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Tim Huggins is the new director of human resources of Sprowl Manufacturing, a division of the MBTI Corporation. Tim wanted to start a job analysis program immediately. Six weeks after he took over; job analysis questionnaires (six pages each) were given to employees. The results were puzzling. Responses from e the operating employees (machinists, lift operators, technicians, draftspeople, and mechanics) were quite different from responses from their supervisors about these jobs. The fact that supervisors viewed the jobs differently from those doing the work fueled Tim’s desire to do a job analysis. He wanted to study and specifically define the jobs so that misunderstandings, arguments, and false expectations could be kept to a minimum. The supervisors listed job duties as simple and routine. The operating employees disagreed and claimed that their jobs were complicated and constrained by limited resources.They complained ‘ that work areas were hot, stuffy, and uncomfortable. These disagreements soon E became the basis for some a open hostility between supervisors and workers. Finally, Nick Mannis, machinist, confronted a supervisor, Rog Wilkes, and threatened to punch him over the “lies” Rog and other supervisors had concocted in the job analysis. Tim was worried that the job analysis program was getting totally out of hand. He had to do something about it. Everyone was getting up in arms over a program Tim felt was necessary. Should a manager like Tim, who knows a lot about HRM, but who was not trained in the specifics of job analysis, undertake this kind of program?
Organizations have evolved because the overall mission and objectives of most institutions are too large for any single person to accomplish. Consequently, the organization must have a systematic way to determine which employees are expected to perform a particular function or task that must he accomplished. The cornerstone of the organization is, therefore, the set of jobs performed by its employees. These jobs, in turn, provide the mechanism for coordinating and linking the various activities of the organization that are necessary for success. As a result, studying and understanding jobs through the process known as job analysis is a vital part of any HRM program. job analysis provides answers to questions such as these: How much time is taken to complete important tasks? Which tasks are grouped together and considered a job? How can a job be designed or structured so that the employee’s performance can he enhanced? What kinds of behaviors are needed to perform the job? What kind of person (in terms of traits and experience) is best suited for the job? How can the information acquired by a job analysis be used in the development of HRM programs? This chapter claries the contributions made by job analysis to an organization’s HRM program and specific activities. Furthermore, the careful planning needed and the various techniques of a ob analysis program are highlighted. Finally,
the importance of job analysis in the design of jobs is discussed. The chapter shows that job analysis is a necessary part of HRM and in many respects is the foundation upon which all other 1-IRM activities must he constructed. As can be seen in the diagnostic model (see Exhibit 6—1), the nature of the work to be performed is one of the fundamental inputs into all major HRM functions. This is another way of saying that how workers’ responsibilities and duties are segmented helps to shape and determine virtually all other facets of organizational functioning. As such, understanding exactly what constitutes any particular job is critical to developing HRM activities that support the organization’s mission. Before considering the process and techniques involved in job analysis, on should THE VOCABULARY learn the language of job analysis. Although many of these terms are often used OF JOP ANALYSIS interchangeably by people who are unfamiliar with job analysis, the expert will Use them more precisely in order to avoid confusion and misinterpretation. Precision in the use of these terms is, in fact, required by federal and state legislation. it is therefore important for the HR manager to use each of them in a way that is consistent with such legislation.
The following definitions are consistent with those provided by the U.S. Employment Service and the U.S. Office of Personnel Management:2 Job analysis. A purposeful, systematic process for collecting information on the important work-related aspects of a job.3 Job description. The principal product of a job analysis. It represents a written summary of the job as an identifiable organizational unit. Job specification. A written explanation of the knowledge, skills, abilities, traits, and other characteristics (KSAOs) necessary for effective performance on a given job. Tasks. Coordinated and aggregated series of work elements used to produce an output (e.g., a unit of production or service to a client). Position. Consists of the responsibilities and duties performed by an individual. There are as many positions in an organization as there are employees. Job. Group of positions that are similar in their duties, such as computer programmer or compensation specialist Job family. Group of two or more jobs that have similar duties. THE STEPS IN The 1ob analysis process involves a number of steps, which are outlined in Exhibit JOP ANALYSIS 6—2. As it appears in the exhibit, the process assumes that the job analysis is being conducted in an ongoing organization; in other words, an organization that is already in operation as opposed to a new venture. Step I provides a broad view of how each job fits into the total fabric of the organization. Organization charts and process charts (discussed later) are used to complete step I. Step 2 encourages those involved to determihe how the job analysis and job design information will be used. This step is further explained in the next section. Since it is usually too costly and time-consuming to analyze every job, a representative sample of jobs needs to be selected. In step 3, jobs that are to he analyzed are selected. Step 4 involves the use of acceptable job analysis techniques. The techniques are used to collect data on the characteristics of the job, the required behaviors, and the characteristics an employee needs to perform the job. The information collected in step 4 is then used in step 5 to develop a job description. Next, in step 6, a job specification is prepared. The knowledge and data collected in steps 1 through 6 are used as the foundation for virtually every other HRM activity. As shown in Exhibit 6—2, these include activities such as recruitment, selection, training, performance evaluation, and compensation. The information gathered during job analysis is essential to each of these. As is also shown in the exhibit, the information gathered is used in job design and redesign, which are discussed in detail later in this chapter. Job analysis provides information necessary for organizing work in ways that allow employees to he both productive and satisfied. Finally, information from job analysis can be used in an organization’s follow—up evaluations of its job design. At this step, it is important for an organization to evaluate its efforts and determine whether the goals of productivity and satisfaction are in fact being achieved.
it must clearly determine which KSAOs are important for each job duty. 2. It is used extensively in each of the following areas: . job analysis is closely tied to HRM programs and activities. The frequency and importance of task behaviors should be assessed. That is. including the Civil Rights Act of 1991 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. clear job description. It must allow for an accurate assessment of the knowledge. The quality of job analysis conducted by an organization is frequently a primary determinant of whether it has acted properly. In addition to helping organizations satisfy their legal requirements. a good job analysis must provide the following if it is to be viewed favorably: 1. 3. and managers in general know that job analysis has manyJOP ANALYSIS T uses. On the basis of these court decisions. skills. The UGESP emphasizes that job analysis should be used when validating or assessing the accuracy of organizational selection procedures. job analysis plays an important role in the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures (1978). It should yield a thorough. job analysis is critical to assessments of discrimination under most employment-related laws. Job analysis is linked with these discrimination laws through rulings from numerous Supreme Court decisions. Administrative guidelines accompanying various civil rights and EEO laws and judicial recommendations are clear. and other characteristics (KSAOs) required by the job. abilities. The question has become how to conduct a legally defensible job analysis rather than whether to conduct such an analysis at all. a set of policies designed to minimize or prevent workplace discrimination practices.5 In terms of staffing and selection activities.THE USES OF HR managers. 4. In addition. It must yield information about the relationship between job duties and these KSAOs. specialists. Some of these individuals now believe that there is no longer even a choice A about whether job analysis should be conducted.
If an organization has only an occasional need for job analysis information. train. compensate. WHO SHOULD The steps spelled out in Exhibit 6—2 suggest that care and planning are important features of CONDUCT THE any job analysis. controlling. selection testing must assess the most critical skills and abilities needed to perform a jo6. Effective job analysis can help organizations to change. aid the total organizational system. Each of these choices has strengths and weaknesses. the individuals should thoroughly understand people. Recruitment and selection. jobs. For example. Managers involved in virtually all aspects of planning. or utilize its human resources without the kinds of information derived from job analysis. Knowing the skills necessary for jobs is HRMEMO essential to building effective training programs. analyses. Compensation is usually tied to the duties and always be able to find responsibilities of a job. And. organizing. including the location and complexity of the jobs to be analyzed. how receptive incumbents might be to an external analyst. HR managers will 4. appraise. it may hire a temporary job analyst from outside. and directing in the organization also benefit from job analysis information. In addition. this objectivity might be difficult to achieve when incumbents conduct the job analysis. or otherwise restructure work and work flow processes to meet the changing demands of uncertain environments. Still other organizations will use supervisors. Moreover helping people to Line managers. But the value of job analysis doesn’t end with HRM. Compensation. Part of that planning should involve carefully choosing the people who will JOP ANALYSIS? conduct the analysis. may not 3. responsibilities. 2. It is. Other organizations will have job analysis experts employed full-time. On the other hand. It should be obvious from this list that the potential uses of job analysis cover the entire domain of HRM activities. job incumbents. job incumbents are a good source of information about what work is actually being done rather than what work is supposed to be done. managers are beginning to realize that need to convince line job analysis is another important tool in an organization’s overall strategic managers that their planning efforts. or some combination of these to collect job analysis information. and the ultimate intended purpose of the results of the analysis. Thus. busy with move efficiently from one career stage to another can only be accomplished with their day-to-day information from job analysis. This information comes from job analysis.1. the choice of who should analyze a job depends on many factors. job analysis information helps recruiters seek and find the right persons for the organization. Strategic planning. . eliminate. More and more. job analysis should describe the work activities of a job independent of any personal attributes of a given job incumbent. proper compensation demands accurate time to conduct job assessments of what various jobs entail.9 Regardless of who collects the information. involving incumbents in the job analysis process might increase their acceptance of any work changes stemming from the results of the analysis. Thus. difficult to imagine how an organization could effectively hire. Because incumbents tend to exaggerate the responsibilities and importance of their work. In cases like these. to hire the right person. They should also have considerable knowledge about how work is expected to flow within the organization. in fact. Training and career development. cooperation is critical.
HR JOURNAL REENGINEERING: THE STRATEGIC JOB ANALYSIS CHALLENGS A 1990 Harvard Business Review article entitled. Michael Hammer (July—August 1990). this overview will provide the job analyst with a better understanding of the flow of work through the organization. An organization chart presents the relationships among departments and units of the firm. A typical organizational chart will yield information about the number of vertical levels in the organization. Obliterate’ Harvard Business Review. the company was able to eliminate 100 unnecessary field office positions. Obliterate: introduced managers to the concept of reengineering. Typical turnaround time was between 5 and 25 days. “Reengineering Work: Don’t Automate. the world’s fourth largest automobile manufacturer with 2001 sales of U. 66—68.000 employees. pp. an overview of the organization and its jobs is USE OF required. Job analysis is likely to play an important role in this change process. To gain these useful insights about the structure and process of the organization. and the formal reporting relationships that exist.’ Management Today.” Nation’s & Business. Similar efforts to streamline operations and make bureaucracy more efficient and less cumbersome are promised by Toyota Motor Corporation. THE However. Heal Thyself. with most of the time spent passing the application between departments. the company created a new job titled case manager. units. “The New Business Agenda Strategy & Leadership. The line functions (the individuals performing the work duties) and staff functions (the advisers) are also spelled out.”Reen6gineering Work: Don’t Automate.$ 106 billion and 215. Mutual Benefit Life Insurance implemented a complete reengineering program several years ago. In response to this inefficiency. the heart of reengineering is the need for organizations to break away from their traditional rules about work and from the assumptions that underlie how that work is efficiently accomplished. and Fiction. Additionally. and jobs. In order to make this project a reality. pp. “Fads. A case manager became responsible for the entire application process for any given individual.This means that a single individual will be responsible for performing all aspects of a process rather than a limited subset of tasks. pp. Sources: Michael Hammer (November—December 2001). Specifically.500 Lexus and Toyota dealers and its 450 suppliers. . An overview provides the job analyst with an informed picture of the total arrangement CHARTS of departments. pp. Their job analyses indicated that the application process included 30 separate steps that spanned five different departments. The initiative focuses on creating and implementing a new global standard for manufacturing which will attempt to realize new synergies between the company’s IT and production systems. The reengineering doubled the volume work that was being completed. two types of charts are especially helpful.” Industry Week. 04--I 12. the company will need to redesign several existing jobs to support these new initiatives. “Toyota’s New Challenge. john Teresko (January 00 I). pp. 40—42. the number of different functional departments. The project will be aimed at Toyota’s North American parts supply network that includes 1. John Thackray (June 1993). Fixes. at the same time. David Warner (October I 993). “Bureaucracy. even before this selection is made. 71— 74. reengineering designs jobs around outcomes rather than tasks . According to its author.S. Michael Hammer. This requires a complete redesign of existing work into jobs that previously didn’t exist. 42—43. The job analyst has to select the best methods and procedures available to conduct the analysis.
the process chart shows the flow of activities and work necessary DATA to produce a desired product or service. The job analyst should probably try to get information from males and females. questionnaires. the job analyst should not assume that all incumbents and supervisors have the same amount of knowledge about a job. 1-Observation Direct observation is used for jobs that require manual. or negotiating). standardized. rather than simply showing the structural relationships among job titles (as iii a METHODS OF typical organizational chart). coordinating. and requirements. and short-job cycle activities. collects records about the job. some questions may not be answered or can’t be answered because the job incumbent doesn’t know the answer) are then used to specifically structure the data collection technique that will eventually be implemented. interview. Both of these orientations are acceptable under the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures as long as they identify job duties and behaviors that are critical to performing the job. In each of these methods. managers need to collect comparable. and high. job duties. Since time and cost are considerations. or incumbent diary or log.and low-performing incumbents (the research is mixed about whether there will he differences between them in terms of their view of the job). some form of core information is needed no matter what data collection method is used. shows how a specific set of jobs are related to each other.12 A professional job analyst typically conducts extensive interviews with incumbents and supervisors. The job analyst should not assume that all incumbents or their supervisors will view a job in the same way.A second type of chart. The four methods—or any combination of them—must focus on critical information. COLLECTION There are four basic methods. of collecting job analysis data—observation. A questionnaire called the job analysis information format (JAIF) can provide the basic core information for use with any job analysis method—observation. which can he used separately or in combination. interview. valid data. and job incumbent diaries or logs. This is important because research indicates that too little knowledge about a job can lead to inaccurate job descriptions.1° Thus. Job incumbents are asked to complete the JAIF. questionnaire. a job can be analyzed in terms of behaviors or what the job incumbent does to perform the job (such as computing. This type of job analysis is referred to as job. directly observes the job incumbents performing the job. the information about the job is collected and then the job is studied in terms of tasks completed by the job incumbent (person presently working on the job).oriented. A safeguard against developing a distorted picture of a job is for the job analyst to collect information from a variety of incumbents. in addition to the actual job analysis. Consequently. jobs performed by an inventory stockroom employee are examples of these. The job analyst must observe a representative sample of individuals performing these . On the other hand. older and younger workers. ‘ Finally. and. the process chart. if feasible. It permits the job analyst to collect information that provides a thorough picture of the job. Exhibit 6—3 presents a portion of one type of JAIE Differences among job incumbents should he considered during the analysis of JAIF information. These answers (of course. This is referred to as work-oriented job analysis.
EXHIBIT 6-3 JOB ANALYSIS INFORMATION FORMAT Your Job Title _______________________ Code _________________ Date__________________ Class Title _________________________ Department __________________________________ Your Name _________________________ Facility______________________________________ Supervisors Title _____________________ Prepared by __________________________________ superior s Name_____________________ Hours Worked _____ _________ to ________________ AM AM 1. What is the general purpose of your job? What was your last job? If it was in another organization, please name it. 3. To what job would you normally expect to be promoted? 4. II you regularly supervise others, list them by name and job title. 5. If you supervise others, please check those activities that are part of your supervisory duties: -Hiring -Orienting -Training -Scheduling -Developing -Coaching -Counseling -Budgeting -Directing -Disciplining -Measuring performance -Terminating -Promoting -Other ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ -Compensating
6. How would you describe the successful completion and results of your work? 7. Job Duties—Please briefly describe what you do and, if possible, how you do it. Indicate those duties you consider to be most important and/or most difficult. a. Daily duties— h. Periodic duties (please indicate whether weekly, monthly, quarterly, etc.)— c. Duties performed at irregular intervals— d. How long have you been performing these duties? e. Are you now performing unnecessary duties? If yes, please describe. f. Should you be performing duties not now included in your job? If yes, please describe.
EXHIBIT 6-3 CONCLUDED 8. Education. Please check the blank that indicates the educational requirements for the job, not your own educational background. a. ________ No formal education required b. _______ Less than high school diploma c. High school diploma or equivalent. d. _______ 2-year college certificate or equivalent. e. ______ 4-year college degree. F. _______ Education beyond undergraduate degree and/or professional license.
List advanced degrees or specific professional license or certificate required. Please indicate the education you had when you were placed on this job. 9. Experience. Please check the amount needed to perform your job. a. _______ None. b. ______ Less than one month. c. _______ One month to less than six months. d. ______ Six months to one year. e. _______ One to three years. f. ______ Three to five years. g. _______ Five to 10 years. h. ______ Over 10 years.
Please indicate the experience you had when you were placed on this job. 10. Skill. Please list any skills required in the performance of your job. (For example, degree of accuracy, alertness, precision in working with described tools, methods, systems, etc.) Please list skills you possessed when you were placed on this job. 11. Equipment. Does your work require the use of any equipment? Yes _____ No _____ If yes, please list the equipment and check whether you use it rarely, occasionally, or frequently. Equipment a. ________________ b. ________________ c. ________________ d. ________________ Rarely __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ Occasionally __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ Frequently __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________
jobs. Observation is usually not appropriate where the job involves significant mental activity, such as the work of a research scientist, a lawyer, or a mathematician. The observation technique requires that the job analyst be trained to observe relevant job behaviors. In conducting an observation, the job analyst must remain as unobtrusive as possible. He or she must stay out of the way so that the work can he performed. 2-1lnterviews Interviewing job incumbents is often done in combination with observation. Interviews are probably the technique used most widely in collecting data for job analysis. They permit the job analyst to talk face to face with job incumbents. The job incumbent can ask questions of the job analyst, and this interview serves as an opportunity for the analyst to explain how the knowledge and information gained from the job analysis will be used. Interviews can be conducted with a single job incumbent, with a group of individuals, or with a supervisor who is knowledgeable about the job. Usually a structured set of questions will be used in interviews so that answers from individuals or groups can be compared. Although interviews can yield useful job analysis information, an awareness of their potential limitations is also needed. Interviews are difficult to standardize—different interviewers may ask different questions and the same interviewer might unintentionally ask different questions of different respondents. There is also a real possibility that the information provided by the respondent will he unintentionally distorted by the interviewer. Finally, the costs of interviewing can he very high, especially if group interviews are not practical.16 3-uestionnaires The use of questionnaires is usually the least costly method for collecting information. It is an effective way to collect a large amount of information in a short period of time. The JAIF in Exhibit 6—3 is a structured questionnaire. It includes specific questions about the job, job requirements, working conditions, and equipment. A less structured, more open-ended approach would be to ask job incumbents to describe their job in their own terms. This open-ended format would permit job incumbents to use their own words and ideas to describe the job. The format and degree of structure that a questionnaire should have are debatable issues. Job analysts have their own personal preferences on this matter. There really is no best format for a questionnaire. However, here arc a few hints that will make the questionnaire easier to use: • • Keep it as short as possible—people do not generally like to complete forms. Explain what the questionnaire is being used for—’-people want to know why it must be completed. Tim Huggins (in this chapter’s Career Challenge) failed to explain his job analysis questionnaire. Employees wanted to know why the questions were being asked and how their responses would be used. Keep it simple—do not try to impress people with technical language. Use the simplest language to make a point or ask ‘a question. Test the questionnaire before using it—in order to improve the questionnaire, ask some job incumbents to complete it and to comment on its features. This test will permit the analyst to modify the format before using the questionnaire in final form.
it can provide good information about the job. and when the duties are accomplished. there is no general agreement about which methods of job analysis yield the best information. and other human characteristics (KSAOs) are needed to perform the job. If a diary or log is kept up to date. Three of the more popular quantitative techniques are functional job analysis. many organizations are turning to a multimethod job analysis approach. the various methods may not be interchangeable. at very least. or monthly basis can be made. these specific techniques can TECHNIQUES provide systematic and quantitative procedures that yield information about what job duties are being accomplished and what knowledge. Comparisons on a daily. the choice of a method is determined by circumstances such as the purpose of the analysis and time and budget constraints. abilities. They form the basis for construction of specific techniques that have gained popularity QUANTITAVE across many types of organizations.’7 In addition. . When they arc used properly. be relatively expensive and time-consuming. by incumbents at different geographic locations. Unfortunately. most organizations base their choice on their current needs. interviews should not be relied on as the sole data collection method. Finally. There might. This technique requires the job incumbent to keep a diary or log. weekly. scientists. it does offer one distinct advantage over any of the basic methods used alone: the quality of information derived from a more comprehensive approach is strongly endorsed by the courts in cases that rely on job analysis information. for example. Which Method to Use? Although any of these four basic methods can be used either alone or in combination. The diary or log is useful when attempting to analyze jobs that are difficult to observe. most individuals are not disciplined enough to keep such a diary or log. The four methods of data collection for job analysis just described were presented in general SPECIFIC terms. of course. Using a comprehensive process such as the multimethod job analysis approach will. frequency of the duties. skills. certain methods seem to be better suited to a given situation than other In the absence of a strong theoretical reason why one method should be superior to another. Many experts agree that. the job analyst first conducts interviews with incumbents and supervisors in conjunction with on-site observation. and senior executives. or by members of different departments. This permits an examination of the routineness or nonroutineness of job duties.4-Job Incumbent Diary or Log The diary or log is a recording by job incumbents of job duties. a task survey based on expert judgments is constructed and administered. the position analysis questionnaire. such as those performed by engineers. Since these four basic methods seem to have different strengths and weaknesses. Next. a statistical analysis of the responses to the task survey is conducted in order to assess their consistency and to identify any systematic variation in them. Regardless. and the management position description questionnaire. differences in how the job has been described need to be resolved so there is general agreement about its true nature.’9 In other words. be variation in the descriptions provided by incumbents and supervisors.2° In this approach. However.
factories. If someone is interested in a general description of a job. maps. waybilling. fishing. hunting. Forms pocket. and strikes glove pocket with fist while examining glove visually and tactually to ensure comfortable fit.S. ‘horseback riding. Negotiates with foreign shipping interests to contract for reciprocal freight-handling agreements. and radar to prepare reports and forecasts for public and other users: Studies and interprets synoptic reports. May visit workers’ homes to observe their housing and general living conditions and recommend improvements if necessary. such as camping. The first three digits of any one of these listings (for example. to resolve problems and arrive at mutual agreements. The DOT classifies these jobs by means of a nine-digit code. Pounds fingers and palm of glove with rubber mallet and hall-shaped hammer to smooth seams and bulges. Negotiators with domestic customers.) foreign agent. such as breeding. Baseball Glove (sports equip.EXHIBIT 6-4 025. sanitary facilities are adequate and in good order.117-014 Manager. first aid. and other industrial and commercial establishments: Arranges for physical examinations. publicity. May prepare reports of transactions to facilitate billing of shippers and foreign carriers. May contact customs officials to effect release of incoming freight and resolve customs delays. rneteorologist—025) specify the occupational code. and outings. The next three digits (062) designate the degree to which a job incumbent typically has responsibility for and judgment over data. Directs preparation and maintenance of financial records. lunchrooms. and air-pollution control. photographs. documentation. and educational courses. and livestock. recreational facilities. May direct forecasting services at weather station. Coordinates activities of international traffic division of import-export agency and negotiates settlements between foreign and DOT DESCRIPTION OF JOBS domestic shippers: Plans and directs flow of air and surface traffic moving to overseas destinations. Ensures that lighting is sufficient.).117-022 Import-Export Agent (any ind. mallets. and hammers: Pulls glove over heated hand-shaped form to open and stretch finger linings.22 which was the primary source used by the U. mules. Directs welfare activities for employees of stores. and prognostic charts to predict long. Employment Service for descriptive information about jobs.167-094 Manager. and things. and credit.) Ana1y and interprets meteorological data gathered by surface and upper-air stations. and industry. Issues hurricane and severe storm warnings. May establish and staff observation stations. the DOT serves as a good starting point. the greater the responsibility and judgment. May examine invoices and shipping manifests for conformity to tariff and customs regulations. Arranges for installation and operation of libraries. Functional job analysis Functional job analysis (FJA) is the cumulative result of approximately 50 years of research on analyzing and describing jobs. & rec. opens fingers. fire prevention. Current versions of the DOT use the basic descriptive language of FJA to describe more than 20. satellites. Organizes dances. inserts hand into glove. using heated forms. and collecting fees for shipments. & kin. as intermediary for foreign customers. & kin. May assist employees in the solution of personnel problems. 166. Supervises workers engaged in receiving and shipping freight. and showing horses.) steamer and shaper. Directs activities of DUDE WRANGIERS (amuse.062-010 Meteorologist (profess.and short-range weather conditions. The lower the numbers. Plans recreational and entertainment activities. It was originally conceived in the late 1940s and was developed as a mechanism for improving the classification of jobs contained in the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT). guest rates. Employee Welfare (profess. welfare. & rec. Directs other activities. and smoothes seams to shape baseball gloves. and form glove pocket. Removes glove from form.684-106 Shaper. people. agriculture. and dancing. Prepares special forecasts and briefings for those involved in air and sea transportation. May conduct basic or applied research in meteorology.) Directs operation of dude ranch: Formulates policy on advertising.000 jobs. Dude Ranch (amuse. The final three digits (010) re used to classify the alphabetical order of the job titles within the occupational group . entertainment. and other medical attention. assessing charges. and machinery safeguarded. 732. raising. 187. Exhibit 6—4 shows DOT descriptions of several jobs. manager.) employee-service officer. such as recommending day nurseries for their children and counseling them on personality frictions or emotional Maladjustments. Issues weather information to media and other users over teletype machine or telephone. title. 184.
.having the same degree of responsibility and judgment.2 DOT descriptions help a job analyst to begin learning what is involved in a particular job. FIA can then be used to elaborate and more thoroughly describe.
