledge about the nature of jobs and work. accurate. the O*NET (Occupational Informational Network). difficult to overemphasize ow important thorough. however. In Germany. Simply stated. and current job descriptions are to an organization. In cooperation with several other sources of funding. worker KSAOs. focusing on alternative quantitative methods. the job description (see Exhibit 6—2) is one of the primary Outputs provided by a systematic job analysis.S. it is worth noting that the U. for example. As previously mentioned. It is.
print a (0111.3 If von have am other contacts please elaborate on them r ii a to re and i°’ rpose be 111W.rrs old clIlitilta its may rcqtiircd to CoIfltotIIiaate with (Ill IS (1. tattat. STEP 2 .\ crucial and most significant lilrt of the positIon.I(IU (liii hut. STEP .i ((in a id Sv di ii Ii Ucliti a I people (mitts mdc t he orpl Ira ti iii. . Retiieiim her to consIder bothIts mImlfIot!aIIcc in light of all (It lie r p ISttI Oh ictiv it ics and Its /reqmuucv of occu rrerice. 3-A substantial hart ut the position. 226 STEP I Mark an X’ ii the box to the left of the k iiids (if I id is mdii a Is di at represent m (Or ni a I or contacts Internal a id external to (‘I nitro I 1) ata ( tI rp Irat 1(111. IrgaIll/atlonil goals.1 t it an V Ii is ‘vi th mm mIte c IP( r. 4-. I --\ minor part imt the position. lie purposes (It these oiU.her hetsveeli I) mitd 4 ill each coitinum to Indicate Ii os’ S ugh I tie a lii a part oh VII or (sit (((It ti it P U R P( )S F is.lCts lily ITi(II. t molts as: • lnhmrmuiimg • Receis mug Information • lntlueimciimg • Promoting • Selling • Directing • (‘oordiiiitimig • I iltilarati ii g • Negotiitmiig DIRECTIONS: 1)ese rm 1w t he ia tim ri It I (10 nitacts iomplettmmg the harts ott the opposite as hi IIl1)W.RATING INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL CONTACTS USING THE MANAGEMENT POSITION DESCRIPTION QUESTIONNAIRE (MPDQ) I (I iehic . 2-A moderate part of the pIIs(tmon.: For each contact checked. o DcfnitcIy not a part (It the position.
i rd og p.oittrol Data with parts or services Representatives of nfl urn t i a I coinniun it organhiations I id iv id ual s such as applicants. for e\.at ii ni or its po Id ucts! services Sell p r id iict s/ . sertlements. obtain. subcontractors for 192 199 206 .1st. 213 220 major contracts — Em pl o’ees of suppliers svh ii provide ( . or executive consultant I .iniplr.8 212 219 Customers at a level lower than .t am trol Data general! regional manager Representatives of nia)or suppliers. or senior consnlraiit Secto mn/branch na nager m 0l?%LiItailt I ‘6 1 7 1S4 I 85 162 I0 I ‘X 186 163 171 ISO I’9 I Unit flianager 164 Exempt employees I2 168 I I 188 181 189 190 Nonexenipt employees 66 182 . etc.) 96 I9 20. EXTERNAL. ((I’ decisions 1’. services Negotiate contracts.. icti VitW5. p resent. joint ventures.CONTINUED 1 srEP2 STEI I CoNTACTS I INTERNAL. stockholders Representatives of federal or sIt te gi nero ments s tmch as detcn se contract auditors. government inspectors. Provide.tct or decide n a n at flCt (list sten t ni th nit object yes I )irrct and/or re. director. 193 94 195 200 2(11 202 207 208 209 215 216 22 I 222 22.xeciitive or senior V1CC president and above Vice president Genera l/regii ma I ma niger. orga iii .89 16fi 169 decision of others I6 I IS 16)) 161 Deparmient/district manager. PURIOSF Share infornation Influence others to .— regional manager 191 198 20.. 22 . Customers at a Ies’el equivalent to or above a ( lilt rol Data genera IJ . or ant ci pa ted act cIt es or otegra te the iii n s. etc.3 204 211) 21 I II 2 IX 224 . ( ir exchange iii formation i ir ads’ice Promote the .
Determining what skills. J. • Activities—includes a description of the job duties.. 2.000 per project Source: Mark Frigo and Heather Kos (August 1999). ey • Environment—description of the working conditions of the job.37 it still seems unlikely that there are any relevant aspects of human resources that do not depend on accurate job descriptions... The importance of each skill must. a leading transportation firm that has reengineered the way they identifr and manage projects with high strategic fit and economic impact for the firm. • Surnmary—brief one. For example. or supervisors should specify the necessary skills for performing each of the job tasks identified. 38—45. From the job specification. These include things such as physical requirements and professional certification. A panel of experts. the location of the job. descriptions. pp. size of work group. Also describes the social interactions associated with the work (for example. and information hat required for effectively performing the job. 4. Any other characteristics necessary for performing the job should he. incumbents. i. knowledge. Navistar realized an average of $200. It addresses the question “What personal traits and experience are needed to perform the job effectively?” The job specification is especially useful in offering guidance for recruitment and selection. Each skill that has been identified needs to he specifically linked to each job task.6 Though some HR managers feel that technology and rapidly changing jobs will eventually decrease the need for job descriptions. (2) the need to implement new and creative ways to motivate and reward employees. and other relevant characteristics of the immediate work environment such as hazards and noise levels. equipment. responsibilities. amount of dependency in the work).kltc A’t the . more stringent federal regulation of employment practices through legislation like the Americans with Disabilities Act and the Civil Rights Act of 199 1. The job specification evolves from the job description. it’s working! After completing 200 projects. identified. R. Harvey offers the following guidelines for arriving at the characteristics that should be included on a job specification:39 1. downsizing). or abilities are required for performing a particular job must he done systematically. 3. he rated. Any trait or skill that is stated on the job specification should actually he re £ C i ml A .or two-sentence statement describing the purpose of the job and what outputs are expected from job incumbents. useful descriptions will include information on:3i • Job title—title of the job and other identifying information such as its wage and benefits classification. you would know that the successful applicant would have a college education and would already have at least six years of experience in HRM.Navistar’s Dream Team Strategic Finance. Can process changes yield savings? Ask Navis tar international Corporation. suppose that you were looking for an HR professional to fill the position described in Exhibit 6—8.HRMEM0 . These changes include (1) the incredible number of organizational restructurings that have occurred (e. (3) the accelerated rate at which technology is changing work environments. and (4) new. All job tasks must be identified and rated in terms of importance using sound job analysis techniques.g. and behaviors performed on the job. 5. almost all well-written. • Equipment—clear statement of the tools. While there is no standard format for a job description. F e.
knowledge. Job Analysis and Strategic Human Resource Management he HR Journal appearing earlier in this chapter suggests that process and work engineering will be the strategic HR challenge for the coming years. Works under general supervision.ciieral description of the 1ob Performs responsible administrative work managing personnel activities of a large state agency or institution. ruits and screens applicants to fill vacancies and reviews applications of qualified persons. and dismissals of permanent employees. evaluation. instead. retention or release of probationary employees. Initiates personnel training activities and coordinates these activities with work of officials and supervisors. Confers with supervisors on personnel matters. business administration. Job activities Participates in overall planning and policy making to provide effective and uniform personnel services. trains unit supervisors in making employee evaluations. evaluates qualifications. classifies applications. Education Graduation from a four-year college or university. examination. exercising initiative and independent judgment in the performance of assigned tasks. Interviews applicants. with major work in human resources. skills. Supervises administration of tests. then it should be done. and recommended change of status of agency employees. Responsibility Supervises a department of three HRM professionals. meetings. selection. and one secretary. Six-year minimum. appointment. Maintains employee personnel files. demotions. and abilities Considerable knowledge of principles and practices of HRM selection and assignment of personnel. and a system of communication for disseminating necessary information to workers. one clerk.40 Essential skills are those for which alternative ways of accomplishing the job are not possible.1. Nonessential skills can be accommodated by changing the structure or work methods of the job. job evaluation. including placement problems. and personal contact. . Work involves responsibility for the planning and administration of an HRM program that includes recruitment. transfers. Supervises a group of employees directly and through subordinates. ferentiate clearly between essential and nonessential skills. or industrial psychology. promotion. Performs related work as assigned. Establishes effective service rating system. . transfer. There are many signs that the fundamental nature of work may be changing. General qualification requirements Experience and training should have considerable experience in area of FIRM administration. If disabled people could accomplish the job successfully after such accommodation. Communicates policy through organization levels by bulletins. Functional areas are not as important as they once were for defining a person’s job.
While the job analyst has traditionally been charged with creating descriptions of jobs as they exist in an organization. As mentioned elsewhere in this text. strategic job analysis will have to be capable of capturing both the present and the future. telecommuting. there is a growing acknowledgment of the need to match human resource activities with an organization’s strategic planning. it is safe to assume that effective organizational functioning will require some type of job analysis to be competently conducted. I QM programs arc implemented. Thus. communicating.” To the contrary. and — • I)esign and implement stathng programs focused around conipetencics (rather than specific jobs) as a way of increasing staffing flexibility in job a ssign nwnts. Hewlett-Packard.4’ Despite these potential difficulties.42 An important part of this task vill he an ability for job analysts to write job specifications that accurately detail the knowledge and skills that will complement the future strategic initiatives of the organization.4 . and abilities needed to perform one specific job.44 Compounding the potential problems that reengineering can introduce. and rewarding a variety of broad-based competencies that successful employees should possess. skills. many work environments will also offer employees much greater flexibility in when and how they work.” such usage of competencies in HR practices reflects an organization’s desire to achieve the following: • Communicate job requirements in ways that extend beyond the specific jot? itself. therefore.4 Although it is currently unclear whether these new work arrangements will lend themselves to accurate description through the quantitative methods covered in this chapter. Organizations such as AT&T. and flexible hours. cwnpetencies are general attributes employees need to do well across multiple jobs or within the organizatioll as a whole. cornpetencies might include anything from “teamwork” to “leadership potential. some HR departments have increasingly analyzed jobs in a way that is consistent with the changing nature of business and management practices. These programs include variations on traditional work such as compressed work schedules. Also termed “competency modeling. Much more general than traditional knowledge. Not surprisingly. For example. the new job analyst will also have to describe jobs that will exist in the future organization. • I)escribe and measure the organization’s orkforce in mdre general.4 Job Analysis and Employee Competencies Over the past decade. and the value of teamwork is emphasized. and Pfizer have all implemented flexible working environments to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse workforce.interdisciplinary or cross-functional teams comprised of pers6ns with extremely diverse backgrounds are becoming increasingly common. competency terms. many organizations are identifying. one of the major complaints about reengineering is that once an organization’s processes have been reconstructed.4 In the future.” As jobs are reengineered. job descriptions will no longer be snapshots of a static entity called a “job. This inevitability creates a new problem for the job analyst. new job responsibilities may he poorly defined for the new environment. reengineering of one kind or another is likely in a majority of organizations. organizations will have to continually adapt to rapidly changing business environments. job sharing.
Among these •re recommendations stemming from Taylor’s scientific management. Although the principles of scientific management were formally introduced in the early I 900s and many current methods of job design criticize the use of the repetitive-task structure. Once learned. (2) the biological approach. and each man receives in most cases complete written instructions. (3) the mechanistic approach.45 Perspectives on the design of work can he classified into four major categories: I) the perceptual-motor approach. They are also the two that have received the most attention in the. Taylor’s model of scientific management. they emphasize equipment design and the proper match between machines aiid operators. approaches to job design place different emphasis on performance and satisfaction as desired outcomes. it is unlikely that any one approach will fully satisfy all of the goals’of a manager. repetitive tasks. The mechanistic approach is best exemplified by Taylor’s scientific management and the motivational approach by job enrichment. The two remaining approaches more clearly highlight the potential trade-offs that must frequently he made by organizations with regard to job design. This task specifies not only what is to be done hut how it is to be done and the exact time allowed for doing it.49 Both the perceptual-motor approach and the biological approach have their roots in human factors engineering. The emphasis was clearly on structuring jobs so that they were broken down into simple. The work of every workman is fully planned out by the management at least one day in advance. In 1911. This information iS very useful for structuring job elements. Scientific Management and the Mechanistic Approach Job design was a central issue in F. W. In other words. an organization can USC this information for designing or redesigning jobs. and tasks in a manner that will help to achieve Optimal perft) rmance and satisfaction. This means that the choice of job design will involve making trade—offs based on the more critical needs of the organization. and (4) the motivational approach. such as the‘dlowing: . no one best way to design a job. His use of job design is an excellent example of the rational approach and shows how certain perspectives focus more heavily on productivity than on satisfaction.Once a thorough job analysis has been conducted and there are high-quality job JC descriptions and job specifications available. Their major focus is on the integration of human and machine systems. In addition. however.co ‘The work of Taylor and the principles of scientific management initiated a great deal of interest in systematically studying the structure of jobs. . others are more concerned with satisfaction. these tasks could he done quickly and efficiently. Thus. Thus. many of the principles are still relevant today. certain methods of job design are primari lv interested in improving performance. duties. he stated: Perhaps the most prominent single element in modern scientific management is the task idea.management literature. . 1)ifferent situations call for different arrangements of job characteristics. describing in detail the task whiji he is to accomplish. There is.
The expansion of the work is.52 Job en largement attempts to increase satisfaction by giving employees a greater variety of things to do. an enlarged job is not as specialized or routine as a job designed according to scientific management. Early strategies for overcoming some of the problems associated with jobs designed according to scientific management focused on job enlargement.) • Employees should be trained to perform the job.S1 Thus. however. they are merely allowed to do a greater number of tasks. Many managers find the scientific management approach to job design appealing because these kinds of recommendations point toward improving organizational performance. highly specialized work can lead to dissatisfaction among employees. since the employees are not given more responsibility or authority in decision making. Despite the appeal of these potential advantages. considered horizontal. It is assumed that the specialization and routine nature of jobs designed according to scientific management principles will lead to higher levels of output and require minimal training before employees are able to master the work. Rather. Thus. the gains in efficiency that scientific management may offer can he offset by losses in satisfaction and higher levels of absenteeism and turnover. research has found that repetitive. • Monetary compensation should be tied directly to performance and should be used to reward the performance of employees. but it may not be any more meaningful. (Job descriptions and job specifications used iii recruitment and selection should achieve this. .• Employees selected for work should be matched to the demands of the job.
the job characteristics model is one of the most widely publicized.job Enrichment: A Motivational Approach In the past two decades. enrichment differs from enlargement because the job is expanded vertically.” These include • Skill variety—degree to which the job requires a variety of different activities in carrying out the work.4 Although there are many different approaches to job enrichment. and responsibility. doing a job from beginning bo end with a visible outcome. Rather than simply increasing the variety of tasks performed by an employee. — • Task significance—degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the . • Task identity—degree to which the job requires completion of a “whole” and identifiable piece of work—that is.55 This model is depicted in Exhibit 6—9. employees are given responsibility that might have previously been part of a supervisor’s joh. It shows that for a job to lead to desired outcomes it must Possess certain “core job dimensions. much work has been directed at changing jobs in more meaningful ways than job enlargement was able to do. The notion of satisfying employees’ needs as a way of designing jobs comes from Frederic Herzberg’s two-factor theory of work motivation. which involves the use of a number of an individual’s skills and talents. recognition. Thus. job enrichment tries to design jobs in ways that help incumbents satisfy their needs for growth. His basic idea is that employees will be motivated by jobs that enhance their feelings of self-worth.
Qldham (August 1976). • Feedback—degree to which carrying out the activities required by the job results in the individual’s obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance. he or she will then he motivated to perform well and will be satisfied with the job. To the extent that these three states are important to the job incumbent. If these core dimensions are present in a job. 2. valuable. the more internal work motivation the job incumbent will feel. independence.’ The key psychological states that are necessary for motivation and satisfaction are: 1. determining the procedures to he used in carrying it out. they are expected to create three critical psychological states in job incumbents. . Knowledge of results—understanding that a job incumbent receives about how effectively he or she is performing the job. Experienced responsibility—extent to which the job incumbent feels personally responsible and accountable for the results of the work performed. and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in . The more these three states are experienced. 256. “Motivation through the Design of Work: Test of a Theory. G.” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance. and worthwhile. Experienced meaningfulness—degree to which the job incumbent experiences work as important. p. *Autonomy—degree to which the job provides substantial freedom. Richard Hackman and R.Source:Ado pied from J. 3.
flextime. for example. After 20 years of research. The aging population will he another factor that requires a response from working-age caregivers. Often viewed as primary caregivers. task identity. however there are no clear answers about the effectiveness of enrichment.’ Research also suggests that increasing the scope of a job beyond certain levels can have detrimental effects on workers. they must have a sense of the quality of their performance. Many have argued that companies that offer and encourage participation in such famil— friendly work arrangements will reap one or more of the following benefits: higher recruitment and retention rates. How are organizations responding to these challenges? Although nor as dramatic as originally anticipated. and task significance— AB contribute to a sense of meaningfulness. leading both working spouses to require flexible work arrangements to meet family life and career cycle needs. It is believed that by allowing employees more control over their work lives. Examples of flexible work arrangements include job sharing. the more they will feel responsible. Many job enrichment programs have been implemented in the United States and in other countries around the world. (3) personal and work-related outcomes. Since different people have different capabilities and needs. improved morale. Another example of demographic changes includes the increase in dual-career couples. lower absenteeism and tardiness. Generally. these individuals vill continue to experience stress as they attempt to balance career and family priorities. then job enrichment will probably have less effect than it would for a person who values personal growth. it is important to be aware of the potential for individual differences to moderate the linkages shown in Exhibit 6—9. a person dues not have a strong need for personal growth. Feedback is related to knowledge of results. For example. As the baby boom generation reaches retirement age. If. Work-Family Balance and Job Design Organizations are directing more attention and resources toward helping employees balance their work and family demands. Driving this work-family tension are a number of variables related to the changing demographics of the workforce. the relationships between the critical psychological states and employees’ reactions to enrichment are not yet fully understood. this issue will grow in importance. studies support the expectation that jobs perceived to possess the core dimensions of the job characteristics model are more satisfying. caregiving responsibilities may he shared. and higher levels of employee productivity. The job characteristics model describes the relationships that are predicted to exist among four sets of factors—( I ) core job dimensions. Autonomy is directly related to feelings of responsibility. On the other hand. and telecommuting. . and (4) strength of needs. a trend is emerging in which some organizations are trying to accommodate diverse employees’ needs by offering flexible work arrangements.As presented in Exhibit 6—9. the number of women and single parents entering the workforce is expected to increase. The more control 1ob incumbents feel they have over their jobs. three job dimensions—skill variety. This sense comes from feedback. (2) psychological states. they will he better able to balance their work-home demands. In Some cases. For job incumbents to be internally motivated.
Regardless of the specific nature of redesign. Companies that offer fiextime options include I lewlctr-Packard. and Xerox. General Motors. fax. General Electric.61 Companies such as CoreStates Financial. analysis. Motorola. 3. and assessment of . AT&T. Merrill Lynch. Procter & Gamble. job satisfaction.or fulltime. workers’ compensation. First. managers need to he trained and rewarded for encouraging their subordinates to use them without fear of derailing their good standing within the firm.62 I—or example. a large health care company. flextime. 4. then excluded group’ may feel discriminated against. European and Asian competitors of American corporations were revolutionizing job design by turning away from the basic dc1i1t of scientific management and embracing the quality management movement More recently.“partners” who have complementary scheduling needs and skills. Many career-minded employees do not take advantage of job sharing. they may prefer to work a 4—day!! 0— mr per day work schedule.’9 Countless others are reengineering their work processes. and Cigna. self-directed teams hav become important ingredients in the success of manufacturers worldwide! And now. having the CEO of an organization anoiince these programs is not enough to effect change. Coca-Cola. many organizations have learned the hard way that reengineering cannot succeed unless careful attention is also paid to the effects on how employees use their skills. The appropriate response to these changes is exemplified by Coopers & Lybrand’s competency alignment process (CAP). because of the competitive pressures that foreign business has placed on them. Although organizations like Pizer and the other faniily-friendiy firms are movmg forward to attract. With this schedule. Kraft. took the following steps to establish their program: I. 1o avoid peak rush hour. Required interested employees to satisfy a formal proposal and performance standards. These authors also reported that flextiine programs should not be too unstructured and that they lose some of their effectiveness over time.roups are offered these options. Pfizer Inc. Federal Express.. The risk here is that if only certain e.64 Though oftentimes resisted by managers who fear loss of control and subordinate accessibility. and computer. Required demonstration that the work could be accomplished off-site and that the employee could sustain and/or enhance performance. employees may decide that instead (it working 5 days a week for 8 hours a day. or telecommuting for fear of being derailed from their career progression. Managers need to be aware that excluded employees can create a backlash . 2. and Household International all have oh-sharing options available for their employees. organizations need to be mindful of the laws that may impact how these flexible work arrangement policies are developed and managed.66 In order to make these programs an accepted part of the organization. and absenteeism. J the Occupational Safety and Health Act! Job Design: The Next Challenge In the late I 980s and early 1 990s. one company has aken a methodical approach to implementing a telecommuting program. S. Chose a small division to pilot the telecommuting initiative. hoping to regain their competitive advantage. Flextime is another type of flexible work arrangement in which employees can choose when to be at the ofce. Limited the number of days to work at home to two per week. every attempt should be made to open these programs to all employees. motivate. Telecommuting refers to the work arrangement that allows employees to work in their homes part. other employees might use their flex— time to arrive at and leave from work one hour later Monday through Friday. Opened the program to all employees of the division. Third.) organizations need to consider three important issues when developing and implementing such flexible work arrangement options. the employees do not have to be at the of&e on Friday.!ainst work-family programs!’ Second. CAP involves the systematic study. American orporations—including Chevron. and retain employees with diverse nonwork needs. One research study concluded that flexible workweek schedules had a positive influence on employee performance. maintaining their connection and communication with the office through phone. oine applicable laws include the Fair Labor Standards Act. to name a few—are also implementing self-directed work teams.
title. There are six sequential steps in job analysis. . organization and process charts should be consulted to acquire an overview of the organization.jobs and the skills needed to perform them in the reengineered organization. the famous industrial engineer and father of what is called scientific management. and processing information. Strategic planning. It is taking a new look at the entire flow of work through an organization.7° Without these or similarly intense efforts. This chapter has emphasized the major role that job analysis plays in HRM activities and programs. The job is described in terms of data. job analysts and other HR professionals are a crucial link in the reengineering processes upon which so many corporations are staking their competitive future.3. The Dictionary of Occupational Titles is a listing of over 20. 10. Therefore. Before conducting a job analysis. . being physically active. people. selection. and responsibility are satisfied. To accomplish this goal. redeployment. The position analysis questionnaire (PAQ) is a I95item structured instrument used to quantitatively assess jobs on the basis of decision making. operating vehicles or equipment. Reengineering is more than job redesign. Training is required. communication and social responsibilities. CAP determines current skill levels of employees in order to identify skill gaps. 4. 5. Without adaptable job descriptions. however. When a skill deficiency exists for the reengineered organization. Thus. compensation. The management position description questionnaire (MPDQ) is a checklist of 208 items that assesses the concerns and responsibilities of managers. The multimethod approach to job analysis uses a combination of these four general. and job incumbent diaries or logs. training.WTaylor. recognition. starting with examining the total organization and the fit of jobs and concluding with the preparation of a job specification (see Exhibit 6—2). To summarize the major points covered in this chapter: . prepare job descriptions. It is a comprehensive approach and is currently viewed very favorably from a legal respective. industry. and job design all benefit immensely from job analysis information. 1. job enrichment involves designing jobs so that employees’ needs for growth. 2. Four general job analysis techniques can be used separately or in combination observation. methods. performing skilled activities. The job is the major building block of an organization. I 3. and provide details on job specifications. recruitment. 14. duties. job design was a concern of F. 12. it cannot succeed. The uses of job analysis information seem endless.000 jobs on the basis of occupational code. it can then be eliminated through a variety of programs including training. Job design involves structuring job elements. and outsourcing. 9. and things. it is essential that each characteristic of each job in an organization he clearly understood. Each part of the diagnostic HRM model is in some way affected by job analysis. Conducting job analysis is not for amateurs. and tasks to achieve optimal performance and satisfaction. 7. . questionnaires. 11. Functional job analysis (FjA) is used to describe the nature of jobs. interviews. the reengineering will probably not succeed. 6.
Job analysis is often referred to as the “cornerstone” of HRM.What do you now think about Tim Huggins’s job analysis process? Do you see why some type of training in job analysis is required Tim really lacked sufficient training. Do you agree? Why? 3. He was a new boss. holding TERMS open discussions with informal leaders. How might job analysis be helpful to an organization that is being sued for sex discrimination in . He a needs to backtrack and slow down. and this lack was clearly revealed as the process got out of hand. Perhaps distributing memos. What are the six steps in the job analysis process? 2. and this alone was threatening to many people. ti In the case of Sprowl ai Manufacturing.A trained job analyst knows that distribution of questionnaires without an explanation is bound to set off negative feelings. and using the expertise of trained job analysts can improve the atmosphere at Sprowl. . What would you advise Tim to do about job analysis at this point? autonomy common metric questionnaire (CMQ) competency alignment process (CAP) feedback functional job analysis (FJA) job job analysis job analysis information format (JAIF) job characteristics model job description job enlargement job enrichment job family specification management position description questionnaire (MPDQ) niultimethod job analysis approach Occupational Information Network (0 *NET) organization chart POSItiOn position analysis questionnaire (PAQ) process chart skill variety strategic job analysis task task identity task significance 1. Using questionnaires requires preparation and conch careful initial steps.Tim failed to plan thoroughly what he wanted to do.Tim’s haste a and lack of preparation have now caused the situation to T reach a boiling point.A new person luded has to establish rapport o with emp’oyees before ir changing things.
skills.promotion? 6 4. how will you communicate the requirements of an entry-level customer service representative to a candidate who just arrived at your office for an interview? \Iill you describe the job in terms of cornpetencies? Knowledge. Describe the mechanistic and motivational models of job design. and abilities? Both? Explain your answer. What core information should be included in most job descriptions and job specifications? 6. What is the difference between an essential and a nonessential skill? How are these related to the Americans with Disabilities Act? .What is the emphasis of each? . As a current (or future) manager. 5.
Worthington with an ergonomic chair. 1999 U. which could all he performed with only occasional standing. City of New Has en. According to the City’s job description. with or without accommodations. Further. 1994. she suffered neck and lower back pain when sitting For extended times. checking receipts and vouchers. (2) replacement of overhead shelves with waist level shelves. Worthingwn could perform the essential functions of the ob either with or without accommodations. District Court for the District of Connecticut. the court found that Ms. who had preexisting back. Dist. What is the ONET? How and when would a job analyst use the ONET? Do you think it will replace the Dictionary of Occupational Titles? Why or why not? 10. holding that she was a qualified individual with a disability who could perform the essential functions of the Account Clerk I position with reasonable accommodations. The City claimed that filling in for an employee who collected parking fines which involved standing for long periods of time was also an essential function of Ms. maintaining accounts. complaining that she was still required to stand for long periods of time. Worthington had a physical impairment of her musculoskeletal system that substantially limited her ability to walk and stand for long periods of time. Worthington with a more comfortable chair. \Vorthington requested three accommodations from the City: (1) an ergonomic chair with neck and back support. The Court’s Decision To recover under the ADA. Vorthington did indeed possess the required education. the City . Thus. What challenges does the concept of reengineering pose for job analysis and human resources Based on Worthington v. The Facts Patricia Worthington was hired 1w the City of New Haven on December 23. On May 24. After an investigation. repeatedly denied Ms. Ms. LEXIS 16104. Ms. (2) a record of such impairment. Worthington $150.S.S. preparing payrolls and financial reports. 1 993.8. Ms. fell at work. a disability is I) a physical or mental illpairmcilt that substantially limits one or more major life activities. due to her disability. On February 3. The court examined the City’s job description for Account Clerk I to determine if Ms. and (3) modification of her job duties so that she avoided standing for long periods of time. Later in that same month. Despite recominendanons from her doctor for the ergonomic chair and letters froii ti’e Connecticut Bureau of Rehabilitative Services suggestinj a worksite evaluation.000 in compensatory damages. 1995. Worthington had a disability under the ADA.” According to the AI)A. Following the accident. Ms. Ms. . experience. On July 1 3. Worthington’s job. she hled a grievance with the union. and checking receipts and vouchers. 9. Worthington. Following surgery for spinal problems aggravated by her fall at work. she filed a grievance with the City. the Account Clerk I position required bookkeeping. and various other clerical duties. neck. The court found that the essential functions of Account Clerk I involved preparation of payrolls and financial reports. the City provided Ms. receiving payments. Worthington filed a disability discrinnnation suit under the Americans with Disabilities Act in U. the Cit agreed to provide Ms. As a result of the fall. as an Account Clerk I in its Tax Office. On April 13. 1992. Worthington ceased working on March 25. 1993. or (3) being regarded as having such an impairment. Worthington’s requests for accommodai ions based on a lack of funds. and skills for the Account Clerk I position. 199 I. Describe the major components of the job characteristics model of job enrichment. The court found that Ms. Howevei the court disagreed and awarded Ms. a plaintiff must prove that he or she is a “qualified individual with a disability who can perform the essential functions of their job. maintenance (if accounts and parking tag books. and knee in)uries.
27—3. Ivan Robertson anc Mike Smith (November 200 “Personnel Selection. I (New Yorl Wilev. 86—89. essential functions are the fundamental hut not marginal duties of a job. Ronald Buckle’ (eds. CA: Cansulting Psychologists Press). 1--lerhert 1-leneinan. Hough (eds.nnent. 2nd ed. Ii John C. 2 (Palo Alto. The Job A nalvsis Handbook /or I3usiness. Gorham & Larnont). I-’anplovnu’nt Lan’ Manual (Boston: Warren. “A Framework for Evaluating Job Analysis Methods. Government Printing Of6ce(. employers should also consider how much time an emplace spends performing a jot) duty and the consequences of not requiring an employee to perform the duty. 48—68. NJ: Prentice-Hall). Staffing Organizations. and 1-leneman. p. . In differentiating between essential and nonessential job functions in job descriptions. Harvey. pp. Atchison (Summer 1980). ‘Toni S. op. 441—472. Harvey (Winter 1986). 1)unnerte and I eaetra M. Heneman. 1 38—139. Ferris. “Practical Findings from Job Analysis Research. (Boston: Allyn and Bacon).’. pp. cit. op. Sims (1990). 3rd ed. Friedman and Robert J. Jai Ghorpadc and Thomas J. cth ed. op. DC: U. Richard I. 1—larvey (1991). cit. Rowland. 198—1 99. pp. pp. 100. Veres 111. and M. and Ronald R.Human Resource Implications Organizations must carefully define essential and nonessential job functions in their job descriptions and be prepared to provide reasonable accommodations requested by employees.acl (ed. “Can Recruiters with Reduced . op. pp..-\nalvsis: Developing and Dcuinenting Data” (Washington. 2 Henderson. IL: McGraw-Hill/Irwin).3. pp. A job duty is essential if (I) the position exists to perform the function. (2) there are a limited number of employees who are available to perform the function.” Personnel. pp. and Ronald A. “Job Analysis.. cit. 1. 71—163.S. Vol. According to the ADA.. Compensation Management: R en ‘a ‘ding Performance.’. 2nd ed. pP 198—199. and Robert Heneman (2000). and (3) the employee was hired for an expertise or ability to perform a particular function. (Englewood Cliffs. Levine (November—December 1980). pp. “Job Analysis in Practice: A Brief Review of the Role of Job Analysis in Human Resources Management. “The Concept of Job Analysis: A Review and Some Suggestions. and Got ‘er. pp. 3. 134—144. Ash and Edward L. 53—59.” in Si d ne (. “Job .33. Tiniothv Judge. Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psvchokg. Henderson (1 989). Edward ‘F.” Public Personnel Management Journal.). S Robert •J. pp.33. Vol. . pp. Locklear. Human Resource Management: Perspectives and Issues.” in Marvin 1).” in Gerald R.. Kendrith M. Judge.27— 3. cit. Cornelius (198$). Industry.Job Description Information Provide Accurate Position Analysis Questionnaire ( PAQ) Ratings?” Personnel Ps’t’cholog’.. p. (Burr Ridge. 779_7$9 .). 3 I 2. Panaro. Bureau of Intergovernmental Personnel Programs (1 973)..’.” Journal 01 ( )ccupatumal and Organizational l’sb)lnç”.. ). Gerard P Panaro (1991)).
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These departments vary considerably in size and in the number of sales clerks reporting to the assistant manager. pp. “Self-Directed Work Teams: A Guide to Implementation. 329—347.” Training and Development. 57—71. Double Headache?” Personnel Journal.ornez-Mejia Ct al.996). Steve Hamm. R. and George A. Pp. Mary had been both a store manager and an assistant manager in a casual-wear department. pp. NJ: Prentice Hall). Purdy (Summer 1975).. C. “i Michael W. 62—66. pp. “The Baby Gap. Each outlet: has between three and five assistant store managers. “The Critical Psychological States: An Underrepresented Component in Job Characteristics Model Research. 496—513. and Implications for Managers. each of these outlets has a store manager who reports directly to Mary. Baltes. 368—370. Mary had often thought that she was responsible for many aspects of store management that other . Jia Lin Xie and Gary Johns (October 1995). pp. pp..” Quality Progress. 8 1—87. Balkin.” journal of Management.1. 250—279. 250—279. each store has a different collection of merchandise. Mary is the regional manager for the Pacific Coast. pp. Julie A. Rcnn and Robert J. The departments include casual wear. Neuman (August 1999).. 66 Keith Hammonds. pp. a national chain of specialty clothing stores with 200 outlets across the country. Gomez—Mejia et al. ‘ Nancy G. 61 Charlenc Solomon (September 1994). Vandenberg (Summer 1995). “A New Strategy for Job Enrichment. Wright. and Robert L. Because the chain’s success lies in being receptive to local customers tastes and buying habits. 70 Nicholas F. 37—43. 8 Robert W. (Upper Saddle River.While she was an assistant manager. 187 60 Luis R. pp. “Management Fads: Emergence.” California Management Review. She manages 35 outlets in California and Oregon.” Business Week. Thomas E. Hauser (May 1996). Evolution. shoes. 279—303. Richard Hackman. pp. cit. Oldham. Huff.” lournal of Applied Psychology. Autonomy. op. pp. Homey and Richard Koonce (December 1995). “The Interactive Effects of Variety. and . Each assistant manager is responsible for one particular specialty department. which is one of Today’s Fashion’s largest markets. “Job Sharing: One job. 122—1 33. and jewelry. and Paul ludge (September 1997). 56 Hackman and Oldham. pp. Greg R. 64 (. ‘ Boris B.” The Academy of Management Executive. pp. 96--lOl. Managing Human Resources. 6’ Gillian Flynn and Sarah E Gale (October 2001).” Journal of Organizational Behavior. pp. Mary Watson was recently promoted to the position of regional sales manager for Today’s Fashion. “Flexible and Compressed Workweek Schedules: A Meta-Analysis of Their Effects on WorkRelated Criteria.” Work force.Performance. 1288—1309. Janson. Ganstec çy 1. Briggs. and Feedback on Attitudes and Performance. 3rd ed. formal wear. and K. 88—93. 6 Sharon Leonard (July 2000). Piczak and Reuben Z.” HRMagazine. cosmetics. depending on the number of specialty departments. David B. “Job Scope and Stress: Can job Scope Be Too High?” Academy of Management Journal. Prior to being appointed to the regional sales manager position. “The Legalities of Flextirne. “Work and Family. Gomez-Mejia. Dodd and Damel. 68 Jane Gibson and Dana Tesone (November 2001). and several different combinations of departments can be found in Mary’s region. Roy Furchgott. Joseph \V. Managing Human Resources. Cardy (2000). “The Missing Piece in Reengineering. Managing Human Resources.
rather than simply writing from her own experience. General Qualification Requirements I—lzicati . Mary had earned a BBA degree with a marketing emphasis from Wyoming State University. What kinds of factors about Today’s Fashion and its operations should Mary have examined more seriously in order to improve her job analysis? 3. The assistant store manager has responsibilit v for customer service. 2. Maintains inventory records. Although she had no formal training in job analysis. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS I. Mary interviewed three current assistant store managers from the outlet closest to her regional office in Sacramento.Thus. L x/wrieIuce: • Minimum: 5ux months to one year in a retail environment. she was confident that she could construct an accurate and useful job description and specification for the assistant manager job. and supervises department salcsclcrks daily. and layaway as needed.lanages the daily functions of a specialty department in the retail (iperatio s. Mary felt that there was considerable room for improvement in how Today’s Fashion was managed. (larilies any qiicstiu s or problems that a salesclerk encounters. and maintenance of inventory. she never really felt comfortable that her store manager had clearly defined her areas of responsibility. Carefully read the job description and job specification that Mary prepared. Has she used appropriate methods? What are the strengths and weaknesses of her efforts? 2. skills. primarily because of her personal experience with that position. 2. Critically evaluate the job analysis that Mary conducted for the position of assistant store manager. training of new einph ivecs. Mary constructed the job description and job specification shown in Exhibit I She hopes that these documents will form the basis of a new selection program that she wants to implement for her region.As a result.cnordinates. despite the chain’s success. However. directs. Do they appear to be thorough? Do you think that they are adequate to serve as a basis for a new selection system? How well do you think these documents will work if Mary is sued for discrimination in her hiring practices? Why? Job Title: Assistant Store Manager Reports to: Store Manager General Description of the Job . Ensures that the department remains professionally organized and orderly. returns. She believes that the best way to improve store management is to hire assistant store managers who are qualified to perform successfully. . inerchatidising. one of the first things Mary did after being appointed to the regional sales position was to initiate a job analysis for the job of assistant store manager. 4. Principal Duties and Responsibilities • Assists customers in mcrrhandise sclecti ms. Prepares the department for opening at the beginning of each day.assistant managers were not held responsible for. supervision of saleselerks. On the basis of these interviews and her own experience. cilnliti’s: I . Preferred: One to three years as a salesclerk for Today’s Fashion.i: Minimum: Four-year college degree in marketing or related discipline from an accredited program. Frains. S. In addition. Isiioivk’ilgc. Basic math .
but excessive . Clark. He was very excited as he entered Lois’s office. “You and Ed should work out the details. Effective interpersonal skills .This was what Clark had been waiting for: a chance to be on his own and to show what he could do for Lois.You’ll be working r for him but responsible to me to see that Gunther’s HRM policies are carried out. Gunther was a growing firm. Good typing and computer skills •lvslcal reqiurelilents: Standing and walking required for more than 90 percent of work time. Lois had selected Clark to be the human resource manager for the Tampa plant. Clark had majored in personnel at California State University at Los Angeles and wanted to try HRM work. it had one of the fastest growth records in the industry. who had been very supportive of his career. Now Gunther as opening a new plant in e quickly expanding Tampa market. Shortly you’ll be meeting your new plant manager. After a short management training program.You can recruit some employees from the home office and other plants. These are. and for Gunther. 2. a position opened up in the HR department. Ed Humphrey. Clark Kirby was just entering the office of the vice president of human resource management. Lois greeted him with. “The plant will be staffed initially with the following employees. Lois Yates. Clark spent almost two years as •erating supervisor in a plant. After that. High integrity 6. Clark had worked for Gunther Manufacturing for 10 years in Los Angeles. your recruiting quotas: Managers 38 Professional and technical 10 Clerical 44 Skilled employees 104 Semiskilled employees 400 You’ll receive a budget for maximum initial pay for this group shortly. in effect. I hope you realize how much we are counting on you in Tampa. Ability to lift and can y boxes weighing approximately 15 pounds or less.2. Good udgmeni and independent thought 4. He moved up in the department headquarters during the next seven years. Self-starter/highly motivated S. For a medium-sized operation. “Well.
raiding is not allowed. Remember, too, that Gunther has an equal employment opportunity problem. Wherever possible, try to hire qualified minorities and women to help us meet our internal goals. f “Your own HR office consists of yourself, one HR specialist to help you run the empleyment office, and one clerical employee. Good c luck!” F Clark quickly arranged a for a meeting with Ed, his v new boss. Ed, about 50 g years old, was a high school p graduate who had started a with Gunther as a blue- n collar employee when he u was 18 years old.After 10 years in various blue-collar E positions, Ed became a f foreman. Eight years later he i was selected as an assistant e to the plant manager. After e several years in this h position, he was made one tI of three assistant plant n managers at a Gunther plant n in Chicago. He held that position until being given h this new position of plant manager at the Tampa plant. After introductions, C Clark and Ed talked. p Clark Here are the figures t for employees that Lois gave e me. She also said we could recruit some people from p Gunther, but not to raid beyond company policy. E Also. Lois said we needed to rr do an exceptional job ti recruiting minorities and u women because we have an a EEO problem. ti Ed Let’s get something straight right off. You working for me now, not Lois. Here’s o a list of 20 manager I want F to take with me. It’s your a ‘job to persuade them to come to Tampa with me. In in cases where my help might persuade some to come along, call on me. But I’m very stressed now trying to get machinery ordered, the plant laid out, financing arranged, and so on. Call on me only When you must, understand? Oh, one more thing. That EEO *#/OX_you can forget that.The Tampa plant is going to be the most efficient in the company, or else! And if that means hiring the best workers and they all turn out to be white men, that’s tough, you get me? Keep me posted on what’s happening. Good to have you on board.