Answers trainees’ questions. Asks for larger budget from vice president of human resource department. n/a Structures job of assistant salesperson. Informs customer a bout product specifications. . Demonstrates how product works. n/a Evaluates learning of trainees. Counsels assistant salesperson on career issues. Defines and clarifies key concepts. Delivers requested programs. Sends product samples to customers. Bargains over price with customer. Sets a vision as to why development is important. Persuades trainees of importance of topic. Checks on and helps trainees posrprogram. Advises new trainer (in how to deliver a training program. Directs trainees to additional resources. Asks trainees for feedback.: Treating 5: Supervising 6: Negotiating 7: Mentoring 8: Leading Stays within assigned territory. Refers customer to production manager. Creates entertaining class environment.EXHIBIT 6-5 Worker function scale and examples from functional job analysis ( FJA ) Organizational Examples PEOPLE FUNCTIONS SCALE ENTRY-LEVEL SALEPERSON COMPANY TRAINER IA: Taking instructions—helping 1B: Serving 2: Exchanging information 3A: Sourcing information 3B: Persuading 3C: Coaching 3D: Directing 4A: Consulting 4B: Instructing 4(. Convinces customer to purchase product. Asks questions to assess needs of customers. Gives encouragement to new assistant salesperson. Teaches trainees new computer software. lightens mood with customer when appropriate. Models behavior for new salespeople.
as covered by item 7) Noie:Th. calipers. maps. shoe being resoled. job context. which are sources of information when being modified. drawings. etc. etc.. job instructions. such as items or materials in inventory. tire pressure gauges. machinery. radarscopes. pipettes. not in the process of being changed or modified. specifications.s shows II of the “information input” questions or elements.1 Visual Sources of Job Information 1 4 Written materials (books. bridges. signs. Other PAQ pages contain questions regarding mental processes. speedometers.1.. etc. reports.) 10 3 Features of nature (landscapes.) 4 1 Patterns/related devices (templates. tracings. etc. highways. and other “man-made” or altered aspects of the indoor and outdoor environment which are observed or inspected to provide job information. protractors.) 6 5 Measuring devices (rulers. photographic films. do not include here devices described in item S above) 7 4 Mechanical devices (tools. workpiece being turned in a lathe. machines. cloud formations. thickness gauges. or otherwise processed. used to obtain visual information about physical measurements.. etc. such as graphs. materials. office notes. that an individual uses in his or her work.. diagrams. eqöiprnent. storage. used as sources of information when observed during use. geological samples. for example. buildings. . docks. blueprints. worked on. vegetation. items being inspected.4 -C H A P T E R 6 Job Analysis and Design 169 . etc. tables of numbers.0] INFORMATION INPUT PORTIONS OF A COMPLETED PAGE INFORMATION INPUT Extent of Use (U) FROM THE POSITION ANALYSIS 1. accounts. objects. which are sources of information when being inspected. articles. etc. Source Position. etc. work output. fields. thermometers. etc. stencils.) 9 4 Materials not in process (parts. and other features of nature which are observed or inspected to provide information) 11 2 Man-made features of environment (structures. do not include here materials described in item 3 above) 5 2 Visual displays (dials. packaged. clocks. fabric being cut. relationships with others... do not consider equipment. etc. handled. and other job characteristics. or selected.) 3 1 Pictorial materials (pictures or picture like materials used as sources of information.) 2 2 Quantitative materials (materials which deal with quantities or amounts. x-ray films. and other mechanical devices which are sources of information when observed during use oroperation) 8 3 Matcrials in process (parts. 3 Moderate 4 Considerable 5 Very substantial 1. or distribution channels. scales. etc. etc. patterns. such as bread dough being mixed. signal lights. objects. distributed.1 EXHIBIT 6-6. TV pictures. railroads. gauges. dams. materials.1 Soutces of Job Information NA Does not apply QUESTIONNAIRE Rate each of the following items in terms of 1 Normal/very infrequent the extent to which it is used by the worker 2 Occasional as a source of information in performing his or her job.
Work output. That is. ratings on the PAQ might represent information that makes up the job analyst’s stereotype about the work in question rather than actual differences among jobs. Job context. The job analyst must decide whether each item applies to a particular job. and planning processes are used to perform the job? 3. and (7) processing information. Other job characteristics. (4) performing skilled activities.questionnaire requires considerable experience and a high level of reading comprehension to complete properly. A major problem with the PAQ is its length. Like other job analysis techniques. For example. In what physical and social context is the job performed? 6. Relationship with other people.29 Some research suggests that the PAQ is capable only of measuring job stereotypes. These scores permit the development of profiles for jobs analyzed and the comparison of jobs. the PAQ has advantages and disadvantages.27 It is reliable in that there is little variance among job analysts’ ratings of the same jobs.25 It also seems valid in that jobs rated higher with the PAQ prove to be those that are compensated at higher rates. What relationships with others are required to perform the job? 5. Where and how does the job incumbent get job information? 2. and male ballet dancer may be quite similar. What physical activities and tools are used to perform the job? 4. What activities. For example. The available evidence indicates that it can be an effective technique for a variety of intended purposes. behavioral activities performed in jobs may distort actual task differences in the jobs. Information input. since all involve fine motor movements. conditions. it is often filled out by a trained job analyst. What reasoning.3° If this is true. (3) social responsibilities. The 195 items contained on the PAQ are placed in six major sections: 1. It requires time and patience to complete. It seems to be an effective way of establishing differences in abilities required for jobs. In addition. belly dancer. decision-making. since no specific work activities are described. . measuring devices (item 6) play a very substantial role (5) for the job being analyzed in Exhibit 6—6. then the PAQ may he providing little more than common knowledge about a job. (2) communication. Mental processes. (6) operating vehicles or equipment. the profiles for a typist. (5) being physically active. or characteristics other than those described in sections 1 through 5 are relevant? Computerized programs are available for scoring PAQ ratings on the basis of seven dimensions—( 1) decision ma king. One of its biggest advantages is that it has been widely used and researched.
government). which may increase the number of intrajob skill-based comparisons that may he made. 9. 14. Contacts (section 8 apj5ears in Exhibit 6—7). Administering. levels in the hierarchy. Controlling. and to help with the interpretation of responses: 1. 13. The result of the work is the management position description questionnaire (MPDQ). and MPDQ are all intended for use across a large range of jobs. Supervising. thereby making it easier for incumbents to rate their jobs. and abilities. 8. The MPDQ is a checklist of 208 items related to the concerns and responsibilities of managers. 11. An attempt to systematically analyze managerial jobs was conducted at Control Data Corporation. and type of industry (for example. 3. General information.Management Position Description Questionnaire Conducting a job analysis for managerial jobs offers a significant challenge to the analyst because of the disparity across positions. industrial. 7. 10. 5. they are more behaviorally concrete. Comments and reactions. The common metric questionnaire (CMQ).33 which is completed by an incumbent. and it is intended for use across most industrial settings. Monitoring business indicators. Planning and organizing. Organization chart. Consulting and innovating. Representing. 12. Knowledge. PAQ. Items were grouped into sections in order to reduce the time it requires to complete. it is designed to he a comprehensive description of managerial work. is a job analysis instrument with several potential advantages over existing measures. Coordinating. Overall ratings. medical. 4. . Decision making. many other methods of quantitative job analysis are also receiving attention. and the CMQ is applicable to both exempt and nonexempt positions. Although the FJA. 2. 6. skills. The items are at a reading level more appropriate for many jobs. 15. The latest version of the MPDQ is classified into 15 sections.
Employment and Training Administration has undertaken a major job analysis initiative. Finally. focusing on alternative quantitative methods.Considerable research on job analysis is currently being conducted in Europe. accurate. however. and workplace requirements in the country. and current job descriptions are to an organization. Many changes occurring in recent years have increased the need for such job . for example. the Department of Labor’s recent creation.S. the job description (see Exhibit 6—2) is one of the primary Outputs provided by a systematic job analysis. independent of any particular incumbent’s perceptions. worker KSAOs. these approaches are expected to he well suited to situations where job content or manufacturing technology is changing. the automated and Internet accessible O*NET is expected to replace the more cumbersome Dictionary of Occupational Titles. Department of Labor. It is. it is worth noting that the U. was developed as a comprehensive system to describe occupations. As previously mentioned. difficult to overemphasize ow important thorough. In cooperation with several other sources of funding. several techniques have the common goal of analyzing and describing work at the task level. In Germany. a job description is a D written description of what the job entails. Thus.35 Incorporating the last 60 years of knowledge about the nature of jobs and work. the O*NET (Occupational Informational Network). Simply stated.
lie purposes (It these oiU. STEP . I --\ minor part imt the position. o DcfnitcIy not a part (It the position. IrgaIll/atlonil goals. t molts as: • lnhmrmuiimg • Receis mug Information • lntlueimciimg • Promoting • Selling • Directing • (‘oordiiiitimig • I iltilarati ii g • Negotiitmiig DIRECTIONS: 1)ese rm 1w t he ia tim ri It I (10 nitacts iomplettmmg the harts ott the opposite as hi IIl1)W. print a (0111.RATING INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL CONTACTS USING THE MANAGEMENT POSITION DESCRIPTION QUESTIONNAIRE (MPDQ) I (I iehic . 3-A substantial hart ut the position. 4-. . tattat.1 t it an V Ii is ‘vi th mm mIte c IP( r.rrs old clIlitilta its may rcqtiircd to CoIfltotIIiaate with (Ill IS (1. Retiieiim her to consIder bothIts mImlfIot!aIIcc in light of all (It lie r p ISttI Oh ictiv it ics and Its /reqmuucv of occu rrerice.i ((in a id Sv di ii Ii Ucliti a I people (mitts mdc t he orpl Ira ti iii.I(IU (liii hut.\ crucial and most significant lilrt of the positIon. 2-A moderate part of the pIIs(tmon.her hetsveeli I) mitd 4 ill each coitinum to Indicate Ii os’ S ugh I tie a lii a part oh VII or (sit (((It ti it P U R P( )S F is. 226 STEP I Mark an X’ ii the box to the left of the k iiids (if I id is mdii a Is di at represent m (Or ni a I or contacts Internal a id external to (‘I nitro I 1) ata ( tI rp Irat 1(111. STEP 2 .3 If von have am other contacts please elaborate on them r ii a to re and i°’ rpose be 111W.: For each contact checked.lCts lily ITi(II.
obtain.i rd og p. Provide.xeciitive or senior V1CC president and above Vice president Genera l/regii ma I ma niger. Customers at a Ies’el equivalent to or above a ( lilt rol Data genera IJ . government inspectors. or executive consultant I . ((I’ decisions 1’.89 16fi 169 decision of others I6 I IS 16)) 161 Deparmient/district manager. EXTERNAL.— regional manager 191 198 20. services Negotiate contracts.oittrol Data with parts or services Representatives of nfl urn t i a I coinniun it organhiations I id iv id ual s such as applicants. PURIOSF Share infornation Influence others to . subcontractors for 192 199 206 . etc. 22 . 193 94 195 200 2(11 202 207 208 209 215 216 22 I 222 22.tct or decide n a n at flCt (list sten t ni th nit object yes I )irrct and/or re. or ant ci pa ted act cIt es or otegra te the iii n s.iniplr. for e\.t am trol Data general! regional manager Representatives of nia)or suppliers. director. joint ventures.. p resent.CONTINUED 1 srEP2 STEI I CoNTACTS I INTERNAL. or senior consnlraiit Secto mn/branch na nager m 0l?%LiItailt I ‘6 1 7 1S4 I 85 162 I0 I ‘X 186 163 171 ISO I’9 I Unit flianager 164 Exempt employees I2 168 I I 188 181 189 190 Nonexenipt employees 66 182 .. sertlements.3 204 211) 21 I II 2 IX 224 . icti VitW5. stockholders Representatives of federal or sIt te gi nero ments s tmch as detcn se contract auditors. ( ir exchange iii formation i ir ads’ice Promote the .at ii ni or its po Id ucts! services Sell p r id iict s/ .) 96 I9 20.8 212 219 Customers at a level lower than . 213 220 major contracts — Em pl o’ees of suppliers svh ii provide ( . etc.1st. orga iii .
HRMEM0 . amount of dependency in the work). (2) the need to implement new and creative ways to motivate and reward employees. F e. and behaviors performed on the job. Each skill that has been identified needs to he specifically linked to each job task. It addresses the question “What personal traits and experience are needed to perform the job effectively?” The job specification is especially useful in offering guidance for recruitment and selection. The job specification evolves from the job description. knowledge.Navistar’s Dream Team Strategic Finance. responsibilities. Can process changes yield savings? Ask Navis tar international Corporation. it’s working! After completing 200 projects.g. 38—45. Determining what skills. • Activities—includes a description of the job duties. Any other characteristics necessary for performing the job should he. downsizing). size of work group. useful descriptions will include information on:3i • Job title—title of the job and other identifying information such as its wage and benefits classification. J. The importance of each skill must. a leading transportation firm that has reengineered the way they identifr and manage projects with high strategic fit and economic impact for the firm.. identified.kltc A’t the .000 per project Source: Mark Frigo and Heather Kos (August 1999). and (4) new. or abilities are required for performing a particular job must he done systematically. These include things such as physical requirements and professional certification. i.. suppose that you were looking for an HR professional to fill the position described in Exhibit 6—8. 2. For example. 4. the location of the job.37 it still seems unlikely that there are any relevant aspects of human resources that do not depend on accurate job descriptions. All job tasks must be identified and rated in terms of importance using sound job analysis techniques. Navistar realized an average of $200. incumbents. ey • Environment—description of the working conditions of the job. • Equipment—clear statement of the tools. he rated.6 Though some HR managers feel that technology and rapidly changing jobs will eventually decrease the need for job descriptions. These changes include (1) the incredible number of organizational restructurings that have occurred (e.or two-sentence statement describing the purpose of the job and what outputs are expected from job incumbents. and information hat required for effectively performing the job. While there is no standard format for a job description. equipment.. almost all well-written. 3. Harvey offers the following guidelines for arriving at the characteristics that should be included on a job specification:39 1. descriptions. (3) the accelerated rate at which technology is changing work environments. Also describes the social interactions associated with the work (for example. pp. • Surnmary—brief one. more stringent federal regulation of employment practices through legislation like the Americans with Disabilities Act and the Civil Rights Act of 199 1. A panel of experts. Any trait or skill that is stated on the job specification should actually he re £ C i ml A . you would know that the successful applicant would have a college education and would already have at least six years of experience in HRM. From the job specification. and other relevant characteristics of the immediate work environment such as hazards and noise levels. R. or supervisors should specify the necessary skills for performing each of the job tasks identified. 5.
.40 Essential skills are those for which alternative ways of accomplishing the job are not possible. There are many signs that the fundamental nature of work may be changing. Maintains employee personnel files. transfer. Job activities Participates in overall planning and policy making to provide effective and uniform personnel services. Communicates policy through organization levels by bulletins.ciieral description of the 1ob Performs responsible administrative work managing personnel activities of a large state agency or institution. and abilities Considerable knowledge of principles and practices of HRM selection and assignment of personnel. ruits and screens applicants to fill vacancies and reviews applications of qualified persons. business administration. demotions. promotion. Job Analysis and Strategic Human Resource Management he HR Journal appearing earlier in this chapter suggests that process and work engineering will be the strategic HR challenge for the coming years. Performs related work as assigned. skills. . instead. Supervises administration of tests. examination. Functional areas are not as important as they once were for defining a person’s job. appointment. Education Graduation from a four-year college or university. transfers. knowledge. Nonessential skills can be accommodated by changing the structure or work methods of the job. evaluation. Supervises a group of employees directly and through subordinates. and dismissals of permanent employees. Establishes effective service rating system. Work involves responsibility for the planning and administration of an HRM program that includes recruitment.1. classifies applications. and recommended change of status of agency employees. Initiates personnel training activities and coordinates these activities with work of officials and supervisors. General qualification requirements Experience and training should have considerable experience in area of FIRM administration. selection. evaluates qualifications. including placement problems. Six-year minimum. or industrial psychology. and a system of communication for disseminating necessary information to workers. then it should be done. If disabled people could accomplish the job successfully after such accommodation. trains unit supervisors in making employee evaluations. and one secretary. Responsibility Supervises a department of three HRM professionals. ferentiate clearly between essential and nonessential skills. Interviews applicants. job evaluation. exercising initiative and independent judgment in the performance of assigned tasks. meetings. one clerk. Confers with supervisors on personnel matters. retention or release of probationary employees. and personal contact. Works under general supervision. with major work in human resources.
4 In the future. While the job analyst has traditionally been charged with creating descriptions of jobs as they exist in an organization. new job responsibilities may he poorly defined for the new environment. Much more general than traditional knowledge.interdisciplinary or cross-functional teams comprised of pers6ns with extremely diverse backgrounds are becoming increasingly common. job descriptions will no longer be snapshots of a static entity called a “job.” As jobs are reengineered.42 An important part of this task vill he an ability for job analysts to write job specifications that accurately detail the knowledge and skills that will complement the future strategic initiatives of the organization. This inevitability creates a new problem for the job analyst. • I)escribe and measure the organization’s orkforce in mdre general. reengineering of one kind or another is likely in a majority of organizations. Organizations such as AT&T.44 Compounding the potential problems that reengineering can introduce. For example. some HR departments have increasingly analyzed jobs in a way that is consistent with the changing nature of business and management practices. and abilities needed to perform one specific job. and Pfizer have all implemented flexible working environments to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse workforce. telecommuting. job sharing. and — • I)esign and implement stathng programs focused around conipetencics (rather than specific jobs) as a way of increasing staffing flexibility in job a ssign nwnts. one of the major complaints about reengineering is that once an organization’s processes have been reconstructed.” such usage of competencies in HR practices reflects an organization’s desire to achieve the following: • Communicate job requirements in ways that extend beyond the specific jot? itself. there is a growing acknowledgment of the need to match human resource activities with an organization’s strategic planning. and the value of teamwork is emphasized.4 Job Analysis and Employee Competencies Over the past decade.4 . and rewarding a variety of broad-based competencies that successful employees should possess. These programs include variations on traditional work such as compressed work schedules. organizations will have to continually adapt to rapidly changing business environments.4 Although it is currently unclear whether these new work arrangements will lend themselves to accurate description through the quantitative methods covered in this chapter. competency terms. Hewlett-Packard. strategic job analysis will have to be capable of capturing both the present and the future.” To the contrary. communicating. skills. cwnpetencies are general attributes employees need to do well across multiple jobs or within the organizatioll as a whole. As mentioned elsewhere in this text.4’ Despite these potential difficulties. Thus. many work environments will also offer employees much greater flexibility in when and how they work. many organizations are identifying. it is safe to assume that effective organizational functioning will require some type of job analysis to be competently conducted. Not surprisingly. Also termed “competency modeling. the new job analyst will also have to describe jobs that will exist in the future organization. I QM programs arc implemented. and flexible hours. cornpetencies might include anything from “teamwork” to “leadership potential. therefore.
these tasks could he done quickly and efficiently. (2) the biological approach. he stated: Perhaps the most prominent single element in modern scientific management is the task idea.Once a thorough job analysis has been conducted and there are high-quality job JC descriptions and job specifications available.45 Perspectives on the design of work can he classified into four major categories: I) the perceptual-motor approach. Taylor’s model of scientific management. no one best way to design a job. They are also the two that have received the most attention in the. The mechanistic approach is best exemplified by Taylor’s scientific management and the motivational approach by job enrichment. The emphasis was clearly on structuring jobs so that they were broken down into simple. The work of every workman is fully planned out by the management at least one day in advance. Among these •re recommendations stemming from Taylor’s scientific management. 1)ifferent situations call for different arrangements of job characteristics. Thus. and each man receives in most cases complete written instructions. describing in detail the task whiji he is to accomplish. Their major focus is on the integration of human and machine systems. an organization can USC this information for designing or redesigning jobs. others are more concerned with satisfaction. In 1911. . There is. and tasks in a manner that will help to achieve Optimal perft) rmance and satisfaction. This means that the choice of job design will involve making trade—offs based on the more critical needs of the organization. This task specifies not only what is to be done hut how it is to be done and the exact time allowed for doing it. repetitive tasks.management literature.49 Both the perceptual-motor approach and the biological approach have their roots in human factors engineering. however. Scientific Management and the Mechanistic Approach Job design was a central issue in F. such as the‘dlowing: . certain methods of job design are primari lv interested in improving performance. they emphasize equipment design and the proper match between machines aiid operators. Although the principles of scientific management were formally introduced in the early I 900s and many current methods of job design criticize the use of the repetitive-task structure. His use of job design is an excellent example of the rational approach and shows how certain perspectives focus more heavily on productivity than on satisfaction. approaches to job design place different emphasis on performance and satisfaction as desired outcomes. W. it is unlikely that any one approach will fully satisfy all of the goals’of a manager. and (4) the motivational approach. In addition. In other words. (3) the mechanistic approach. Once learned. many of the principles are still relevant today.co ‘The work of Taylor and the principles of scientific management initiated a great deal of interest in systematically studying the structure of jobs. Thus. . This information iS very useful for structuring job elements. duties. The two remaining approaches more clearly highlight the potential trade-offs that must frequently he made by organizations with regard to job design.
The expansion of the work is. • Monetary compensation should be tied directly to performance and should be used to reward the performance of employees. Despite the appeal of these potential advantages. but it may not be any more meaningful. research has found that repetitive.52 Job en largement attempts to increase satisfaction by giving employees a greater variety of things to do. Rather. highly specialized work can lead to dissatisfaction among employees. It is assumed that the specialization and routine nature of jobs designed according to scientific management principles will lead to higher levels of output and require minimal training before employees are able to master the work. they are merely allowed to do a greater number of tasks. however. (Job descriptions and job specifications used iii recruitment and selection should achieve this.S1 Thus. the gains in efficiency that scientific management may offer can he offset by losses in satisfaction and higher levels of absenteeism and turnover. considered horizontal. Many managers find the scientific management approach to job design appealing because these kinds of recommendations point toward improving organizational performance.) • Employees should be trained to perform the job. Early strategies for overcoming some of the problems associated with jobs designed according to scientific management focused on job enlargement. .• Employees selected for work should be matched to the demands of the job. an enlarged job is not as specialized or routine as a job designed according to scientific management. since the employees are not given more responsibility or authority in decision making. Thus.
His basic idea is that employees will be motivated by jobs that enhance their feelings of self-worth. which involves the use of a number of an individual’s skills and talents. — • Task significance—degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the . • Task identity—degree to which the job requires completion of a “whole” and identifiable piece of work—that is. Thus.55 This model is depicted in Exhibit 6—9. enrichment differs from enlargement because the job is expanded vertically.” These include • Skill variety—degree to which the job requires a variety of different activities in carrying out the work. the job characteristics model is one of the most widely publicized.4 Although there are many different approaches to job enrichment. job enrichment tries to design jobs in ways that help incumbents satisfy their needs for growth. and responsibility. It shows that for a job to lead to desired outcomes it must Possess certain “core job dimensions. employees are given responsibility that might have previously been part of a supervisor’s joh. recognition. much work has been directed at changing jobs in more meaningful ways than job enlargement was able to do. Rather than simply increasing the variety of tasks performed by an employee. doing a job from beginning bo end with a visible outcome. The notion of satisfying employees’ needs as a way of designing jobs comes from Frederic Herzberg’s two-factor theory of work motivation.job Enrichment: A Motivational Approach In the past two decades.
If these core dimensions are present in a job. 2.’ The key psychological states that are necessary for motivation and satisfaction are: 1.” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance. Knowledge of results—understanding that a job incumbent receives about how effectively he or she is performing the job. G. Qldham (August 1976). 3. they are expected to create three critical psychological states in job incumbents. “Motivation through the Design of Work: Test of a Theory. The more these three states are experienced.Source:Ado pied from J. the more internal work motivation the job incumbent will feel. To the extent that these three states are important to the job incumbent. valuable. Experienced meaningfulness—degree to which the job incumbent experiences work as important. and worthwhile. 256. he or she will then he motivated to perform well and will be satisfied with the job. *Autonomy—degree to which the job provides substantial freedom. independence. determining the procedures to he used in carrying it out. Experienced responsibility—extent to which the job incumbent feels personally responsible and accountable for the results of the work performed. • Feedback—degree to which carrying out the activities required by the job results in the individual’s obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance. p. and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in . . Richard Hackman and R.