After some thought, Clark decided to use job posting as a method of attracting professionaltechnical and managerial employees at the Los Angeles office to the new plant in Tampa. He also made the personal contacts Ed asked for in recruiting managerial employees, and the skills inventory was used to come up with more applicants. Clark contacted these also. He did not use job posting or the skills inventory for clerical, skilled, or semiskilled employees. He knew that for Gunther, as with most organizations, these categories of employees rarely wish to (continued on next page)
move to another location. IMost companies don’t want t’ to pay relocation costs for h these categories of a employment, either. r Clark went to Tampa and set up the employment office at the new location. ‘ He ran an ad in Tampa’s F afternoon paper and placed a job listing with a private employment agency for the HR specialist and clerk- a typist for his office.Then he a, hired these two employees p and set up the office to a receive walk-ins. He ir provided application blanks . b and policy guidelines on n when selection would I proceed. Clark listed the available s positions with the U.S. v Employment Service. He also contacted private in agencies. He selected the hi private agencies after calling cc a number of HR managers w in the Tampa area in similar w businesses who were also hi members of the Society of tF Human Resource Management.The HR a specialist notified all the vocational-technical schools, a junior colleges, and colleges t[ Ii L.4 in the Tampa area. Also, all high school guidance counseling departments were notified. Clark wondered what other media he ought to use to publicize the positions. Clark found out quickly, as you will find in this chapter, that recruftment is a little more complicated than he originally thought. Before an organization can fill a job vacancy, it must find people who not only are qualified for the position but also want the job. This chapter descril)es the recruiting process as one of the ways that an organization can deal with shortages in its human resources needs. Recruitment refers to organizational activities that iiifluence the number and types of applicants who apply for a job and whether the applicants accept jobs that are offered. I Thus, recruitment is directly related to both human reour e
planning and selection. En addition, recruiting often represents the first coti— tact between organizations and prospective employees. As such, care should be taken to create a positive hrst impression with these job applications. Although recruitment can be quite expensive, organizations have not always treated it as systematically a other HR functions, such as selection. l)uring the coming years, however, the importance of recruitment will probably increase for many organizations. Even with a modest rise in recession-based unemployment at the beginning of the 21st century. fears of a looming tight labor market in the United States continue to plague organizations of all sizes..2 I)riven by the inevitable retirements of baby hoomers and fewer numbers of young people entering into the work- force, the labor shortage has caused many companies to develop retention strategies to hold onto their valued employees. For example, Hewlett—Packard Co. and Charles Schwab Corp. have preferred freezes or cut pay to avoid layoffs.4 Despite the fact that organizational layoffs reached a 10-year high at the end of the 1990s, experts anticipate a growing number of iabor shortages in high-skills areas. Exhibit 7—1 shows how the recruiting process is affected liv various factors in the environment. The recruiting process begins with an attempt to find employees with the abilities and attitudes desired lw the organization and to match them with the tasks to he performed. Whether potential employees viIl respond to the recruiting effort depends on the attitudes they have developed toward those tasks and the organization on the basis of their past social and working experiences. Their percepnon of the task will also he affecte.l liv the work climate in the organization and the Important interaction of the organization as a recruiter and the employee as a recruit is examined in the next section.
Government and Union Restrictions government regulations prohibiting discrimination in hiring and employment have INFLUENCES 1 direct impact on recruiting practices. As described in derail in (chapter 3, government agencies can and do review the following information about recruiting to see 1 [I organization has violated the law: • List of recruitment sources (such as employment agencies, civic organizations, schools) for each job category. • Recruiting advertising. • Estimates of the employment needs k)r the coming \ear. Source: Kenneth Sovereign (1999). Personnel Law. 4th ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall), pp. 46—51; Gerord Panoro (1990), Employment Law Manual (Boston: Warren, Gorham, and Lamont), pp. 1—10. • Statistics on the number of applicants processed by demographic category (sex, race, and SO on) and by job category or level. • Checklists to show what evidence was used to verify the legal right to work. Although there is no guaranteed way to avoid legal entanglements associated with recruiting, Exhibit 7— 2 provides some basic principles of sound recruiting practices. The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986 has placed a major responsibility on employers for stopping the floW of illegal immigration to the United States. The employer—not the government—is the chief enforcer of the prohibition against the unauthorized recruitment and employment of foreign-horn individuals. ’ Under the law’s “employer sanctions” arrangement, all employers are required to screen every applicant’s eligibility for lawful employment and maintain records demonstrating employment authorization. The IRCA is a complex piece of legislation, but its basic features fit into four broad categories: ‘—i’ Employer’s duty not to recruit, hire, or continue to employ “unauthorized aliens.” 2. Employer’s duty to verify the identity and work authorization of every new employee. ‘L_3 Employer’s duty not to discriminate on the basis of citizenship or national origin. _4. Amnesty rights of certain illegal aliens who are eligible to achieve temporary or permanent resident status in the country. Despite the difficulty that organizations have determining whether a worker is legally employable, the
Do not rely only on word—of-mouth sources (if recruits. Be sure the job qualifications are applied to every applicant in a consistent manner.government is currently planning to step up its enforcement of the IRCA. 3. g wary of establishing qualifications that might directly or indirectly exclude members of protected groi. 1. but some money will also he devoted to ensuring that legal applicants are not discriminated against because of the stepped-up enforcement activities. lENT Publish a list of qualifications necessary to fill the job. 4. Use recruiting sources that will reach the greatest number of potential applicants in the job market. . Distinguish between essential 2. 6. even informal attempts at recruiting will probably attract Post notices regarding the availability of a job. attorneys. Additional money will be spent on hiring more investigators. If there is a surplus of Iabor at recruiting time. .i PS. qualifications and desirable ones. 5. and support staff. Labbr Market Conditions Another external environmental factor affecting recruiting is labor market conditions (these were described in some detail in Chapter 2).
there is often an oversupply of qualified labor. organizations that do not begin to capitalize on the Internet might soon find themselves at a competitive disadvantage. An employer can find out about the current employment picture in several ways. These shortages are expected to be especially acute in high-tech industries such as computers and wireless communications. the unwary user should not be lulled into believing that the Internet can easily replace other forms of recruiting. including Recruiting-Online. Obviously. There are also sources of information on local employment conditions as they affect their members. new developments occur almost daily that make the Internet more effective.Though little research has been conducted to assess the success of these recruiting innovations. despite massive layoffs in some industries.com/home. The federal Department of Labor issues employment reports.At the same time. the Internet is one of the tools being used more and more frequently to satisfy these difficult recruiting goals. Various personnel journals. attract.com (http://www. For example. and obtain e-mail addresses of employees at companies that are merging or downsizing. However. A.Web postings still only represent approximately 2 percent of all job listings. how many applicants are available also depends on whether the economy is growing. find resumes of people with any skill set or in any location in the world. which appears in the Journal of College Placement.As mentioned earlier in this chapter. Recently. In addition.The talent auction has arrived. it is difficult if not impossible for an organization to capture the degree of fit between an applicant’s personality and the organization’s culture from an electronic resume alone. and The Wall Street Journal also regularly report on employment conditions .Bid4geeks. and state divisi ofls of efriployrnent security and labor usually can provide information about specific types of employees. When companies are not creating new jobs. It should be kept in mind that in spite of the meteoric e in the use of the Internet for recruitment and job search activities. One way to stay current regarding online recruiting is to enroll in Internetbased courses that teach the latest in advanced online recruiting techniques. and hire people with the skills needed. has added another capability to its Internet services. experts are predicting no end to critical shortages of skilled labor. take advantage of newsgroups and listservs. the Month/-v Labor Review. and the Endicort Report. In addition. when full employment is nearly reached in an area. Clearly. skillful and prolonged recruiting may be necessary to attract any applicants who fulfill the expectations of the organization. and organizations are given the opportunity to bid against one another for a given worker. Current college recruiting efforts are analyzed by the Conference Board.recruitingonline. there has been another twist to Internet use in organizational recruitment and selection.html). more than enough applicants. Such courses are available from a variety of verdors. The largest job posting site in the world.Online includes the following “how-tos”: build a candidate database.com. Chances are virtual recruiting is here to stay. there appears to be a considerable organizational interest in the concept. unemployment in the United States has recently hit record low levels and.com. www. organizations in these industries must find new innovative ways to identify. Contract and temporary workers can now register at the website. C. To remain mpetitive. Nielsen. manage contact with thousands of passive jobseeker candidates. Course content at Recruiting.monster. A similar online auction site dedicated solely to high-tech talent can be found at www.
But for those organizations such as Allstate Insurance with the foresight to embrace diversity. Recruiting requirements The recruiting process necessarily begins with a detailed oh description and job specification. the effective organization examines the specifications that are absolutely necessary for the job. Native American. labor market OF THE RECRUIT conditions. as is the nature of the task. Regardless of the location of the organization. Due in part to skills shortages. For diversity management to work. an aggressive diversity management program will be essential for organizations entering the 21st century. the nature of the organization and the goals of the managers are highlighted. Asian or Pacific Islander. this policy means that many nrganizations recruit from outside the organization only at the initial hiring level. unions. and job specifications in Chapter 6). It should be made clear to the recruiter which requirements are absolutely essential and which arc merely desirable. have worked their way through school. have 10 years’ experience (at age 21). are presidents of extracurricular activities. One of the most significant of these is promotion from within. the benefits can be tremendous in terms of outcomes ranging from higher 1ItI’ tfl I I(’tP1 (11crc11l1r ci ticfntiin X INTERACTIONS After considering how external factors such as government. Contrasting with this unrealistic approach. however. and location of the organization restrict AND THE recruiting options. This can help the organization avoid unrealistic expectations for potential employees: An employer might expect applicants who stand first in their class. Hispanic. it is impossible for recruiters to determine how well any particular applicant fits the job. As far as the applicants are concerned. the next step in understanding the recruiting process is to consider the interaction between the applicants and the organization in recruiting. and are willing to work long hours for almost no money.’ \Xithout these. their abilities and past work experience affect how they go about seeking a job. it must be valued by the organization. As the number of legal requirements has increased. The Organization’s View of Recruiting Several aspects affect recruiting from the organization’s viewpoint: the recruiting requirements set. . Organizational policies and practices In some organizations. Then it uses these as its beginning expectations for recruits (see the sections on oL analysis. and the organization’s image. job description. the number of African American. That is. progressive orgamzations now ul7derstand that effective diversity management is an integral strategic tool for enhancing competitiveness. Fdr all practical purposes. composition of the workforce. ORGANIZATION In Exhibit 7—2 (the diagnostic model). The location of the organization and the relevant labor market will play a major role in the CompoSition of the workforce. are good-looking. it has become important for an organization to analغze the composition of its workfor . or Alaskan native employees in the workforce depends largely on the availability of these minority employees in the relevant labor market. The techniques used and sources of recruits vary with the job. Such an analysis is done to determine whether the hrni’s employment practices are discriminatory.IIRM policies and prctices affect recruiting and who is recruited.Composition of Labor Force and Location of Organization The influence of FIRM law on activities was noted in Chapter 3. organizational policies and procedures.
Others i1ay be involved in nepotism and favor relatives. They feel this is tair to present loyal employ— ees and assures them of a secure future and a fair chance at promotion. In such cases. Is promotion from within a good policy Not always. the ideal job specifications preferred by an organization may have to be adjusted to meet the realities of the labor market.Most employees favor this approach. harriers created 1w economic conditions. A student leaving college generally expects to obtain a job that actually requires college-level education and skills. An organization ma become SO stable that it is set in its vavs. Other policies cait also affect recruiting. and others. there yill still be approximately 6 million college graduates either unemployed or underemployed (i. Recruitment should also be somewhat easier for companies that exude a strong cumulate presence or positive flame recognition.. Although the Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts that the total number of college. Preferences of recruits for organizations and jobs Just as organizations have ideal speciation for recruits. The techniques used for inrernal recruiting will be discussed later in this chapter.e. attitudes. teachers. and new employees from outside might be helpful. All else being equal. In sum. Recruits also face barriers to Iinding their ideal job. or the government bureau will not adjust to legislative requirements. If an inadequate number of high—quality people apply. and how they go about seeking a job. The Potential Employee’s View of Recruiting Exhibit 7—i highlighted several factors relevant to how a recruit looks for a job. However. or ex-convicts. The graduate might also have strong geographic preferences and expectations about salary and may anticipate that advancement will occur rapidly. such a recruit is not necessarily going to nd her or his ideal job. SO do recruits have a set of preferences for jobs. Some employers also feel this practice helps protect trade secrets. I the time and effort needed to recruit high—quality workers may be less than for competitors who rank poorly. such as Coca-Cola or the most recent two— time winner. food preparers and wavers. Organizational image The image of the employer generally held by the public can affect recruitment. motor vehicle operators. These factors affect recruits in two Ways: how they set their job preferences. and its image. 0 Thus. and in administrative support roles. and preferences based on past work experiences and influences of parents. the organization may have to adjust the job to fit the best applicant or increase its recruiting efforts. it should be easier for an organization with a positive corporate image to attract and retain employees than an organization with a negative image. for example. veterans. government. The business does not compete effectively. or union restrictions. General Electric. All these policies affect who is recruited. and they may look to these sources first. The incant has abilities.educated entrants to the labor force. the limitations of its policies and practices. for those organizations that reach the top of Fortune magazine’s “most admired” list. working in positions that Jo not require a bachelor's degree). Understanding these is vital to effective recruiting. significant numbers of college radiates will Likely he working as retail sales employees. Certain organizations have always hired more than their fair share of the disabled. . For example. promotion from within may be detrimental.level job openings between NOW and 2008 will nearly equal rhe number of college.
‘ The job search is a process that begins with self-assessment. First.us/seeker government and union restrictions. followed by teachers. 16 In reality. or service has a good future and will lead to growth and opportunity? Once these kinds of questions have been answered. The recruit must anticipate compromises. or large. Research suggests that recruiters want to see a resume and cover letter that is tailored to the position . and the Internet. Sources of information include newspapers. From the individual’s point of view. hut from the perspective of the applicant.chi. interests and values. friends. and the limits of organizational policies and practices. and luck. the job seeker can generate a list of prospective employers using a wide variety of sources including fle\VSpapers. But a survey conducted by the National Association of Colleges and Employers found that occupational choice is most heavily influenced by parents. The purpose pf self-assessments is for job searchers to recognize their career goals and their strengths and weaknesses. What factors affect the choice of occupation and organization? Obviously.S.4 million job openings for job seekers. Job search and finding a job: The recruit People who are successful at finding the “right job” tend to follow similar research processes. not for profit. Have I checked to make sure that the sector.” Many questions about possible employers must be answered before a list of alternatives can he generated.HRMEM0 Americas Job Fank is a coo perative eflbrt between the U. product. it is also affected by unconscious processes. college recruitment offices..1 rr. 4. What kinds of industries interest me? This question is usually based on interests in products or services. medium. Additionally.uir rciinw should include these items. networking. or public sector)? 3. or no particular size? 2. this decision isn’t always purely rational. Information gathering and networking are methods for generating lists of p0. Deportment of Labor and the Public Employment Service.’4 As previously mentioned.-l : 8 T1. When the job seeker has decided where he or she will send a resume. 1. however. just as the organization must. trade publications. choice of an organization might be influenced by corporate image. It is not always enough to simply be in the right place at the right time.ajb. chance.. the individual chooses an occupation—perhaps in high school or early in college. career counselors. The assessment is similar to what organizational recruiters will be doing. and organizational “insiders.1 Research also suggests that satisfaction with the communication process in recruitment is critical to attracting applicants. it lists over 1. Currently. and successful self-presentation. many recruits prefer larger. The effective job searcher creates opportunities in a systematic way. self-presentation becomes critical. An effective job search involves several steps including self-assessment.. Do I have sector preference (private.tential employers and jobs. Source: ww-w. targeting specific jobs. Do 1 prefer working with mechanical objects or counseling people? This is a crucial question. many factors that influence these decisions. and preferred lifestyles. choosing an organization involves at least two major steps. information gathering. This information is used later in the search to help the applicant assess whether there is a fit with a particular job offer. personal contacts. in order of . well-established firms over smaller organizations. and relatives. Then she or he chooses the organization to work for within that broader occupation. Do I have a size preference: small. there are many.
22 Although it is not a good idea to present an unrealistic picture of one’s qualifications. to sources external to the company. they use “impression management” tactics to their advantage. it must effectively “get its message across” to external candidates. not all job seekers provide truthful resumes. job posting has become one of the more innovative recruiting techniques being used by organizations. Computer software ilows the employees o match an available job with their skills and experience. • Successful job seekers also prepare carefully for job interviews. 5. Your career objectives. But job seekers need to understand that in the long run little can be gained from such practices. Reason you seek employment. It is here that the organization’s choice of a particular method of recruitment can make all the difference in the success of the re •uiti efforts.24 Amoco’s career management system includes a similar type of job posting program. It hen highlights where gaps exist SO the employees know what is necessarY if they wish to be competitive for a given job. Openings in this organization are . They do their “homework” and learn as much about the company as possible.2 Once an organization has decided it needs additional or replacement employees.21 the temptation to embellish one’s own qualifications might be difficult to ignore. OStings are computerized and easily accessible to employees. job posting was little more than the use of bulletin boards and company publications for advertising job openings. especially since falsification of an application is typically grounds for dismissal.C H A P T E R 7 Recruitment 1. An indication that you know something about the organization. Unfortunately for the organizational recruiter. if necessary. however. Position you seek. characteristics such as these are primary determinants of recruiters’ firm-specific judgments about an applicant’s suitability. Many companies now see job posting as an integrated component of an eftective career management system. In the past. 3. however. nternaI Recruiting ob posting Organizations can make effective use of skills inventories for identifying nternal applicants for job vacancies.’ A survey conducted by Reid Psychological Systems found that as many as 95 percent of college students are willing to he less than truthful about themselves when they are searching for a job. In fact. In addition. for HR managers to be \vare of all current employees who might he interested in the vacancy. To help with this problem. A model job posting program was implemented at National Semiconductor. 4. interviewers are strongly influenced by an applicant’s interpersonal and communication styles during the interview. Whenever there is an madequate supply of labor and skills inside the organization. Your specific job objectives. It is difficult. Today.2° And with the use of resume databases constantly increasing as an initial screening tool. they use an approach called job posting and bidding. Most organizations have to use both internal and external ources to generate a sufficient number of applicants. The organization can look to sources internal to the company and. it is faced with the decision of how to generate the necessary applications. 2.
and summer internships are discussed here. not to accidentally violate equal employment laws while they are using employee referrals.2X the U. and television. Nationally. radio. employment agencies.1 Inside moonlighting and employees’ friends If there is a short-term shortage. Some job seekers do a reverse twist. As labor shortages increase. many organizations ask present employees to encourage friends or relatives to apply.” The copy continued.z (1 975).2 ihus. Sonic organizations even offer “finders fees” in the form of monetary incentives for a successful referral. External Recruiting When an organization has exhausted its internal supply of applicants. The court stated: The practice of relying on relerrals by a predominantly white worktorce rather than seeking new employees in the iiiarketplace for jobs was found to be discriiiinating. Organizations must be careful. c-recruiting. Some persons will clearly be motivated to accept the additional work if they are fairly compensated. the organization can use inside moonlighting. executive search firms. it is estimated that approximately 6 percent of all employed people have held more than one job at the same tiIlle. When used wisely. however. subway and bus cards. This case suggests that employee referrals should be used cautiously. The ad featured the Trix rabbit with the headline. Various media are used. Court of Appeals. It could offer to pi’ bonuses of various types to people not on a time payroll to entice workers into wanting to take on a “second job.2b Moonlighting is so common at some Organizations that HR departments consider issiing “moonlighting policies’ that include the communication of performance expectations. especially if the workforce is already racially or culturally imbalanced. the most common being help—wanted ads in daily newspapers. General Mills used its Trix cereal logo to create instant recognition among MBA graduates. There is also a separate section on college recruitment of potential managers and professionals. Sixth Circuit. Media advertising. A number of methods are available for external recruiting. telephone. Research indicates that walk-ins provide an important external source of applicants. Before going outside to recruit. For example. it must turn to external sources to supjilement its workforce. “Now you’re au MBA who’s look— . prevention of conflict of interest. the’ advertise for a situation wanted and reward anyone who tips them off about a job. it also suggests that it might not be wise to rely exclusively on referrals but rather to use them as supplements to other kinds of recruiting activities. Media advertisements Organizations advertise to acquire recruits.PA K T II Acquiring Human Resources posted on a worldwide electronic system. referrals of this kind can be a powerful recruiting technique. and protection of proprietary information. in EEOC i l)ctroit Ediso. then the person who posted the job is requireti to send the “applicant” specific feedback about why he or she was not selected.S. Organizations also advertise for people in trade and professional publications. or if no great amount of additional work is necessary.. special-events recruiting. In developing a recruitment advertisement.. “It’s Not Kid Stuff Anymore. Other media used are billboards. however. If an employee applies for a transfer to a posted position and is turned down. organizations are becoming more proactive in their recruitment efforts. a good place to begin is with the corporate image. found a history of racial discrimination that was related to recruitment.
in large part because it has achieved this congruence. According to Forresrer Research of .’’ Ads need to he written to ivoid indicating preferences for a particular race. the advertisement is -een as an extension of the companY. Media must be chosen. The ad ran in the Cincinnati Engineer newspaper.itional recruitment practices--as the Internet.ing for a dynamic growth-directed career environment .” “Nurses arc kind and hey don’t laugh whet’ you cry”—were written in a child’s handwriting and coinhitied with pictUres of nurses and children in the style of a child’s drawing. and screening procedures for too many people can be costly. however. Therefore. Apple Computer’s advertising campaign has been very successful. At a special recruiting center. It’s your Future. ° An innovative way to attract nurses was used in an ad campaign for Children’s 1-lospital Medical Center in Cincinnati. too many applicants may appear. In addition. E-Recruiting Perhaps no method has ever had as revolutionary an effect on orgam/ . Because it’s not kid stuff anymore. and analyzed for impact afterward. For example. Effective recruiting ad:ertising is consistent with the overall corporate image. The ad appealed to nurses’ sense of pride in themselves and their profession.ce of national origin. coded for -rudy. “ Simply using a corporate logo is not enough. religion. Look to General Mills. I lie headlines—”Nurses are smart and they know how to make you feel better. .ads. The advertisement shown in Exhibit 7—3 is the type that will care trouble for a firm. hut if the name is used. or gender or a particular ::. This is a difficult decision to make in preparing recruitment advertisements. . the impact may not be as great. Want ad recordings were used by 40 companies recruiting engineers and scientists at a New York City convention.” urses are there to make sure you don’t get real scared. Help-wanted ads must he carefully prepared. If the organization’s name is not used and a box number is substituted. that is. Look at the questions that could he raised by this ad. it must be representative of the values that the corporation is seeking in its employees. ads need to comply with EEO requirements and not violate the law. job hunters were able to pick up a telephone and hear a three-minute taped recruiting message that included a jol description and details about how to ntact the company. HR recruiters find that including diversity in recruitment ads helps to attract more employees from diverse populations. Another innovative way to attract prospective employees with particular skills • he use of recorded want.
corn—Search job postings. Overall. it is a relatively inexpensive way to attract qualified applicants.corn indicated that it listed 2. the c-recruiting market in the United States in expected to grow from just $500 million in 2000 to $4. There are other online services.000 different websites devoted in some manner to job posting activities. such as CareerPath.com—Leading technology job hoard with permanent and contract jobs.Dice. there are approximately 30. seek career advice.000 traditional newspaper recruiting ads from large newspapers across the United States in one easily searchable datahas.com (http://www.S. the Internet allows for searches over a broader array of geographic and company postings than was ever before possible.000 e-mail resumes each year. Monster. Compare these figures with the cost of using the “post a job express” option at Monster. higher education.corn—Search for jobs. From the job seeker’s perspective.000 or more.com) in wbch a job is posted for 60 days in a single geographic location at a cost of about $300. • www.33 The largest job-placement websites have reported huge increases iii the number of resumes that were posted in 2001. For example. Quite obviously. and company. A large. For example. and review career resources. • wunv.corn—Search by career field. • www. and use a salary calculator.com/): • www.HotJobs. From the organization’s perspective. job searchers can use any number of the following Internet-based job searching websites (for more information. while CareerBuildcr. multicolored advertisement in a professional journal can easily cost $10.0 million.com).ddition to their overall recruitment strategy. which catalogs more than 100. companies now utilize the Internet for some or all of their recruitment-related activities.3 There are many reasons for the popularity of the Internet as a method of recruitment. To assist them.FlipDog. Current estimates are that over 95 percent of all U. see http://jobsearch. Finally. Massachusetts. more specialized online sites that focus on jobs in particular areas such as health care. there are many other. This c-recruiting option provides almost immediate access to thousands of prospective applicants.37 Organizations are also beginning to see that having their own human resources Web page on the Internet can he an effective a.careerpath.corn—Job listings will be identified and sent to personal e-mail addresses. and federal employment.000 and 30. A typical organizational home page will provide background .nionster.3 million resumes. • iuww. find samples of resumes and cover letters. using an executive search firm might cost an organization as much as one-third of a position’s first-year salary as a commission. location. the Internet has become one of the most prominent of all worldwide recruiting methods. job title. It has become such an important source of job search information that GTE Corporation (Verizon) now receives between 20. • wwttjobson1zne.jobs. keyword. post your resume.CareerBuilder.5 billion in 2004. and salary. • u’ww.NationJob.Com (http://www.ahout.corn—Search thousands of employment opportunities gathered directly from organizations’ websites.corn—Search by location.com listed 8.Cambridge.
” Fortune. HR managers and company recruiters need to keep the following issues in mind when developing and executing an e-recruitment program: I. conduct background checks over the Internet. type and number of individuals who apply for different jobs). 4.The legal risk to employers is that they do not maintain adequate records and fail to be within compliance of the OFCCP. 3. As with other important aspects of good management practice.The legal risk can involve either poor selection of resumescreening software and/or using terms that disproportionately eliminate candidates from protected classes. If the target population for a given opening includes people of all ages. pp. the candidate has written documentation to show what the recruiter wrote. . and manage the entire process with Web-based software. In addition. Sources: Gillian Flynn (April 2002). pp.’For Sale Online:You. s Even with the existence of these legal risks. pp. Many recruiters.g. direct potential hires to a special website for online skills assessment. Companies are very excited and amazed at the potential cost savings. For example. employers can eIectroncally screen candidates’ soft attributes.This relative informality in the communication process could lead to the recruiter saying something that could come back to haunt them if the candidate does not get the job. more so than s older individuals. then company recruiters need to get the message out to those a individuals who are less likely to be Internet-savvy and a use the online job search websites.. there can be a tendency to disclose more information than they typically would using newspaper ads or other more traditional recruiting techniques. in an attempt to avoid being deluged by resumes. Be careful not to inadvertently screen out diverse candidates. Due to the ease of sending an electronic resume. recruiters and HR managers are encouraged to use e-recruiting in an appropriate way to increase the attraction and selection r rates of well-qualified individuals. “E-recruiting Ushers in Legal Dangers.Jerry Useem (July l999). “Online and Overwhelmed. Currently. use screening software that searches for (or deletes based on) certain words or phrases. 36—42.” Work force.” HRMagazine.The legal risk is that candidates may assume that they did not get the job due to a discriminatory reason and may file a complaint with the recruiting manager’s supervisor or even the EEOC. E-mail communication might be too casual.HR JouRNAL E-REcIUJITING: A WONDERFUL TOOL BUT NOT WITHOUT ITS RISKS Many would agree that the Web has revolutionized job 3 hunting and recruitment in the 21st century. speed enhancement. younger r people will be more likely to be online. 70—72. When individuals communicate via e-mail to potential candidates. they run the risk of creating adverse impact in their recruiting methods. 66—78. there are legal risks associated with the unbridled use of e-recruiting. Make sure the job opening is communicated to large portions of the target population. interview candidates via videoconferencing. and extended worldwide candidate reach such approaches offer. If recruiters don’t use traditional methods of job posting along with Internet-based approaches. Recruiters need to figure out a way to track applicants who apply for online job postings. all signs indicate that e-recruiting is here to stay. The Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP) requires companies that do business with the federal government to keep track of applicant flow data (e. Bill Leonard (August 2000). Although such innovations are welcomed at a time of skills shortages and pressures to control internal costs. recruiters sometimes find this tracking process to be a daunting task.
Ford Motor Company has conducted symposia on college campuses and sponsored cultural events to attract attention to its qualifications as a good employer. which means that the organization pays them a fee whether or not their efforts are successful. less well known employers.39 Special-events recruiting When the supply of employees available is not large or when the organization is new or not well known.39 Special-events recruiting When the supply of employees available is not large or when the organization is new or not well known. schedule visits to headquarters. while agencies deal primarily with middle.000. provide literature. Some estimates suggest that nearly one out of every three students at four-year universities will have one or more internship experiences before graduation. They may be scheduled on holidays to reach college students who are home at that time or to give people who are already employed a chance to look around. To do so. In contrast.com/ search/cfairs provides current listings of when and where job fairs will be held in the United States. Most executive search firms are on retainer. which means that the organization pays them a fee whether or not their efforts are successful. The website www. and provide trial-run employment to determine if they want to hire particular people full time. agencies are usually paid only when they havc actually provided a new hire. Though sometimes challenging to manage in times of higher unemployment. and advertise these events in appropriate media. To attract professionals.4 The realities of the job market of the I 990s have also introduced two new reasons for internship programs. in fact. A group of firms sponsors a meeting or exhibition at which each has a booth to puhlicie jobs available. Finally. One of the reasons that organizations are willing to pay these higher fees is that executive search firms frequently engage in their recruiting efforts while maintaining the confidentiality of both the recruiting or1ganization and the person being recruited. employment agencies and executive search firms differ in many important ways. Most executive search firms are on retainer. there is an Internet site to help the recruit. many organizations now see them as a way to attract the best people in areas where there are labor shortages. it includes AT&T General Motors. 42 Internship programs have a number of purposes.johweh.level management or below. Finally. executive search firms usually charge higher fees for their services. companies such as Accenture and BAT Industries (a tobacco firm) actually begin identif Employment agencies and executive search firms Although similar in purpose. the life insurance industry.000 job candidates in a little under four hours of operation.41 And. a recent job fair held in Virginia was able to generate 4. and so forth. some organizations have successfully used special events to attract potential employees. The use of internships is. expose themselves to talented potential employees who may become their “recruiters” at school.000. most major accounting firms.level management or below.40 some experts claim recruiting costs have been reduced by 80 percent using these methods. dramatically increasing. For example. In contrast. They may stage open houses.ships is extensive. One of the reasons that organizations are willing to pay these higher fees is that executive search firms frequently engage in their recruiting efforts while maintaining the confidentiality of both the recruiting or1ganization and the person being recruited. some organizations have successfully used special events to attract potential . Summer internships Another approach to recruiting and getting specialized work done that has been tried I’v organizations is to hire students as interns during the summer or part time during the school year. Executives also make speeches at association meetings or schools to get the organization’s image across. while agencies deal primarily with middle. agencies are usually paid only when they have actually provided a new hire. First. Executive search firms tend to concentrate their efforts on higher-level managerial positions with salaries in excess of $50. Executive search firms tend to concentrate their efforts on higher-level managerial positions with salaries in excess of $50. organizations may have hospitality suites at professional meetings. This technique is especially useful for smaller. It appeals to job seekers who wish to locate in a particular area and those wanting to minimize travel and interview time. They allow organizations to get specific projects done. executive search firms usually charge higher fees for their services. The list of organizations using intern. employment agencies and executive search firms differ in many important ways. One of the most interesting approaches is to provide job fairs.P A R T I I Acquiring Human Resources Employment agencies and executive search firms Although similar in purpose. yes.
yes. They may be scheduled on holidays to reach college students who are home at that time or to give people who are already employed a chance to look around. Finally. It appeals to job seekers who wish to locate in a particular area and those wanting to minimize travel and interview time. while agencies deal primarily with middle. and advertise these events in appropriate media. which means that the organization pays them a fee whether or not their efforts are successful. One of the reasons that organizations are willing to pay these higher fees is that executive search firms frequently engage in thçir recruiting efforts while maintaining the confidentiality of both the recruiting oranizarion and the person being recruited Special-events recruiting When the supply of employees available is not large or when the organization is new or nor well known. Though sometimes challenging to manage in times of higher unemployment. schedule visits to headquarters.41 And. Some estimates suggest that nearly one out of every three students at four-year universities will have one or more internship experiences before graduation. a recent job fair held in Virginia was able to generate 4. dramatically increasing. They allow organizations to get specific projects done. there is an Internet site to help the recruit. One of the most interesting approaches is to provide job fairs. The list of organizations using intern. They may be scheduled on holidays to reach college students who are home at that rime or to give people who are already employed a chance to look around.johweb. organizations may have hospitality suites at professional meetings.com/ search/cfairs provides . some organizations have successfully used special events to attract potential eiriployees. executive search firms usually charge higher fees for their services. compaiiies such as Accenture and BAT Industries (a tobacco firm) actually begin identif Employment agencies and executive search firms Although similar in purpose.level management or below.40 some experts claim recruiting costs have been reduced by 80 percent using these methods. and advertise these events in appropriate media. organizations may have hospitality suites at professional meetings. The website www. a recent job fair held in Virginia was able to generate 4. To attract professionals. less well known employers. The use of internships is. many organizations now see them as a wa to attract the best people in areas where there are labor shortages. provide literature. This technique is especially useful for smaller. This technique is especially useful for smaller. The website www. Ford Motor Company has conducted symposia on college campuses and sponsored cultural evcnts to attract attention to its qualifications as a good employer.000 job candidates in a little under four hours of operation. expose themselves to talented potential employees who may become their “recruiters” at school. Ford Motor Company has conducted symposia on college campuses and sponsored cultural events to attract attention to its qualifications as a good employer. the life insurance industry. For example. schedule visits to headquarters.40 some experts claim recruiting costs have been reduced by 80 percent using these methods. most major accounting firms. Most executive search firms are on retainer. agencies are usually paid only when they have actually provided a new hire. Executive search firms tend to concentrate their efforts on higher-level managerial positions with salaries in excess of $50. First.employees. They may stage open houses.000 job candidates in a little under four hours of operation.000.43 The realities of the job market of the 1 990s have also introduced two new rcaSOflS for internship programs. and so forth. 42 Internship programs have a number of purposes. A group of firms sponsors a meeting or exhibition at which each has a booth to publicize jobs available. and provide trial—run employment to determine if the want to hire particular people full time. Summer internships Another approach to recruiting and getting specialized work done that has been tried by organizations is to hire students as interns during thc summer or part time during the school ycar.ships is extensive. General Motors. They may stage open houses. To attract professionals.41 And. yes. In contrast. employment agencies and executive search firms differ in many important ways.com/ search/cfairs provides current listings of when and where job fairs will be held in the United States. One of the most interesting approaches is to provide job fairs. there is an Internet site to help the recruit. it includes AT&T. in fact. For example. Executives also make speeches at association meetings or schools to get the organization’s image across.johweb. A group of firms sponsors a meeting or exhibition at which each has a booth to publicize jobs available. To do so. Though sometimes challenging to manage in times of higher unemployment. It appeals to job seekers who wish to locate in a particular area and those wanting to minimize travel and interview time. Executives also make speeches at association meetings or schools to get the organization’s image across. less well known employers. provide literature.
and provide trial—run employment to determine if they want to hire particular people full time. and provide paid work experiences. they reserve preliminary interviews with employers they want to see and are given brochures arid other literature about the . usually called a recruiter.44 A second new reason that organizations are using more internships is to improve the diversity of their recruitment efforts. in college recruiting. General Motors. Its major supporters include NationsBank. Sometimes the interns take up a lot of supervisory time. and expensive for the organization. During the recruiting season (from about mid-October to mid-March). to a campus to interview candidates and describe the organization to them. mailings.4 The realities of the job marker of the 1 990s have also introduced two new rcasons for internship programs. College recruiting There is a growing gap between the skills that organizations will need over the next several years and those currently possessed by potential employees. the life insurance industry. most major accounting firms. it includes AT&T. NCR. They allow organizations to get specific projects done. help them with college expenses.current listings of when and where job fairs will be held in the United States. the summer internship means a job with pay. Inroads Inc. companies such as Accenture and BAT Industries (a tobacco firm) actually begin identify talented students in their senior year in high school. in fact. they get negative impressions about the organization they have worked for. assuming that it is less well organized than others in the field.ships is extensive. and so forth. provides students with approximately 600 paid internships each year. To help. The list of organizations using intern.4 All this suggests that college recruiting will continue to play an important role in organizations’ overall recruitment strategies. those seeking employment register at the college placement service. Summer internships Another approach to recruiting and getting specialized work done that has been tried Lw organizations is to hire students as interns during the summer or part rime during the school year. When it is not. recruiters generally believe that college recruiting is me of the most effective ways of identifying talented employees. dramatically increasing. of course. There are costs to these programs. and in some . This placement service is a labor market exchange providing opportunities for students and employers to meet and discuss potential hiring. Nonetheless. the organization sends an employee. In the typical procedure. The use of internships is. it is a short form of some co-op college work and study programs. However. time-consuming. Seine students expect everything to be perfect at work. many organizations now see them as a way to attract the best people in areas where there are labor shortages. and AT&T. 42 Internship programs have a number of purposes. College recruiting can be extremely difcult. brochures and other literature about the organization arc often distributed. Their hope is to develop a lasting relationship with these talented young people. Such disillusioned students become re vers recruiters. cases. Inroads has working relationships with organizations in 33 different states.4” An internship can also mean real work experience for the student. for example. But the major prob1cm some organizanons have encountered concerns the expectations of students. First. candidates are advised of scheduled visits through student newspapers. In a way.4 From i-be student’s point of view. a chance to use one’s talents in a realistic environment. but that organizations will be careful about controlling expenses. Coinciding with the visit. Some estimates suggest that nearly one out of every three students at four-year universities will have one or more internship experiences before graduation. Many companies claim that they want to he more aggressive in recruiting minorities but say that the competition for talented people is severe. GE Capital Services. a possible future job. At the placement service. expose themselves to talented potential employees who may become their “recruiters” at school. of Saint Louis locates and places high-performing minority students in internship programs. To do so. and their work is not always the best. earning course credit hours. The college recruiting process is similar in some ways to other recruiting. and SO forth. bulletin hoards. The organization may also run ads to attract students or may conduct seminars at which company executives talk about various facets of the organization.
however. and obviously good salespeople. selfmotivated. Finally. fcirat least two reasons. “The company might justas well have sent a tape recorder. Good recruiters convey’ an image and appearance that reflects fa1vorably on the organization. They are entertained and may he given a series of tests as well. They must he outgoing. The trcnd seems to he for an organization to develop a stronger. friends. ongoing relationship with a relatively select number of schools. The organization bears all expenses. the recruiters need to be able to determine whether the applicant will fit into the value system of the organization. organizations are becoming more creative in their use of colleges and universities. . The candidate then decides whethetto accept or reject the offer. knowledge. depending on the current labor market. bureaucratic. the recruiter. If the organization wants to hire an individual. Intervieu’s that are stress ful or too persona1 Students resent too many personal questions about their social class. This reduction is. One of the most important influences remains. Many of the changes are designed to reduce overall recruiting costs while maintaining a strong flow of applicants into the organization. spouse. good recruiters also possess welldeveloped interpersonal skills because part of their responsibility should be to determine why job offers are accepted or rejected by candidates. As with other forms of recruiting. personal interest in the applicant. made possible by Monsanto’s increased activity in internship programs. also unanimously reject stressful or sarcasth interviewing styles. They want to be evaluated for their own acomplishments.Students who are invited to the site are given more job information and meet appropriate potential supervisors and other executives. First. family. Some’ ipplicants prefer enthusiastic and knowledgeable communicators. in part. and truthfulness. students infer that he or she represents a dull and uninterestingcompany. Students prefer recruiters who have work experience in their specialties and have some personal knowledge of the university they are visiting. If the recruiter seems bored.49 The effective college recruiter Various people influence the applicant during the process of choosing a job: peers.r flaws students have found in typical recruiters include the following: Lack of interest in the app1iant. Characteristics they want most in the recruiter are friendliness. For example. Students’also have preferences for specific behavior during the recruiting interview. The recruiter is seen as a primary example of the kind of person the organization values and wants to attract in the futUre. The recruiter is the filter and the matcher. In addition. and programmed. the one who is actually ‘seen by the applicants and is viewed as an exte4. he or she is given an offer before leaving the site or shortly thereafter by mail or phone. and professors. For these reasbns.sion of the organization. their parents. like most people. Students infer indifference if the recruiter’s presentation is mechanical. recruiters must be carefully chosen• b the organization. applicants want to discuss opportunities with someone they perceive to be knowledgeable about the company. recruiters should be very familiar with the company they represent. They. however. One student reported. and so forth.4X Some bargaining may take place on salary and benefits.’° MajG. and it may reduce the size of that list even further—down to as few as 10 or 12 schools—for its recruiting activities in engineering. Second.” Lack of enthusiasm. Monsanto recently cut the size of its university recruiting list by 50 percent.
51 It is important for recruiters to provide realistic expectations about the job. The final criticism of recruiters has to do with how much rime they talk and how much they let applicants talk or ask questions. Work experience confirms expectations. most jobs have some unattractive features. Wanous (992). needs matched to job. thoughts of quitting. the job is presented as attractive. Orientation. DPREEVEW Job is typically viewed as attractive. Organizational Entry: Recruitment. john P Wonous (july—August 1975). branches.” Personnel. depending stimulating. there is significantly lower turnover of new employees.0] TRADITIONAL PREVIEW REALISTIC PREVIEW CONSEQUENCES Sets initial job expectations too high. infrequent thoughts of quitting. High rate of acceptance of oh offers. Researchers have found that most recruiters give general. REALISTIC JOB . on individual’s needs. and so forth. 53—86. glowing descriptions of the company rather than a balanced or truthful presentation. Work experience disconfirms expectations. dissatisfaction. assets. However. . Although they can and do make a difference. sonic reject job offer. Sonic accept. p.52 A realistic job preview provides the prospective employee with pertinent information about the job without distortion or exaggerat.CH A P T ER7 Recruitment 2 0 7 . Research suggests that recruitment can he made more effective PREVIEWS through the use of realistic job previews (RJPs). however. When they do so. they can have a negative effect on applicants even when the job and the organization are both appealing. and imulating. From the point of view of the applicant. 54. source: Adopted from John P.1 The RJP presents the full picture. matched to needs. w job survival. Other research also suggests that recruiters may have very little positive influence Ofl an applicant’s choice.on. In this case. Time allocation by recruiters.1 EXHIBIT 7-4. Job may or may not he attractive. pp. In traditional job previews.Wesley). pension plans. Some jobs are all of these things. Good recruiters are not going to guarantee success in filling positions. warts and all. Sets oh expectations realistically. canned history of the company. ‘Tell It Like It Is at Realistic Job Preview. applicants’ decisions are affected more by characteristics of the job and the organization than they are by particular characteristics of recruiters. and challenging. Recruiters do make a difference when they do riot present themselves well. Many of the questions the recruiter asks applicants are answered on the application blank anyway. and the same nurn. interesting. satisfaction. frequent High job survival. and Socialization of Newcomers Boston:Addison.ber of people apply. much of the recruiter’s time is wasted if it includes a long. products. as suggested in Exhibit 7—4. number of employees. “Dissatisfaction and realization that job is not Satisfaction.