After 20 years of research.’ Research also suggests that increasing the scope of a job beyond certain levels can have detrimental effects on workers. they will he better able to balance their work-home demands. then job enrichment will probably have less effect than it would for a person who values personal growth. and telecommuting. leading both working spouses to require flexible work arrangements to meet family life and career cycle needs. The job characteristics model describes the relationships that are predicted to exist among four sets of factors—( I ) core job dimensions. and (4) strength of needs. the more they will feel responsible. Work-Family Balance and Job Design Organizations are directing more attention and resources toward helping employees balance their work and family demands. for example. The more control 1ob incumbents feel they have over their jobs. The aging population will he another factor that requires a response from working-age caregivers. Examples of flexible work arrangements include job sharing. these individuals vill continue to experience stress as they attempt to balance career and family priorities. improved morale. For job incumbents to be internally motivated. flextime. however there are no clear answers about the effectiveness of enrichment. caregiving responsibilities may he shared. As the baby boom generation reaches retirement age. studies support the expectation that jobs perceived to possess the core dimensions of the job characteristics model are more satisfying. Often viewed as primary caregivers. a person dues not have a strong need for personal growth. Many job enrichment programs have been implemented in the United States and in other countries around the world. Many have argued that companies that offer and encourage participation in such famil— friendly work arrangements will reap one or more of the following benefits: higher recruitment and retention rates. and task significance— AB contribute to a sense of meaningfulness. Since different people have different capabilities and needs.As presented in Exhibit 6—9. It is believed that by allowing employees more control over their work lives. Generally. How are organizations responding to these challenges? Although nor as dramatic as originally anticipated. it is important to be aware of the potential for individual differences to moderate the linkages shown in Exhibit 6—9. this issue will grow in importance. (2) psychological states. On the other hand. . Driving this work-family tension are a number of variables related to the changing demographics of the workforce. In Some cases. Autonomy is directly related to feelings of responsibility. Feedback is related to knowledge of results. the number of women and single parents entering the workforce is expected to increase. task identity. Another example of demographic changes includes the increase in dual-career couples. If. and higher levels of employee productivity. three job dimensions—skill variety. lower absenteeism and tardiness. they must have a sense of the quality of their performance. (3) personal and work-related outcomes. the relationships between the critical psychological states and employees’ reactions to enrichment are not yet fully understood. This sense comes from feedback. For example. a trend is emerging in which some organizations are trying to accommodate diverse employees’ needs by offering flexible work arrangements.
employees may decide that instead (it working 5 days a week for 8 hours a day. Chose a small division to pilot the telecommuting initiative. General Motors. Managers need to be aware that excluded employees can create a backlash . With this schedule. American orporations—including Chevron. took the following steps to establish their program: I. one company has aken a methodical approach to implementing a telecommuting program. Coca-Cola. organizations need to be mindful of the laws that may impact how these flexible work arrangement policies are developed and managed. Many career-minded employees do not take advantage of job sharing.or fulltime. fax. First. Telecommuting refers to the work arrangement that allows employees to work in their homes part. maintaining their connection and communication with the office through phone.roups are offered these options. and Xerox.’9 Countless others are reengineering their work processes.. S.64 Though oftentimes resisted by managers who fear loss of control and subordinate accessibility. every attempt should be made to open these programs to all employees. CAP involves the systematic study. a large health care company. Required demonstration that the work could be accomplished off-site and that the employee could sustain and/or enhance performance.61 Companies such as CoreStates Financial. Flextime is another type of flexible work arrangement in which employees can choose when to be at the ofce.“partners” who have complementary scheduling needs and skills. Regardless of the specific nature of redesign. because of the competitive pressures that foreign business has placed on them. self-directed teams hav become important ingredients in the success of manufacturers worldwide! And now. The risk here is that if only certain e.) organizations need to consider three important issues when developing and implementing such flexible work arrangement options. 2. oine applicable laws include the Fair Labor Standards Act. hoping to regain their competitive advantage. Motorola. workers’ compensation. 3. or telecommuting for fear of being derailed from their career progression. the employees do not have to be at the of&e on Friday. Merrill Lynch. Companies that offer fiextime options include I lewlctr-Packard. 4. AT&T. and Cigna. Federal Express. they may prefer to work a 4—day!! 0— mr per day work schedule. Opened the program to all employees of the division. analysis. to name a few—are also implementing self-directed work teams. motivate. The appropriate response to these changes is exemplified by Coopers & Lybrand’s competency alignment process (CAP). having the CEO of an organization anoiince these programs is not enough to effect change. Procter & Gamble. Although organizations like Pizer and the other faniily-friendiy firms are movmg forward to attract. 1o avoid peak rush hour. flextime. and retain employees with diverse nonwork needs. J the Occupational Safety and Health Act! Job Design: The Next Challenge In the late I 980s and early 1 990s. other employees might use their flex— time to arrive at and leave from work one hour later Monday through Friday. and assessment of . and absenteeism. and computer. General Electric.62 I—or example. Pfizer Inc. job satisfaction. Required interested employees to satisfy a formal proposal and performance standards. managers need to he trained and rewarded for encouraging their subordinates to use them without fear of derailing their good standing within the firm. These authors also reported that flextiine programs should not be too unstructured and that they lose some of their effectiveness over time. many organizations have learned the hard way that reengineering cannot succeed unless careful attention is also paid to the effects on how employees use their skills. then excluded group’ may feel discriminated against. Limited the number of days to work at home to two per week. Kraft. European and Asian competitors of American corporations were revolutionizing job design by turning away from the basic dc1i1t of scientific management and embracing the quality management movement More recently. One research study concluded that flexible workweek schedules had a positive influence on employee performance.!ainst work-family programs!’ Second.66 In order to make these programs an accepted part of the organization. Third. and Household International all have oh-sharing options available for their employees.
questionnaires. It is taking a new look at the entire flow of work through an organization. recognition. There are six sequential steps in job analysis.WTaylor. performing skilled activities. it can then be eliminated through a variety of programs including training. communication and social responsibilities. . job analysts and other HR professionals are a crucial link in the reengineering processes upon which so many corporations are staking their competitive future.7° Without these or similarly intense efforts. training. Reengineering is more than job redesign. people. job enrichment involves designing jobs so that employees’ needs for growth. To summarize the major points covered in this chapter: . To accomplish this goal. 5. and outsourcing. 9. compensation. The management position description questionnaire (MPDQ) is a checklist of 208 items that assesses the concerns and responsibilities of managers. 12. organization and process charts should be consulted to acquire an overview of the organization. selection. When a skill deficiency exists for the reengineered organization. Without adaptable job descriptions. The job is the major building block of an organization. . The uses of job analysis information seem endless. it cannot succeed. 14. title. the reengineering will probably not succeed. industry. however.jobs and the skills needed to perform them in the reengineered organization. 4. 2. Four general job analysis techniques can be used separately or in combination observation. it is essential that each characteristic of each job in an organization he clearly understood. interviews. The multimethod approach to job analysis uses a combination of these four general. duties. Job design involves structuring job elements. Training is required. This chapter has emphasized the major role that job analysis plays in HRM activities and programs. recruitment. starting with examining the total organization and the fit of jobs and concluding with the preparation of a job specification (see Exhibit 6—2). The Dictionary of Occupational Titles is a listing of over 20. the famous industrial engineer and father of what is called scientific management. methods. Strategic planning. CAP determines current skill levels of employees in order to identify skill gaps. and provide details on job specifications. Therefore. and things. Functional job analysis (FjA) is used to describe the nature of jobs. 6. redeployment. It is a comprehensive approach and is currently viewed very favorably from a legal respective. Before conducting a job analysis. prepare job descriptions. The position analysis questionnaire (PAQ) is a I95item structured instrument used to quantitatively assess jobs on the basis of decision making. 10. Each part of the diagnostic HRM model is in some way affected by job analysis.000 jobs on the basis of occupational code. The job is described in terms of data. and responsibility are satisfied. 11. 1. being physically active. 7. operating vehicles or equipment. and job design all benefit immensely from job analysis information. and processing information.3. job design was a concern of F. and tasks to achieve optimal performance and satisfaction. and job incumbent diaries or logs. . I 3. Thus. Conducting job analysis is not for amateurs.
Perhaps distributing memos.A trained job analyst knows that distribution of questionnaires without an explanation is bound to set off negative feelings. What would you advise Tim to do about job analysis at this point? autonomy common metric questionnaire (CMQ) competency alignment process (CAP) feedback functional job analysis (FJA) job job analysis job analysis information format (JAIF) job characteristics model job description job enlargement job enrichment job family specification management position description questionnaire (MPDQ) niultimethod job analysis approach Occupational Information Network (0 *NET) organization chart POSItiOn position analysis questionnaire (PAQ) process chart skill variety strategic job analysis task task identity task significance 1. and this lack was clearly revealed as the process got out of hand. He a needs to backtrack and slow down.What do you now think about Tim Huggins’s job analysis process? Do you see why some type of training in job analysis is required Tim really lacked sufficient training.Tim failed to plan thoroughly what he wanted to do. How might job analysis be helpful to an organization that is being sued for sex discrimination in .Tim’s haste a and lack of preparation have now caused the situation to T reach a boiling point. and this alone was threatening to many people. and using the expertise of trained job analysts can improve the atmosphere at Sprowl. Using questionnaires requires preparation and conch careful initial steps. ti In the case of Sprowl ai Manufacturing.A new person luded has to establish rapport o with emp’oyees before ir changing things. . What are the six steps in the job analysis process? 2. Job analysis is often referred to as the “cornerstone” of HRM. Do you agree? Why? 3. He was a new boss. holding TERMS open discussions with informal leaders.
skills. 5. What is the difference between an essential and a nonessential skill? How are these related to the Americans with Disabilities Act? . and abilities? Both? Explain your answer. What core information should be included in most job descriptions and job specifications? 6. Describe the mechanistic and motivational models of job design.What is the emphasis of each? . As a current (or future) manager.promotion? 6 4. how will you communicate the requirements of an entry-level customer service representative to a candidate who just arrived at your office for an interview? \Iill you describe the job in terms of cornpetencies? Knowledge.
maintenance (if accounts and parking tag books. 1994. Following surgery for spinal problems aggravated by her fall at work. she suffered neck and lower back pain when sitting For extended times. 1999 U. Despite recominendanons from her doctor for the ergonomic chair and letters froii ti’e Connecticut Bureau of Rehabilitative Services suggestinj a worksite evaluation. The Court’s Decision To recover under the ADA. with or without accommodations. Describe the major components of the job characteristics model of job enrichment. Worthington’s job. 1993. What challenges does the concept of reengineering pose for job analysis and human resources Based on Worthington v. she hled a grievance with the union. Further. After an investigation. 9. the City provided Ms. \Vorthington requested three accommodations from the City: (1) an ergonomic chair with neck and back support. Ms. 1992. According to the City’s job description. Vorthington did indeed possess the required education. experience. The court examined the City’s job description for Account Clerk I to determine if Ms. Howevei the court disagreed and awarded Ms. the court found that Ms. Ms. Worthingwn could perform the essential functions of the ob either with or without accommodations.000 in compensatory damages. and various other clerical duties. City of New Has en. On July 1 3. maintaining accounts. On May 24. The court found that Ms. 1995. Ms. Ms. Ms. On April 13. (2) replacement of overhead shelves with waist level shelves. District Court for the District of Connecticut. Worthington filed a disability discrinnnation suit under the Americans with Disabilities Act in U. she filed a grievance with the City. the Account Clerk I position required bookkeeping. fell at work. checking receipts and vouchers. repeatedly denied Ms. Worthington’s requests for accommodai ions based on a lack of funds. Dist. On February 3.” According to the AI)A. the Cit agreed to provide Ms. The court found that the essential functions of Account Clerk I involved preparation of payrolls and financial reports. As a result of the fall. Worthington had a physical impairment of her musculoskeletal system that substantially limited her ability to walk and stand for long periods of time. who had preexisting back. Thus. Worthington with a more comfortable chair. neck. as an Account Clerk I in its Tax Office. the City . a plaintiff must prove that he or she is a “qualified individual with a disability who can perform the essential functions of their job. and knee in)uries.8.S. (2) a record of such impairment. complaining that she was still required to stand for long periods of time. 1 993. and skills for the Account Clerk I position. Worthington had a disability under the ADA. preparing payrolls and financial reports. Later in that same month.S. holding that she was a qualified individual with a disability who could perform the essential functions of the Account Clerk I position with reasonable accommodations. receiving payments. which could all he performed with only occasional standing. Worthington with an ergonomic chair. Worthington. Worthington ceased working on March 25. and (3) modification of her job duties so that she avoided standing for long periods of time. What is the ONET? How and when would a job analyst use the ONET? Do you think it will replace the Dictionary of Occupational Titles? Why or why not? 10. LEXIS 16104. and checking receipts and vouchers. Following the accident. a disability is I) a physical or mental illpairmcilt that substantially limits one or more major life activities. . due to her disability. The Facts Patricia Worthington was hired 1w the City of New Haven on December 23. 199 I. Worthington $150. or (3) being regarded as having such an impairment. The City claimed that filling in for an employee who collected parking fines which involved standing for long periods of time was also an essential function of Ms.
). ‘Toni S.” in Gerald R. Harvey (Winter 1986). According to the ADA. “A Framework for Evaluating Job Analysis Methods. Rowland. pp. Cornelius (198$). Staffing Organizations. essential functions are the fundamental hut not marginal duties of a job. p. 48—68... Veres 111. “Job Analysis. Kendrith M. I-’anplovnu’nt Lan’ Manual (Boston: Warren. and 1-leneman. . pp. pp. pp. cit. Industry. and Ronald A. Gerard P Panaro (1991)). 2 Henderson. 1)unnerte and I eaetra M.27— 3. 1. Levine (November—December 1980). 1—larvey (1991).” in Si d ne (. “Job . Government Printing Of6ce(.27—3. and M.” in Marvin 1). Judge. Gorham & Larnont). Edward ‘F. pp.. Panaro. op. CA: Cansulting Psychologists Press). Human Resource Management: Perspectives and Issues. and (3) the employee was hired for an expertise or ability to perform a particular function. 3. 134—144.. 3 I 2. employers should also consider how much time an emplace spends performing a jot) duty and the consequences of not requiring an employee to perform the duty. 2nd ed. Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psvchokg.Human Resource Implications Organizations must carefully define essential and nonessential job functions in their job descriptions and be prepared to provide reasonable accommodations requested by employees. Richard I. “Can Recruiters with Reduced . 53—59.3. op. Vol.” Personnel.-\nalvsis: Developing and Dcuinenting Data” (Washington.. 2nd ed.acl (ed. 1 38—139. pp. pp. .” Public Personnel Management Journal. pp.. Tiniothv Judge. cit.). 1--lerhert 1-leneinan. Ferris. DC: U. pp. and Robert Heneman (2000). Friedman and Robert J. Henderson (1 989). pp. 3rd ed.’.Job Description Information Provide Accurate Position Analysis Questionnaire ( PAQ) Ratings?” Personnel Ps’t’cholog’.33. “Practical Findings from Job Analysis Research. Harvey. cit. 100. pp. cit.S.’. Ronald Buckle’ (eds. Jai Ghorpadc and Thomas J. Locklear. and Got ‘er.. and Ronald R. A job duty is essential if (I) the position exists to perform the function. cth ed.” Journal 01 ( )ccupatumal and Organizational l’sb)lnç”. (2) there are a limited number of employees who are available to perform the function. IL: McGraw-Hill/Irwin). Sims (1990).nnent. I (New Yorl Wilev. Bureau of Intergovernmental Personnel Programs (1 973). op. Ii John C. op.33. (Boston: Allyn and Bacon). pP 198—199. “Job Analysis in Practice: A Brief Review of the Role of Job Analysis in Human Resources Management. S Robert •J. 86—89. Ivan Robertson anc Mike Smith (November 200 “Personnel Selection. 71—163. (Englewood Cliffs. In differentiating between essential and nonessential job functions in job descriptions. (Burr Ridge. Vol. “The Concept of Job Analysis: A Review and Some Suggestions. Heneman. Hough (eds. The Job A nalvsis Handbook /or I3usiness. 779_7$9 . 2 (Palo Alto. Compensation Management: R en ‘a ‘ding Performance. Atchison (Summer 1980). 441—472. Ash and Edward L.). 198—1 99. NJ: Prentice-Hall). p.’.
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Balkin. formal wear. Cardy (2000). and George A. pp. Julie A. 56 Hackman and Oldham. She manages 35 outlets in California and Oregon. 329—347.” Business Week. Mary is the regional manager for the Pacific Coast. Richard Hackman. and Paul ludge (September 1997). 3rd ed.” California Management Review. pp. each of these outlets has a store manager who reports directly to Mary. Thomas E. 88—93. The departments include casual wear.Performance. 250—279. 62—66. Dodd and Damel. Autonomy. each store has a different collection of merchandise. Janson. Double Headache?” Personnel Journal. 96--lOl. “Job Sharing: One job. 64 (. Steve Hamm. Greg R. Each outlet: has between three and five assistant store managers. pp. pp. pp. Evolution. and Feedback on Attitudes and Performance. “i Michael W. 8 Robert W. Rcnn and Robert J. 279—303. Mary Watson was recently promoted to the position of regional sales manager for Today’s Fashion. 66 Keith Hammonds. “Work and Family. pp.996).. and . pp. ‘ Boris B. pp. “Flexible and Compressed Workweek Schedules: A Meta-Analysis of Their Effects on WorkRelated Criteria.” HRMagazine.” Journal of Organizational Behavior. shoes. C. ‘ Nancy G. Homey and Richard Koonce (December 1995). “Job Scope and Stress: Can job Scope Be Too High?” Academy of Management Journal. These departments vary considerably in size and in the number of sales clerks reporting to the assistant manager. “A New Strategy for Job Enrichment. Hauser (May 1996). 187 60 Luis R.” Quality Progress. 70 Nicholas F. Each assistant manager is responsible for one particular specialty department. cosmetics. Vandenberg (Summer 1995).ornez-Mejia Ct al. a national chain of specialty clothing stores with 200 outlets across the country. Piczak and Reuben Z. 68 Jane Gibson and Dana Tesone (November 2001). 6 Sharon Leonard (July 2000). Roy Furchgott. Mary had been both a store manager and an assistant manager in a casual-wear department.” lournal of Applied Psychology. R. Pp.” The Academy of Management Executive.While she was an assistant manager. pp. (Upper Saddle River. Managing Human Resources. Joseph \V. Managing Human Resources. pp. Briggs. 122—1 33. NJ: Prentice Hall). and K. and jewelry. cit. “The Legalities of Flextirne. Gomez—Mejia et al. pp.. pp. which is one of Today’s Fashion’s largest markets.” journal of Management. depending on the number of specialty departments. 1288—1309. 37—43. pp. “The Baby Gap. “The Interactive Effects of Variety. Mary had often thought that she was responsible for many aspects of store management that other .. Because the chain’s success lies in being receptive to local customers tastes and buying habits. Wright. and several different combinations of departments can be found in Mary’s region. “The Critical Psychological States: An Underrepresented Component in Job Characteristics Model Research. Baltes. Jia Lin Xie and Gary Johns (October 1995). “The Missing Piece in Reengineering. 8 1—87. Neuman (August 1999). 6’ Gillian Flynn and Sarah E Gale (October 2001). Oldham. 57—71. Prior to being appointed to the regional sales manager position.” Work force. “Self-Directed Work Teams: A Guide to Implementation. Huff.1. 250—279. and Robert L. Purdy (Summer 1975).” Training and Development. 496—513. “Management Fads: Emergence. Ganstec çy 1. 368—370. and Implications for Managers. David B. Gomez-Mejia. 61 Charlenc Solomon (September 1994). Managing Human Resources. op.
She believes that the best way to improve store management is to hire assistant store managers who are qualified to perform successfully. Although she had no formal training in job analysis. Frains. returns.lanages the daily functions of a specialty department in the retail (iperatio s. skills. rather than simply writing from her own experience. Principal Duties and Responsibilities • Assists customers in mcrrhandise sclecti ms. L x/wrieIuce: • Minimum: 5ux months to one year in a retail environment. What kinds of factors about Today’s Fashion and its operations should Mary have examined more seriously in order to improve her job analysis? 3. and supervises department salcsclcrks daily. and layaway as needed. Prepares the department for opening at the beginning of each day. Mary felt that there was considerable room for improvement in how Today’s Fashion was managed. Mary interviewed three current assistant store managers from the outlet closest to her regional office in Sacramento. Ensures that the department remains professionally organized and orderly.Thus. General Qualification Requirements I—lzicati . The assistant store manager has responsibilit v for customer service. training of new einph ivecs. she never really felt comfortable that her store manager had clearly defined her areas of responsibility. inerchatidising. primarily because of her personal experience with that position.As a result. (larilies any qiicstiu s or problems that a salesclerk encounters. and maintenance of inventory. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS I. Basic math . Preferred: One to three years as a salesclerk for Today’s Fashion. Carefully read the job description and job specification that Mary prepared. cilnliti’s: I . despite the chain’s success. directs. supervision of saleselerks.cnordinates. In addition. Maintains inventory records.assistant managers were not held responsible for. Do they appear to be thorough? Do you think that they are adequate to serve as a basis for a new selection system? How well do you think these documents will work if Mary is sued for discrimination in her hiring practices? Why? Job Title: Assistant Store Manager Reports to: Store Manager General Description of the Job . 2. Critically evaluate the job analysis that Mary conducted for the position of assistant store manager. one of the first things Mary did after being appointed to the regional sales position was to initiate a job analysis for the job of assistant store manager. . However.i: Minimum: Four-year college degree in marketing or related discipline from an accredited program. Has she used appropriate methods? What are the strengths and weaknesses of her efforts? 2. 2. Isiioivk’ilgc. Mary constructed the job description and job specification shown in Exhibit I She hopes that these documents will form the basis of a new selection program that she wants to implement for her region. S. she was confident that she could construct an accurate and useful job description and specification for the assistant manager job. Mary had earned a BBA degree with a marketing emphasis from Wyoming State University. 4. On the basis of these interviews and her own experience.
After a short management training program. Clark Kirby was just entering the office of the vice president of human resource management.This was what Clark had been waiting for: a chance to be on his own and to show what he could do for Lois. your recruiting quotas: Managers 38 Professional and technical 10 Clerical 44 Skilled employees 104 Semiskilled employees 400 You’ll receive a budget for maximum initial pay for this group shortly. Good udgmeni and independent thought 4.You can recruit some employees from the home office and other plants. He was very excited as he entered Lois’s office. Ability to lift and can y boxes weighing approximately 15 pounds or less. “Well. Self-starter/highly motivated S. Now Gunther as opening a new plant in e quickly expanding Tampa market. Clark spent almost two years as •erating supervisor in a plant. Clark had worked for Gunther Manufacturing for 10 years in Los Angeles. Gunther was a growing firm. “The plant will be staffed initially with the following employees. Lois Yates. Lois had selected Clark to be the human resource manager for the Tampa plant. in effect. High integrity 6. Clark. “You and Ed should work out the details. Lois greeted him with. 2. Clark had majored in personnel at California State University at Los Angeles and wanted to try HRM work.You’ll be working r for him but responsible to me to see that Gunther’s HRM policies are carried out. a position opened up in the HR department. These are. Shortly you’ll be meeting your new plant manager. After that. For a medium-sized operation. who had been very supportive of his career. but excessive . Ed Humphrey.2. Effective interpersonal skills . and for Gunther. I hope you realize how much we are counting on you in Tampa. He moved up in the department headquarters during the next seven years. it had one of the fastest growth records in the industry. Good typing and computer skills •lvslcal reqiurelilents: Standing and walking required for more than 90 percent of work time.
raiding is not allowed. Remember, too, that Gunther has an equal employment opportunity problem. Wherever possible, try to hire qualified minorities and women to help us meet our internal goals. f “Your own HR office consists of yourself, one HR specialist to help you run the empleyment office, and one clerical employee. Good c luck!” F Clark quickly arranged a for a meeting with Ed, his v new boss. Ed, about 50 g years old, was a high school p graduate who had started a with Gunther as a blue- n collar employee when he u was 18 years old.After 10 years in various blue-collar E positions, Ed became a f foreman. Eight years later he i was selected as an assistant e to the plant manager. After e several years in this h position, he was made one tI of three assistant plant n managers at a Gunther plant n in Chicago. He held that position until being given h this new position of plant manager at the Tampa plant. After introductions, C Clark and Ed talked. p Clark Here are the figures t for employees that Lois gave e me. She also said we could recruit some people from p Gunther, but not to raid beyond company policy. E Also. Lois said we needed to rr do an exceptional job ti recruiting minorities and u women because we have an a EEO problem. ti Ed Let’s get something straight right off. You working for me now, not Lois. Here’s o a list of 20 manager I want F to take with me. It’s your a ‘job to persuade them to come to Tampa with me. In in cases where my help might persuade some to come along, call on me. But I’m very stressed now trying to get machinery ordered, the plant laid out, financing arranged, and so on. Call on me only When you must, understand? Oh, one more thing. That EEO *#/OX_you can forget that.The Tampa plant is going to be the most efficient in the company, or else! And if that means hiring the best workers and they all turn out to be white men, that’s tough, you get me? Keep me posted on what’s happening. Good to have you on board.