Historically. organizations avoid the costs of recruiting and having additional employees. These findings suggest that RJPs can be used as an inoculation against’disappointment with the realities of a job. Overtime When a firm faces pressures to irleet a production goal. leaving approximately 36. because of the cost and permanence of recruiting TO RECRUITMENT individuals. temporary employment agencies were seen only as sources of . it may mean that employees need to work overtime.000 workers and hundreds of small businesses liable for millions of dollars associated with health care and other workers’ compensation claims. Texas Instruments. having some employees work overtime may be an alternative to recruitment. short-term basis. increased accidents.. On a limited.57 Temporary Employment One of the most noticeable effects of the downsizing epidemic and the labor shortages of the past two decades has been a dramatic rise in the usc of temporary employees. and routine human resource management functions for the client company. RJPs can set the job expectations of new employees at realistic levels. and the U. at least six leasing companies have gone bankrupt. An organization’s human resource plan may suggest that additional or replacement ALTERNATIVES employees are needed. Employee Leasing Employee leasing.” involves paying a fee to a leasing company or professional employer organization (PEO) that handles payroll. though. Overtime can also provide employees with additional income.Exhibit 7—4 presents the typical consequences of traditional previews versus realistic previews. sometimes called “staff sourcing.S. Continuous overtime. at present there is still uncertainty as to why RJPs have the effects they do and in what contexts they are likely to be the most effective. By having employees work overtime. an alternative to recruitment may be used. Employees hired after RjPs indicate higher satisfaction. RJPs do not reduce the flOW of highly capable applicants. employce benefits. At this stage of development. Prudential Insurance Co. Military Academy have used and reported on the RJP. has often resulted in higher labor costs and reduced productivity. Studies conducted at Southern New England Telephone. However. But while small businesses can expect to save from 15 to 30 percent of benefit costs such as health insurance premiums by using leased employees. there is no conclusive evidence supporting the effectiveness of realistic job prcviews. however.4 The results indicated that: Newly hired employees who received RJPs have a higher rate of job survival than those hired using traditional previews. Leasing is especially attractive to small and midsize firms that might not otherwise be able to afford a full-service human resources department. However. care must he exercised in choosing a leasing company. there are potential problems: fatigue. Although it seems clear that RiPs can have beneficial effects. In recent years. and increased absenteeism.
He also discussed the impact and readership of the papers with the human resource managers he’d befriended. in fact. including professional.s tive. He also investigated the ti leading radio stations and c selected the one that had in the highest rating of the top M three and the lowest commercial cost. COST-BENEFIT Many aspects of recruitment. the leading black newspaper. Li Hispanic paper. such as the effectiveness of recruiters. A disadvantage of hiring temporary help is that these individuals do not know the culture or work flow of the firm. Sources of recruirs can also be evaluated.58 There are.60 The cost advantage of using temporary help sterns from the fact that the organization does not have to provide fringe b nefits. and higher executive positions. Sc luded The pay and working conditions offered at the r Tampa plant were competi. semiskilled clerical help (luring peak work periods. ANALYSIS OF Organizations assign goals to recruiting by types of employees. and a suburban paper in an area c near the plant.000 temporary employment agencies across the United States that have been in business for more than one year. the Orgafli/atloli can calculat the cost of each . training. the organiza‘n can divide the number of job acceptances by the number of campus interviews compute the cost per hire at each college. He chose commuter times to run the C radio ads. In addition. nearly 7. This unfamiliarity detracts from their commitment to organizational and departmental goals.The job was now to select the best applicants.’’ The major advantages of temporary employees include relatively low labor costs. They may he those who meet or exceed quotas and those whose recruits stay with the organization and are evaluated well by their superiors. he chose the ajor Tampa afternoon aper. Then the organization can decide who are the best recruiters. or 100 managerial employees per year. an easily accessible source of experienced labor.. For example.Clark Kirby got prices of ads from all the Tampa papers. Then it drops from the list those cain— [“uses that are not productive. including suburban and ethnic papers. can be evaluated. he had the follow. a goal for RECRUITING a recruiter might be to hire 350 unskilled and semiskilled employees. or 100 technicians. or a compensation and career plan. or 100 machinists. the leading C I. and flexibility in responding to future changes in the demand for workers. After Clark’s recruiting C campaign. The temporary worker can ye in and out of the firm when the workload requires such movement. Clark knew that would be no easy job.The advertising Sl approach was innovative.’ H I.n ing numbers of applicants: Managerial positions 68 hi Professional-technical I 0 Clerical 78 Skilled employees 110 Semjskilled employees 720 Clark notified Ed of the results. “just—in-time” employees can be found staffing all types of )obS in organizations. In college recruiting. On this basis. Effective selection and hiring are the subjects of Chapter 8. The methods of recruiting that are used Lw a company can he evaluated along :ariotls dimensions. technical. Today.
Recruiting is the set of activities an organization uses to attract job candidates who have the abilities and attitudes needed to help th organization achieve its objectives. the HR department does the recruiting. 66. A good new employee can he driven away by a lack of opportunities for promotion. Nevertheless. based on past work experiences and influences by parents.6% The 66 percent quality-of-hire rate is a relative val-ue. affect them in two ways: how they set job preferences. Another aspect of recruiting that can be evaluated is what is referred to as the quality of hire. good. and how they go about seeking a job. multipurpose HR people or operating managers recruit and interview applicants.PART I I Acquiring Human Resources method (such as advertising) and divide it by the benefits it yields (acceptances of offers). 2. attitudes. fair. organizational policies and procedures. teachers. and others. and the location of the organization. Performance ratings and promotion rates are all bey()nd the control of a recruiter. Three factors affect recruiting from the organization’s viewpoint: recruiting requirements.. in smaller organizations.6 I The quality—of—hire measure is calculated as follows: QH = (PR + HP + HR)/N where where QH quality of recruits hired PR = average job performance ratings (20 items on scale) of new hirees (e. the state of the labor market. 35 percent) N = number of indicators used Therefore.The passage of 3. 4 on a 5-point scale or 20 items x 4) HP = percent of new hirees promoted within one year (such as 35 percent) 1-IR = percent of hirees retained after one year (e. 5. The organization can also examine how much accurate job information was provided during the recruitment process. This measure can provide management with an assessment of the quality of new employees being recruited and hired. or job market conditions that have nothing to do with the effectiveness of the recruiter.. and preferences. where. and how.g. the composition of the labor force. or poor level. 6. a. Applicants’ abilities. moonlighting by present employees. the quality-of-hire measure can provide some insight into the recruiter’s ability to attract employees. Internal sources can be tapped through the use of ‘ob posting and bidding. To summarize the major points covered in this chapter: 1. External factors that affect the recruiting process include influences such as government and union restrictions. Two sources of recruits could be used to fill needs for additional employees: present employees (internal) or those not presently affiliated with the organization (external). inequitable performance ratings. suggested the importance of recruiting. In larger organizations. . It will be up to management to determine whether this represents an excellent. and shown who recruits. 4. and the organization’s image. Some caution must he exercised with the quality-of-hire measure when evaluating the recruitment strategy.g. = This chapter has demonstrated the process whereby organizations recruit additional employees.
recruiting employees. What guidelines should be followed to make sure that recruitment advertising does not violate equal employment laws? Give some do’s and don’ts in recruiting interviews in terms of the legality of questions asked. 1.. The City of Warren. What has led to an increased use of temporary employees in organizations? What are the major advantages of using temporary employees? 6. What are the characteristics of an effective and an ineffective college recruiter? 10. . What are the relative strengths and weaknesses of promotion from within as a recruitment technique? HRM LEGAL ADVISOR Based on U. Considering that there are millions of resumes posted on the Web. S. 10. Employing a style that is neither too personal nor too stressful. 9. 211 a. Being enthusiastic. special-event recruiting. referrals from schools. and employee leasing. personal recruiting. (enus reports in 1980 indicated that newspapers that were circulated primarily in 1acomb . v.S.C H A P T E R 7 Recruitment and seeking recommendations from present employees regarding friends who might fill vacancies. What role do job descriptions and job specifications play in an effective recruitment program? 4. while rhe Facts 1)etroits labor force was 59. computerized matching services. How can it be used to reduce turnover? .. d.. and state employment offices. 7. II. \Varren placed advertisements in three adiaccnt to l)ctroit.. Allotting enough time for applicants’ comments and questions. Discuss how the Internet has changed recruiting. Visit three different job search websites.£. is located in Macowl’ County.corn online recruiting realistic ob preview recrii itillent 1.cum e. Caree rPa th.2 percent African 108.: 1998).Which of the three websites is most useful to job seekers? Explain your answer. External sources include walk-ins.S. The Internet is revolutionizing organizational recruitment and may become the primary job search tool in the coming years.7 percent African American. what steps should recruiters follow to screen out unqualified candidates in a fair and nondiscriminatory manner? Explain your answer. App.3 (U. Advertising. Sixth Ci. The African American labor force in the remainder of Macomb County was 1 3 percent. In Flie city of Warren. Showing a genuine interest in the applicant.-—. Michigan. A better job of recruiting and matching employees to jobs will mean lower employee turnover and greater employee satisfaction and organizational effectiveness. 4ichgan.recruiting ciuployce leasing eiuploynicnt agencies executive search rms lmmigrarionReform and Control Act (1RCA) of 1986 job posting and bidding job search Monster. in. Americans. . Alternatives to recruiting personnel when work must be completed include overtime. Search for a job in a particular region of the United States. and summer internships are among the methods that can be used to recruit external II. temporary employees. 138 F3d \X’arren’s labor force was compnscd of 0. c. applicants. b. Describe a realistic job preview.
the United States filed a suit in district court alleging race discrimination under Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act. 142. 73—102. “The World’s Most Admired Companies. produced a de facto barrier between employment opportunities and members of a protected class.illiaii Finn (Sepn’mher 1995). Breaugh 1992).” A cadem of Management Journal. Ivancevich (August 1999). pp. Gowan. Human Resource’ Planning. Recruitment: Science and Practice (Boston: Kent). Department of Justice notified the City of Warren that it planned to initiate an investigation of Warren’s recruiting practices.S. 46—52. pp. 61—7b A Competitive \X’eapon.).” in Wayne F. After its investigation indicating that Warren’s residency requirement and recruiting media had an adverse impact against African Americans. & Placement (Washington. 64—67. Barlow. Wayne F. 153. pp. The U. 2 Gillian Flyim (August 1995). “Iooniing Labor Shortages. pp. “America’s Most Admired: What’s So Great about GE?” Fortune. pp. Additionally.” Work force. “Recent Legal Decisions Affect You. Mary A. 151 .igement: Time for a New Approach. “The Looming Leadership Crisis. Employment.County and placed job postings in municipal buildings.” Anzcrican Demographics. John Ivancevich and Jacqueline Gilbert (Spring 2000). 14—19. Peter Fraiiccse (ovcmhcr 2001). and Betty Southard Murphy (April 1996). Scott Lord (1989).” Managenu’nt Review. and John M. 4.” Human Resource Implications A basic assumption of this case is that the City of Warren should have been recruiting employees from the greater Detroit area. “A Smarter Squeeze.” Personnel Journal.” Busines:. &Ite Ann Stead. The City of Warren argued that sparate impact analysis was not applicable to recruiting cricea The Court’s Decision The U. Cascio (ed. pp. Justin Fox (March 2002). p.” Journal of Business Ethics. p.” Business Horizons. pp. Recruitment Image. and Gary j. Alexandra Harkavy (july—August 2000). In February of 1986. pp. Warren did not advertise municipal jobs in Detroit newspapers.” Further. pp. pp. 72—79. “I)ivcrsitv Man. “Pop Quiz: How Do You Recruit the Best College Grads?” I’ersonnel Journal.” Personnel lournal. J. 126—130. “Too Many Workers? Not for Long. “I)iversity Management: A New Organizational Paradigm. and Initial lob Choice Dcci Sions. Diane D. Jeremy Kahn (October 11. Week. pp.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit ruled that the’ disparate impact theory of discrimination was applicable to any “facially neutral pohcv with a discriminatory effect to Title VII. pp. (. Companies should consider general commuting patterns as well as public transportation availability in determining where to recruit employees.S. the city’s municipal workforce was approximately I percent African American. 267—268ff. 24—30. 2 Aaron Bernstein (May 2002).” Public Personnel Alanagement. “1)o I Really Want to Work for This Company?” Across the Board. “The Immigration Reform and Control Act Demands a Closer Look. I)C: Bureau of National Affairs). Gilbert. “Engagement or I)isengagement? Older Workers and the Looming Labor Shortage. 1999). 34—35. Lautcnschlager (April 1993). Employers may avoid discrimination problems related to recruiting by ensuring that its internal and external recruiting tools are unbiased and sufficiently reach the company’s qualified labor market. 414—427.” Fortune. Jacqueline A. 75—92. pp. “External and Internal Recruitment. James A.” Business Week. Shari Caudron (September 1999). Glenn McEvoy and Mary Jo Blahna (September—Octobcr 2001). the U. alleging that they potentially discriminated against African Americans on the basis of race. Hatch. 42—44. Supreme Court has indicated that a company’s proper geographic recruiting area should include locations from which applicants or employees are likely to commute. Gatewood. As a result. Dean Foust (Decen her 2001). combined with its refusal to publicize jobs outside the racially homogeneous county. . the court held that “Warren’s limitation of its applicant pool to the residents of the overwhelmingly white city. pp. Wairen required applicants for all lobs except police and firefighters to be residents of Warren. Robert I). “Corporate Image. pp.
Bewayo (May 1990). Chad Fleetwood and Kristina Shelley (FaIl 2000). 1999). Watson (June 1995).” HRMagazme. Scott Lord (1989).n. and Face-to-Face Media oil Interviewer and Applicant Judgments in Employment Interviews. 25 Marc Hequet (April 1995). 2d . “Effects of Impression Management on Performance 4 Ratings. . “6 1)cgrees of Hire .’nient.n. Shirley Duglin Kennedy (July—August 1996). “Rate of Moonlighting among Workers Holds a Steady Pace. “Low Cost Recruiting for Quality.” HRMagazine. pp. 363—381.ne.” Time. 25 Sara Rynes and Barry Gerhart (Spring 1990).S. p..” HRMagazine. 31. (December 3. 29 EEOC v. 2(1 Elaine McShulskis (August 1997).” Information Today.” Acade.idance Journal. 50 Jennifer Koch MarcIi 1990). “Do You Need a Moonlighting Policy?” HRMagazine.rt . 73—102. 45—47. 26 Bill Leonard (J lily 1997). Jeffrey Miles.. pp.” Training. 61—77. “External and Internal Recruitn1ent.30—34. Andrew Bargerstoek (August 1 990). “Employers Use \Veb to 12 rr. “Resume Databases to I)ominate Field. pp. “Beware College Grads Willing to Lie for a lob. ‘ Steart Deck (March 2000).’enzent Journal.).” Mana. “Diversify Your Recruitment Advertising. Court of Appeals. J. 2 Marlene Piturro (JanLiary 2000). pp. 59—60. cit.” HRMagazine. 0 Ruth Thaler-Carter (June 2001). 4 21 Bill Leonard (April 1993). pp.” Personnel Psychology. “ Jeffrey Kluger (June 2002). pp.. AP Online. Samuel Greengard (March 1996).n(. pp. Human Resource Plannin’.” Journal of Busmess Communication. 2—9. pp.fl. “Need a New lob? (jet to Work on the Web. 2 Carolyn Hirschrnan (October 2000).12—18. pp. ‘The Power of E-cruiting. 92—100. 62—66. ‘ Matthew Mariani (Spring 1996).nv of Manal. “E-Recruiters Swim through a Sea of Resumes. 3B. Q: Hou’ Do I Find the Right Job (New York: Wiley).” Vocational Gi.. 76—80. Einplo’. “Effective Job Posting Fills Dual Needs.” Personnel. 51SF.” Personnel fournal. I 213 Piturro. 46—54. “1 he Outlook for College Graduates.ember 3. and Placement (Washington. 4 2 ilan Moravec (September 1990). “Resume Preparation: An Empirical Study of Personnel Managers’ PerLeptions. pp. 232—252. “Students Offer Views on Career ( lmices. IN Hubert Field and William Holley (March 1976). pp . Cascio (ed. Sixth Circuit (Cincinnati).” HR Magazine. pp. 1999). ° Bibi S. pp.” in Wayne F. 10.” 1-IRMagazine. Telephone.” Journal of Management. “Recruitment: Apple Ads Target Intellect. 29 Margaret Magnus (August 1986).” Management Review. Ralston and Robert Brady (january 1994).58—79. 22—24. ° Edward 1). U.fl. pp.’cuunt Rei’u’u’. pp.” HRMagaz. “The Intern Turnaround. 13—36. 68—(). 2001).s.” USA Today. “Recruitment Ad Vantages. op. 4 22 Sandy Wayne and Robert Liden (February 1995). op. “10 Tips for Getting Net Results. “What College Recruits Expect of Employers. pp.301. Detroit Edison Company (1975).” ( )ccupatiunal ( )utlook Quart e’ilv. 28. “The Amoco Plan. pp. p.r. “Job Fair Challenges for HR. 33—37. David Bowman and R. 1998—2008: A Balancing Act.” ()cczipatuozal ( )utlook Ouartcrlv. pp. 16 Susan Strauss. pp. “The Relative Influence of Interview Communication Satisfaction on Applicants’ Recruitment Interview Decisions. 107—114. Kweskin (1990). pp. “The Effects of Videoconference.. Steven M. 33—37.” Personnel fourizal. 229—237. “Pumping Up Your Past. 38—39. pp. ° AP Online (D. ° Martha Frase-Blunt (April 2002). pp. p. and Laurie Levesque (2001). cit. DC: Bureau of National Affairs).” Personnel Journal. Jon Swartz (February 19. p. “Interviewer Assessments of Applicant ‘Fit’: An Exploratory Investigation. 9—12.
ç’. p. “Temp Firms Turn Up the Heat on Hiring.—.” Personnel journal.” W/ork/orce. pp. “Looking for Young Talent? Inroads Helps Diversify Efforts. Rosalind Resnick (November 1992).” HRMagazzne. “Realistic Job Previews: A Critical Appraisal and Future Research Directions. 32—35. pp.” HR Magazine. Phillips (December 1998). Odiorne (July 1990). pp.” Employee Relations Law Journal. “College Recruitment: What Attracts Students to Organizations. PP 78—85. pp. pp.” Personnel. Jean M. 58—62. “Eniplovers in Rush to Capture Young Talent. T. “Crushed Hopes: When a New lob Proves to Be Something 1)1 ffercnt. Brenda Paik Sunoo (April 1999). 31—48.” Personnel Psycholo. Therese Hoff Macan and Robert L.1. “A Meta-Analysis of Realistic Job Preview Experiments. John Poison (Spring 2002). Susan Taylor (May—June 1984). pp. W7 .. 1987). Andrea Poe (May 2000). cit. pp.” Cio. I . Pp.” Nations Business. 745—76 8.” Academy of Management foidYlhil. 73—76.. I ç P. “The PEO Phenomenon: Co-Employment at Work. 34—44. 9. 61 This measure was developed by Jac Fitz-Enz (1984) in Hou’ to Measure Human ResOurce Management (New York: McGraw-Hill). Rrian Kiass. “Face Value. Watson.amer ($pring 2002). op. pp. .” Personnel Management.” f’ersonnel Administrator..” Human Resources Professional. pp. Breaugh (October 1983). pp. “The Search for Effective Methods.” Academy of Management Ret’ieu pp.. “Employee Leasing Comes of Age. Popovich and John P. pp. and Thomas C. °‘ Dawn Gunsch (September 1993). “The Relationship of Interviewers’ I’reinterview Impressions to Selection and Recruitment Outcomes. Larry Reibstein (June 10. 6 73—6 90. pp. Joe Willey (Winter 1993). 612—6 19. “Effects of Realistic Job Previews on Multiple Organizitioial Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis.Learning. Wanous (December 1985). [)avid E. “The Realistic Job Preview as a Persuasive Communication.II c . pp. 7L25. George S. Brenda Paik Sunoo (April 1996).. “Giving It the Old Cullege Try.. Premack and John P. 1996). SS Steven L. Michelle Neely Martinez (March 1996).. Jnhn Botidreau and Sara Rvnes (March 1987). Thomas . Bergman and M. 60—68.” Personnel Journal. 16—17. Dipbove (Winter 1990). Wanous (October 1982).” Journal of Applied Psvcholog.” Academy of Management Review.” HR Focus. and James A. 9—12. 34—36. “Comprehensive College Strategy Strengthens NCR’s Recruitment. Terpstra (May 1996). 132—140.. “Beating the 1990s’ Labor Shortage. “Leasing Workers. “Trust and the Role of Professional Erp1oyer Organizations: Managing HR in Small and Medium Enterprises. 706—719. pp. 86—87. pp. John McClendon. i.” TI. 50—54.” Training. 570—578...” journal of Managerial Issues. pp. 20—28. jilly Welch (September 12. 1 8—20. pp. pp.. “From Santa to CEO—Temps Play All Roles.
employers have turned to emphasizing certain intangible benefits of the company such aportunitiesfQç adva. CONTRACT RECRUITING Companies in fast-growing industries are seeking the expertise of a relatively new type of external specialist: the contract recruiter. pp. compliments profiled employees and their colleagues..Washington University in Saint Louis uses creative advertising to promote its flexible work schedules.. one ad headline in the series proclaims. Point-of-Purchase Recruitment A growing number of service companies with high turnover in low-skill jobs are recruiti9g using pointof-purchase ads. the ad suggests. . For e pie.They set up the system.The success of point-of-purchase ads has eliminated Quik Wok’s use of classified ads. Pizza Hut places recruiting coupons on its carry-out boxes.cement. Some contract recruiters develop expertise in certain employment fields (such as electrical engineering or computer software design).The ad’s text showcases Mr.” In some other ads in the series. . RECRUITMENT ADVERTISING An increasing number of companies are supplementing and even replacing the traditional classified ad with creative.Their means: i vative recruiting approaches that bring imagination and a essiveness to a company’s overall recruiting function.”Even you-know-who rested on the seventh day. eye-catching ads.” the company published its nursing salaries. between traditjqn and technology . . Like many employee-spotlight ads developed by other companies. eoyment security.” The stuffer describes job opportunities. And another Newman” (Howard Newman. apply for a position with us. Newman’s accomplishments and long tenure with the company and then urges those interested and qualified to “join Howard. jobs. more company ads are spotlighting employees. Inno ations are occurring in several elements of the recruiting process. . g about their skills. 3.employed and is paid at an hourly rate negotiated with the client company. For example.Maury Hanigan (November 1987). coordinates campus recruiting. Here is a look at innovations in several areas. and et?%preneurial opportunities. And another Hardison’ (electrical engineer Cor’ine Hardison). GTE turned to 12 contract recruiters who became an instant employment department. in the pursuit of technology excellence and discovery. one of General Dynamic’s senior project engineers).le & Space Company has run a series of sports-related ads that promote company benefits. 54--63. Promotion of Intangible Benefits In cases where a job is highly attractive and thus doesn’t need promoting. pp. Scott Lord (November 1987).J. One such ad is entitled “Net Gain:’ Featuring a tennis racket and tennis balls in a partly closed briefcase. General Dynamics has declared. and flexible form of recruiting.”Contract Recruiting Comes ofAge.200 professional employees to be hired in 16 months.” The coupon provides a mini.In a time when many companies are cutting costs across their operations.. pp. when GTE in Needham. a recruiter can be quickly brought in to handle the suddenly burdensome task. Who knows You might become the next Newman. IThey include: I. and performs any number of contractual recruiting responsibilities. highly efficient. suddenly found itself with a Department of •efense contract requiring 1. . General Dynamics has run a series of ads that. These self-employed specialists are becoming popular because they can provide several benefits to client companies. Other users have found the strategy to be a low-cost. and then trained their replacements before departing 16 months later. (s Your Recruitment All It Can Be?” Personnel Journal. The recruiting is performed without hiring permanent (and later unnecessary) staff. For example.” Personnel Administrator. “If you want a good job. Inc. when a new position needs to be filled. a growing number of HR departments are changing the ways they recruit. Use of Employees in Ads instead of the traditional testimonials. Pers. Lockheed Miss. 49—53. between performance and opportunity”). by comparisons with great inventors. prepares and executes formal offers. . “Campus Recruiters Upgrade Their Pitch.Their goal: to boost recruiting efficiency(reducing recruiting costs per hp-e).” Personnel Journal.”Personnel Administrator.The cosmetics manufacturer Helene Curtis.nneI journal reviewed several hundred ads submitted by subscribers and reported some trends in this type of advertising. regularly calls on contract recruiters to help the company handle its 15 to 20 percent yearly growth. and accomplishments. “Along with a diverse and challenging project list. “W’e’re looking for another Edison . “We’re looking for another Newton • . and in one ad entitled.. Rather. bag-stuffers that picture a broken fortune cookie and proclaim “Not everyone will have the good fortune to work at Quik Wok. “Recruitment Ad Ventures. For example. 2. the recruiter is self. completed the task.. clever.This specialist is contracted on a temporary basis to •erform recruiting functions for different job openings. Massachusetts.The recruiter screens resumes. When a company is undergoing exceptionally fast growth with immediate hiring needs. Featuring a drawing of a large lead pencil. pp. the text says. 55—58: and Margaret Magnus (February 1987).resume form for prospective applicants who don’t have resumes. These ads are essentially a company’s resume and cover letteidesigned to send ainique and memorable message about the company to sought-after prospective applicants Recently.The Quik Wok Chinese food take-out chain uses Written by Kim Stewart and adapted from: Bob Martin (August 1 987). cive freedom. get the lead out. Recruiters can also serve as external. objective advisers to the company’s human resource function. . He or she is not affiliated with an employment agency and does not receive a commission or a percentage of the hiree’s salary. they simply distribute the bag stuffers. 46—54.” The Saint Paul Medical Center has developed a series of one-word headline ads that promote certain themes such as “Cornrnitrnent’ (describing the center’s commitment to patients’ care and employees’ career development) and “Balance” (“Between caring professionals . . this series portrays the corporation as a place where very talented and dedicated people work and reach their potential. conducts telephone and in-person interviews. Lockheed Missile & Space Company makes a point-of providing employees with truly comprehensive recreational programs and facilities.
Clark Kirby and his assistants had recruited 986 applicants for the 596 positions Gunther would have at its Tampa plant. finding that the subsequent knowledge of the company’s recruiting needs and functions that the recruiter acquires helps to further reduce per-hire costs. Demand for these individuals is currently very high. providing their recruiters with training in communications skills.. Develop a recruiting strategy that addresses innovations discussed in the case and includes your own ideas. For example. CAMPUS RECRUITING With declining college enrollments and growing demand for recruits with college degrees. Any company can list its job openings on the net. allows job hunters to place their resumes in the network at no charge. companies are finding that recruiting on college campuses has become very competitive. Many referral programs are periodically given a boost with new bonuses and new themes. companies are adding pizzazz to the widely used employee referral and bounty system. Some college placement centers are also establishing computer databases to link students with prospective jobs. Companies are also paying more attention to the quality of their on-campus interviewers. But where should he go from there Clark called Ed Humphrey. Pennsylvania. Career Technologies runs the network and obtains resumes via job fairs. and asked if he wanted to be involved in the hiring. EMPLOYEE REFERRALS Lastly. These actions are designed to enhance the professor’s knowledge of the company. another computer database network. For example. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS I. many are launching strategies to both boost their offer-acceptance rates and lower their recruiting costs. At any center. which has over I million resumes of technical professionals onhine. More companies are producing recruiting videos for show on campus. f Job Stores’ franchises focus on job openings that companies ii usually don’t fill via employment agencies. Assess the effectiveness of a recruitment advertising strategy that relies on imaginative.red?And who should do e hiring? The HR specialist had done some preliminary screening. more individualized publications that provide information on particular jobs and departments and information on the community where a prospective applicant would work (for instance.s work at no charge. Firms are mindful of the impact that a word-of-mouth reputation created by an inconsiderate. and to develop executives’ relationships with certain schools.ed. As a result. and exclusive contracts with over 20 profes.Which 596 of the 986 should be . often explaining why the company is interested in that particular student. a computer database of job information. Some companies hire the same recruiters time and again. Organizations such as Texas Instruments also provide executives as guest lecturers at several universities. firms are now developing smaller. the plant manager. Inc.Companies with hiring needs in these areas benefit from the specialists’ contacts and highly focused capabilities. C Companies pay a fee for access to the database. very general brochure on the company. such as how recent the resume is. For example. uninterested recruiter can have on a company’s campus recruiting efforts.onalassociations and societies. highly visual.The fee: $75 for 90 days’ access to the network. has developed a franchise chain of “stop and shop” employment centers located in high-traffic shopping malls. But before getting too satisfl. eye. More firms are establishing programs that educate professors more fully on the company’s career opportunities for graduates. Some companies are also refining their recruitment brochures. a job hunter can tap the Job Stores Network computer database by obtaining a computer printout on job openings in the local area and nationwide. COMPUTER DATABASES Computer databases are being developed as job and resume data banks. In seeking participation from businesses. Other companies. Referral bonuses run the gamut from money and trips to time off and credit used to “buy” items from a special catalog. and most of the applicants had completed an application blank. And many firms are replacing the form rejection letter with one that is more tactful and considerate. Rather than select recruits from the placement office’s resume file. c JobNet. Rather than providing the traditional.A company can search the database by specifying any of a number of criteria. supply is limited. Ed said that he had time to choose only his top management .What are the potential strengths and drawbacks of this approach to recruitment advertising? 2. has established Job Search. A growing number of companies are aggressively promoting referral campaigns with special themes and prizes. Job Stores. advertising. Invitation letters to a campus interview are personalized. hire professors to lecture in the company’s training programs. What type of company (in what kind of industry) would benefit most from contract recruiters? What type would benefit least? 3. such as Citibank. he realized that there wa a big job ahead of him. some companies are identifying a number of students in their junior year and focusing efforts on these select recruits.catching ads.The network provides job listings (up to 20 lines each provided by companies) and is available for all students. which it is hoped will be communicated to students. the Career Connection Company of State College. information on cost of living and community recreation facilities). Suppose you are faced with the task of developing a college recruiting strategy for obtaining talented business school graduates with degrees in management information systems (developing and managing a company computer information network). Macy’s brings professors to a showcase store where the educators spend a day observing trainees and meeting with managers.
Thus.The rest was up to Clark. As this chapter I shows. such as quality of output. performance does not refer simply to quantity of ‘urput. Rather. Although this definition emphasizes the effectiveness of selection. more intelligence isn’t always better than less. ic of the initial tasks involved in developing and implementing an effective selecrn process is for the organization to identify which objective is most important for As Clark Kirby sets out to hire 596 employees. Ed r reminded Clark that the company didn’t want them c to raid other plants—that c was simply against company s policy. .team. It can also involve other objectives. Or. We’ll begin by examining the factors in the internal and external environments. At a basic level. Clark said he knew 1 that and would abide by c company policy.2 Thus. Compounding the problem uf developing an effective selection system is the fact that the goal isn’t always to find applicants who have the most of a given quality. In this case. Employee selection is important because the goals of the organization can be accomplished only if the right match is made between the person and the job. :)nsidering current environmental conditions. there are actually multiple goals associated with an Organization’s 5Cion process.’ This situation can easily lead to the selection of overqualified candidates. Selection is a vital and continuous process in an organizaton. Ihese tactors are highlighted in the diagnostic model in Exhibit 8—1. absenteeism. selection involves making many decisions. it is possible for an applicant to he too socially skilled if the job doesn’t require high levels of such skills. he will follow a selection process infhienced by many actorc. As a result. selection is the search for an optimal match between the job and the amount of any particular characteristic that an applicant may possess. however. decisions about whom to hire must also be made efficiently and within the boundaries set forth in equal employment opportunity legision. employees’ satisfaction. all selection programs attempt to identify the applicants who have the highest chance of meeting or exceeding the organization’s standards of perormance. Selection is the process by which an organization chooses from a list of applicants the person or persons who best meet the selection criteria for the position available. heft. For example. it is highly unlikely that a selection system can effectively cope with all possible objectives. a Clark was faced with r making 596 selection l decisions. and career development. depending on the job.
Environmental Circumstances Influencing Selection Internal environment A number of characteristics of the organization can influence the amount and type of selection process it uses to hire needed employees. complexity. For an organization to recover the costs of developing an expensive selection system. doesn’t deteriiiine how selection is approached. Size. and technological volatility are a few of these. complex selection systems are most often found in larger organizations with the economic resources necessary to pay for such systems.Since the development and implementation of large-scale selection efforts can 1w very costly. Size alone. there must be a suftcient number of jobs that need to be . however.
have imposed much tighter limits than others Ofl an organization’s ability to test applicants for drug use. At a basic level. or about 1:1. the process becomes more detailed. composition. Those who work in human resource management evaluate the effects of the labor market on selection decisions by using a selection ratio: number of applicants hired Selection ratio = total number of applicants Consider Clark Kirby’s problem at Gunther. from a performance perspective. With a lower selection ratio. 400/720. Any or all of these state-specific issues can affect the selection system that is ultimately used. On the other hand. 10/10. Some states. however. for example 1:2. therefore. While these two models of filling job vacancies will have some overlapping selection processes. This is where the critical role of oh analysis in selection becomes most apparent. professional/technical. Similarly. that the Organization will have to invest more time and money in the selection decision when the ratio is 1:2. although it may not he effective. It is. other organizations look more quickly to external supplies of new employees. Thus. When the selection ratio gets close to 1:1. the goal of . Many organizations have elaborate internal job posting programs (as was discussed in Chapter 7) designed to help fill as many job vacancies as possible from within. skilled. because that list of characteristics should have been identified diirig the process of job analysis and should now he accurately reflected in the job specification. and hire the number of people it needs. each will also focus to some extent on different criteria and different techniques: External environment The external environment is an equally important determinant of the kind of selection system that an organization utilizes. the selection process is short and unsophisticated. or 1:1. Not only are most organizations subject to federal employment laws and regulations. One of the most significant environmental influences on selection is the size. clerical. It is also. or about 1:2. it is called a high selection ratio. or about 1:2. 44/78. it may he difficult for an organization to identify. hut there are •ny state-specific regulations that also affect what an organization can and cannot do in its selection system. selection strategies can be very different. The selection ratios are as follows: managers 38/68. In structurally complex organizations with many job titles hut very few occupants. when there is an oversupply of qualified applicants. attract. and political pressures on a community. and availability of local labor markets.C H A P T E R 8 Selection filled. a number of states provide past employers with more protection against being sued by a former employee because of information that may have been divulged during checking of references. or almost 1:2. A ratio of 1:2 also means that the organization can he more selective in its choice than when the ratio is 1:1. social. the number of years needed to get back the money invested in such a selection system may be too great to justify its initial expense. 104/110. in turn. Another characteristic of the organization that is an important determinant of the kind of selection system it develops is its attitude about hiring from within. semiskilled. more likely that employees who fit the organization’s criteria for success will be hired. the selection ratio is said to he low. • At the core of any effective selection system is an understanding of what characteristics are essential for high performance. As the number of applicants increases relative to the number who are hired. These. when unemployment rates are low. for example. are affected by economic. likely. Under these circumstances.
writing. educational standards such as these must be related to successful performance of the job. Their reasoning is that a prospective employee who has performed the job before and is applying for a similar job must like the work and must be able to do the job well. The employer might also prefer that the degree be from certain institutions.3 But the organization must have a rational basis for defining what it means by “relevant experience. experience is related to job performance. experience. Categories of Criteria With these potential differences in mind. that the grade point average b higher than some minimum. Over a large number of studies. on the job. it usually is safe to assume that anyone who has successfully completed high school or its equivalent has basic reading. For example. physical characteristics. For certain jobs. and interpersonal attributes are present becauseofgenetic predispositions and because they were learned at home. skills. indeed. Care must be exercised not to set standards that are higher than actually required by the job. A large number of cognitive. arithmetic. Research supports these assumptions. and airlines chose flight attendants and companies hired receptionists on the . Experience and past performance Another useful criterion for selecting employees is experience and past performance. Different selection criteria may. at school. should two applicants applying for a job as an internal auditor he given the same credit for previous work experience if both have five years in the accounting profession but one has been an auditor for another organization and the other a tax specialist for the IRS? Physical characteristics In the past. the employer may stipulate that the education (especially for college-level requirements) is in a particular area of expertise. motor. Formal education An employer selecting from a pooi of job applicants wants to nd the person who has the right abilities and attitudes to be successful. and other personal characterjstics. the criteria typically used by organizations for making selection decisions can be sunimrized in several broad categories: education. be needed to assess these qualitatively different KSAOs. and that certain honorshave been achieved.any selection system is to accurately determine which applicants possess the knowledge. For example. In addition. the selection system must he capable of disi:inguishing between characteristics that are needed at the time of hiring.” Not all previous experiences are equally good predictors of performance on a given job. and other characteristics (KSAOs) dictated by the job. and those that are routinely developed after a person has been placed on the job. employers often consider experience to be a good indicator of ability and work-related attitudes. One of the more common cost-effective ways to screen for many of these abilities is by using educational accomplishment as a surrogate for or summary of the measures of those abilities. physical. abilities. although this is unfortunately not always true. Additionally. To he legal. and so on. and interpersonal skills. those that are systematically acquired during training. Studies found that employers were more likely to hire and pay better ages to taller men. Many selection specialists believe that past performance on a similar job might be one of the best indicators of future performance. such as accounting or management. many employers consciously or unconsciously used physical characteristics (including how an applicant looked) as a criterion.
In a similar way. Thus. the military uses spatial-relations aptitude as one criterion. agreeableness. one particular aspect of personality—such as being outgoing—may be useful for salespeople.5 Much of this change can be attributed to the development and validation of the Big Five personality factors. Although education and past experience are often used as measures of ability. since a single person might be more ely to accept a transfer or a lengthy overseas assignment. Some employers have. minimum and maximum age restrictions for jobs can be used only if they are clearly jobrelated. age should be used as a selection criterion only after very careful thought and consideration. weight.7 As with other personal characteristics. Rather. a successful applicant for pilot training in the military does not need actual flying experience. they are now illegal unless it can be shown that a physical characteristic is directly related to effectiveness at work. This issue will certainly become more important by the year 2010. Age. For this reason. may require essentially no consideration of an applicant’s personality. However.h Of the five dimensions. extroversion. Personal characteristics and personality type The final criterion category is a catchall that includes personal characteristics and personality types. By that time. It might not. the organization wishing to use personality as a criterion must he certain that successful and unsuccessful employees can he distinguished in terms of their personalities. caseworkers. be legally used for hiring a telephone reservations agent for an airline. visual acuity (eyesight) would he a physical characteristic that could he used to hire commercial airline pilots.variation against ethnic groups. On the other hand.4 Certain specific aptitudes and skills can also be considered part of this category of criteria. and handicapped people. me jobs. and so on. For example. or others who work extensively with the public. While it is illegal to discriminate against people who are over the age of 40. however. recent findings on personality tests have been much more positive regarding the link between personality and job performance. for example. candidates for a job cannot he screened out by arbitrary height. age. Although once viewed in an unfavorable light due to perceptions of low preJictive validity. For example. and conscientiousness. has sometimes been used as a criterion. women. Known as emotional stability. other employrs might seek out single people for some jobs.6 years. or similar requirements. Thus. . Many jobs fall between these extremes. Many employers also prefer to hire people with certain personality types. selection using any aspect of personalty should always he based on whether it is really necessary for high performance. many organizations also try to assess whether applicants possess certain aptitudes. the Big Five describe behavioral traits that may explain up to 75 percent of an individual’s personaliry.an workers will be legally protected by the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA). For example. preferred “stable” married employees over single people because they have assumed that married people have a lower turnover rate. this is when the median age in the United States will he 40. more than half of all Ameri. openness to experience. there is no federal law that specifically addresses this issue for younger people. It is probably . con— scientiousness and emotional stability have been shown to predict performance across most occupational groupings. such as being a lifeguard. sex. too. These can be used as selection criteria only when the job involves tasks that require them. Personal characteristics include marital status. Many personality measures run an even greater risk of being legally challenged as an invasion of privacy than other kinds of selection tools.
the measures that it yields must also be valid. work sample tests of present skills. The point is that although reliability is rarely perfect. the primary concern is whether the assessment technique results in accurate predictions about the future success or failure of an applicant.P A R T I I Acquiring Human Resources unwise to use personality asa general criterion for screening out “undesirable” applicants. Once the measurements become too inconsistent. the techniques used for making them must yield reliable information. In other words. they become meaningless. a technique for assessing each of these must be chosen. If these decisions are going to be correct. the organization can avoid hiring the wrong person for a job.9 Reliability and Validity of Selection Criteria Once an organization has decided upon a set of selection criteria. imagine that your three attempts yielded values of 6 feet. When a measuring tool relies on the judgments of people (such as in an employment interview). 0 As a simple example. Both legally and organizationally. Reliability The main goal of selection is to make accurate predictions about people. imagine that you tried to use a tape measure to determine how tall an applicant for a job as a refighter was. since the same personality characteristic that leads to failure in one job might lead to success in another. In this latter case. The reliability of a selection tool can he judged in a variety of ways. and 5 feet II / inches. II In selection. broad personality measures or more specific ones are the best to use in selection. 6 feet 1/2 inch. En part. the organization must be certain that the information is both reliable and valid. An applicant’s score should not vary much according to which form of the test he or she happens to take. but you would have a fairly good idea. In this way. There are many ways of assessing validity but all of them focus on two iSSUeS. This is called test-retest reliabilit. a measuring tool can still he useful if it is only somewhat unreliable. This refers to the extent to which two or more interviewers’ assessments are consistent with each other. interviews. one common way to assess reliability is to correlate the scores of applicants given the same test on two different occasions. 6 feet 6 inches. the main purpose of selection is to make decisions about people. and checks of previous experience through references. Alternative-form reliabilit’ is determined by correlating scores from two alternate forms of the same test. there is still considerable debate whether general. you would have virtually no idea how tall the applicant actually was. Reliability refers to how stable or repeatable a measurement is over a variety of testing conditions. it is not sufficient for it to be repeatable or stable. In practice. psychological tests of aptitude and personality. Validity addresses the questions of what a test measures and how well it has measured it. however. you may not know the applicant’s exact height. all of which are assumed to be reliable. On the other hand. If you measured a given applicant three successive times and obtained values of 6 feet. The alternatives are numerous: application blanks and biodata forms. because there are both minimum and maximum height restrictions for the job. The organization wants to make its best guess about who will he a successful employee. Regardless of the method chosen for collecting information about applicants. reliability is often determined by using interrater reliability. Validity For a selection tool to be useful. physical and medical testing. . Most standardized academic achievement tests like the SAT and the GMAT have numerous forms. and 5 feet 4 inches. because of this fact.
tabular data) using the same kind of typewriter or word processor that would he encountered on the actual job. Content validity is not appropriate for more abstract job behaviors. internal memo.12 The following. this tape measure might he perfectly reliable and an accurate way to measure height. then the test is said to be content-valid. we cannot see leadership. 4 I. The test must measure one of those constructs. construct validity cannot be established in a single study but can be assumed to exist only on the basis of a large body of empirical work yielding consistent results. it must be reliable. When selection procedures inye the use of tests to measure leadership characteristics or personality. scores on the test might correlate with leadership . if the measurement is too unreliable. Even if the tape gives the same measurements (high reliability). A job analysis must systematically dene both the work behaviors involved in the job and the constructs that are believed to he important to job performance. Thus. hut if you try to weigh applicants with it. As noted previously. let’s return to our example of measuring the frcfghter applicant’s height. however. dership potential. it might still have very little accuracy (validity). or work ethic. Construct validity A construct is a trait that is not typically observable. The applicant can be given a typical sample of typing work under “normal” working conditions. however. For evample. If so. for a measuring tool to be useful. Content validity The degree to which a test. we can only assume that it exists from the behavior someone displays.C H A P T E H 8 Selection To illustrate these two issues and the relationship between validity and reliability. Finally. Because traits cannot be directly observed. valid. An example of a content-valid test is a typing test for a secretarial position. In selecting a project manager. To summarize. and put to the use for which it was actually intended. then it will be impossible to determine his or her correct height. for instance. a set of professional standards developed by a committee of members from the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP). A test therefore has construct validity when ii actually measures the unobservable trait that it claims to measure. If the content of the typing test is actually representative of the work that is done on the job. The Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures have established three stringent requirements for demonstrating the construct validity of a selection technique. For example. 2. are brief descriptions of three types of validity that the HR specialist should be familiar with: (1) content. interview. construct validity rather than content validity is appropriate. (2) construct. Such a test can roughly replicate conditions on the job. or ability to perform the job is called content validity. leadership style. knowledge. and (3) criterion-related. there must be evidence that the test validly measures leadership. it will be almost impossible to accurately determine the applicant’s height. A detailed explanation of the various strategies for determining the validity of election tool can he found in the Principles for the Validation and Use of Peronizel Selection Procedures. For example. or performance evaluation measures the skill. it will yield totally Llseiess information. the tape measure may no: have been calibrated properly at the factory where it was made (the manufacturer may have thought it was marking in feet and inches when it was actually using centimeters). such as . the applicant would be asked to type a typical piece of work (letter.