After some thought, Clark decided to use job posting as a method of attracting professionaltechnical and managerial employees at the Los Angeles office to the new plant in Tampa. He also made the personal contacts Ed asked for in recruiting managerial employees, and the skills inventory was used to come up with more applicants. Clark contacted these also. He did not use job posting or the skills inventory for clerical, skilled, or semiskilled employees. He knew that for Gunther, as with most organizations, these categories of employees rarely wish to (continued on next page)
move to another location. IMost companies don’t want t’ to pay relocation costs for h these categories of a employment, either. r Clark went to Tampa and set up the employment office at the new location. ‘ He ran an ad in Tampa’s F afternoon paper and placed a job listing with a private employment agency for the HR specialist and clerk- a typist for his office.Then he a, hired these two employees p and set up the office to a receive walk-ins. He ir provided application blanks . b and policy guidelines on n when selection would I proceed. Clark listed the available s positions with the U.S. v Employment Service. He also contacted private in agencies. He selected the hi private agencies after calling cc a number of HR managers w in the Tampa area in similar w businesses who were also hi members of the Society of tF Human Resource Management.The HR a specialist notified all the vocational-technical schools, a junior colleges, and colleges t[ Ii L.4 in the Tampa area. Also, all high school guidance counseling departments were notified. Clark wondered what other media he ought to use to publicize the positions. Clark found out quickly, as you will find in this chapter, that recruftment is a little more complicated than he originally thought. Before an organization can fill a job vacancy, it must find people who not only are qualified for the position but also want the job. This chapter descril)es the recruiting process as one of the ways that an organization can deal with shortages in its human resources needs. Recruitment refers to organizational activities that iiifluence the number and types of applicants who apply for a job and whether the applicants accept jobs that are offered. I Thus, recruitment is directly related to both human reour e
planning and selection. En addition, recruiting often represents the first coti— tact between organizations and prospective employees. As such, care should be taken to create a positive hrst impression with these job applications. Although recruitment can be quite expensive, organizations have not always treated it as systematically a other HR functions, such as selection. l)uring the coming years, however, the importance of recruitment will probably increase for many organizations. Even with a modest rise in recession-based unemployment at the beginning of the 21st century. fears of a looming tight labor market in the United States continue to plague organizations of all sizes..2 I)riven by the inevitable retirements of baby hoomers and fewer numbers of young people entering into the work- force, the labor shortage has caused many companies to develop retention strategies to hold onto their valued employees. For example, Hewlett—Packard Co. and Charles Schwab Corp. have preferred freezes or cut pay to avoid layoffs.4 Despite the fact that organizational layoffs reached a 10-year high at the end of the 1990s, experts anticipate a growing number of iabor shortages in high-skills areas. Exhibit 7—1 shows how the recruiting process is affected liv various factors in the environment. The recruiting process begins with an attempt to find employees with the abilities and attitudes desired lw the organization and to match them with the tasks to he performed. Whether potential employees viIl respond to the recruiting effort depends on the attitudes they have developed toward those tasks and the organization on the basis of their past social and working experiences. Their percepnon of the task will also he affecte.l liv the work climate in the organization and the Important interaction of the organization as a recruiter and the employee as a recruit is examined in the next section.
Government and Union Restrictions government regulations prohibiting discrimination in hiring and employment have INFLUENCES 1 direct impact on recruiting practices. As described in derail in (chapter 3, government agencies can and do review the following information about recruiting to see 1 [I organization has violated the law: • List of recruitment sources (such as employment agencies, civic organizations, schools) for each job category. • Recruiting advertising. • Estimates of the employment needs k)r the coming \ear. Source: Kenneth Sovereign (1999). Personnel Law. 4th ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall), pp. 46—51; Gerord Panoro (1990), Employment Law Manual (Boston: Warren, Gorham, and Lamont), pp. 1—10. • Statistics on the number of applicants processed by demographic category (sex, race, and SO on) and by job category or level. • Checklists to show what evidence was used to verify the legal right to work. Although there is no guaranteed way to avoid legal entanglements associated with recruiting, Exhibit 7— 2 provides some basic principles of sound recruiting practices. The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986 has placed a major responsibility on employers for stopping the floW of illegal immigration to the United States. The employer—not the government—is the chief enforcer of the prohibition against the unauthorized recruitment and employment of foreign-horn individuals. ’ Under the law’s “employer sanctions” arrangement, all employers are required to screen every applicant’s eligibility for lawful employment and maintain records demonstrating employment authorization. The IRCA is a complex piece of legislation, but its basic features fit into four broad categories: ‘—i’ Employer’s duty not to recruit, hire, or continue to employ “unauthorized aliens.” 2. Employer’s duty to verify the identity and work authorization of every new employee. ‘L_3 Employer’s duty not to discriminate on the basis of citizenship or national origin. _4. Amnesty rights of certain illegal aliens who are eligible to achieve temporary or permanent resident status in the country. Despite the difficulty that organizations have determining whether a worker is legally employable, the
6.i PS. lENT Publish a list of qualifications necessary to fill the job. and support staff. Do not rely only on word—of-mouth sources (if recruits. . qualifications and desirable ones. attorneys. 3. Distinguish between essential 2. 5.government is currently planning to step up its enforcement of the IRCA. Be sure the job qualifications are applied to every applicant in a consistent manner. Additional money will be spent on hiring more investigators. 4. 1. g wary of establishing qualifications that might directly or indirectly exclude members of protected groi. Labbr Market Conditions Another external environmental factor affecting recruiting is labor market conditions (these were described in some detail in Chapter 2). even informal attempts at recruiting will probably attract Post notices regarding the availability of a job. If there is a surplus of Iabor at recruiting time. but some money will also he devoted to ensuring that legal applicants are not discriminated against because of the stepped-up enforcement activities. Use recruiting sources that will reach the greatest number of potential applicants in the job market. .
html).The talent auction has arrived. Such courses are available from a variety of verdors.com. To remain mpetitive.com/home. and The Wall Street Journal also regularly report on employment conditions . new developments occur almost daily that make the Internet more effective. the Internet is one of the tools being used more and more frequently to satisfy these difficult recruiting goals. It should be kept in mind that in spite of the meteoric e in the use of the Internet for recruitment and job search activities. how many applicants are available also depends on whether the economy is growing.Though little research has been conducted to assess the success of these recruiting innovations. An employer can find out about the current employment picture in several ways. Nielsen. including Recruiting-Online. when full employment is nearly reached in an area.Bid4geeks. However. Obviously.Online includes the following “how-tos”: build a candidate database. the unwary user should not be lulled into believing that the Internet can easily replace other forms of recruiting. the Month/-v Labor Review. organizations in these industries must find new innovative ways to identify. In addition. Various personnel journals. The federal Department of Labor issues employment reports. The largest job posting site in the world.recruitingonline. For example. experts are predicting no end to critical shortages of skilled labor. unemployment in the United States has recently hit record low levels and. take advantage of newsgroups and listservs. www. Chances are virtual recruiting is here to stay.Web postings still only represent approximately 2 percent of all job listings. When companies are not creating new jobs. there appears to be a considerable organizational interest in the concept. Clearly. A. A similar online auction site dedicated solely to high-tech talent can be found at www. These shortages are expected to be especially acute in high-tech industries such as computers and wireless communications. more than enough applicants. despite massive layoffs in some industries. Contract and temporary workers can now register at the website. One way to stay current regarding online recruiting is to enroll in Internetbased courses that teach the latest in advanced online recruiting techniques. Current college recruiting efforts are analyzed by the Conference Board. there is often an oversupply of qualified labor. has added another capability to its Internet services. find resumes of people with any skill set or in any location in the world. skillful and prolonged recruiting may be necessary to attract any applicants who fulfill the expectations of the organization. organizations that do not begin to capitalize on the Internet might soon find themselves at a competitive disadvantage. Course content at Recruiting. and organizations are given the opportunity to bid against one another for a given worker. C. Recently. manage contact with thousands of passive jobseeker candidates. There are also sources of information on local employment conditions as they affect their members. there has been another twist to Internet use in organizational recruitment and selection. and obtain e-mail addresses of employees at companies that are merging or downsizing.As mentioned earlier in this chapter.com (http://www.At the same time.monster. and hire people with the skills needed. which appears in the Journal of College Placement. it is difficult if not impossible for an organization to capture the degree of fit between an applicant’s personality and the organization’s culture from an electronic resume alone. In addition. and the Endicort Report. and state divisi ofls of efriployrnent security and labor usually can provide information about specific types of employees. attract.com.
Contrasting with this unrealistic approach. Then it uses these as its beginning expectations for recruits (see the sections on oL analysis. and the organization’s image. and location of the organization restrict AND THE recruiting options. One of the most significant of these is promotion from within. are good-looking. Fdr all practical purposes. or Alaskan native employees in the workforce depends largely on the availability of these minority employees in the relevant labor market. labor market OF THE RECRUIT conditions. . Hispanic. Recruiting requirements The recruiting process necessarily begins with a detailed oh description and job specification. This can help the organization avoid unrealistic expectations for potential employees: An employer might expect applicants who stand first in their class. It should be made clear to the recruiter which requirements are absolutely essential and which arc merely desirable. Organizational policies and practices In some organizations. Asian or Pacific Islander. the number of African American. The location of the organization and the relevant labor market will play a major role in the CompoSition of the workforce.’ \Xithout these. the nature of the organization and the goals of the managers are highlighted. however. Native American. it is impossible for recruiters to determine how well any particular applicant fits the job. job description. and are willing to work long hours for almost no money. But for those organizations such as Allstate Insurance with the foresight to embrace diversity. and job specifications in Chapter 6). organizational policies and procedures. an aggressive diversity management program will be essential for organizations entering the 21st century. the next step in understanding the recruiting process is to consider the interaction between the applicants and the organization in recruiting. the benefits can be tremendous in terms of outcomes ranging from higher 1ItI’ tfl I I(’tP1 (11crc11l1r ci ticfntiin X INTERACTIONS After considering how external factors such as government. That is. it has become important for an organization to analغze the composition of its workfor . are presidents of extracurricular activities. unions. it must be valued by the organization.IIRM policies and prctices affect recruiting and who is recruited. Regardless of the location of the organization. As far as the applicants are concerned. For diversity management to work. have 10 years’ experience (at age 21). have worked their way through school. Such an analysis is done to determine whether the hrni’s employment practices are discriminatory. composition of the workforce. progressive orgamzations now ul7derstand that effective diversity management is an integral strategic tool for enhancing competitiveness. ORGANIZATION In Exhibit 7—2 (the diagnostic model). their abilities and past work experience affect how they go about seeking a job. As the number of legal requirements has increased.Composition of Labor Force and Location of Organization The influence of FIRM law on activities was noted in Chapter 3. as is the nature of the task. The Organization’s View of Recruiting Several aspects affect recruiting from the organization’s viewpoint: the recruiting requirements set. this policy means that many nrganizations recruit from outside the organization only at the initial hiring level. the effective organization examines the specifications that are absolutely necessary for the job. Due in part to skills shortages. The techniques used and sources of recruits vary with the job.
such a recruit is not necessarily going to nd her or his ideal job. or ex-convicts. Certain organizations have always hired more than their fair share of the disabled. veterans. 0 Thus. These factors affect recruits in two Ways: how they set their job preferences. motor vehicle operators. working in positions that Jo not require a bachelor's degree). They feel this is tair to present loyal employ— ees and assures them of a secure future and a fair chance at promotion. The graduate might also have strong geographic preferences and expectations about salary and may anticipate that advancement will occur rapidly. However.e.Most employees favor this approach. or union restrictions. In such cases. and in administrative support roles. the organization may have to adjust the job to fit the best applicant or increase its recruiting efforts. Others i1ay be involved in nepotism and favor relatives. the limitations of its policies and practices. For example. All these policies affect who is recruited. or the government bureau will not adjust to legislative requirements. Understanding these is vital to effective recruiting.level job openings between NOW and 2008 will nearly equal rhe number of college. Recruits also face barriers to Iinding their ideal job. it should be easier for an organization with a positive corporate image to attract and retain employees than an organization with a negative image. and preferences based on past work experiences and influences of parents. and how they go about seeking a job. All else being equal. attitudes. The techniques used for inrernal recruiting will be discussed later in this chapter. for example. and new employees from outside might be helpful. food preparers and wavers. The business does not compete effectively. and its image. Is promotion from within a good policy Not always. there yill still be approximately 6 million college graduates either unemployed or underemployed (i. such as Coca-Cola or the most recent two— time winner. An organization ma become SO stable that it is set in its vavs. the ideal job specifications preferred by an organization may have to be adjusted to meet the realities of the labor market. If an inadequate number of high—quality people apply. for those organizations that reach the top of Fortune magazine’s “most admired” list. I the time and effort needed to recruit high—quality workers may be less than for competitors who rank poorly. . SO do recruits have a set of preferences for jobs. Although the Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts that the total number of college. A student leaving college generally expects to obtain a job that actually requires college-level education and skills. The incant has abilities. harriers created 1w economic conditions. significant numbers of college radiates will Likely he working as retail sales employees.. General Electric. teachers. and others. Some employers also feel this practice helps protect trade secrets. Preferences of recruits for organizations and jobs Just as organizations have ideal speciation for recruits. Other policies cait also affect recruiting.educated entrants to the labor force. Organizational image The image of the employer generally held by the public can affect recruitment. government. and they may look to these sources first. Recruitment should also be somewhat easier for companies that exude a strong cumulate presence or positive flame recognition. promotion from within may be detrimental. The Potential Employee’s View of Recruiting Exhibit 7—i highlighted several factors relevant to how a recruit looks for a job. In sum.
When the job seeker has decided where he or she will send a resume.’4 As previously mentioned. friends. it is also affected by unconscious processes.. and the Internet. The effective job searcher creates opportunities in a systematic way. choice of an organization might be influenced by corporate image.HRMEM0 Americas Job Fank is a coo perative eflbrt between the U. information gathering. it lists over 1. Do I have sector preference (private. followed by teachers. or public sector)? 3. this decision isn’t always purely rational. Source: ww-w.1 rr. choosing an organization involves at least two major steps. 1. 4. chance. Sources of information include newspapers.chi. Do I have a size preference: small. Then she or he chooses the organization to work for within that broader occupation. medium. and organizational “insiders. or no particular size? 2.S. many factors that influence these decisions. just as the organization must. Have I checked to make sure that the sector. Research suggests that recruiters want to see a resume and cover letter that is tailored to the position . there are many. or service has a good future and will lead to growth and opportunity? Once these kinds of questions have been answered. or large. product. Job search and finding a job: The recruit People who are successful at finding the “right job” tend to follow similar research processes. But a survey conducted by the National Association of Colleges and Employers found that occupational choice is most heavily influenced by parents. networking. hut from the perspective of the applicant. Currently. Additionally.tential employers and jobs.. Information gathering and networking are methods for generating lists of p0. Do 1 prefer working with mechanical objects or counseling people? This is a crucial question.1 Research also suggests that satisfaction with the communication process in recruitment is critical to attracting applicants. however. self-presentation becomes critical. What kinds of industries interest me? This question is usually based on interests in products or services.uir rciinw should include these items. and the limits of organizational policies and practices.” Many questions about possible employers must be answered before a list of alternatives can he generated. career counselors. What factors affect the choice of occupation and organization? Obviously.us/seeker government and union restrictions. It is not always enough to simply be in the right place at the right time. The recruit must anticipate compromises. and successful self-presentation. college recruitment offices. trade publications. personal contacts. interests and values. The assessment is similar to what organizational recruiters will be doing.. An effective job search involves several steps including self-assessment. not for profit. in order of . This information is used later in the search to help the applicant assess whether there is a fit with a particular job offer. From the individual’s point of view. and luck. First.-l : 8 T1. and relatives. many recruits prefer larger. well-established firms over smaller organizations. The purpose pf self-assessments is for job searchers to recognize their career goals and their strengths and weaknesses. 16 In reality. and preferred lifestyles. the job seeker can generate a list of prospective employers using a wide variety of sources including fle\VSpapers. Deportment of Labor and the Public Employment Service.ajb. the individual chooses an occupation—perhaps in high school or early in college. targeting specific jobs. ‘ The job search is a process that begins with self-assessment.4 million job openings for job seekers.
they use an approach called job posting and bidding. An indication that you know something about the organization. The organization can look to sources internal to the company and. Today. In the past. not all job seekers provide truthful resumes. especially since falsification of an application is typically grounds for dismissal. • Successful job seekers also prepare carefully for job interviews. It hen highlights where gaps exist SO the employees know what is necessarY if they wish to be competitive for a given job.2 Once an organization has decided it needs additional or replacement employees. It is difficult. job posting has become one of the more innovative recruiting techniques being used by organizations. characteristics such as these are primary determinants of recruiters’ firm-specific judgments about an applicant’s suitability. But job seekers need to understand that in the long run little can be gained from such practices. interviewers are strongly influenced by an applicant’s interpersonal and communication styles during the interview. To help with this problem. Openings in this organization are . 4. Position you seek. In fact.21 the temptation to embellish one’s own qualifications might be difficult to ignore. 5. however. Unfortunately for the organizational recruiter. It is here that the organization’s choice of a particular method of recruitment can make all the difference in the success of the re •uiti efforts. They do their “homework” and learn as much about the company as possible.24 Amoco’s career management system includes a similar type of job posting program. it must effectively “get its message across” to external candidates. 3.C H A P T E R 7 Recruitment 1. if necessary. for HR managers to be \vare of all current employees who might he interested in the vacancy.2° And with the use of resume databases constantly increasing as an initial screening tool. to sources external to the company. however.’ A survey conducted by Reid Psychological Systems found that as many as 95 percent of college students are willing to he less than truthful about themselves when they are searching for a job. nternaI Recruiting ob posting Organizations can make effective use of skills inventories for identifying nternal applicants for job vacancies. it is faced with the decision of how to generate the necessary applications.22 Although it is not a good idea to present an unrealistic picture of one’s qualifications. Reason you seek employment. Most organizations have to use both internal and external ources to generate a sufficient number of applicants. Whenever there is an madequate supply of labor and skills inside the organization. Your career objectives. Your specific job objectives. OStings are computerized and easily accessible to employees. they use “impression management” tactics to their advantage. A model job posting program was implemented at National Semiconductor. 2. Many companies now see job posting as an integrated component of an eftective career management system. In addition. job posting was little more than the use of bulletin boards and company publications for advertising job openings. Computer software ilows the employees o match an available job with their skills and experience.
Various media are used. or if no great amount of additional work is necessary. executive search firms. “It’s Not Kid Stuff Anymore. Before going outside to recruit. organizations are becoming more proactive in their recruitment efforts. then the person who posted the job is requireti to send the “applicant” specific feedback about why he or she was not selected. Organizations must be careful. the’ advertise for a situation wanted and reward anyone who tips them off about a job.2 ihus.. and television. however. and summer internships are discussed here.S. not to accidentally violate equal employment laws while they are using employee referrals.PA K T II Acquiring Human Resources posted on a worldwide electronic system. especially if the workforce is already racially or culturally imbalanced. it is estimated that approximately 6 percent of all employed people have held more than one job at the same tiIlle. A number of methods are available for external recruiting. Nationally. If an employee applies for a transfer to a posted position and is turned down. found a history of racial discrimination that was related to recruitment. c-recruiting. the most common being help—wanted ads in daily newspapers. Sonic organizations even offer “finders fees” in the form of monetary incentives for a successful referral. the organization can use inside moonlighting.. This case suggests that employee referrals should be used cautiously. Research indicates that walk-ins provide an important external source of applicants. special-events recruiting. Media advertising. “Now you’re au MBA who’s look— . General Mills used its Trix cereal logo to create instant recognition among MBA graduates. Some job seekers do a reverse twist.1 Inside moonlighting and employees’ friends If there is a short-term shortage. As labor shortages increase. The court stated: The practice of relying on relerrals by a predominantly white worktorce rather than seeking new employees in the iiiarketplace for jobs was found to be discriiiinating. in EEOC i l)ctroit Ediso. employment agencies. many organizations ask present employees to encourage friends or relatives to apply. it must turn to external sources to supjilement its workforce. When used wisely. prevention of conflict of interest. a good place to begin is with the corporate image.z (1 975). External Recruiting When an organization has exhausted its internal supply of applicants.2b Moonlighting is so common at some Organizations that HR departments consider issiing “moonlighting policies’ that include the communication of performance expectations.” The copy continued. Organizations also advertise for people in trade and professional publications. Some persons will clearly be motivated to accept the additional work if they are fairly compensated. In developing a recruitment advertisement. Sixth Circuit. referrals of this kind can be a powerful recruiting technique. Court of Appeals. There is also a separate section on college recruitment of potential managers and professionals. For example. it also suggests that it might not be wise to rely exclusively on referrals but rather to use them as supplements to other kinds of recruiting activities. subway and bus cards. telephone. and protection of proprietary information. radio. It could offer to pi’ bonuses of various types to people not on a time payroll to entice workers into wanting to take on a “second job.2X the U. Other media used are billboards. however. Media advertisements Organizations advertise to acquire recruits. The ad featured the Trix rabbit with the headline.
the impact may not be as great. E-Recruiting Perhaps no method has ever had as revolutionary an effect on orgam/ . It’s your Future.itional recruitment practices--as the Internet. Apple Computer’s advertising campaign has been very successful. too many applicants may appear. Look at the questions that could he raised by this ad.ing for a dynamic growth-directed career environment . religion.’’ Ads need to he written to ivoid indicating preferences for a particular race.ads. This is a difficult decision to make in preparing recruitment advertisements. Media must be chosen. job hunters were able to pick up a telephone and hear a three-minute taped recruiting message that included a jol description and details about how to ntact the company. . the advertisement is -een as an extension of the companY. For example. “ Simply using a corporate logo is not enough. According to Forresrer Research of .” urses are there to make sure you don’t get real scared. Effective recruiting ad:ertising is consistent with the overall corporate image. .ce of national origin. I lie headlines—”Nurses are smart and they know how to make you feel better. The ad appealed to nurses’ sense of pride in themselves and their profession. In addition. If the organization’s name is not used and a box number is substituted. Because it’s not kid stuff anymore. ° An innovative way to attract nurses was used in an ad campaign for Children’s 1-lospital Medical Center in Cincinnati.” “Nurses arc kind and hey don’t laugh whet’ you cry”—were written in a child’s handwriting and coinhitied with pictUres of nurses and children in the style of a child’s drawing. in large part because it has achieved this congruence. Want ad recordings were used by 40 companies recruiting engineers and scientists at a New York City convention. Another innovative way to attract prospective employees with particular skills • he use of recorded want. The advertisement shown in Exhibit 7—3 is the type that will care trouble for a firm. and screening procedures for too many people can be costly. HR recruiters find that including diversity in recruitment ads helps to attract more employees from diverse populations. that is. Help-wanted ads must he carefully prepared. and analyzed for impact afterward. it must be representative of the values that the corporation is seeking in its employees. or gender or a particular ::. hut if the name is used. Therefore. At a special recruiting center. however. The ad ran in the Cincinnati Engineer newspaper. coded for -rudy. ads need to comply with EEO requirements and not violate the law. Look to General Mills.
There are other online services. such as CareerPath.37 Organizations are also beginning to see that having their own human resources Web page on the Internet can he an effective a. Current estimates are that over 95 percent of all U.S. • wunv.Dice. A large.corn—Search by career field. the Internet has become one of the most prominent of all worldwide recruiting methods. companies now utilize the Internet for some or all of their recruitment-related activities. Finally.com) in wbch a job is posted for 60 days in a single geographic location at a cost of about $300.com/): • www. From the job seeker’s perspective.3 There are many reasons for the popularity of the Internet as a method of recruitment.com listed 8. and federal employment. Quite obviously. and company. which catalogs more than 100.3 million resumes. keyword. there are approximately 30.Cambridge.corn—Search job postings. Massachusetts.nionster.33 The largest job-placement websites have reported huge increases iii the number of resumes that were posted in 2001. Compare these figures with the cost of using the “post a job express” option at Monster.corn—Search by location.careerpath. while CareerBuildcr. the c-recruiting market in the United States in expected to grow from just $500 million in 2000 to $4. From the organization’s perspective. • www.ahout. location. This c-recruiting option provides almost immediate access to thousands of prospective applicants.corn—Job listings will be identified and sent to personal e-mail addresses. To assist them. see http://jobsearch. job searchers can use any number of the following Internet-based job searching websites (for more information.com—Leading technology job hoard with permanent and contract jobs. there are many other.jobs. • www. it is a relatively inexpensive way to attract qualified applicants. post your resume. It has become such an important source of job search information that GTE Corporation (Verizon) now receives between 20.000 traditional newspaper recruiting ads from large newspapers across the United States in one easily searchable datahas. Monster. Overall.HotJobs.000 and 30. For example.corn indicated that it listed 2.0 million. more specialized online sites that focus on jobs in particular areas such as health care. • u’ww.corn—Search for jobs. • wwttjobson1zne. and salary. job title.com (http://www.FlipDog.000 or more.NationJob.000 different websites devoted in some manner to job posting activities. For example.Com (http://www.ddition to their overall recruitment strategy. A typical organizational home page will provide background .CareerBuilder. and use a salary calculator.000 e-mail resumes each year. using an executive search firm might cost an organization as much as one-third of a position’s first-year salary as a commission. multicolored advertisement in a professional journal can easily cost $10.corn—Search thousands of employment opportunities gathered directly from organizations’ websites. • iuww. seek career advice.5 billion in 2004. and review career resources. the Internet allows for searches over a broader array of geographic and company postings than was ever before possible. higher education. find samples of resumes and cover letters.com).
recruiters sometimes find this tracking process to be a daunting task. speed enhancement. there are legal risks associated with the unbridled use of e-recruiting.Jerry Useem (July l999). “Online and Overwhelmed. recruiters and HR managers are encouraged to use e-recruiting in an appropriate way to increase the attraction and selection r rates of well-qualified individuals.The legal risk is that candidates may assume that they did not get the job due to a discriminatory reason and may file a complaint with the recruiting manager’s supervisor or even the EEOC. . more so than s older individuals. Bill Leonard (August 2000). 70—72. 66—78. Recruiters need to figure out a way to track applicants who apply for online job postings. then company recruiters need to get the message out to those a individuals who are less likely to be Internet-savvy and a use the online job search websites. pp. 36—42. Sources: Gillian Flynn (April 2002).The legal risk to employers is that they do not maintain adequate records and fail to be within compliance of the OFCCP. The Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP) requires companies that do business with the federal government to keep track of applicant flow data (e. there can be a tendency to disclose more information than they typically would using newspaper ads or other more traditional recruiting techniques. In addition. use screening software that searches for (or deletes based on) certain words or phrases.” Fortune. Many recruiters. HR managers and company recruiters need to keep the following issues in mind when developing and executing an e-recruitment program: I.This relative informality in the communication process could lead to the recruiter saying something that could come back to haunt them if the candidate does not get the job. type and number of individuals who apply for different jobs). Make sure the job opening is communicated to large portions of the target population. s Even with the existence of these legal risks.” HRMagazine. Companies are very excited and amazed at the potential cost savings. conduct background checks over the Internet.” Work force. If recruiters don’t use traditional methods of job posting along with Internet-based approaches. 3. and extended worldwide candidate reach such approaches offer. E-mail communication might be too casual. “E-recruiting Ushers in Legal Dangers. Currently. 4. they run the risk of creating adverse impact in their recruiting methods. and manage the entire process with Web-based software. all signs indicate that e-recruiting is here to stay. younger r people will be more likely to be online. Although such innovations are welcomed at a time of skills shortages and pressures to control internal costs..HR JouRNAL E-REcIUJITING: A WONDERFUL TOOL BUT NOT WITHOUT ITS RISKS Many would agree that the Web has revolutionized job 3 hunting and recruitment in the 21st century. in an attempt to avoid being deluged by resumes. As with other important aspects of good management practice. Due to the ease of sending an electronic resume. pp. If the target population for a given opening includes people of all ages. When individuals communicate via e-mail to potential candidates. employers can eIectroncally screen candidates’ soft attributes. pp. Be careful not to inadvertently screen out diverse candidates. interview candidates via videoconferencing.’For Sale Online:You. direct potential hires to a special website for online skills assessment.g. For example. the candidate has written documentation to show what the recruiter wrote.The legal risk can involve either poor selection of resumescreening software and/or using terms that disproportionately eliminate candidates from protected classes.