It is actually preferable if the test whose validity is being measured is not used in the hiring decisions. 2. the choice of a criterion is’at the very heart of determining whether a selection system is legal. accidents. 3. The employer first must wait until it has hired a large number of people for whom it has predictor scores and then until it can obtain meaningful measures of job performance for the people who were hired. 4. the first step is to administer the tests to present employees performing the job. the time it takes to determine who is a good employee can he long. Predictive validity is an important form of criterion-related validity. However. or to use such data collected by another test to support the claim of construct validity. Scores on a test or performance in some simulated exercise are correlated with measures of actual on-the-job performance. Wait an appropriate amount of time and then collect measures of job performance. it would be a candidate for future use with applicants in the selection process. 3. The biggest advantage of concurrent validation is tlat it can be conducted relatively quickly. At approximately the same time. sales. If the test is significantly related to performance. absenteeism. such validation will be biased in favor of applicants with experience. supervisory ratings. The test is called a Predictor. there are several potential problems associated with the use of concurrent validation. They are puzzled by the request to take a battery of tests and often wi11 not provide honest answers or . Criterion-related validity The extent to which a selection technique can accurately predict one or more imp(’rtanr elements of job behavior is referred to as criterion—related validity. The steps in a predictivevalidity study for a given test are: 1. The construct must be related to the performance of critical work behavior. or whatever the organization deems most relevant. it must be shown that leadership ability is correlated with job performance for the position of project manager. If experience is important in job performance. performance measures for thes employees are also collected. Administer the test to a large sample of applicants. this method uses experienced employees. but it does have drawbacks. Second. However. it is usully less expensive than predictive validation. In concurrent validation. First. Therefore.’5 The organization must exercise care in choosing a measure that best reflects the actual contributions of employees to its effectiveness. The test scores are then correlated with the performance measures. ‘ Two popularly used types of criterion-related validity are predictive and concurrent. Assess the strength of the predictor-criterion relationship (typically by calculating a correlation coefficient). That is. For some jobs. For example. the performance score is referred to as a criterion.ratings given to other employeCS in other organizations Upon previous administration of the test. Select individuals for the job. Not all criteria can be predicted equally well from any particular type of selection tool. Criteria relevant to personnel selection include measures such as quality or quantity of output. present employees often balk at completing tests. Concurrent validity is also used to determine whether a selection test can predict job performance. it is necessary to conduct a criterion validity study between leadership and job performance. Predictive validity is determined by using the scores obtained from a sample of applicants for a job.
It is important to note that few organizations use all steps. Third. selection was often thought to be an easy decision. it should not automatically be used as an alternative to predictive validation simply because it can he done more quickly. For example. there is a self-selection bias that can restrict the range of test scores. Selection tools were designed to aid this gut reaction.and third-sector employers.their best answers. Among present employees. for they can he time-consuming and cxpensive and some steps. such as 3 and 4. as do some private. This series is not universal. The organization should carefully analyze its circumstances before choosing which of the methods to use. more applicants are screened out by the organization. At each step. or more applicants accept other job offers and drop from the list of applicanfs. Despite these potential problems. may he performed concurrently or at . the most skilled and most able have been placed in more responsible jobs. The selection decision is usually perceived as a series of steps through which applicants pass. selection is viewed as much more than simply relying on Intuition. Exhibit 8—2 illustrates a typical series of steps for the selection process. concurrent validation can be an effective method for assessing the validity of certain kinds of selection tests. or transferred. In the past. Decisions were THE SELECTION PROCESS based on the subjective likes or dislikes of the boss. Today. there is likely to he a restriction because the least skilled and least able workers have been terminated.’7 However. government employers test at step 2 instead of step 3. demoted.
as these are typically referred to.. organizations must never forget that they are subject to the same legal standards as any other Selection method. they help protect the organization against unjustified lawsuits. First. vary in length and sophistication. A potentially useful supplement to the traditional application blank is the biographical information blank (131B). With a dramatic increase in the number of lawsuits being filed against organizations for “wrongful termination” and with an erosion of organizations’ right to hire and fire whomever they wish. the application blank can eliminate the need for subsequent interviews to gather this information. by allowing interviewers to focus on other kinds of information (e. many organizations arc now adding very important clauses at the beginning or end of their application blanks. a teaching certificate). the more each step is likely to he used formally. they help ensure that applicants and employees understand the terms of their employment relationship with the organization. the application blank is not an appropriate place to gather most information of this kind. and second. is twofold. Application blanks. Since a physical exam should be given only after a conditional offer of employment. The same guidelines hold true for Web-based or online applications. asking applicants for the year in which they graduated from high school can narrow down their age to within one or two years.about the same time. Nearly all application blanks ask for enough information to determine whether the individual is minimally qualified for the position. Thus. the more important the job. Care should be taken to ask only for information that will help the organization make a better job-related assessment of the applicant. the employee. This makes the selection process far more efficient. Although application blanks can he very useful selection tools.. For example. care must be taken that the application blank does not directl or indirectly violate federal or state laws related to employment discrimination. (2) the scope of an employment contract. Is it important to know in what year someone graduated. or disabilitie. Three of the more common clauses that now appear on application blanks and in employee handbooks cover (1) applicant’s rights as they relate to the organization’s hiring practices. Generally speaking. The purpose of the clauses. The legal subtleties of these clauses arc too complex to cover in detail at this time. application blanks can he a useful initial screening tool for jobs that require some type of professional certification (e. first. For example. and (3) (one of the newest) grievances: a statement indicating that the applicant. Some terms of these clauses appear in employee handbooks as well. natural origin. color.g. but examples of the wording currently h’ing used by organizations appear in Exhibit 8—3. second. especially information related to sex. Step I: Preliminary Screening The most common first step in any selection process usually involves asking an applicant to complete an application form. age. race. religion. regardless of where the’ appear. In this way.’9 The application blank should not he designed in a way that forces applicants to reveal irrelevant information about themselves.g. by reducing the number of applicants that need to be interviewed and. A BIB usually contains many more items than a . or simply that he or she graduated? Currently accepted application blanks also generally limit questions that imply something about the applicant’s physical health. communication skills) that is perhaps more difficult to obtain. or both agree to resolve all grievances against the organization through arbitration and mediation rather than through a lawsuit. personality.
For example. education. however. In accordance with this policy. A zero may be assigned for “no difference. modify. Mandatory Arbitration Clause By signing this application blank. without having to give cause or ustihcation to any cinpk)vee. BIB items are based on an assumption that these prior behaviors and experiences will he strongly related to an applicant’s future behavior. Recognition of these rights is a conditin of employment for anyone accepting a job offer from this company. your employment wi11 be corsidered “at will. It you are disabled and need reasonable forms of accommodation in order to complete this application blank or any other component ot the application process.. To develop the scoring system for a weighted application blank. Use of i:he responses to an item such as this assumes that people who preferred English will perform differently on a given job from people who preferred science or math. and general mental ability. color. you agree to abide by and perform any award rendered by the arbitrator(s). and the one with the highest score is the preferred choice. The next step will often be one or more interviews and/or additional employment testing. relevant Big Five personality constructs. You further agree that should you submit any controversy or claim to arbitration tinder this policy. Weights are assigned to the degree of difference on each characteristic. years of experience. sex. depends on its ability to differentiate the performance of good and poor workers on the job in question. and ±2 for a large difference.. a recent research study found that BIB items can account for incremental predictability of key performance variables bed that accounted for by incumbent experience on the job. they will he provided. Statement on Employment at Will If you are offered and accept employment with this companY. The weights are then totaled for each applicant. religion. national origin. an application form that is designed to be scored more systematically and is more like the BIB. . only the president of this compa ii y can a mend this policy. Any written or oral statements by an agent of this company that contradict these policies are invalid and should not be relied ott. suspend. high and low performers who currently work for the company are compared on a variety of characteristics (e.” It can therefore terminated at any time and For any reason not expressly ohihited by state or federal law at the discretion of the company. The company retains the right to change.g.11 For example. Recent research indicates that BIBs can help to predict job performance in certain instances. you agree that any controversy or claim arising out of or relating to your application and/or if you are offered and accept employment with this company. or disabi litv status except where there is a bona fde occupational qualihcation. age. Whether such an item should he included on a BIB. typical application blank and asks for information related to a much wider array of attitudes and experiences.THE NOT-SO-FINE PRINT OF MODERN APPLICATION BLANI Statement on Affirmative Action-Equal Employment Opportunity It is the policy of this company to afford all applicants the right to equal employment opportunities. a common BIB item asks applicants to list their favorite subjects in high school. and so on) that were known at the time they applied for a job. your employment contract or breach thereof shall he settled by arbitration administered by the American Arbitration Association in accordance with its applicable rules.” ±1 for a small difference. all vacancies will he llcd by qualied candidates without regard to race. or cancel any pokes or practice that pertains to your NKS employment without advance notice.2 Another ariarion to the traditional application blank is the weighted application blank. Applicants who are judged as minimally qualified on the basis of the application blank will then proceed to the next phase of the selectim process.
mat.25 An example of this type of interview question would be “Thinking back to your last job. an applicant for a pharmaceutical sales position might be asked “If one of the physicians in your sales territory asked you to provide supporting research and other documentation regarding the efficacy of a new drug. Questions are not prepared in advance.23 Because interviews are so widely used to select new employees. covering such topics as verbal-nonverbal behavior. the interviewer does not have a scoring protoLsol either.26 The second dimension along which interviews can vary is whether they focus on ast ex erience and behavior or on hypothetical future behavior. When used by some highly skilled interviewers. . in turn. Types of interviews Employment interviews vary along at least two important dimensions: how structured the interview is and whether it focuses on historical information about the applicant or attempts to place the applicant in hypothetical situations to assess how she or he might respond in the future. should lead to less differential impact on women and minorities25 and a better chance for the organization to successfully defend itself if it happens to be sued. they must maximize their potential for identifying qualified persons. In addition. the interview is definitely the selection technique host often encountered by persons applying for a job in the United States. BDIs are based on the assumption that the past is the best predictor of the future.sjtupional zyzterview (SI) also seeks to identify whether an applicant possesses relevant job knowledge and motivation. two types of structured interviews avee erd anZf lnepopulirity in the United States. asks applicants to relate actual incidents from their past relevant work experience to the job for which they are applying. ih iiirrviwrh sasi a thz1ist of questions to ask of all applicants. personality characteristics. will generally be more reliablid an unstructured mt rviëws. impression management. the topic of interviews has generated hundreds of research studies over the past 20 years. there is no attempt to guarantee that applicants are asked the same questions. 2002). the unstructured interview may lead to useful insights about an applicant. However. substantial research over the past 30 years indicates that structured interviews. a scoring form similar to the one shown in Exhibit 8—4 will be used by the interviewer for recording applicants’ responses.27 The first.29 For example. SI questions encourage applicants to respond to hypothetical situations they might encounter on the job for which they applied. interviewer-interviewee similarity. This. how would you go about finding that information?” Responses to this and other hypothetical questions are then scored according to their appropriateness for the job. An unstructured interview has no predetermined script or protocol. but it achieves this goal in a different manner. and preinrerview impressions (for a complete review.24 Duiing the st ied mTëT7tew. tell me about a time when you resolved a conflict with a customer?” Follow-up questions would include “What was the outcome?” and “How did you control your frustration?” The .22 Not surprisingly. In recent years. and (2) training managers to use the best available interviewing techniques. regardless of their specific for-. Two strategies for making the most out of an interview are (1) structuring the interview to be reliable and valid. and Campion. see Posthuma. Typically. These questions should have been generated with the aid of a thorough job analysis in order to identify specific types of information sought during the interview. Morgenson. The importance of structure in the interview is further underscored by the fact that standardization should lower the possibility that intentional or unintentional biases hel yr the interviewer will affect the outcomes of the process.Step 2: Employment Interview Other than application blanks. the behavioral description interview (BDI).
C H.ro ________ 19_._.S. _______________ The Age I >iscrlmination in the Enipli...Hos/ closely does (or did) he/she supervise you? What authority do (or did) you have? ______________________________________________ Number of people you supervised What did they do? _______________________________________________ Is applicant a leader? Responsibility for policy formulation Has applicant had managemetit responsibility? To whar e*rent could you use initiative and judgment? Did applicant actively seek responsibility? Rating [jj Comments: In inak cog final rating. --— Interviewer: job considered for: . A P T E R 8 Selection 2 3 I .I’ Acts prohibit discrimination with respect to individuals whc... branch _______________________________ Date _____________ 19 — to ___________ 19 — (Not to be asked in Nc’sv jerses I ______________ 19__. self-reliance._. Iovalt. why nor? ______ Were you hospitalized in the service? Are you drawing compensation? Yes. Sal-aty at leaving Host much responsibility has applicant had? Any indication iii a mhiiioit? Superior Title ___________________ What is he/she like? _____________________________________________________ Did applicant get along with superior? . IAST OR PRESENT POSITION Company From _________ 19 ______ to ___________ 19 _____ How was job obtained? ____________________________________________ Whom did you know there? — ____________________________________ Has a pplicanr shown self—reliance in getting ribs? Nature of wnrk at start __________________________________________________________________ . < ti iM . leadership. If nor. security. industry. ahili tv to get a long with others.. ni.itnrits nod niotivation. Starring salary Will applicant’s previiius experience be helpful on this job? In what way did the job change? i-las applicant made good work progress? Narur of work at leaving --___________________________________ . .1 EXHIBIT 8-4. No_ Are you einploed now? YesD NoD (11 yes) How soon available? ______________________________________ ‘OChar are relationshirs with present employer? Why are you applying for this position? Is his/her underlying reason a desire for prestige. .vmcnr Act and relevant [1. Cover isil positions. dii nit also his/her sialiilitv.. This information is very important.? Yes.. Experience in Armed Forces should be covered as a job (in New Jersey exclude military questions). are at least 4)) but less than 65 rears oi age.. Every month since leaving school should he accounted for.. Present address .0] STRUCTURED EMPLOYMENT INTERVIEW FORM—EXECUTIVE POSITION Date ______________________________ 19 — Name ______________________________________________________ Date of birth _______________________________ Phone no. or earnings? WORK EXPERIENCE.._.City State _____________ How long there? ___________________ Were you in the Armed Fortes of the U. be sore to consider tilt unIv what the applicant can perseveranc i-. Interviewer should record last position first.
pp. such as superior (leniency error). Step 3: Employment Tests A technique that some organizations use to aid their selection decisions is the employment test. Copyright © 1998 by The Dryden Press. ‘° However.edu. 10. Source: Robert D. Being influenced 1w the nonverbal behavior of applicants.’2 Training can provide managers with a better understanding of how to ask questions. there have been significant concerns that interviewers may differ considerably in their accuracy. Inability to put the interviewee at ease during the interview. the University of Houston’s psychology department has sponsored the 1n tervierping Institute. This appears to be especially true when the training is used in conjunction with a structured interview format. Inconsistency in the questions used with applicants. 8. Moreover. validity can he enhanced. and the potential for bias always exists. 5. For years. the research findings on situational interviews indicate that questions about past experience have higher validity than the future-oriented hypothetical questions. TX: Dryden). recent evidence suggests that when a trained interviewer takes behaviorally oriented notes during the interview. 6. Excessive talking by the interviewer that limits the amount of job-related information obtained from interviewees. 4. which results in hasty decisions. Generally speaking. Exhibit 8—5 summarizes many of the problems that might limit the accui acy of a typical interview. 2. Gotewood and Hubert S. 7. Allowing one or two either good or bad characteristics of an applicant to influence the evaluation of all other characteristics (halo effect). reprinted by permission of the publisher. and to some extent how to he aware of potential biases. or poor (stringency error). Human Resource Selection. which results in different types of information being gathered from each applicant. 4th ed. An employment test is a mechanism Icither a paper-and-pencil test or . (Fort Worth. 11. Rating many applicants the same in evaluations. ()verall. Favorably evaluating an applicant because he or she is similar to the interviewer in some way (similar—to—me error). I Training for interviewing Despite recent optimism about the validity of employment interviews. Making an evaluation of the applicant within the first minutes of the interview (first impression error).1. 494—495. Feud (1998). which offers public workshops in all aspects of employment interviewing. Allowing the quality of the applicants who preceded the present applicant to influence the ratings of the present applicant (contrast effect). Errors such as these have been the focus of many training programs for inturvieweis. Overconfidence in the interviewer’s ahiliry to evaluate applicants. futureoriented questions can also be useful if used properly.3’ For the past 20 years. 9. making it difficult to gather spontaneous or follow-up information. many questions about their effectiveness remain unanswered. average (central tendency error). For more information. properly designed training programs do seem capable of reducing many of the errors found in traditional unstructured interviews. how to properly record applicants’ responses. Stereotyping applicants and allowing personal bias to influence evaluations. 3. address e—mail to PsychService@uh. since the interview relies so heavily on personal judgments. Asking questions that are either unrelated or only slightly related to performance on the job. however. 12.
ztempsto measure certain characteristics of individu. research suggests that contrary to a perception that applicants avoid applylug for jobs that involve extensive testing. The validat n process becomes even more expensive if questions of discrimination arise. the size and quality of applicant populations. the complexity and difficulty of the job. Examples of performance tests include: rogra mm ing test for computer program mers. However. In the following sections. In adJition. • Auditions used by a symphony orchestra or ballet company. Anyone interested in selecting a test for use in personnel selection can begin with the Mental Measurezents Yearbook. For this reason alone. Over a large number of selection situations. validation studies are expensive if they are conducted properly. • Standard driving course for delivery persons. who must dispense with them as she or he would if the work were real. There are literally hundreds of published tests from which to choose. additional costs are associated with using tests in selection. Job sample performance tests A job sample performance test requires the applicant actually do a sample of the work that the job involves in a controlled situation. abilities. • Simulated “in basket” tests for managers. and of course the knowledge. or spreadsheet applications problems for secretarial and clerical help. word processing. for this relationship to actually \it. including the budgetary contraints of the organization. to intelligence to personality. irs. skills. and ither characteristics required by the job.•4 which summarizes many of the tests and includes a brief evaluation of their effectiveness. 1any more than pay for themselves through increased efficiency in selection. several of the ire common categories of selection tests will be described. ese charactciistics range from tidssiJchas manual dexterity. job sample performance tests have .\pplicants are frequently asked to run the machines they would run if they got the oh. A standardized set of memos. However. Variations of these job sample performance tests are used in many organizations. The type of test that is ultimately used will depend on a number of factors. Regardless of whether an organization develops its own test or purchases an existing one. Various kinds of tests can be used for selecting employees. and Sc) Ofl. the organization is expected to validate its selection devices separately for members of majority and minority groups. applicant withdrawal from any given Seection system is unrelated to the presence of testing. Then the quantity and quality of their work are systematically graded and compared with the work of other applicants.‘onstrated some of the highest validities of all selection tests.C H A P T E R 8 Selection a simulation e 4it—. Care must . many employers purchase existing tests from a variety of sources. the Content of the pub must he well documented through job analyses. Any of these devices should he validated before it is actually used to make hiring decisions. It can be very expensive to develop a test to measure these kinds of characteristics. . The presumed superitv of these tests wer other types of selection tools lies in their direct and obvious relationship with performance on the job. In su nstances. • Standardized typing. Despite the potentially staggering costs associated with employment tests. requests. is given to the applicant. and some of the more useful tests cost as little as $1 per applicant..
verbal.) California Test of Mental Maturity (adult level) This is a test of mental ability administered to groups and scored by machine. Sometimes a test that appears to have no logical relationship to a particular job may prove to he a valid predictor of performance on that job. Scores are developed from a series of short testS on spatial relationships. object assembly. New York. Perhaps the two best known cognitive abilities are math and verbal. All rights reserved. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale The Wechsler is a comprehensive paper-and-pencil test of 14 sections grouped into two scores. and similar items. vocabulary. The verbal score includes general information. These form the basis for tests such as the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) and the Graduate Record Examination (GRE).Source: Reproduced by permtssion. Wonderlic Personnel Test The Wonderlic uses a variety of perceptual. and arithmetical items that provide a total score. The performance score includes picture completion. Still other tests that measure these abilities were developed for use in other areas of psychology but now have been successfully adapted to selection. NY. Copyright I 941 renewed 1969 by The Psychological Corporation. and multiple aptitude tests. researchers have identified a large number of specific mental abilities for which selection tests are now available. be taken not to confuse face validity with actual validity. Cognitive ability tests Over the years. arithmetic. (Other well-known tests include the Differential Aptitude Test. Ivlany tests that are valid also look valid. logic and reasoning. . Face validity is how good a test looks for a given situation. picture arrangement. and other items. verbal concepts. Verbal and math abilities are also measured by a variety of tests developed specifically for use in human resource selection. job sample tests are a proven method of selection in many organizations. similarities. Nonetheless. numerical reasoning. hut that is not always the case. the SRA Primary Mental Abilities Test. to name two.