In contrast.40 some experts claim recruiting costs have been reduced by 80 percent using these methods. it includes AT&T General Motors.4 The realities of the job market of the I 990s have also introduced two new reasons for internship programs. Executive search firms tend to concentrate their efforts on higher-level managerial positions with salaries in excess of $50. most major accounting firms.41 And. some organizations have successfully used special events to attract potential employees. while agencies deal primarily with middle.ships is extensive. provide literature. yes. The use of internships is. Though sometimes challenging to manage in times of higher unemployment. which means that the organization pays them a fee whether or not their efforts are successful. One of the reasons that organizations are willing to pay these higher fees is that executive search firms frequently engage in their recruiting efforts while maintaining the confidentiality of both the recruiting or1ganization and the person being recruited. Ford Motor Company has conducted symposia on college campuses and sponsored cultural events to attract attention to its qualifications as a good employer.39 Special-events recruiting When the supply of employees available is not large or when the organization is new or not well known. It appeals to job seekers who wish to locate in a particular area and those wanting to minimize travel and interview time. Some estimates suggest that nearly one out of every three students at four-year universities will have one or more internship experiences before graduation. The list of organizations using intern. 42 Internship programs have a number of purposes.level management or below. and advertise these events in appropriate media. Finally.000 job candidates in a little under four hours of operation. which means that the organization pays them a fee whether or not their efforts are successful. and so forth. employment agencies and executive search firms differ in many important ways.39 Special-events recruiting When the supply of employees available is not large or when the organization is new or not well known.000. a recent job fair held in Virginia was able to generate 4. executive search firms usually charge higher fees for their services. dramatically increasing. less well known employers. Executive search firms tend to concentrate their efforts on higher-level managerial positions with salaries in excess of $50. expose themselves to talented potential employees who may become their “recruiters” at school.000. agencies are usually paid only when they havc actually provided a new hire. and provide trial-run employment to determine if they want to hire particular people full time.P A R T I I Acquiring Human Resources Employment agencies and executive search firms Although similar in purpose. This technique is especially useful for smaller. some organizations have successfully used special events to attract potential . organizations may have hospitality suites at professional meetings. To do so. First. agencies are usually paid only when they have actually provided a new hire. the life insurance industry. In contrast.level management or below. For example. Most executive search firms are on retainer. companies such as Accenture and BAT Industries (a tobacco firm) actually begin identif Employment agencies and executive search firms Although similar in purpose. while agencies deal primarily with middle.com/ search/cfairs provides current listings of when and where job fairs will be held in the United States. They may stage open houses. They allow organizations to get specific projects done. The website www. Executives also make speeches at association meetings or schools to get the organization’s image across. there is an Internet site to help the recruit. executive search firms usually charge higher fees for their services. many organizations now see them as a way to attract the best people in areas where there are labor shortages.johweh. Most executive search firms are on retainer. One of the reasons that organizations are willing to pay these higher fees is that executive search firms frequently engage in their recruiting efforts while maintaining the confidentiality of both the recruiting or1ganization and the person being recruited. To attract professionals. Finally. A group of firms sponsors a meeting or exhibition at which each has a booth to puhlicie jobs available. schedule visits to headquarters. in fact. employment agencies and executive search firms differ in many important ways. One of the most interesting approaches is to provide job fairs. They may be scheduled on holidays to reach college students who are home at that time or to give people who are already employed a chance to look around. Summer internships Another approach to recruiting and getting specialized work done that has been tried I’v organizations is to hire students as interns during the summer or part time during the school year.
Executive search firms tend to concentrate their efforts on higher-level managerial positions with salaries in excess of $50.johweb. Most executive search firms are on retainer. One of the reasons that organizations are willing to pay these higher fees is that executive search firms frequently engage in thçir recruiting efforts while maintaining the confidentiality of both the recruiting oranizarion and the person being recruited Special-events recruiting When the supply of employees available is not large or when the organization is new or nor well known. executive search firms usually charge higher fees for their services. It appeals to job seekers who wish to locate in a particular area and those wanting to minimize travel and interview time.43 The realities of the job market of the 1 990s have also introduced two new rcaSOflS for internship programs.johweb. there is an Internet site to help the recruit. organizations may have hospitality suites at professional meetings. dramatically increasing.000 job candidates in a little under four hours of operation.41 And. provide literature. Executives also make speeches at association meetings or schools to get the organization’s image across. and provide trial—run employment to determine if the want to hire particular people full time. while agencies deal primarily with middle. it includes AT&T. To attract professionals.com/ search/cfairs provides current listings of when and where job fairs will be held in the United States. It appeals to job seekers who wish to locate in a particular area and those wanting to minimize travel and interview time. schedule visits to headquarters. provide literature. a recent job fair held in Virginia was able to generate 4. A group of firms sponsors a meeting or exhibition at which each has a booth to publicize jobs available. less well known employers. The website www. which means that the organization pays them a fee whether or not their efforts are successful. yes. organizations may have hospitality suites at professional meetings.employees. They allow organizations to get specific projects done. In contrast. Ford Motor Company has conducted symposia on college campuses and sponsored cultural evcnts to attract attention to its qualifications as a good employer. The use of internships is. General Motors.com/ search/cfairs provides . and advertise these events in appropriate media. expose themselves to talented potential employees who may become their “recruiters” at school.40 some experts claim recruiting costs have been reduced by 80 percent using these methods. They may stage open houses.level management or below.ships is extensive. employment agencies and executive search firms differ in many important ways. First. Some estimates suggest that nearly one out of every three students at four-year universities will have one or more internship experiences before graduation.40 some experts claim recruiting costs have been reduced by 80 percent using these methods. This technique is especially useful for smaller. Finally. They may stage open houses. less well known employers. some organizations have successfully used special events to attract potential eiriployees. For example. Summer internships Another approach to recruiting and getting specialized work done that has been tried by organizations is to hire students as interns during thc summer or part time during the school ycar. a recent job fair held in Virginia was able to generate 4. The website www. To do so. agencies are usually paid only when they have actually provided a new hire. Ford Motor Company has conducted symposia on college campuses and sponsored cultural events to attract attention to its qualifications as a good employer. the life insurance industry. yes. schedule visits to headquarters. and so forth. compaiiies such as Accenture and BAT Industries (a tobacco firm) actually begin identif Employment agencies and executive search firms Although similar in purpose. most major accounting firms. many organizations now see them as a wa to attract the best people in areas where there are labor shortages. One of the most interesting approaches is to provide job fairs. To attract professionals. Though sometimes challenging to manage in times of higher unemployment. This technique is especially useful for smaller. Though sometimes challenging to manage in times of higher unemployment. A group of firms sponsors a meeting or exhibition at which each has a booth to publicize jobs available. 42 Internship programs have a number of purposes. there is an Internet site to help the recruit. and advertise these events in appropriate media. Executives also make speeches at association meetings or schools to get the organization’s image across. They may be scheduled on holidays to reach college students who are home at that rime or to give people who are already employed a chance to look around. The list of organizations using intern.000 job candidates in a little under four hours of operation.000. in fact. For example. One of the most interesting approaches is to provide job fairs. They may be scheduled on holidays to reach college students who are home at that time or to give people who are already employed a chance to look around.41 And.
Such disillusioned students become re vers recruiters. mailings. This placement service is a labor market exchange providing opportunities for students and employers to meet and discuss potential hiring. and provide paid work experiences. and in some . the life insurance industry. Seine students expect everything to be perfect at work. in fact. Its major supporters include NationsBank. 42 Internship programs have a number of purposes. The college recruiting process is similar in some ways to other recruiting. a possible future job. At the placement service. They allow organizations to get specific projects done. but that organizations will be careful about controlling expenses. The list of organizations using intern. expose themselves to talented potential employees who may become their “recruiters” at school. companies such as Accenture and BAT Industries (a tobacco firm) actually begin identify talented students in their senior year in high school. it includes AT&T. usually called a recruiter. it is a short form of some co-op college work and study programs. and so forth. those seeking employment register at the college placement service. Summer internships Another approach to recruiting and getting specialized work done that has been tried Lw organizations is to hire students as interns during the summer or part rime during the school year.4 All this suggests that college recruiting will continue to play an important role in organizations’ overall recruitment strategies. Many companies claim that they want to he more aggressive in recruiting minorities but say that the competition for talented people is severe. In a way. To help. they get negative impressions about the organization they have worked for. GE Capital Services. and SO forth. There are costs to these programs. Inroads Inc. However. During the recruiting season (from about mid-October to mid-March).44 A second new reason that organizations are using more internships is to improve the diversity of their recruitment efforts. the organization sends an employee. College recruiting There is a growing gap between the skills that organizations will need over the next several years and those currently possessed by potential employees. But the major prob1cm some organizanons have encountered concerns the expectations of students. Coinciding with the visit. time-consuming. recruiters generally believe that college recruiting is me of the most effective ways of identifying talented employees. they reserve preliminary interviews with employers they want to see and are given brochures arid other literature about the . When it is not.ships is extensive.4 From i-be student’s point of view.4” An internship can also mean real work experience for the student. and their work is not always the best.current listings of when and where job fairs will be held in the United States. provides students with approximately 600 paid internships each year. help them with college expenses. and AT&T. most major accounting firms. NCR. College recruiting can be extremely difcult. First. earning course credit hours. The organization may also run ads to attract students or may conduct seminars at which company executives talk about various facets of the organization. for example. a chance to use one’s talents in a realistic environment. Some estimates suggest that nearly one out of every three students at four-year universities will have one or more internship experiences before graduation. to a campus to interview candidates and describe the organization to them. Sometimes the interns take up a lot of supervisory time. To do so.4 The realities of the job marker of the 1 990s have also introduced two new rcasons for internship programs. and provide trial—run employment to determine if they want to hire particular people full time. and expensive for the organization. dramatically increasing. Nonetheless. The use of internships is. candidates are advised of scheduled visits through student newspapers. Their hope is to develop a lasting relationship with these talented young people. in college recruiting. cases. General Motors. In the typical procedure. bulletin hoards. of course. Inroads has working relationships with organizations in 33 different states. of Saint Louis locates and places high-performing minority students in internship programs. assuming that it is less well organized than others in the field. the summer internship means a job with pay. brochures and other literature about the organization arc often distributed. many organizations now see them as a way to attract the best people in areas where there are labor shortages.
The candidate then decides whethetto accept or reject the offer. Characteristics they want most in the recruiter are friendliness. Students infer indifference if the recruiter’s presentation is mechanical. They must he outgoing. . “The company might justas well have sent a tape recorder. and truthfulness.r flaws students have found in typical recruiters include the following: Lack of interest in the app1iant. The recruiter is seen as a primary example of the kind of person the organization values and wants to attract in the futUre. They want to be evaluated for their own acomplishments. For example. family.” Lack of enthusiasm. like most people.49 The effective college recruiter Various people influence the applicant during the process of choosing a job: peers. he or she is given an offer before leaving the site or shortly thereafter by mail or phone. One student reported. good recruiters also possess welldeveloped interpersonal skills because part of their responsibility should be to determine why job offers are accepted or rejected by candidates. Students prefer recruiters who have work experience in their specialties and have some personal knowledge of the university they are visiting. depending on the current labor market. knowledge. Good recruiters convey’ an image and appearance that reflects fa1vorably on the organization. their parents. They. Many of the changes are designed to reduce overall recruiting costs while maintaining a strong flow of applicants into the organization. First. The trcnd seems to he for an organization to develop a stronger. For these reasbns. The recruiter is the filter and the matcher. the one who is actually ‘seen by the applicants and is viewed as an exte4. Intervieu’s that are stress ful or too persona1 Students resent too many personal questions about their social class. ongoing relationship with a relatively select number of schools. This reduction is. and it may reduce the size of that list even further—down to as few as 10 or 12 schools—for its recruiting activities in engineering. They are entertained and may he given a series of tests as well. The organization bears all expenses. students infer that he or she represents a dull and uninterestingcompany. In addition. One of the most important influences remains. friends. the recruiters need to be able to determine whether the applicant will fit into the value system of the organization. however. and obviously good salespeople. in part. organizations are becoming more creative in their use of colleges and universities. Students’also have preferences for specific behavior during the recruiting interview. Finally. made possible by Monsanto’s increased activity in internship programs. and programmed. As with other forms of recruiting. also unanimously reject stressful or sarcasth interviewing styles. spouse. and professors. fcirat least two reasons.4X Some bargaining may take place on salary and benefits. however. applicants want to discuss opportunities with someone they perceive to be knowledgeable about the company.sion of the organization. Monsanto recently cut the size of its university recruiting list by 50 percent. selfmotivated. the recruiter. Second. recruiters must be carefully chosen• b the organization.Students who are invited to the site are given more job information and meet appropriate potential supervisors and other executives. personal interest in the applicant. bureaucratic. If the recruiter seems bored.’° MajG. Some’ ipplicants prefer enthusiastic and knowledgeable communicators. and so forth. recruiters should be very familiar with the company they represent. If the organization wants to hire an individual.
Researchers have found that most recruiters give general. the job is presented as attractive.on. source: Adopted from John P.0] TRADITIONAL PREVIEW REALISTIC PREVIEW CONSEQUENCES Sets initial job expectations too high. w job survival.52 A realistic job preview provides the prospective employee with pertinent information about the job without distortion or exaggerat. Recruiters do make a difference when they do riot present themselves well. canned history of the company.” Personnel. Many of the questions the recruiter asks applicants are answered on the application blank anyway.Wesley). and so forth. ‘Tell It Like It Is at Realistic Job Preview. assets. However. pp. 53—86. Work experience disconfirms expectations. most jobs have some unattractive features. glowing descriptions of the company rather than a balanced or truthful presentation. as suggested in Exhibit 7—4. john P Wonous (july—August 1975). Work experience confirms expectations. interesting. High rate of acceptance of oh offers. infrequent thoughts of quitting. Although they can and do make a difference. matched to needs. warts and all. The final criticism of recruiters has to do with how much rime they talk and how much they let applicants talk or ask questions. thoughts of quitting.CH A P T ER7 Recruitment 2 0 7 . Research suggests that recruitment can he made more effective PREVIEWS through the use of realistic job previews (RJPs). satisfaction. dissatisfaction. needs matched to job. DPREEVEW Job is typically viewed as attractive. When they do so. 54. they can have a negative effect on applicants even when the job and the organization are both appealing. In this case. Good recruiters are not going to guarantee success in filling positions. however. sonic reject job offer. “Dissatisfaction and realization that job is not Satisfaction. Some jobs are all of these things. applicants’ decisions are affected more by characteristics of the job and the organization than they are by particular characteristics of recruiters.51 It is important for recruiters to provide realistic expectations about the job. pension plans. much of the recruiter’s time is wasted if it includes a long. number of employees.ber of people apply. Job may or may not he attractive. Orientation. there is significantly lower turnover of new employees. REALISTIC JOB . Wanous (992). frequent High job survival. Sonic accept. From the point of view of the applicant. and the same nurn.1 The RJP presents the full picture. products. In traditional job previews. Organizational Entry: Recruitment. on individual’s needs. branches. and imulating.1 EXHIBIT 7-4. and Socialization of Newcomers Boston:Addison. p. depending stimulating. Time allocation by recruiters. and challenging. Sets oh expectations realistically. . Other research also suggests that recruiters may have very little positive influence Ofl an applicant’s choice.
Military Academy have used and reported on the RJP. These findings suggest that RJPs can be used as an inoculation against’disappointment with the realities of a job. sometimes called “staff sourcing. Employees hired after RjPs indicate higher satisfaction. Overtime can also provide employees with additional income. and routine human resource management functions for the client company.” involves paying a fee to a leasing company or professional employer organization (PEO) that handles payroll. there is no conclusive evidence supporting the effectiveness of realistic job prcviews. Continuous overtime. Although it seems clear that RiPs can have beneficial effects. Texas Instruments. Studies conducted at Southern New England Telephone. However. short-term basis. Prudential Insurance Co. however. at present there is still uncertainty as to why RJPs have the effects they do and in what contexts they are likely to be the most effective. But while small businesses can expect to save from 15 to 30 percent of benefit costs such as health insurance premiums by using leased employees. has often resulted in higher labor costs and reduced productivity. and increased absenteeism. Leasing is especially attractive to small and midsize firms that might not otherwise be able to afford a full-service human resources department.Exhibit 7—4 presents the typical consequences of traditional previews versus realistic previews. Overtime When a firm faces pressures to irleet a production goal.57 Temporary Employment One of the most noticeable effects of the downsizing epidemic and the labor shortages of the past two decades has been a dramatic rise in the usc of temporary employees. employce benefits. there are potential problems: fatigue. Employee Leasing Employee leasing. at least six leasing companies have gone bankrupt. Historically. it may mean that employees need to work overtime. having some employees work overtime may be an alternative to recruitment. and the U. An organization’s human resource plan may suggest that additional or replacement ALTERNATIVES employees are needed.4 The results indicated that: Newly hired employees who received RJPs have a higher rate of job survival than those hired using traditional previews. RJPs can set the job expectations of new employees at realistic levels. leaving approximately 36. care must he exercised in choosing a leasing company.000 workers and hundreds of small businesses liable for millions of dollars associated with health care and other workers’ compensation claims.S. By having employees work overtime. an alternative to recruitment may be used. because of the cost and permanence of recruiting TO RECRUITMENT individuals. In recent years.. though. increased accidents. At this stage of development. temporary employment agencies were seen only as sources of . organizations avoid the costs of recruiting and having additional employees. However. On a limited. RJPs do not reduce the flOW of highly capable applicants.
including professional. and higher executive positions. Sc luded The pay and working conditions offered at the r Tampa plant were competi.n ing numbers of applicants: Managerial positions 68 hi Professional-technical I 0 Clerical 78 Skilled employees 110 Semjskilled employees 720 Clark notified Ed of the results. the leading C I.’’ The major advantages of temporary employees include relatively low labor costs. and a suburban paper in an area c near the plant. he had the follow. the organiza‘n can divide the number of job acceptances by the number of campus interviews compute the cost per hire at each college. He chose commuter times to run the C radio ads. The temporary worker can ye in and out of the firm when the workload requires such movement. This unfamiliarity detracts from their commitment to organizational and departmental goals. technical. or 100 machinists. semiskilled clerical help (luring peak work periods. nearly 7.58 There are. the leading black newspaper.The job was now to select the best applicants. In college recruiting.’ H I. The methods of recruiting that are used Lw a company can he evaluated along :ariotls dimensions. He also investigated the ti leading radio stations and c selected the one that had in the highest rating of the top M three and the lowest commercial cost. an easily accessible source of experienced labor. such as the effectiveness of recruiters. or a compensation and career plan.The advertising Sl approach was innovative. COST-BENEFIT Many aspects of recruitment. Effective selection and hiring are the subjects of Chapter 8. Li Hispanic paper. Then it drops from the list those cain— [“uses that are not productive. the Orgafli/atloli can calculat the cost of each . Sources of recruirs can also be evaluated. A disadvantage of hiring temporary help is that these individuals do not know the culture or work flow of the firm. Clark knew that would be no easy job.Clark Kirby got prices of ads from all the Tampa papers. including suburban and ethnic papers. Today. in fact. a goal for RECRUITING a recruiter might be to hire 350 unskilled and semiskilled employees. In addition. “just—in-time” employees can be found staffing all types of )obS in organizations. and flexibility in responding to future changes in the demand for workers. For example.000 temporary employment agencies across the United States that have been in business for more than one year. can be evaluated. Then the organization can decide who are the best recruiters. On this basis. or 100 managerial employees per year. After Clark’s recruiting C campaign. training. ANALYSIS OF Organizations assign goals to recruiting by types of employees. or 100 technicians.s tive.60 The cost advantage of using temporary help sterns from the fact that the organization does not have to provide fringe b nefits. he chose the ajor Tampa afternoon aper. He also discussed the impact and readership of the papers with the human resource managers he’d befriended. They may he those who meet or exceed quotas and those whose recruits stay with the organization and are evaluated well by their superiors..
the HR department does the recruiting. Recruiting is the set of activities an organization uses to attract job candidates who have the abilities and attitudes needed to help th organization achieve its objectives. . To summarize the major points covered in this chapter: 1. affect them in two ways: how they set job preferences.The passage of 3. Two sources of recruits could be used to fill needs for additional employees: present employees (internal) or those not presently affiliated with the organization (external).g. and the location of the organization. Some caution must he exercised with the quality-of-hire measure when evaluating the recruitment strategy.PART I I Acquiring Human Resources method (such as advertising) and divide it by the benefits it yields (acceptances of offers). Another aspect of recruiting that can be evaluated is what is referred to as the quality of hire. or job market conditions that have nothing to do with the effectiveness of the recruiter. teachers. attitudes. where. good. Three factors affect recruiting from the organization’s viewpoint: recruiting requirements. and others. and the organization’s image. External factors that affect the recruiting process include influences such as government and union restrictions. This measure can provide management with an assessment of the quality of new employees being recruited and hired.6% The 66 percent quality-of-hire rate is a relative val-ue. fair. moonlighting by present employees. and how. the state of the labor market. in smaller organizations. the composition of the labor force. 4 on a 5-point scale or 20 items x 4) HP = percent of new hirees promoted within one year (such as 35 percent) 1-IR = percent of hirees retained after one year (e.6 I The quality—of—hire measure is calculated as follows: QH = (PR + HP + HR)/N where where QH quality of recruits hired PR = average job performance ratings (20 items on scale) of new hirees (e.. 2. Applicants’ abilities. 35 percent) N = number of indicators used Therefore. suggested the importance of recruiting. 5. A good new employee can he driven away by a lack of opportunities for promotion. 66. and preferences. The organization can also examine how much accurate job information was provided during the recruitment process.g. multipurpose HR people or operating managers recruit and interview applicants. or poor level.. based on past work experiences and influences by parents. a. and shown who recruits. 4. Performance ratings and promotion rates are all bey()nd the control of a recruiter. and how they go about seeking a job. organizational policies and procedures. the quality-of-hire measure can provide some insight into the recruiter’s ability to attract employees. 6. Internal sources can be tapped through the use of ‘ob posting and bidding. Nevertheless. = This chapter has demonstrated the process whereby organizations recruit additional employees. inequitable performance ratings. In larger organizations. It will be up to management to determine whether this represents an excellent.
special-event recruiting. Visit three different job search websites. Caree rPa th. while rhe Facts 1)etroits labor force was 59. Sixth Ci. 138 F3d \X’arren’s labor force was compnscd of 0. The City of Warren.corn online recruiting realistic ob preview recrii itillent 1. personal recruiting. 4ichgan. What are the relative strengths and weaknesses of promotion from within as a recruitment technique? HRM LEGAL ADVISOR Based on U. The African American labor force in the remainder of Macomb County was 1 3 percent. in. v. Advertising. b. temporary employees. App. What role do job descriptions and job specifications play in an effective recruitment program? 4. Considering that there are millions of resumes posted on the Web. 9. 211 a. 7.S. what steps should recruiters follow to screen out unqualified candidates in a fair and nondiscriminatory manner? Explain your answer. In Flie city of Warren. d. Describe a realistic job preview. The Internet is revolutionizing organizational recruitment and may become the primary job search tool in the coming years. External sources include walk-ins..7 percent African American. What guidelines should be followed to make sure that recruitment advertising does not violate equal employment laws? Give some do’s and don’ts in recruiting interviews in terms of the legality of questions asked. II.-—. Showing a genuine interest in the applicant.. A better job of recruiting and matching employees to jobs will mean lower employee turnover and greater employee satisfaction and organizational effectiveness. How can it be used to reduce turnover? . Allotting enough time for applicants’ comments and questions. applicants. c. Americans. computerized matching services. Discuss how the Internet has changed recruiting. and employee leasing. . Alternatives to recruiting personnel when work must be completed include overtime. recruiting employees.S.£.cum e. Michigan. referrals from schools. 1. Being enthusiastic. is located in Macowl’ County. . S.. and state employment offices.C H A P T E R 7 Recruitment and seeking recommendations from present employees regarding friends who might fill vacancies.3 (U.2 percent African 108. Search for a job in a particular region of the United States. \Varren placed advertisements in three adiaccnt to l)ctroit. (enus reports in 1980 indicated that newspapers that were circulated primarily in 1acomb .Which of the three websites is most useful to job seekers? Explain your answer. What are the characteristics of an effective and an ineffective college recruiter? 10.. and summer internships are among the methods that can be used to recruit external II. Employing a style that is neither too personal nor too stressful. What has led to an increased use of temporary employees in organizations? What are the major advantages of using temporary employees? 6.recruiting ciuployce leasing eiuploynicnt agencies executive search rms lmmigrarionReform and Control Act (1RCA) of 1986 job posting and bidding job search Monster.: 1998). 10.
24—30. and Gary j. “External and Internal Recruitment. 414—427. Justin Fox (March 2002).” Anzcrican Demographics. I)C: Bureau of National Affairs).).” Busines:. 2 Aaron Bernstein (May 2002). As a result.S. 73—102. Wairen required applicants for all lobs except police and firefighters to be residents of Warren. 34—35. &Ite Ann Stead. pp. Shari Caudron (September 1999). 64—67. “Corporate Image. Lautcnschlager (April 1993). “I)iversity Management: A New Organizational Paradigm. Wayne F. Cascio (ed. the U.” Business Week. 61—7b A Competitive \X’eapon. the court held that “Warren’s limitation of its applicant pool to the residents of the overwhelmingly white city. produced a de facto barrier between employment opportunities and members of a protected class. Robert I). alleging that they potentially discriminated against African Americans on the basis of race. pp. “1)o I Really Want to Work for This Company?” Across the Board. pp. (. 1999). Hatch. James A. After its investigation indicating that Warren’s residency requirement and recruiting media had an adverse impact against African Americans. Human Resource’ Planning. 153.” Managenu’nt Review. 267—268ff. Jacqueline A. Barlow. 72—79.” Journal of Business Ethics. Gowan. Alexandra Harkavy (july—August 2000). J. Breaugh 1992). Department of Justice notified the City of Warren that it planned to initiate an investigation of Warren’s recruiting practices.” A cadem of Management Journal.” Business Horizons. Supreme Court has indicated that a company’s proper geographic recruiting area should include locations from which applicants or employees are likely to commute. Employment.” Public Personnel Alanagement. 14—19. pp. combined with its refusal to publicize jobs outside the racially homogeneous county. John Ivancevich and Jacqueline Gilbert (Spring 2000). “Recent Legal Decisions Affect You. p. pp. Companies should consider general commuting patterns as well as public transportation availability in determining where to recruit employees. pp. Diane D. Recruitment: Science and Practice (Boston: Kent). . “The Immigration Reform and Control Act Demands a Closer Look. “America’s Most Admired: What’s So Great about GE?” Fortune.” Human Resource Implications A basic assumption of this case is that the City of Warren should have been recruiting employees from the greater Detroit area. Employers may avoid discrimination problems related to recruiting by ensuring that its internal and external recruiting tools are unbiased and sufficiently reach the company’s qualified labor market. 46—52.County and placed job postings in municipal buildings. & Placement (Washington. “Pop Quiz: How Do You Recruit the Best College Grads?” I’ersonnel Journal. the city’s municipal workforce was approximately I percent African American. Jeremy Kahn (October 11.” Personnel Journal.S. “The Looming Leadership Crisis. 42—44. In February of 1986. “A Smarter Squeeze. “The World’s Most Admired Companies. “Engagement or I)isengagement? Older Workers and the Looming Labor Shortage. Gatewood.” Personnel lournal. Additionally.” Further. “Iooniing Labor Shortages. pp. pp. and Initial lob Choice Dcci Sions.” Work force. “Too Many Workers? Not for Long. Dean Foust (Decen her 2001).” Fortune. Warren did not advertise municipal jobs in Detroit newspapers. “I)ivcrsitv Man. 4. pp. Mary A. Scott Lord (1989). 151 .illiaii Finn (Sepn’mher 1995). Glenn McEvoy and Mary Jo Blahna (September—Octobcr 2001). Ivancevich (August 1999). pp. Gilbert. 126—130. pp. and Betty Southard Murphy (April 1996). pp. the United States filed a suit in district court alleging race discrimination under Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act. 142. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit ruled that the’ disparate impact theory of discrimination was applicable to any “facially neutral pohcv with a discriminatory effect to Title VII. 2 Gillian Flyim (August 1995). 75—92. pp. Recruitment Image.igement: Time for a New Approach. Peter Fraiiccse (ovcmhcr 2001). The U. The City of Warren argued that sparate impact analysis was not applicable to recruiting cricea The Court’s Decision The U. and John M. pp. Week.S. p.” in Wayne F. pp.
fl.” Acade.” HRMagaz.” Training. “Do You Need a Moonlighting Policy?” HRMagazine. cit.” Management Review. pp. “Beware College Grads Willing to Lie for a lob. Bewayo (May 1990). David Bowman and R. “Resume Databases to I)ominate Field. AP Online.” Personnel.58—79. 68—(). 9—12. 29 EEOC v.” Journal of Busmess Communication.” Journal of Management.” Time. cit. 229—237. ° Edward 1).30—34.” HRMagazine.12—18. “What College Recruits Expect of Employers. Cascio (ed. 25 Sara Rynes and Barry Gerhart (Spring 1990). Chad Fleetwood and Kristina Shelley (FaIl 2000). and Laurie Levesque (2001). Einplo’. p.” Mana. 2d . 107—114.301. “Resume Preparation: An Empirical Study of Personnel Managers’ PerLeptions.n. 4 21 Bill Leonard (April 1993). Sixth Circuit (Cincinnati). Andrew Bargerstoek (August 1 990). ‘ Matthew Mariani (Spring 1996). Detroit Edison Company (1975). Q: Hou’ Do I Find the Right Job (New York: Wiley).” Personnel fourizal. pp. “Employers Use \Veb to 12 rr. 363—381. Court of Appeals. “Diversify Your Recruitment Advertising.s. 59—60. “Recruitment Ad Vantages.’nient. Shirley Duglin Kennedy (July—August 1996).” Personnel Psychology. “Need a New lob? (jet to Work on the Web.. 76—80. “1 he Outlook for College Graduates. Telephone. 2 Marlene Piturro (JanLiary 2000). “The Relative Influence of Interview Communication Satisfaction on Applicants’ Recruitment Interview Decisions. pp.n. “Job Fair Challenges for HR.rt . op.fl. ° Martha Frase-Blunt (April 2002). 4 22 Sandy Wayne and Robert Liden (February 1995). 0 Ruth Thaler-Carter (June 2001). “External and Internal Recruitn1ent.’cuunt Rei’u’u’. 33—37.S. “6 1)cgrees of Hire .” 1-IRMagazine. 2(1 Elaine McShulskis (August 1997). 4 2 ilan Moravec (September 1990). 62—66. 38—39.” HRMagazine.). pp. Steven M. pp. p. pp. pp. Watson (June 1995).” HRMagazine.” Personnel fournal. pp. 13—36. pp. ‘The Power of E-cruiting. 10.” Vocational Gi. pp. “E-Recruiters Swim through a Sea of Resumes. “ Jeffrey Kluger (June 2002).” in Wayne F. 26 Bill Leonard (J lily 1997).. 31. “The Amoco Plan. 25 Marc Hequet (April 1995). “Effective Job Posting Fills Dual Needs. DC: Bureau of National Affairs). 1999). 2 Carolyn Hirschrnan (October 2000). 28. 22—24. 45—47. Jon Swartz (February 19. ° AP Online (D. pp. pp. 50 Jennifer Koch MarcIi 1990).” USA Today. 33—37. pp. “The Intern Turnaround. p.r. 1999). Ralston and Robert Brady (january 1994). 73—102. pp. pp. pp.ne.” ( )ccupatiunal ( )utlook Quart e’ilv. “Low Cost Recruiting for Quality. 51SF. 61—77. 1998—2008: A Balancing Act.” Information Today. . 46—54. “10 Tips for Getting Net Results. Human Resource Plannin’. pp.ember 3. I 213 Piturro. 2001). “Pumping Up Your Past. “Rate of Moonlighting among Workers Holds a Steady Pace. 92—100. J. (December 3.’enzent Journal.idance Journal. op. “Recruitment: Apple Ads Target Intellect. 2—9. ° Bibi S. pp. pp.n(. IN Hubert Field and William Holley (March 1976). “Students Offer Views on Career ( lmices. Samuel Greengard (March 1996). and Face-to-Face Media oil Interviewer and Applicant Judgments in Employment Interviews.” Personnel Journal. “Interviewer Assessments of Applicant ‘Fit’: An Exploratory Investigation. Kweskin (1990).” HRMagazme. pp..nv of Manal. Scott Lord (1989). Jeffrey Miles.” ()cczipatuozal ( )utlook Ouartcrlv. “Effects of Impression Management on Performance 4 Ratings. U. pp . pp. “The Effects of Videoconference. ‘ Steart Deck (March 2000). and Placement (Washington.. p.. 3B. 232—252. 16 Susan Strauss.” HR Magazine. 29 Margaret Magnus (August 1986).
16—17. pp.—. op.. “Realistic Job Previews: A Critical Appraisal and Future Research Directions. Andrea Poe (May 2000). pp. 73—76. pp. 1996). Rosalind Resnick (November 1992). George S. John Poison (Spring 2002). pp.ç’.” Personnel Journal. “From Santa to CEO—Temps Play All Roles. Dipbove (Winter 1990). T. 132—140. Therese Hoff Macan and Robert L.” f’ersonnel Administrator.” Training.. 20—28. pp.” HRMagazzne. 9—12. p. “Giving It the Old Cullege Try. 32—35. pp. “The Realistic Job Preview as a Persuasive Communication. 7L25. “Comprehensive College Strategy Strengthens NCR’s Recruitment.II c . 9. 1 8—20..amer ($pring 2002). 50—54. “The Relationship of Interviewers’ I’reinterview Impressions to Selection and Recruitment Outcomes. Brenda Paik Sunoo (April 1996). Terpstra (May 1996). “Crushed Hopes: When a New lob Proves to Be Something 1)1 ffercnt. Phillips (December 1998)..” Employee Relations Law Journal. Popovich and John P.” Journal of Applied Psvcholog. pp. “Eniplovers in Rush to Capture Young Talent.1. Jean M.” Personnel journal. and James A. pp.. Wanous (October 1982). “Trust and the Role of Professional Erp1oyer Organizations: Managing HR in Small and Medium Enterprises. Rrian Kiass. 745—76 8. “Effects of Realistic Job Previews on Multiple Organizitioial Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis. cit.Learning. “Looking for Young Talent? Inroads Helps Diversify Efforts.” HR Focus. . pp. jilly Welch (September 12. PP 78—85. 570—578. pp.. Joe Willey (Winter 1993). Jnhn Botidreau and Sara Rvnes (March 1987). and Thomas C. “Face Value. pp..” W/ork/orce. I ç P. SS Steven L. “Leasing Workers. 34—36.” HR Magazine.” Personnel. Larry Reibstein (June 10. “College Recruitment: What Attracts Students to Organizations. pp.” Academy of Management Review. 706—719. Brenda Paik Sunoo (April 1999). Premack and John P. 86—87. “Temp Firms Turn Up the Heat on Hiring. pp.” Academy of Management foidYlhil. 34—44. 58—62. [)avid E.” Human Resources Professional. 61 This measure was developed by Jac Fitz-Enz (1984) in Hou’ to Measure Human ResOurce Management (New York: McGraw-Hill). “The Search for Effective Methods. pp. 1987). Susan Taylor (May—June 1984). °‘ Dawn Gunsch (September 1993). Breaugh (October 1983). Bergman and M.” Academy of Management Ret’ieu pp.” TI. pp. Watson. W7 . 6 73—6 90... 612—6 19..” journal of Managerial Issues. Michelle Neely Martinez (March 1996).. pp. 31—48.” Nations Business. “The PEO Phenomenon: Co-Employment at Work. “A Meta-Analysis of Realistic Job Preview Experiments. pp. “Employee Leasing Comes of Age. pp. Pp. Wanous (December 1985). 60—68. Odiorne (July 1990). Thomas .” Personnel Psycholo. i.” Cio. “Beating the 1990s’ Labor Shortage. I . John McClendon.” Personnel Management.
For example. coordinates campus recruiting. RECRUITMENT ADVERTISING An increasing number of companies are supplementing and even replacing the traditional classified ad with creative. 46—54. For example. between traditjqn and technology . and flexible form of recruiting.This specialist is contracted on a temporary basis to •erform recruiting functions for different job openings.cement. Recruiters can also serve as external. One such ad is entitled “Net Gain:’ Featuring a tennis racket and tennis balls in a partly closed briefcase. and performs any number of contractual recruiting responsibilities. These self-employed specialists are becoming popular because they can provide several benefits to client companies. regularly calls on contract recruiters to help the company handle its 15 to 20 percent yearly growth. For example. .” The stuffer describes job opportunities.Their means: i vative recruiting approaches that bring imagination and a essiveness to a company’s overall recruiting function.” The Saint Paul Medical Center has developed a series of one-word headline ads that promote certain themes such as “Cornrnitrnent’ (describing the center’s commitment to patients’ care and employees’ career development) and “Balance” (“Between caring professionals . prepares and executes formal offers. Inc. Rather.. General Dynamics has declared.. “W’e’re looking for another Edison . and accomplishments..Their goal: to boost recruiting efficiency(reducing recruiting costs per hp-e). a recruiter can be quickly brought in to handle the suddenly burdensome task. Pizza Hut places recruiting coupons on its carry-out boxes. Lockheed Missile & Space Company makes a point-of providing employees with truly comprehensive recreational programs and facilities.. And another Newman” (Howard Newman.The recruiter screens resumes. the text says. and et?%preneurial opportunities.”Even you-know-who rested on the seventh day. Other users have found the strategy to be a low-cost. eoyment security.employed and is paid at an hourly rate negotiated with the client company. the recruiter is self. Use of Employees in Ads instead of the traditional testimonials.”Contract Recruiting Comes ofAge. 55—58: and Margaret Magnus (February 1987). .The success of point-of-purchase ads has eliminated Quik Wok’s use of classified ads. compliments profiled employees and their colleagues. pp. . 49—53. And another Hardison’ (electrical engineer Cor’ine Hardison).resume form for prospective applicants who don’t have resumes.nneI journal reviewed several hundred ads submitted by subscribers and reported some trends in this type of advertising.” Personnel Journal. Like many employee-spotlight ads developed by other companies. pp. when a new position needs to be filled. CONTRACT RECRUITING Companies in fast-growing industries are seeking the expertise of a relatively new type of external specialist: the contract recruiter.They set up the system. g about their skills. “If you want a good job. Featuring a drawing of a large lead pencil. Newman’s accomplishments and long tenure with the company and then urges those interested and qualified to “join Howard. eye-catching ads. clever. this series portrays the corporation as a place where very talented and dedicated people work and reach their potential.J. “Campus Recruiters Upgrade Their Pitch. GTE turned to 12 contract recruiters who became an instant employment department. suddenly found itself with a Department of •efense contract requiring 1. Here is a look at innovations in several areas. Scott Lord (November 1987). between performance and opportunity”). conducts telephone and in-person interviews. When a company is undergoing exceptionally fast growth with immediate hiring needs. Point-of-Purchase Recruitment A growing number of service companies with high turnover in low-skill jobs are recruiti9g using pointof-purchase ads. Lockheed Miss. 3. apply for a position with us.200 professional employees to be hired in 16 months. and then trained their replacements before departing 16 months later. cive freedom. completed the task. Massachusetts. IThey include: I. one of General Dynamic’s senior project engineers). He or she is not affiliated with an employment agency and does not receive a commission or a percentage of the hiree’s salary. a growing number of HR departments are changing the ways they recruit.The cosmetics manufacturer Helene Curtis.” The coupon provides a mini. Promotion of Intangible Benefits In cases where a job is highly attractive and thus doesn’t need promoting. they simply distribute the bag stuffers. pp. pp. more company ads are spotlighting employees. Inno ations are occurring in several elements of the recruiting process. bag-stuffers that picture a broken fortune cookie and proclaim “Not everyone will have the good fortune to work at Quik Wok. (s Your Recruitment All It Can Be?” Personnel Journal. the ad suggests.The Quik Wok Chinese food take-out chain uses Written by Kim Stewart and adapted from: Bob Martin (August 1 987).” In some other ads in the series. objective advisers to the company’s human resource function.” the company published its nursing salaries. when GTE in Needham. The recruiting is performed without hiring permanent (and later unnecessary) staff. Who knows You might become the next Newman. .Maury Hanigan (November 1987).The ad’s text showcases Mr. highly efficient. . “Along with a diverse and challenging project list. General Dynamics has run a series of ads that. one ad headline in the series proclaims.”Personnel Administrator. by comparisons with great inventors.” Personnel Administrator. 2.In a time when many companies are cutting costs across their operations. . “We’re looking for another Newton • . Pers.le & Space Company has run a series of sports-related ads that promote company benefits. . . employers have turned to emphasizing certain intangible benefits of the company such aportunitiesfQç adva. For e pie.. “Recruitment Ad Ventures. These ads are essentially a company’s resume and cover letteidesigned to send ainique and memorable message about the company to sought-after prospective applicants Recently.Washington University in Saint Louis uses creative advertising to promote its flexible work schedules. Some contract recruiters develop expertise in certain employment fields (such as electrical engineering or computer software design). 54--63. jobs. get the lead out. in the pursuit of technology excellence and discovery. and in one ad entitled.
COMPUTER DATABASES Computer databases are being developed as job and resume data banks.Companies with hiring needs in these areas benefit from the specialists’ contacts and highly focused capabilities.catching ads. Rather than providing the traditional. companies are finding that recruiting on college campuses has become very competitive. very general brochure on the company. But before getting too satisfl. EMPLOYEE REFERRALS Lastly. information on cost of living and community recreation facilities).red?And who should do e hiring? The HR specialist had done some preliminary screening. the plant manager. Macy’s brings professors to a showcase store where the educators spend a day observing trainees and meeting with managers. which it is hoped will be communicated to students.The fee: $75 for 90 days’ access to the network. Rather than select recruits from the placement office’s resume file. Demand for these individuals is currently very high. A growing number of companies are aggressively promoting referral campaigns with special themes and prizes. c JobNet. For example. Job Stores. Some college placement centers are also establishing computer databases to link students with prospective jobs. allows job hunters to place their resumes in the network at no charge. But where should he go from there Clark called Ed Humphrey. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS I. he realized that there wa a big job ahead of him. Companies are also paying more attention to the quality of their on-campus interviewers. Clark Kirby and his assistants had recruited 986 applicants for the 596 positions Gunther would have at its Tampa plant. more individualized publications that provide information on particular jobs and departments and information on the community where a prospective applicant would work (for instance. such as how recent the resume is. Some companies are also refining their recruitment brochures. As a result. such as Citibank. Many referral programs are periodically given a boost with new bonuses and new themes. f Job Stores’ franchises focus on job openings that companies ii usually don’t fill via employment agencies.What are the potential strengths and drawbacks of this approach to recruitment advertising? 2. firms are now developing smaller.. and asked if he wanted to be involved in the hiring. More companies are producing recruiting videos for show on campus. a job hunter can tap the Job Stores Network computer database by obtaining a computer printout on job openings in the local area and nationwide.onalassociations and societies. has developed a franchise chain of “stop and shop” employment centers located in high-traffic shopping malls. and to develop executives’ relationships with certain schools. has established Job Search. Organizations such as Texas Instruments also provide executives as guest lecturers at several universities. C Companies pay a fee for access to the database. and exclusive contracts with over 20 profes. For example. What type of company (in what kind of industry) would benefit most from contract recruiters? What type would benefit least? 3.The network provides job listings (up to 20 lines each provided by companies) and is available for all students. Assess the effectiveness of a recruitment advertising strategy that relies on imaginative. hire professors to lecture in the company’s training programs. Invitation letters to a campus interview are personalized. Referral bonuses run the gamut from money and trips to time off and credit used to “buy” items from a special catalog. For example. which has over I million resumes of technical professionals onhine. Firms are mindful of the impact that a word-of-mouth reputation created by an inconsiderate. supply is limited. providing their recruiters with training in communications skills. Any company can list its job openings on the net. many are launching strategies to both boost their offer-acceptance rates and lower their recruiting costs. a computer database of job information. Some companies hire the same recruiters time and again.Which 596 of the 986 should be . eye. often explaining why the company is interested in that particular student. Develop a recruiting strategy that addresses innovations discussed in the case and includes your own ideas. More firms are establishing programs that educate professors more fully on the company’s career opportunities for graduates. highly visual. advertising. Inc. uninterested recruiter can have on a company’s campus recruiting efforts.ed. Pennsylvania. And many firms are replacing the form rejection letter with one that is more tactful and considerate. and most of the applicants had completed an application blank. Career Technologies runs the network and obtains resumes via job fairs.A company can search the database by specifying any of a number of criteria. finding that the subsequent knowledge of the company’s recruiting needs and functions that the recruiter acquires helps to further reduce per-hire costs. the Career Connection Company of State College. In seeking participation from businesses.s work at no charge. Suppose you are faced with the task of developing a college recruiting strategy for obtaining talented business school graduates with degrees in management information systems (developing and managing a company computer information network). Other companies. These actions are designed to enhance the professor’s knowledge of the company. another computer database network. At any center. companies are adding pizzazz to the widely used employee referral and bounty system. some companies are identifying a number of students in their junior year and focusing efforts on these select recruits. Ed said that he had time to choose only his top management . CAMPUS RECRUITING With declining college enrollments and growing demand for recruits with college degrees.
We’ll begin by examining the factors in the internal and external environments. selection is the search for an optimal match between the job and the amount of any particular characteristic that an applicant may possess.2 Thus. employees’ satisfaction. Compounding the problem uf developing an effective selection system is the fact that the goal isn’t always to find applicants who have the most of a given quality. performance does not refer simply to quantity of ‘urput. it is highly unlikely that a selection system can effectively cope with all possible objectives. Rather. For example. however. Thus. and career development. such as quality of output. :)nsidering current environmental conditions. selection involves making many decisions. all selection programs attempt to identify the applicants who have the highest chance of meeting or exceeding the organization’s standards of perormance. Selection is the process by which an organization chooses from a list of applicants the person or persons who best meet the selection criteria for the position available. It can also involve other objectives. Selection is a vital and continuous process in an organizaton. he will follow a selection process infhienced by many actorc. decisions about whom to hire must also be made efficiently and within the boundaries set forth in equal employment opportunity legision. Although this definition emphasizes the effectiveness of selection. depending on the job.team. a Clark was faced with r making 596 selection l decisions. it is possible for an applicant to he too socially skilled if the job doesn’t require high levels of such skills. Ed r reminded Clark that the company didn’t want them c to raid other plants—that c was simply against company s policy. absenteeism. Clark said he knew 1 that and would abide by c company policy. As this chapter I shows. Or.’ This situation can easily lead to the selection of overqualified candidates. As a result. more intelligence isn’t always better than less. In this case. Employee selection is important because the goals of the organization can be accomplished only if the right match is made between the person and the job. At a basic level. .The rest was up to Clark. heft. Ihese tactors are highlighted in the diagnostic model in Exhibit 8—1. ic of the initial tasks involved in developing and implementing an effective selecrn process is for the organization to identify which objective is most important for As Clark Kirby sets out to hire 596 employees. there are actually multiple goals associated with an Organization’s 5Cion process.
complex selection systems are most often found in larger organizations with the economic resources necessary to pay for such systems. Size alone.Environmental Circumstances Influencing Selection Internal environment A number of characteristics of the organization can influence the amount and type of selection process it uses to hire needed employees. however. complexity. there must be a suftcient number of jobs that need to be . Size. doesn’t deteriiiine how selection is approached.Since the development and implementation of large-scale selection efforts can 1w very costly. and technological volatility are a few of these. For an organization to recover the costs of developing an expensive selection system.
when unemployment rates are low. 10/10. from a performance perspective. therefore. when there is an oversupply of qualified applicants. are affected by economic. Those who work in human resource management evaluate the effects of the labor market on selection decisions by using a selection ratio: number of applicants hired Selection ratio = total number of applicants Consider Clark Kirby’s problem at Gunther. • At the core of any effective selection system is an understanding of what characteristics are essential for high performance. 400/720. a number of states provide past employers with more protection against being sued by a former employee because of information that may have been divulged during checking of references. or 1:1. the goal of . Any or all of these state-specific issues can affect the selection system that is ultimately used. skilled. At a basic level. With a lower selection ratio. for example 1:2. and availability of local labor markets. more likely that employees who fit the organization’s criteria for success will be hired. It is also. because that list of characteristics should have been identified diirig the process of job analysis and should now he accurately reflected in the job specification. composition. In structurally complex organizations with many job titles hut very few occupants. however. have imposed much tighter limits than others Ofl an organization’s ability to test applicants for drug use. One of the most significant environmental influences on selection is the size. semiskilled. selection strategies can be very different. or about 1:2. As the number of applicants increases relative to the number who are hired. Many organizations have elaborate internal job posting programs (as was discussed in Chapter 7) designed to help fill as many job vacancies as possible from within. Some states. When the selection ratio gets close to 1:1. for example. It is. social. the selection ratio is said to he low. the process becomes more detailed. While these two models of filling job vacancies will have some overlapping selection processes. The selection ratios are as follows: managers 38/68. Similarly. and political pressures on a community. A ratio of 1:2 also means that the organization can he more selective in its choice than when the ratio is 1:1. it is called a high selection ratio. hut there are •ny state-specific regulations that also affect what an organization can and cannot do in its selection system. On the other hand. the selection process is short and unsophisticated. 44/78. it may he difficult for an organization to identify.C H A P T E R 8 Selection filled. These. Another characteristic of the organization that is an important determinant of the kind of selection system it develops is its attitude about hiring from within. although it may not he effective. or about 1:1. or about 1:2. each will also focus to some extent on different criteria and different techniques: External environment The external environment is an equally important determinant of the kind of selection system that an organization utilizes. attract. clerical. Thus. Under these circumstances. Not only are most organizations subject to federal employment laws and regulations. the number of years needed to get back the money invested in such a selection system may be too great to justify its initial expense. likely. that the Organization will have to invest more time and money in the selection decision when the ratio is 1:2. or almost 1:2. in turn. other organizations look more quickly to external supplies of new employees. 104/110. and hire the number of people it needs. This is where the critical role of oh analysis in selection becomes most apparent. professional/technical.
physical. Their reasoning is that a prospective employee who has performed the job before and is applying for a similar job must like the work and must be able to do the job well. be needed to assess these qualitatively different KSAOs. motor. and interpersonal skills. writing. A large number of cognitive. In addition. employers often consider experience to be a good indicator of ability and work-related attitudes. the selection system must he capable of disi:inguishing between characteristics that are needed at the time of hiring. abilities. To he legal. arithmetic. Studies found that employers were more likely to hire and pay better ages to taller men. and airlines chose flight attendants and companies hired receptionists on the . many employers consciously or unconsciously used physical characteristics (including how an applicant looked) as a criterion. Formal education An employer selecting from a pooi of job applicants wants to nd the person who has the right abilities and attitudes to be successful. Research supports these assumptions. such as accounting or management. For certain jobs. and other personal characterjstics. the criteria typically used by organizations for making selection decisions can be sunimrized in several broad categories: education. Experience and past performance Another useful criterion for selecting employees is experience and past performance. Over a large number of studies. should two applicants applying for a job as an internal auditor he given the same credit for previous work experience if both have five years in the accounting profession but one has been an auditor for another organization and the other a tax specialist for the IRS? Physical characteristics In the past. those that are systematically acquired during training. educational standards such as these must be related to successful performance of the job. on the job. One of the more common cost-effective ways to screen for many of these abilities is by using educational accomplishment as a surrogate for or summary of the measures of those abilities.” Not all previous experiences are equally good predictors of performance on a given job. although this is unfortunately not always true. it usually is safe to assume that anyone who has successfully completed high school or its equivalent has basic reading. at school. Different selection criteria may. For example. and so on. experience.3 But the organization must have a rational basis for defining what it means by “relevant experience. that the grade point average b higher than some minimum. and those that are routinely developed after a person has been placed on the job. and that certain honorshave been achieved. For example. The employer might also prefer that the degree be from certain institutions. Many selection specialists believe that past performance on a similar job might be one of the best indicators of future performance. Additionally. the employer may stipulate that the education (especially for college-level requirements) is in a particular area of expertise.any selection system is to accurately determine which applicants possess the knowledge. indeed. skills. and other characteristics (KSAOs) dictated by the job. experience is related to job performance. and interpersonal attributes are present becauseofgenetic predispositions and because they were learned at home. Categories of Criteria With these potential differences in mind. Care must be exercised not to set standards that are higher than actually required by the job. physical characteristics.