An architect or draftsperson must be able to look at a set of blueprints and clearly know what the actual object (building. pilots must be able to quickly orient themselves even when they are flying other than straight and level with the groLind. This test requires applicants xo rapidly check numbers and names for accuracy. and others. Copyright I 933. and profiles are developed for analyzing performa nec. Tests of spatial relations have proved effective for these and certain other jobs. Similarly. NY All rights reserved. memory. house. renewed 1961 by The Psychological Corporation. especially in secretarial and clerical jobs. bndge. The scores are converted to IQ equivalents.Source: Reproduced by permission. Spatial relations refers to an ability to visualize things on paper as they might appear in actual three-dimensional space. Exhibit 8—6 shows an excerpt from a test called the Minnesota Paper Forni Board Test (MPFB). The ability to rapidly compare entries such as these is a good predictor of many types of job per formance. Clerical aptitude is still another cognitive ability that has proved useful in selecting people for a wide array of jobs. . which is a measure of spatial relations. For example. Exhibit 8—7 is the first page of the Minnesota Clerical Test. Other cognitive tests There are numerous other examples of cognitive tests that have used successfully in selection but may not be as well known as measures of verba and math ability or general intellectual ability. etc. New York.) will look like. one of the more popular measures of clerical aptitude.
Other paper-and-pencil inventories are the California Psychological Inventory. The examiner keeps a verbatim record of the responses. the Minnesota Counseling Inventory. The test involves 10 cards. the time taken to make the responses.They include choice reaction time. The reactions provide data Ofl which psychologists base their assessment and interpretation of a personality. and other incidental behavior. and nger dexterity. speed of limb movement. Personality inventories and temperament tests Potentially. One of these is the O’Connor Finger and Tweezer Dexterity Test (see Exhibit 8—8). emotional expressions. such as assembling radio or TV components and watches. and rhen plots these reactionS . These tests are used for positions with high manual requirements. some of the disappointing results previously obtained with personality inventories in selection could be attributed to a mismatch between the test and the situation in which it was being used. The person being tested picks up pins with the tweezer and row by row inserts them in the holes across the hoard with the hand normally used. on each of which is printed a bilateral symmetrical inkblot similar to that illustrated in Exhibit 8—9. Polygraph and honesty tests Another method currently used 1w some employers to rest employees is the polygraph. blood pressure. The stim1ii are purposely vague to reach unconscious aspects of the personality. not as direct as the se f-reporting inventory. they can show good validities. Then a trained interpreter analyzes the data and reaches conclusions about the pcrsonality patterns of the person being examined. The most frequently used inventory is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. A more optimistic picture of the value of personality inventories comes from efforts to specifically construct a measure for a particular job. utilizes projective techniques to present vague stimuli. The Rorschach Inkblot Test was rst described in 1921.3 A different approach. 6 When personality tests are constructed to measure work-related characteristics such as achievement_and ability. the least reliable of the employment tests are instruments that attempt to measure a person’s personality or temperament. Many tech niques are used. The person responding is asked to tell what he or she sees in the inkblot. pulse and skin response associated with sweating of palms. sometimes erroneously called a lie detcctoi: The polygraph is an instrument that records changes in breathing. That is. The most common are the Rorschach Inkblot Test and the ihematic Apperception Test. the Manifest Anxiety Scale. and the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule.
In recent years. It has been estimated that. it was reported that electrodermal measures correctly idenried 76 percent of participants with concealed knowledge. indicating that 24 percent of subjects were able to conceal information without detection.4 The two most common types of preemplovirwnt honesty tests are overt integrity tests and personality-based integrity . Finally. nearly 2 million polygraph tests had been administered each year by private employers in the United States. the polygraph had become an extremely popular selection tool by the mid-1980s. to indicate a response made under pressure. Estimates are that 5. However. In a recent quantitative review of polygraph tests. private employers whose business involves security and controlled substances are also allowed to continue’ using the polygraph.39 This popularity was understandable because on-the-job crime had increased tremendously. “Have you ever stolen from an employer?” Although originally developed for police work. it was estimated that dishonest employees cost employers about $65 billion per year in theft and other acts of dishonesty.42 Organizations searching for an alternative to the polygraph are increasingly turning to paper-and-pencil tests of honesty. The person being tested with a polygraph attached is asked a series of questions. There are concerns that it is an invasion of an applicant’s privacy and that its use can lead to self-incrimination. in fact. Thus. “Is your name Smith?” Then. Government agencies and certain contractors for the Department of Defense and the Department of Energy are exempt from the act.000 to 6. 4° Since a polygraph will cost only about $25. In addition.000 rms in the United States now use these during screening. to achieve a normal response. the mot serious question concerning the polygraph was whether it was. it is still legal to use the polygraph a hart of an ongoing investigation of dishonesty as long as the individual employee’s rights are safe-guarded. a reliable and valid method for predicting on-the-job dishonesty. the applicant may he asked. objections have been raised to the use of the polygraph in per •rne selection. Some are neutral. This legislation has made it illegal for most private organizations to use the polygraph as a selection device. it seems like a small investment to help reduce dishonesty in the workplace.4’ These concerns became serious enough that the federal government passed the Employee Polygraph Protection Act of 1988. which would be a violation of the Fifth Amendment to the Constitution. prior to 1988. others are stressful.on paper.
tions to he aware of a new problem which they are labeling “negligent referrals.44 Overt integrity tests ask more direct questions to assess dishonest behavior.y ere probably asked to provide a list of people whom the organization could contact to get information about you.46 several researchers have provided evidence that certain honesty tests have acceptable levels of validity and reliability. or family members).’ If an organization is aware of important negative information about a former emplo) cc and fails to reveal this information during an inquiry by a prospective employer. help to protect the rights of individuals with disabilities who . and giving a negative recommendation opens the reference up to a defamation lawsuit.4 Step 4: Reference Checks and Recommendations If you h ev ppliedf?ajF. On the other hand. These requirements do not mean that an organization must hire an individual with a disability if that person cannot perform the job. you provided the organization with a list of people who you believed would generally speak favorably about you. Equally important. Many argue that they will seldom provide an organization with meaningful information about applicants. this study reported that lob candidate scores on honesty tests could also he used to predict future supervisory ratings of job performance.45 Most reasonable people would agree that managers should not be allowed to lie about a former employee or to be malicious while providing reference information. in fact. Giving out confidential information about a former employee could he construed as a violation of the employee’s right to privacy. These references might have been work-related (such as a former supervisor or co-worker).”4 At the present time. too new to determine whether they will he effective. This built-in bias in favor of the applicant is precisely the reason that general references have often been criticized as sources of useful information. when given the opportunity. managers are instructed to give out only verifiable kinds of information such as dates of employment and job title. For example. it might find itself in “legal hot water. however. However.tests.50 Most of these laws are. however. Under these circumstances. Employment attorneys are cautioning organi7a. not all references can be positive. Step 5: Physical Examinations Careful adherence to the Americans with Disabilities Act indicates that physical examinations can he used to screen out unqualied individuals hut generally should be required only after a conditional offer of employment has been made. job-related information about their employees. or they might have been personal (such as friends.. They do. clergy. to the extent that you could. In army event. however. personality. and managers should not have to fear being sued simply for being honest about a former employee.e. In either case. the legal status sur rounding referencechecking and providing recommendations is just not clear at all. all individuals who arc conditionally offered employment should he required to have one. if an organization is going to use such examinations. it is almost certain that references will be of little or no value to the hiring organization except as a check on the accuracy of information contained on the application blank. Organizations must also he wary of any policy which suggests that all references should he neutral in nature. Rarely. he or she is not). Perhaps because references have become such dangerous business. a job candidate is incorrectly classified as a potential thief when. are genuine concerns over the legality of asking for and providing such information. and absenteeism.4 Although some critics believe that preemployment honesty tests generate an unacceptable level of false positive results (i. disciplinary problems. as well as gather a history of theft and other illegal activities. In comparison. The trend in this direction has also caused orgaruzations to include explicit statements in their employee handbooks about corporate policies on checking references. a comprehensive meta-analysis on over a half million subjects reported that honesty tests are valid for predicting counterproductive behaviors on the job such as theft. at least 32 states have passed laws that give managers some immunity from being sued for providing good-faith.based integrity tests aftempt to assess an individual’s predisposition toward deviant and disruptive behavior. Tn addition. fears of being sited have led many managers to refuse to provide references for former employees. does someone knowingly include the name of a reference who will give a negative impression to the new organization. Rather than risk a lawsuit.
. A recent survey by the American Management Association indicates. nonthreatening manner. that approximately 80 percent of American corporations are now using drug tests. Thus.2 Moreover. Also.55 the costs to business are staggering. be legal. Department of Labor. • Establish a high-quality control testing procedure with a reliable testing laboratory. corporations 500 million lost work days each year. More than one in three workers between the ages of 18 and 25 are hinge drinkers (i.S. However. In the former case. although many organizational programs have withstood challenges in court. the best guess is that most good-faith drug testing programs will he legally acceptable if the s organization has taken steps to: • Inform all job applicants of the organization’s drug-resting screening program. a significant drug user are more severe than those of a false positive on other types of majority of selection tests—a math test.8 million illicit drug users in the United States and three-quarters of these persons are employed either full. for example. Why is there such a strong emphasis on alcohol and substance abuse in the workplace? Consider the following statistics compiled from a number of sources by the U.A note on drug testing Perhaps no other selection practice elicits a more emotional reaction than an organizational drug-testing program. . S4 Coupled with estimated losses of $120 billion annually attributable to drug abuse. the Department of Transportation mandates both drug and alcohol testing for virtually all employers ‘ho have truck and delivery drivers with commercial licenses.or part-time. • Keep all results confidential. there is a potential for the test to yield a questionably high number of false positives— HRMEMO In a recent Gallup poll the test indicates that the applicant is using illegal drugs when in reality he or commissioned by the she is not. More than 14 percent of employed Americans report being heavy drinkers. in fact. The reliability of drug tests is. however. Alcohol abuse costs U.S. the legality of drug-testing programs has not been universally established. five or more drinks on one occasion). • Perform any drug tests in a professional. First.e. the implication is simply that the applicant has more math ability than he or she has in reality. a major concern. for at least two reasons. even when a particular drug test is deemed very accurate if typical em •ymen test standards are applied. in the latter case. it is not possible to determine whether any particular drug-testing program that doesn’t fall under a federal mandate will. the personal consequences of heing falsely labeled as a Institute for a Drug-Free Workplace.56 Second. It is estimated that there are 14. the imPlication is Americans supported drug that the applicant has broken the law. however.
American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T) introduced the assessment center to the world of business in the 1950s. including several interviews. (Raters observe problem-solving ability. (Raters observe factnding skills. The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) in the United States began to use it in the mid-1940s. and how information is used. Others.’8 Exhibit 8—10 presents briefly a typical 21/2 day assessment center schedule. organizations frequently expend more time. are used with a wide ass&trnent of jobs and occupations ranging from blue-collar to managerial positions. interaction skills. the type of employee being hired. problem-solving skill. a rid propensity for taking risks. Individual case analysis and presentation.assessment centers are similar in a number of areas: 1. .) B.) B. (Raters observe condence. (Raters observe empathy.DAY I A. because of the costs associated with a had decision and the complexities of managerial work. Individual and group activities are observed and evaluated. for example) are common to most occupations. objective testing.) E.000 prospective and current employees. (Peer evaluations. (Raters observe leadership ability and ability to work in a group. Since 1956. projective testing. (Raters observe planning ability. and money hiring middle. Multiple methods of assessment are used—interviewing. and communicatIon skills. and career plans. 2. Small-group discussion of case incidents. decisionmaking flexibility. ability to react. (Raters observe decision making under stress. work samples and simulations. Role-playing of performance evaluation interview. counseling skills. The assessment center was first used by the German military in World War II.7 An assessment center uses a wide array of methods. Psychological testing— Measure verbal and numerical skills. Many of the techniques that have been discussed in this chapter (the interview. understanding of problem—solving procedures.) DAY 2 A.to upper-level executives than they spend hiring for positions lower on the organizational chart. ability to handle questions. Interview with raters. Most. method of preparation.) C. games. such as cognitive ability testing. motivation. B.) DAY 3 A. In-basket exercise. and many kinds of paper-and-pencil tests of abilities and attitudes. Group problem solving. role-playing. Break up into groups of four or six to play management simulation game. and ability to delegate. memory. One of the best-known multiple selection methods used for these purposes is the assessment center. Evaluation of other ratees. I).) D. and other methods. organizing al)ility. conimunication ability. persuasiveness. Individual decision—making exercise—Ratees are asked to make a decision about Sonic problem that must be solved. effort.) The particular types of employment tests that are used in an organization vary with. Orientation of approximately 12 ratees. AT&T has used assessment centers to evaluate more than 200. (Ratees discuss goals. However.) C. Groups of approximately 12 individuals are evaluated.
I)irect costs include such things as the price of the tests. resistance to stress. Utility refers to the degree to which using a selection system improves the quality of the individuals being selected by the organization. an analysis of the costs versus the benefits ot selection requires estimates of the direct and indirect costs associated with the selection systeni. Assessment centers are relevant to the job. As a result of assessees participating as part of a group and as individuals. Once an organization has made a commitment to investigate what types of selection devices it will use. completing exercises. be consultants or outsiders trained to conduct assessments. Statistical utility is the extent to which a COST-BENEFIT selection technique allows an organization to better predict who will he successful.dity of individuals. the salary paid to an interviewer. ANALYSIS FOR Organizational utilit) which is dependent. decisiveness. on statistical utility. a large part of the answer to this question involves the utility of the selection process. • How individuals function in a group.60 erefore. Overall. the assessors have a large volume of data on each individual. In other words. usually by one or more members of the assessment team. they are frequently not the technique of choice even for organizations that have the resources to utilize them. poise. flexibility. 4. such as organizational and planning ability. . the assessment center report permits the organization to make a number of determinations about human resources: • Qualifications of individuals for particular positions. Assessors are usually a panel of line managers from the organization. and tests. The raters’ judgments are consolidated and developed into a final report. well-designed assessment centers are a relatively expensive way to hire managers. Generally speaking. interviews. and personal styles. is a matter of THE SELECTION costs and benefits. They can. Ultimately. Generally speaking. • How good assessors are in observing. Individuals are then evaluated on a number of dimensions. rnoreover. Because it is an integrated attempt to measure a variety of characteristics of anagers. and reporting on the performance of others (assessees).6’ Utility has two related components. they are not a reasonable alternative for many smaller organizat’ions. As such. Portions of the individual reports are fed back to each assessee. • Promotal.3. there are circumstances in which less costly and less admin tratively complicated techniques are just as effective in managerial selection. • Type of training and development needed to improve behaviors of individuals. in part. Each assessee’s performance in the center can he described if the organization wants this type of report. it must attempt to evaluate whether its eftorts will he worthwhile. and thus have high appeal because of this relevance. . however. the results of research on assessment centers have indicated that they are a valid way to select rnanagers9—hut they are not without disadvantages. evaluating. answering the question whether the selection DECISION system should he developed arid used is ultimately an issue of whether it saves the organization more money than it costs.
reduced absenteeism. but two of the most important are the current CEO and his or her relationship with the company’s board of directors. The Economist. Much of his success is credited to dramatic shifts in strategic thinking. Robert Parrino.’Top Management Successions: The Choice between Internal and External Sources. 45—59. In 1984 only I percent of Disney’s income came from movies and only 9 percent from overseas markets. 1995). pp. 1ut valid selection procedures can yield enormou benefits.Today.The outsider is expected to bring a fresh perspective and be willing to question everything and anything about the organization’s past way of doing business. all bets are off. qualitatively different from most other forms of selection. Then. Imagine the costs associated with a single wrong hiring decisioii when airlines are selecting pilots. lower accident rates. Sonietiiiws. Indirect Costs include changes in public image associated with implementing procedures such as drug testing.” Fortune. As it happened. Noel Tichy (Summer 1996).HR JOURNAL CEO SELECTION: SUCCESSION PLANNING AND THE CRYSTAL BALL Corporations differ in terms of their preference for hiring replacement managers from within their own ranks or from outside the organization. The selection process for a new CEO is. As the story goes. Pilot errors can cost the company millions . and Teresa Trapani (September 1996). 61—62: David Jackson and Richard Corliss (February 2001). therefore. The choice of an organization’s highest ranking manager depends on many factors. 103—117. Eisner hurriedly made a list of possible successors and handed it to his wife minutes before he was supposed to undergo risky heart surgery. of course. Borokhovich. Research suggests that an outsider will be appointed CEO more often when there is a high percentage of outside directors on the board. pp.4 billion today.” Ibor. These savings can COIiiC from improved outcomes such as higher levels of quality or quantity of output.”Simultaneous Transformation and CEO Succession: Key to Global Competitiveness. pp. there is CEO succession in the Magic Kingdom.Why are outsiders seen as the salvation of a dying organization? Current thinking suggests that outsiders have not been “brainwashed” by a corporate culture that apparently needs to be changed. the list was unnecessary and he has never revealed its contents. Sources: “Disney or Doesn’t H& Face Value’ (January 2002). pp. Outsiders also become the leading candidates in organizations that intend to delegate more power to their CEOs. and overseas income accounts for 23 percent. and less turnover. Outside Directors and CEO Selection. 43 percent comes from movies.sic question depends on many factors.’ Journal of Financial and QuantitativeAnalysis. and the equipment used in a work sample test. however. outsiders are often asked to infuse an organization with new direction and leadership when the company is facing a financial disaster.Yet people generally agree that the right choice for CEO may never have been more critical to a corporatior’s success than it will be in the global marketplace of the next century. It is potentially influenced far more by political dynamics and idiosyncratic characteristics of the current CEO and the board of directors. “How to Build a Better Mousetrap:’ Time.”Eisner Explains Everything. 44—68: Beni Lauterbach and Jacob Weisberg (1996). 337—355:John Huey (April 7. The organization must also estimate how much money it will save 1w hiring more qualified employees using the selection system.” Organizational Dynamics. they wonder whether it will ever have henefirs The answer to this ha . when an organization’s managers see how costly systematic selecti ofl can be. pp.When it comes to picking a new CEO. Interestingly. especiall’ in situations where the direct and indirect costs of hiring a poor performer are high. Michael Eisner is the CEO of Disney who took over a $2 billion company in 1984 and has helped make it worth more than $25. 40—42: Kenneth A. pp.
• Managers: screening interview. tests. tests. Clark himself hired the professionals. of Since there were few cle choices among professional. application blank. Clerical: screening interview. reference check. and interviews for marginal applicants. tests. tests. application blank. reference check. he would use the following selection process. • Professional and technical: screening interview. • Managers: screening interview.ale . interview. different jobs. • Semiskilled: screening interview. While these groups were being hired. he would use the following selection process. interview. an HR specialist administered the tests to the clerical employees and supervised the reference checks for the managers and professionals. tests. application blank. Professional and technical: screening interview. and interviews for marginal applicants. interview. While these groups were being hired. Clark and Ed hired the managers. • Skilled: screening interview. application blank. application blank.A similar th process was used to hire for the semiskilled employees.so qualified semiskilled sp employees. application blank. Clark and Ed hired the managers. Clark las hired the clearly well. interview. and interviews for marginal ) applicants. Then Clark and the HR fl specialist administered the w tests to skilled and bu semiskilled employees. tests. interview. an HR specialist administered the tests to the clerical employees and supervised the reference checks for the managers and professionals. application blank. • Semiskilled: screening interview. application blank.The HR specialist hired the clerical employees with help from the managers and professionals for the clerical personnel who were to be under their direct supervision. Candidates bu received a review and were co interviewed by the ga managers to whom they ne would report. • Clerical: screening interview. application blank. refrrence check. Clark himself hired the professionals. and interviews for marginal applicants. except in ap marginal cases.different jobs. reference check. application blank.The HR specialist hired the clerical employees with help from the managers and professionals for the clerical personnel who were to be under their direct supervision. • Skilled: screening interview. interview.
Clark and Ed had ne no trouble agreeing on 20 managerial candidates.technical and skilled co employees. In the end.The home office gave him half of what he needed. All were qualified. whereas Ed rec wanted more Chicago wa people that he knew. Ed There were also qu pr’oblems in the skilled dis professional categories. api Several problems cat developed. Clark adj felt he had found better am candidates. . they po compromised. Clark appealed for a bigger budget. Ed gave up co half his choices to Clark. In sum. less than he could have and less than Lois wanted. Clark alerted Ed to the probable competence problem. it was more prc efficient not to involve the de new managers. Loi and Clark did likewise. He had to generate the other half by paying less for the bottom 20 percent of the semiskilled and clerical employees. promising that he’d begin developing a list of qualified applicants in these categories in case they were needed. on time. Clark hired the people needed within the adjusted budget. No reverse discrimination took place. These people generally wanted more pay than the budget called for. and generally with the required specifications. He was able to make a contribution to equal employment opportunity objectives by hiring somewhat more minorities and women than the total population. And the last 20 percent hired were somewhat below minimal specifications. given these conditions.Among coi Clark’s choices were many em more qualified minority and obj female managerial 501 candidates than Ed wanted am to accept. But pe in 18 additional cases. but more than Ed wanted.
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