7 As with other personal characteristics. It is probably . however. con— scientiousness and emotional stability have been shown to predict performance across most occupational groupings. Rather. age. this is when the median age in the United States will he 40. selection using any aspect of personalty should always he based on whether it is really necessary for high performance. and so on. extroversion. Personal characteristics and personality type The final criterion category is a catchall that includes personal characteristics and personality types. recent findings on personality tests have been much more positive regarding the link between personality and job performance. Many jobs fall between these extremes. women. This issue will certainly become more important by the year 2010. Although education and past experience are often used as measures of ability. Some employers have. For example. agreeableness. Known as emotional stability. For example.h Of the five dimensions. minimum and maximum age restrictions for jobs can be used only if they are clearly jobrelated. be legally used for hiring a telephone reservations agent for an airline.an workers will be legally protected by the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA). for example. On the other hand. many organizations also try to assess whether applicants possess certain aptitudes.4 Certain specific aptitudes and skills can also be considered part of this category of criteria. In a similar way. has sometimes been used as a criterion. such as being a lifeguard. a successful applicant for pilot training in the military does not need actual flying experience. Many employers also prefer to hire people with certain personality types. While it is illegal to discriminate against people who are over the age of 40. and handicapped people. By that time.6 years. visual acuity (eyesight) would he a physical characteristic that could he used to hire commercial airline pilots. the Big Five describe behavioral traits that may explain up to 75 percent of an individual’s personaliry. may require essentially no consideration of an applicant’s personality. since a single person might be more ely to accept a transfer or a lengthy overseas assignment.variation against ethnic groups. These can be used as selection criteria only when the job involves tasks that require them. one particular aspect of personality—such as being outgoing—may be useful for salespeople. there is no federal law that specifically addresses this issue for younger people. the organization wishing to use personality as a criterion must he certain that successful and unsuccessful employees can he distinguished in terms of their personalities. Thus. sex. Personal characteristics include marital status. Thus. Age. candidates for a job cannot he screened out by arbitrary height. Many personality measures run an even greater risk of being legally challenged as an invasion of privacy than other kinds of selection tools. For this reason. too. other employrs might seek out single people for some jobs. or similar requirements. and conscientiousness. openness to experience. they are now illegal unless it can be shown that a physical characteristic is directly related to effectiveness at work. the military uses spatial-relations aptitude as one criterion. . age should be used as a selection criterion only after very careful thought and consideration.5 Much of this change can be attributed to the development and validation of the Big Five personality factors. Although once viewed in an unfavorable light due to perceptions of low preJictive validity. or others who work extensively with the public. However. me jobs. more than half of all Ameri. For example. weight. preferred “stable” married employees over single people because they have assumed that married people have a lower turnover rate. It might not. caseworkers.
physical and medical testing. There are many ways of assessing validity but all of them focus on two iSSUeS. there is still considerable debate whether general. the primary concern is whether the assessment technique results in accurate predictions about the future success or failure of an applicant. When a measuring tool relies on the judgments of people (such as in an employment interview). work sample tests of present skills. In this way. In this latter case. Reliability The main goal of selection is to make accurate predictions about people. The reliability of a selection tool can he judged in a variety of ways.P A R T I I Acquiring Human Resources unwise to use personality asa general criterion for screening out “undesirable” applicants. all of which are assumed to be reliable. but you would have a fairly good idea. The alternatives are numerous: application blanks and biodata forms. En part.9 Reliability and Validity of Selection Criteria Once an organization has decided upon a set of selection criteria. Both legally and organizationally. 6 feet 6 inches. interviews. If these decisions are going to be correct. In practice. the measures that it yields must also be valid. they become meaningless. Once the measurements become too inconsistent. since the same personality characteristic that leads to failure in one job might lead to success in another. imagine that your three attempts yielded values of 6 feet. it is not sufficient for it to be repeatable or stable. and 5 feet 4 inches. one common way to assess reliability is to correlate the scores of applicants given the same test on two different occasions. a measuring tool can still he useful if it is only somewhat unreliable. The point is that although reliability is rarely perfect. you may not know the applicant’s exact height. This is called test-retest reliabilit. The organization wants to make its best guess about who will he a successful employee. and checks of previous experience through references. II In selection. imagine that you tried to use a tape measure to determine how tall an applicant for a job as a refighter was. 6 feet 1/2 inch. broad personality measures or more specific ones are the best to use in selection. the organization can avoid hiring the wrong person for a job. reliability is often determined by using interrater reliability. Validity For a selection tool to be useful. Alternative-form reliabilit’ is determined by correlating scores from two alternate forms of the same test. and 5 feet II / inches. however. Most standardized academic achievement tests like the SAT and the GMAT have numerous forms. psychological tests of aptitude and personality. 0 As a simple example. If you measured a given applicant three successive times and obtained values of 6 feet. Reliability refers to how stable or repeatable a measurement is over a variety of testing conditions. This refers to the extent to which two or more interviewers’ assessments are consistent with each other. a technique for assessing each of these must be chosen. the main purpose of selection is to make decisions about people. because there are both minimum and maximum height restrictions for the job. the organization must be certain that the information is both reliable and valid. . In other words. An applicant’s score should not vary much according to which form of the test he or she happens to take. Regardless of the method chosen for collecting information about applicants. you would have virtually no idea how tall the applicant actually was. Validity addresses the questions of what a test measures and how well it has measured it. On the other hand. because of this fact. the techniques used for making them must yield reliable information.
tabular data) using the same kind of typewriter or word processor that would he encountered on the actual job. The test must measure one of those constructs. interview. The Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures have established three stringent requirements for demonstrating the construct validity of a selection technique.C H A P T E H 8 Selection To illustrate these two issues and the relationship between validity and reliability. construct validity rather than content validity is appropriate. a set of professional standards developed by a committee of members from the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP). we cannot see leadership. for instance. For example. then the test is said to be content-valid. To summarize. however. it will yield totally Llseiess information. Because traits cannot be directly observed. and put to the use for which it was actually intended. this tape measure might he perfectly reliable and an accurate way to measure height. Finally. the tape measure may no: have been calibrated properly at the factory where it was made (the manufacturer may have thought it was marking in feet and inches when it was actually using centimeters). leadership style. Even if the tape gives the same measurements (high reliability). (2) construct. there must be evidence that the test validly measures leadership. however. As noted previously. it will be almost impossible to accurately determine the applicant’s height. or ability to perform the job is called content validity. let’s return to our example of measuring the frcfghter applicant’s height. Such a test can roughly replicate conditions on the job. construct validity cannot be established in a single study but can be assumed to exist only on the basis of a large body of empirical work yielding consistent results. Thus. A job analysis must systematically dene both the work behaviors involved in the job and the constructs that are believed to he important to job performance. if the measurement is too unreliable. The applicant can be given a typical sample of typing work under “normal” working conditions. A detailed explanation of the various strategies for determining the validity of election tool can he found in the Principles for the Validation and Use of Peronizel Selection Procedures. For evample. it must be reliable. Content validity The degree to which a test. 4 I. we can only assume that it exists from the behavior someone displays. knowledge. such as . or performance evaluation measures the skill. Content validity is not appropriate for more abstract job behaviors. dership potential. then it will be impossible to determine his or her correct height. are brief descriptions of three types of validity that the HR specialist should be familiar with: (1) content. scores on the test might correlate with leadership . A test therefore has construct validity when ii actually measures the unobservable trait that it claims to measure. it might still have very little accuracy (validity). In selecting a project manager. and (3) criterion-related. When selection procedures inye the use of tests to measure leadership characteristics or personality. hut if you try to weigh applicants with it. For example. the applicant would be asked to type a typical piece of work (letter. If the content of the typing test is actually representative of the work that is done on the job. An example of a content-valid test is a typing test for a secretarial position. internal memo. or work ethic. 2. If so. Construct validity A construct is a trait that is not typically observable. valid.12 The following. for a measuring tool to be useful.
‘ Two popularly used types of criterion-related validity are predictive and concurrent. The employer first must wait until it has hired a large number of people for whom it has predictor scores and then until it can obtain meaningful measures of job performance for the people who were hired. Assess the strength of the predictor-criterion relationship (typically by calculating a correlation coefficient). In concurrent validation. there are several potential problems associated with the use of concurrent validation. the first step is to administer the tests to present employees performing the job. Concurrent validity is also used to determine whether a selection test can predict job performance. or whatever the organization deems most relevant. The steps in a predictivevalidity study for a given test are: 1. For example. First. absenteeism. this method uses experienced employees. For some jobs.’5 The organization must exercise care in choosing a measure that best reflects the actual contributions of employees to its effectiveness. supervisory ratings. the choice of a criterion is’at the very heart of determining whether a selection system is legal. performance measures for thes employees are also collected. Select individuals for the job. the performance score is referred to as a criterion. However. They are puzzled by the request to take a battery of tests and often wi11 not provide honest answers or . 2. but it does have drawbacks. it must be shown that leadership ability is correlated with job performance for the position of project manager. such validation will be biased in favor of applicants with experience. Wait an appropriate amount of time and then collect measures of job performance.ratings given to other employeCS in other organizations Upon previous administration of the test. Administer the test to a large sample of applicants. At approximately the same time. The test scores are then correlated with the performance measures. If experience is important in job performance. present employees often balk at completing tests. accidents. sales. That is. The test is called a Predictor. The construct must be related to the performance of critical work behavior. 3. or to use such data collected by another test to support the claim of construct validity. If the test is significantly related to performance. 3. Predictive validity is an important form of criterion-related validity. it is usully less expensive than predictive validation. 4. it would be a candidate for future use with applicants in the selection process. Scores on a test or performance in some simulated exercise are correlated with measures of actual on-the-job performance. Not all criteria can be predicted equally well from any particular type of selection tool. Criteria relevant to personnel selection include measures such as quality or quantity of output. the time it takes to determine who is a good employee can he long. Predictive validity is determined by using the scores obtained from a sample of applicants for a job. it is necessary to conduct a criterion validity study between leadership and job performance. Criterion-related validity The extent to which a selection technique can accurately predict one or more imp(’rtanr elements of job behavior is referred to as criterion—related validity. However. It is actually preferable if the test whose validity is being measured is not used in the hiring decisions. The biggest advantage of concurrent validation is tlat it can be conducted relatively quickly. Therefore. Second.
For example. there is likely to he a restriction because the least skilled and least able workers have been terminated. Today. Third. Among present employees. Despite these potential problems. may he performed concurrently or at . concurrent validation can be an effective method for assessing the validity of certain kinds of selection tests. This series is not universal. In the past. it should not automatically be used as an alternative to predictive validation simply because it can he done more quickly. At each step.their best answers. The selection decision is usually perceived as a series of steps through which applicants pass. It is important to note that few organizations use all steps. selection is viewed as much more than simply relying on Intuition. for they can he time-consuming and cxpensive and some steps. such as 3 and 4. or transferred. as do some private. there is a self-selection bias that can restrict the range of test scores. Decisions were THE SELECTION PROCESS based on the subjective likes or dislikes of the boss. government employers test at step 2 instead of step 3. or more applicants accept other job offers and drop from the list of applicanfs. The organization should carefully analyze its circumstances before choosing which of the methods to use. more applicants are screened out by the organization. selection was often thought to be an easy decision.’7 However. Exhibit 8—2 illustrates a typical series of steps for the selection process. the most skilled and most able have been placed in more responsible jobs.and third-sector employers. demoted. Selection tools were designed to aid this gut reaction.
the more each step is likely to he used formally. A BIB usually contains many more items than a . they help protect the organization against unjustified lawsuits. care must be taken that the application blank does not directl or indirectly violate federal or state laws related to employment discrimination. color. vary in length and sophistication. application blanks can he a useful initial screening tool for jobs that require some type of professional certification (e. A potentially useful supplement to the traditional application blank is the biographical information blank (131B). by allowing interviewers to focus on other kinds of information (e. Step I: Preliminary Screening The most common first step in any selection process usually involves asking an applicant to complete an application form. or disabilitie. organizations must never forget that they are subject to the same legal standards as any other Selection method. natural origin. Nearly all application blanks ask for enough information to determine whether the individual is minimally qualified for the position.g. by reducing the number of applicants that need to be interviewed and. For example. asking applicants for the year in which they graduated from high school can narrow down their age to within one or two years. especially information related to sex. Application blanks. Although application blanks can he very useful selection tools. Generally speaking. the application blank can eliminate the need for subsequent interviews to gather this information.. First. regardless of where the’ appear.. or both agree to resolve all grievances against the organization through arbitration and mediation rather than through a lawsuit. first. The same guidelines hold true for Web-based or online applications. the application blank is not an appropriate place to gather most information of this kind.g. personality. communication skills) that is perhaps more difficult to obtain. Three of the more common clauses that now appear on application blanks and in employee handbooks cover (1) applicant’s rights as they relate to the organization’s hiring practices. the more important the job. and second.’9 The application blank should not he designed in a way that forces applicants to reveal irrelevant information about themselves. a teaching certificate). but examples of the wording currently h’ing used by organizations appear in Exhibit 8—3. Some terms of these clauses appear in employee handbooks as well. as these are typically referred to. or simply that he or she graduated? Currently accepted application blanks also generally limit questions that imply something about the applicant’s physical health. In this way. Thus. For example. With a dramatic increase in the number of lawsuits being filed against organizations for “wrongful termination” and with an erosion of organizations’ right to hire and fire whomever they wish. (2) the scope of an employment contract. age. The purpose of the clauses. the employee. religion. they help ensure that applicants and employees understand the terms of their employment relationship with the organization. Care should be taken to ask only for information that will help the organization make a better job-related assessment of the applicant.about the same time. Is it important to know in what year someone graduated. Since a physical exam should be given only after a conditional offer of employment. is twofold. race. second. The legal subtleties of these clauses arc too complex to cover in detail at this time. This makes the selection process far more efficient. many organizations arc now adding very important clauses at the beginning or end of their application blanks. and (3) (one of the newest) grievances: a statement indicating that the applicant.
It you are disabled and need reasonable forms of accommodation in order to complete this application blank or any other component ot the application process. or cancel any pokes or practice that pertains to your NKS employment without advance notice. and ±2 for a large difference. high and low performers who currently work for the company are compared on a variety of characteristics (e. or disabi litv status except where there is a bona fde occupational qualihcation. You further agree that should you submit any controversy or claim to arbitration tinder this policy. a common BIB item asks applicants to list their favorite subjects in high school.2 Another ariarion to the traditional application blank is the weighted application blank. they will he provided. The company retains the right to change. age. To develop the scoring system for a weighted application blank. years of experience. For example. In accordance with this policy. The weights are then totaled for each applicant. A zero may be assigned for “no difference. Applicants who are judged as minimally qualified on the basis of the application blank will then proceed to the next phase of the selectim process. . depends on its ability to differentiate the performance of good and poor workers on the job in question. Any written or oral statements by an agent of this company that contradict these policies are invalid and should not be relied ott.g. and the one with the highest score is the preferred choice. a recent research study found that BIB items can account for incremental predictability of key performance variables bed that accounted for by incumbent experience on the job.” ±1 for a small difference. education. BIB items are based on an assumption that these prior behaviors and experiences will he strongly related to an applicant’s future behavior. however.. Mandatory Arbitration Clause By signing this application blank. your employment wi11 be corsidered “at will. Weights are assigned to the degree of difference on each characteristic. religion. national origin. Recent research indicates that BIBs can help to predict job performance in certain instances. you agree that any controversy or claim arising out of or relating to your application and/or if you are offered and accept employment with this company. color. you agree to abide by and perform any award rendered by the arbitrator(s). all vacancies will he llcd by qualied candidates without regard to race.THE NOT-SO-FINE PRINT OF MODERN APPLICATION BLANI Statement on Affirmative Action-Equal Employment Opportunity It is the policy of this company to afford all applicants the right to equal employment opportunities. an application form that is designed to be scored more systematically and is more like the BIB. Use of i:he responses to an item such as this assumes that people who preferred English will perform differently on a given job from people who preferred science or math. typical application blank and asks for information related to a much wider array of attitudes and experiences.11 For example. and general mental ability. without having to give cause or ustihcation to any cinpk)vee. only the president of this compa ii y can a mend this policy.. The next step will often be one or more interviews and/or additional employment testing. your employment contract or breach thereof shall he settled by arbitration administered by the American Arbitration Association in accordance with its applicable rules. Whether such an item should he included on a BIB. suspend. and so on) that were known at the time they applied for a job. sex. relevant Big Five personality constructs. Recognition of these rights is a conditin of employment for anyone accepting a job offer from this company.” It can therefore terminated at any time and For any reason not expressly ohihited by state or federal law at the discretion of the company. modify. Statement on Employment at Will If you are offered and accept employment with this companY.
there is no attempt to guarantee that applicants are asked the same questions. Types of interviews Employment interviews vary along at least two important dimensions: how structured the interview is and whether it focuses on historical information about the applicant or attempts to place the applicant in hypothetical situations to assess how she or he might respond in the future. personality characteristics.25 An example of this type of interview question would be “Thinking back to your last job. substantial research over the past 30 years indicates that structured interviews. how would you go about finding that information?” Responses to this and other hypothetical questions are then scored according to their appropriateness for the job. a scoring form similar to the one shown in Exhibit 8—4 will be used by the interviewer for recording applicants’ responses. In addition.27 The first. mat. and Campion. tell me about a time when you resolved a conflict with a customer?” Follow-up questions would include “What was the outcome?” and “How did you control your frustration?” The . Typically.24 Duiing the st ied mTëT7tew.Step 2: Employment Interview Other than application blanks. Two strategies for making the most out of an interview are (1) structuring the interview to be reliable and valid.23 Because interviews are so widely used to select new employees. an applicant for a pharmaceutical sales position might be asked “If one of the physicians in your sales territory asked you to provide supporting research and other documentation regarding the efficacy of a new drug. However. asks applicants to relate actual incidents from their past relevant work experience to the job for which they are applying. In recent years. SI questions encourage applicants to respond to hypothetical situations they might encounter on the job for which they applied. BDIs are based on the assumption that the past is the best predictor of the future. but it achieves this goal in a different manner. they must maximize their potential for identifying qualified persons. in turn. covering such topics as verbal-nonverbal behavior. When used by some highly skilled interviewers. This. the interview is definitely the selection technique host often encountered by persons applying for a job in the United States. . will generally be more reliablid an unstructured mt rviëws. the interviewer does not have a scoring protoLsol either.sjtupional zyzterview (SI) also seeks to identify whether an applicant possesses relevant job knowledge and motivation. Questions are not prepared in advance.29 For example. These questions should have been generated with the aid of a thorough job analysis in order to identify specific types of information sought during the interview. the topic of interviews has generated hundreds of research studies over the past 20 years. Morgenson. ih iiirrviwrh sasi a thz1ist of questions to ask of all applicants. and (2) training managers to use the best available interviewing techniques. interviewer-interviewee similarity. and preinrerview impressions (for a complete review. should lead to less differential impact on women and minorities25 and a better chance for the organization to successfully defend itself if it happens to be sued. impression management. An unstructured interview has no predetermined script or protocol.22 Not surprisingly. 2002).26 The second dimension along which interviews can vary is whether they focus on ast ex erience and behavior or on hypothetical future behavior. see Posthuma. regardless of their specific for-. the unstructured interview may lead to useful insights about an applicant. the behavioral description interview (BDI). two types of structured interviews avee erd anZf lnepopulirity in the United States. The importance of structure in the interview is further underscored by the fact that standardization should lower the possibility that intentional or unintentional biases hel yr the interviewer will affect the outcomes of the process.
S. Cover isil positions._.0] STRUCTURED EMPLOYMENT INTERVIEW FORM—EXECUTIVE POSITION Date ______________________________ 19 — Name ______________________________________________________ Date of birth _______________________________ Phone no._. self-reliance..C H.itnrits nod niotivation..vmcnr Act and relevant [1. Sal-aty at leaving Host much responsibility has applicant had? Any indication iii a mhiiioit? Superior Title ___________________ What is he/she like? _____________________________________________________ Did applicant get along with superior? .Hos/ closely does (or did) he/she supervise you? What authority do (or did) you have? ______________________________________________ Number of people you supervised What did they do? _______________________________________________ Is applicant a leader? Responsibility for policy formulation Has applicant had managemetit responsibility? To whar e*rent could you use initiative and judgment? Did applicant actively seek responsibility? Rating [jj Comments: In inak cog final rating. branch _______________________________ Date _____________ 19 — to ___________ 19 — (Not to be asked in Nc’sv jerses I ______________ 19__. why nor? ______ Were you hospitalized in the service? Are you drawing compensation? Yes. Starring salary Will applicant’s previiius experience be helpful on this job? In what way did the job change? i-las applicant made good work progress? Narur of work at leaving --___________________________________ . IAST OR PRESENT POSITION Company From _________ 19 ______ to ___________ 19 _____ How was job obtained? ____________________________________________ Whom did you know there? — ____________________________________ Has a pplicanr shown self—reliance in getting ribs? Nature of wnrk at start __________________________________________________________________ . Present address .? Yes. ahili tv to get a long with others. No_ Are you einploed now? YesD NoD (11 yes) How soon available? ______________________________________ ‘OChar are relationshirs with present employer? Why are you applying for this position? Is his/her underlying reason a desire for prestige. be sore to consider tilt unIv what the applicant can perseveranc i-._. ... . A P T E R 8 Selection 2 3 I . are at least 4)) but less than 65 rears oi age.ro ________ 19_. This information is very important. < ti iM . Every month since leaving school should he accounted for..City State _____________ How long there? ___________________ Were you in the Armed Fortes of the U. _______________ The Age I >iscrlmination in the Enipli. or earnings? WORK EXPERIENCE. Iovalt. industry. Interviewer should record last position first. --— Interviewer: job considered for: . security... Experience in Armed Forces should be covered as a job (in New Jersey exclude military questions). ni.. If nor.1 EXHIBIT 8-4. dii nit also his/her sialiilitv.. leadership..I’ Acts prohibit discrimination with respect to individuals whc.
10. I Training for interviewing Despite recent optimism about the validity of employment interviews. 4th ed. Generally speaking. 8. Making an evaluation of the applicant within the first minutes of the interview (first impression error).1. properly designed training programs do seem capable of reducing many of the errors found in traditional unstructured interviews. 11. Allowing one or two either good or bad characteristics of an applicant to influence the evaluation of all other characteristics (halo effect). there have been significant concerns that interviewers may differ considerably in their accuracy. For more information. the University of Houston’s psychology department has sponsored the 1n tervierping Institute. Moreover. TX: Dryden). futureoriented questions can also be useful if used properly. recent evidence suggests that when a trained interviewer takes behaviorally oriented notes during the interview. many questions about their effectiveness remain unanswered. how to properly record applicants’ responses. ‘° However. This appears to be especially true when the training is used in conjunction with a structured interview format. 5. validity can he enhanced. 2. Excessive talking by the interviewer that limits the amount of job-related information obtained from interviewees. Source: Robert D. Overconfidence in the interviewer’s ahiliry to evaluate applicants. An employment test is a mechanism Icither a paper-and-pencil test or . address e—mail to PsychService@uh. Asking questions that are either unrelated or only slightly related to performance on the job. Rating many applicants the same in evaluations.edu.3’ For the past 20 years. however. Stereotyping applicants and allowing personal bias to influence evaluations. Favorably evaluating an applicant because he or she is similar to the interviewer in some way (similar—to—me error). which results in different types of information being gathered from each applicant. Inconsistency in the questions used with applicants. since the interview relies so heavily on personal judgments. Exhibit 8—5 summarizes many of the problems that might limit the accui acy of a typical interview. 3. the research findings on situational interviews indicate that questions about past experience have higher validity than the future-oriented hypothetical questions. and the potential for bias always exists. Feud (1998). Inability to put the interviewee at ease during the interview. pp. Human Resource Selection. Being influenced 1w the nonverbal behavior of applicants. 4. Copyright © 1998 by The Dryden Press. Allowing the quality of the applicants who preceded the present applicant to influence the ratings of the present applicant (contrast effect). 7. 6. 12. such as superior (leniency error). ()verall. Errors such as these have been the focus of many training programs for inturvieweis. making it difficult to gather spontaneous or follow-up information. For years. Step 3: Employment Tests A technique that some organizations use to aid their selection decisions is the employment test. which results in hasty decisions. 494—495. which offers public workshops in all aspects of employment interviewing. (Fort Worth. Gotewood and Hubert S. 9. or poor (stringency error). reprinted by permission of the publisher.’2 Training can provide managers with a better understanding of how to ask questions. and to some extent how to he aware of potential biases. average (central tendency error).
In adJition.\pplicants are frequently asked to run the machines they would run if they got the oh. Anyone interested in selecting a test for use in personnel selection can begin with the Mental Measurezents Yearbook. and some of the more useful tests cost as little as $1 per applicant.•4 which summarizes many of the tests and includes a brief evaluation of their effectiveness. Examples of performance tests include: rogra mm ing test for computer program mers. • Simulated “in basket” tests for managers. requests. Job sample performance tests A job sample performance test requires the applicant actually do a sample of the work that the job involves in a controlled situation. irs.‘onstrated some of the highest validities of all selection tests. The validat n process becomes even more expensive if questions of discrimination arise. the organization is expected to validate its selection devices separately for members of majority and minority groups. skills. the Content of the pub must he well documented through job analyses. Variations of these job sample performance tests are used in many organizations. the size and quality of applicant populations. Over a large number of selection situations. applicant withdrawal from any given Seection system is unrelated to the presence of testing. • Standard driving course for delivery persons. and Sc) Ofl. additional costs are associated with using tests in selection.C H A P T E R 8 Selection a simulation e 4it—. It can be very expensive to develop a test to measure these kinds of characteristics. including the budgetary contraints of the organization. research suggests that contrary to a perception that applicants avoid applylug for jobs that involve extensive testing. word processing. several of the ire common categories of selection tests will be described. ese charactciistics range from tidssiJchas manual dexterity.ztempsto measure certain characteristics of individu. validation studies are expensive if they are conducted properly. Then the quantity and quality of their work are systematically graded and compared with the work of other applicants. for this relationship to actually \it. Care must . job sample performance tests have . . In the following sections. In su nstances. A standardized set of memos. is given to the applicant. and of course the knowledge. Regardless of whether an organization develops its own test or purchases an existing one. abilities. who must dispense with them as she or he would if the work were real. or spreadsheet applications problems for secretarial and clerical help. and ither characteristics required by the job. For this reason alone. However. • Auditions used by a symphony orchestra or ballet company. 1any more than pay for themselves through increased efficiency in selection. many employers purchase existing tests from a variety of sources. The presumed superitv of these tests wer other types of selection tools lies in their direct and obvious relationship with performance on the job.. to intelligence to personality. The type of test that is ultimately used will depend on a number of factors. However. Despite the potentially staggering costs associated with employment tests. There are literally hundreds of published tests from which to choose. Various kinds of tests can be used for selecting employees. Any of these devices should he validated before it is actually used to make hiring decisions. the complexity and difficulty of the job. • Standardized typing.
New York. object assembly. The verbal score includes general information. . Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale The Wechsler is a comprehensive paper-and-pencil test of 14 sections grouped into two scores. Cognitive ability tests Over the years.) California Test of Mental Maturity (adult level) This is a test of mental ability administered to groups and scored by machine. verbal. the SRA Primary Mental Abilities Test. logic and reasoning. picture arrangement. to name two. These form the basis for tests such as the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) and the Graduate Record Examination (GRE). and other items. All rights reserved. Ivlany tests that are valid also look valid. (Other well-known tests include the Differential Aptitude Test. be taken not to confuse face validity with actual validity. Nonetheless. Perhaps the two best known cognitive abilities are math and verbal. arithmetic.Source: Reproduced by permtssion. job sample tests are a proven method of selection in many organizations. researchers have identified a large number of specific mental abilities for which selection tests are now available. and arithmetical items that provide a total score. Copyright I 941 renewed 1969 by The Psychological Corporation. numerical reasoning. NY. Face validity is how good a test looks for a given situation. similarities. Wonderlic Personnel Test The Wonderlic uses a variety of perceptual. Sometimes a test that appears to have no logical relationship to a particular job may prove to he a valid predictor of performance on that job. vocabulary. Scores are developed from a series of short testS on spatial relationships. and multiple aptitude tests. The performance score includes picture completion. verbal concepts. Still other tests that measure these abilities were developed for use in other areas of psychology but now have been successfully adapted to selection. hut that is not always the case. and similar items. Verbal and math abilities are also measured by a variety of tests developed specifically for use in human resource selection.
Source: Reproduced by permission. New York. house. NY All rights reserved. Other cognitive tests There are numerous other examples of cognitive tests that have used successfully in selection but may not be as well known as measures of verba and math ability or general intellectual ability. Similarly. especially in secretarial and clerical jobs. Copyright I 933. and profiles are developed for analyzing performa nec. pilots must be able to quickly orient themselves even when they are flying other than straight and level with the groLind. . The scores are converted to IQ equivalents. renewed 1961 by The Psychological Corporation. memory. Tests of spatial relations have proved effective for these and certain other jobs. Spatial relations refers to an ability to visualize things on paper as they might appear in actual three-dimensional space. which is a measure of spatial relations.) will look like. An architect or draftsperson must be able to look at a set of blueprints and clearly know what the actual object (building. The ability to rapidly compare entries such as these is a good predictor of many types of job per formance. bndge. Exhibit 8—6 shows an excerpt from a test called the Minnesota Paper Forni Board Test (MPFB). This test requires applicants xo rapidly check numbers and names for accuracy. For example. and others. Clerical aptitude is still another cognitive ability that has proved useful in selecting people for a wide array of jobs. etc. Exhibit 8—7 is the first page of the Minnesota Clerical Test. one of the more popular measures of clerical aptitude.
The most common are the Rorschach Inkblot Test and the ihematic Apperception Test. some of the disappointing results previously obtained with personality inventories in selection could be attributed to a mismatch between the test and the situation in which it was being used. the Minnesota Counseling Inventory. and other incidental behavior. The person responding is asked to tell what he or she sees in the inkblot. and nger dexterity.3 A different approach. The most frequently used inventory is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. That is. the Manifest Anxiety Scale. sometimes erroneously called a lie detcctoi: The polygraph is an instrument that records changes in breathing.They include choice reaction time. The person being tested picks up pins with the tweezer and row by row inserts them in the holes across the hoard with the hand normally used. emotional expressions. the least reliable of the employment tests are instruments that attempt to measure a person’s personality or temperament. they can show good validities. and rhen plots these reactionS . Personality inventories and temperament tests Potentially. Polygraph and honesty tests Another method currently used 1w some employers to rest employees is the polygraph. The test involves 10 cards. on each of which is printed a bilateral symmetrical inkblot similar to that illustrated in Exhibit 8—9. not as direct as the se f-reporting inventory. A more optimistic picture of the value of personality inventories comes from efforts to specifically construct a measure for a particular job. such as assembling radio or TV components and watches. and the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule. Then a trained interpreter analyzes the data and reaches conclusions about the pcrsonality patterns of the person being examined. The stim1ii are purposely vague to reach unconscious aspects of the personality. pulse and skin response associated with sweating of palms. utilizes projective techniques to present vague stimuli. One of these is the O’Connor Finger and Tweezer Dexterity Test (see Exhibit 8—8). The Rorschach Inkblot Test was rst described in 1921. the time taken to make the responses. The reactions provide data Ofl which psychologists base their assessment and interpretation of a personality. The examiner keeps a verbatim record of the responses. blood pressure. These tests are used for positions with high manual requirements. Many tech niques are used. Other paper-and-pencil inventories are the California Psychological Inventory. 6 When personality tests are constructed to measure work-related characteristics such as achievement_and ability. speed of limb movement.
it seems like a small investment to help reduce dishonesty in the workplace. indicating that 24 percent of subjects were able to conceal information without detection.4’ These concerns became serious enough that the federal government passed the Employee Polygraph Protection Act of 1988.000 rms in the United States now use these during screening. Thus. In addition. “Have you ever stolen from an employer?” Although originally developed for police work. the polygraph had become an extremely popular selection tool by the mid-1980s. In recent years. in fact. 4° Since a polygraph will cost only about $25. This legislation has made it illegal for most private organizations to use the polygraph as a selection device.on paper. the mot serious question concerning the polygraph was whether it was.39 This popularity was understandable because on-the-job crime had increased tremendously. it was reported that electrodermal measures correctly idenried 76 percent of participants with concealed knowledge. private employers whose business involves security and controlled substances are also allowed to continue’ using the polygraph. However. There are concerns that it is an invasion of an applicant’s privacy and that its use can lead to self-incrimination. others are stressful. Some are neutral. The person being tested with a polygraph attached is asked a series of questions. Finally. the applicant may he asked. it was estimated that dishonest employees cost employers about $65 billion per year in theft and other acts of dishonesty. nearly 2 million polygraph tests had been administered each year by private employers in the United States. a reliable and valid method for predicting on-the-job dishonesty. prior to 1988.42 Organizations searching for an alternative to the polygraph are increasingly turning to paper-and-pencil tests of honesty. to indicate a response made under pressure. it is still legal to use the polygraph a hart of an ongoing investigation of dishonesty as long as the individual employee’s rights are safe-guarded. “Is your name Smith?” Then. objections have been raised to the use of the polygraph in per •rne selection.4 The two most common types of preemplovirwnt honesty tests are overt integrity tests and personality-based integrity . Government agencies and certain contractors for the Department of Defense and the Department of Energy are exempt from the act. which would be a violation of the Fifth Amendment to the Constitution. It has been estimated that. to achieve a normal response.000 to 6. In a recent quantitative review of polygraph tests. Estimates are that 5.
personality. when given the opportunity. it is almost certain that references will be of little or no value to the hiring organization except as a check on the accuracy of information contained on the application blank. Rather than risk a lawsuit. fears of being sited have led many managers to refuse to provide references for former employees. however. to the extent that you could. you provided the organization with a list of people who you believed would generally speak favorably about you.tions to he aware of a new problem which they are labeling “negligent referrals. however. Equally important.46 several researchers have provided evidence that certain honesty tests have acceptable levels of validity and reliability. clergy.based integrity tests aftempt to assess an individual’s predisposition toward deviant and disruptive behavior. he or she is not). For example. Step 5: Physical Examinations Careful adherence to the Americans with Disabilities Act indicates that physical examinations can he used to screen out unqualied individuals hut generally should be required only after a conditional offer of employment has been made. a comprehensive meta-analysis on over a half million subjects reported that honesty tests are valid for predicting counterproductive behaviors on the job such as theft. Under these circumstances. the legal status sur rounding referencechecking and providing recommendations is just not clear at all. Employment attorneys are cautioning organi7a. in fact.45 Most reasonable people would agree that managers should not be allowed to lie about a former employee or to be malicious while providing reference information.e. They do. Organizations must also he wary of any policy which suggests that all references should he neutral in nature. In comparison. too new to determine whether they will he effective. are genuine concerns over the legality of asking for and providing such information.44 Overt integrity tests ask more direct questions to assess dishonest behavior.tests. However. does someone knowingly include the name of a reference who will give a negative impression to the new organization. a job candidate is incorrectly classified as a potential thief when. The trend in this direction has also caused orgaruzations to include explicit statements in their employee handbooks about corporate policies on checking references. and giving a negative recommendation opens the reference up to a defamation lawsuit. not all references can be positive. it might find itself in “legal hot water.4 Although some critics believe that preemployment honesty tests generate an unacceptable level of false positive results (i. as well as gather a history of theft and other illegal activities. however. In army event. and managers should not have to fear being sued simply for being honest about a former employee. Tn addition. this study reported that lob candidate scores on honesty tests could also he used to predict future supervisory ratings of job performance. help to protect the rights of individuals with disabilities who . Giving out confidential information about a former employee could he construed as a violation of the employee’s right to privacy. These references might have been work-related (such as a former supervisor or co-worker). at least 32 states have passed laws that give managers some immunity from being sued for providing good-faith. In either case. Rarely.4 Step 4: Reference Checks and Recommendations If you h ev ppliedf?ajF. and absenteeism. if an organization is going to use such examinations.. disciplinary problems. Perhaps because references have become such dangerous business. or family members). These requirements do not mean that an organization must hire an individual with a disability if that person cannot perform the job. job-related information about their employees. This built-in bias in favor of the applicant is precisely the reason that general references have often been criticized as sources of useful information. all individuals who arc conditionally offered employment should he required to have one.’ If an organization is aware of important negative information about a former emplo) cc and fails to reveal this information during an inquiry by a prospective employer.y ere probably asked to provide a list of people whom the organization could contact to get information about you. or they might have been personal (such as friends.50 Most of these laws are. Many argue that they will seldom provide an organization with meaningful information about applicants. On the other hand.”4 At the present time. managers are instructed to give out only verifiable kinds of information such as dates of employment and job title.
S4 Coupled with estimated losses of $120 billion annually attributable to drug abuse.2 Moreover. • Keep all results confidential. a significant drug user are more severe than those of a false positive on other types of majority of selection tests—a math test. Thus. in fact. the imPlication is Americans supported drug that the applicant has broken the law. It is estimated that there are 14. . A recent survey by the American Management Association indicates. be legal. even when a particular drug test is deemed very accurate if typical em •ymen test standards are applied.8 million illicit drug users in the United States and three-quarters of these persons are employed either full. the best guess is that most good-faith drug testing programs will he legally acceptable if the s organization has taken steps to: • Inform all job applicants of the organization’s drug-resting screening program. however. the implication is simply that the applicant has more math ability than he or she has in reality. however. Department of Labor. for example. for at least two reasons.e. In the former case. First. although many organizational programs have withstood challenges in court. • Perform any drug tests in a professional. a major concern. five or more drinks on one occasion). • Establish a high-quality control testing procedure with a reliable testing laboratory. More than one in three workers between the ages of 18 and 25 are hinge drinkers (i. Also. there is a potential for the test to yield a questionably high number of false positives— HRMEMO In a recent Gallup poll the test indicates that the applicant is using illegal drugs when in reality he or commissioned by the she is not. in the latter case. it is not possible to determine whether any particular drug-testing program that doesn’t fall under a federal mandate will.S. corporations 500 million lost work days each year. The reliability of drug tests is. nonthreatening manner. Why is there such a strong emphasis on alcohol and substance abuse in the workplace? Consider the following statistics compiled from a number of sources by the U..S. However.55 the costs to business are staggering. More than 14 percent of employed Americans report being heavy drinkers. that approximately 80 percent of American corporations are now using drug tests. Alcohol abuse costs U. the legality of drug-testing programs has not been universally established.56 Second. the Department of Transportation mandates both drug and alcohol testing for virtually all employers ‘ho have truck and delivery drivers with commercial licenses.A note on drug testing Perhaps no other selection practice elicits a more emotional reaction than an organizational drug-testing program. the personal consequences of heing falsely labeled as a Institute for a Drug-Free Workplace.or part-time.
(Raters observe problem-solving ability. Psychological testing— Measure verbal and numerical skills.DAY I A. The assessment center was first used by the German military in World War II. (Raters observe condence. Others. for example) are common to most occupations. Break up into groups of four or six to play management simulation game. and ability to delegate. ability to handle questions. method of preparation. .000 prospective and current employees. conimunication ability. effort. organizations frequently expend more time.) B. games. and many kinds of paper-and-pencil tests of abilities and attitudes. work samples and simulations. Individual and group activities are observed and evaluated. AT&T has used assessment centers to evaluate more than 200. a rid propensity for taking risks. One of the best-known multiple selection methods used for these purposes is the assessment center. Individual decision—making exercise—Ratees are asked to make a decision about Sonic problem that must be solved. Orientation of approximately 12 ratees. Most. American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T) introduced the assessment center to the world of business in the 1950s. I). decisionmaking flexibility. Evaluation of other ratees. role-playing. (Peer evaluations.) D.) B. (Raters observe empathy. Individual case analysis and presentation. and career plans. counseling skills. Since 1956. projective testing.) DAY 3 A. Small-group discussion of case incidents. Multiple methods of assessment are used—interviewing.’8 Exhibit 8—10 presents briefly a typical 21/2 day assessment center schedule. problem-solving skill. Many of the techniques that have been discussed in this chapter (the interview. understanding of problem—solving procedures. such as cognitive ability testing. Role-playing of performance evaluation interview. ability to react. because of the costs associated with a had decision and the complexities of managerial work. 2. (Raters observe leadership ability and ability to work in a group. and money hiring middle. and other methods. The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) in the United States began to use it in the mid-1940s.to upper-level executives than they spend hiring for positions lower on the organizational chart. objective testing.) C.) DAY 2 A. Group problem solving. (Raters observe planning ability. (Ratees discuss goals. Groups of approximately 12 individuals are evaluated. memory. interaction skills. and communicatIon skills. B. and how information is used. including several interviews.7 An assessment center uses a wide array of methods.) E. are used with a wide ass&trnent of jobs and occupations ranging from blue-collar to managerial positions. Interview with raters. In-basket exercise.assessment centers are similar in a number of areas: 1. (Raters observe factnding skills.) The particular types of employment tests that are used in an organization vary with.) C. the type of employee being hired. persuasiveness. However. (Raters observe decision making under stress. motivation. organizing al)ility.
Statistical utility is the extent to which a COST-BENEFIT selection technique allows an organization to better predict who will he successful. however. flexibility. Because it is an integrated attempt to measure a variety of characteristics of anagers. In other words.3. Overall. • How individuals function in a group. such as organizational and planning ability. 4. Assessors are usually a panel of line managers from the organization. interviews. there are circumstances in which less costly and less admin tratively complicated techniques are just as effective in managerial selection. usually by one or more members of the assessment team. Individuals are then evaluated on a number of dimensions. poise. Utility refers to the degree to which using a selection system improves the quality of the individuals being selected by the organization. They can. the assessors have a large volume of data on each individual. answering the question whether the selection DECISION system should he developed arid used is ultimately an issue of whether it saves the organization more money than it costs. and personal styles. and reporting on the performance of others (assessees). • Promotal. As a result of assessees participating as part of a group and as individuals. on statistical utility.6’ Utility has two related components. rnoreover. Once an organization has made a commitment to investigate what types of selection devices it will use. • Type of training and development needed to improve behaviors of individuals. Ultimately. they are not a reasonable alternative for many smaller organizat’ions. the assessment center report permits the organization to make a number of determinations about human resources: • Qualifications of individuals for particular positions. • How good assessors are in observing. a large part of the answer to this question involves the utility of the selection process. completing exercises. evaluating. As such. the results of research on assessment centers have indicated that they are a valid way to select rnanagers9—hut they are not without disadvantages. . be consultants or outsiders trained to conduct assessments.60 erefore. Each assessee’s performance in the center can he described if the organization wants this type of report. it must attempt to evaluate whether its eftorts will he worthwhile.dity of individuals. ANALYSIS FOR Organizational utilit) which is dependent. resistance to stress. they are frequently not the technique of choice even for organizations that have the resources to utilize them. an analysis of the costs versus the benefits ot selection requires estimates of the direct and indirect costs associated with the selection systeni. decisiveness. and thus have high appeal because of this relevance. Generally speaking. . Generally speaking. Portions of the individual reports are fed back to each assessee. Assessment centers are relevant to the job. well-designed assessment centers are a relatively expensive way to hire managers. and tests. in part. The raters’ judgments are consolidated and developed into a final report. I)irect costs include such things as the price of the tests. the salary paid to an interviewer. is a matter of THE SELECTION costs and benefits.
Outside Directors and CEO Selection. Pilot errors can cost the company millions . and the equipment used in a work sample test. Imagine the costs associated with a single wrong hiring decisioii when airlines are selecting pilots. It is potentially influenced far more by political dynamics and idiosyncratic characteristics of the current CEO and the board of directors. These savings can COIiiC from improved outcomes such as higher levels of quality or quantity of output. pp.sic question depends on many factors. pp. but two of the most important are the current CEO and his or her relationship with the company’s board of directors. pp.HR JOURNAL CEO SELECTION: SUCCESSION PLANNING AND THE CRYSTAL BALL Corporations differ in terms of their preference for hiring replacement managers from within their own ranks or from outside the organization. of course. lower accident rates. Much of his success is credited to dramatic shifts in strategic thinking. The selection process for a new CEO is.The outsider is expected to bring a fresh perspective and be willing to question everything and anything about the organization’s past way of doing business. when an organization’s managers see how costly systematic selecti ofl can be. however. and overseas income accounts for 23 percent. and Teresa Trapani (September 1996). all bets are off. The Economist.Why are outsiders seen as the salvation of a dying organization? Current thinking suggests that outsiders have not been “brainwashed” by a corporate culture that apparently needs to be changed. Robert Parrino. Outsiders also become the leading candidates in organizations that intend to delegate more power to their CEOs. Research suggests that an outsider will be appointed CEO more often when there is a high percentage of outside directors on the board. qualitatively different from most other forms of selection. Eisner hurriedly made a list of possible successors and handed it to his wife minutes before he was supposed to undergo risky heart surgery. 337—355:John Huey (April 7. the list was unnecessary and he has never revealed its contents. 61—62: David Jackson and Richard Corliss (February 2001).”Simultaneous Transformation and CEO Succession: Key to Global Competitiveness. “How to Build a Better Mousetrap:’ Time. The organization must also estimate how much money it will save 1w hiring more qualified employees using the selection system.” Organizational Dynamics. Borokhovich. As the story goes.4 billion today.” Ibor. pp. Noel Tichy (Summer 1996).Yet people generally agree that the right choice for CEO may never have been more critical to a corporatior’s success than it will be in the global marketplace of the next century. pp.”Eisner Explains Everything. outsiders are often asked to infuse an organization with new direction and leadership when the company is facing a financial disaster. Then. 44—68: Beni Lauterbach and Jacob Weisberg (1996). Sources: “Disney or Doesn’t H& Face Value’ (January 2002). As it happened.When it comes to picking a new CEO. Sonietiiiws. therefore. The choice of an organization’s highest ranking manager depends on many factors. In 1984 only I percent of Disney’s income came from movies and only 9 percent from overseas markets. Indirect Costs include changes in public image associated with implementing procedures such as drug testing. they wonder whether it will ever have henefirs The answer to this ha . 45—59.Today.’ Journal of Financial and QuantitativeAnalysis. 1995). Michael Eisner is the CEO of Disney who took over a $2 billion company in 1984 and has helped make it worth more than $25.” Fortune.’Top Management Successions: The Choice between Internal and External Sources. 43 percent comes from movies. Interestingly. 40—42: Kenneth A. and less turnover. especiall’ in situations where the direct and indirect costs of hiring a poor performer are high. 1ut valid selection procedures can yield enormou benefits. there is CEO succession in the Magic Kingdom. reduced absenteeism. 103—117. pp.
• Managers: screening interview.different jobs.The HR specialist hired the clerical employees with help from the managers and professionals for the clerical personnel who were to be under their direct supervision. Professional and technical: screening interview.ale . tests. interview.A similar th process was used to hire for the semiskilled employees. application blank. and interviews for marginal applicants. tests. except in ap marginal cases. While these groups were being hired. • Professional and technical: screening interview. he would use the following selection process. interview.so qualified semiskilled sp employees. application blank. application blank. tests. • Skilled: screening interview. While these groups were being hired. application blank. • Managers: screening interview. Then Clark and the HR fl specialist administered the w tests to skilled and bu semiskilled employees. reference check. he would use the following selection process. interview. an HR specialist administered the tests to the clerical employees and supervised the reference checks for the managers and professionals. application blank. application blank.The HR specialist hired the clerical employees with help from the managers and professionals for the clerical personnel who were to be under their direct supervision. interview. Clark himself hired the professionals. Clark las hired the clearly well. application blank. an HR specialist administered the tests to the clerical employees and supervised the reference checks for the managers and professionals. • Clerical: screening interview. and interviews for marginal applicants. tests. refrrence check. • Skilled: screening interview. and interviews for marginal ) applicants. tests. Clark himself hired the professionals. Clerical: screening interview. interview. reference check. Clark and Ed hired the managers. • Semiskilled: screening interview. reference check. application blank. different jobs. application blank. and interviews for marginal applicants. of Since there were few cle choices among professional. interview. tests. Clark and Ed hired the managers. application blank. Candidates bu received a review and were co interviewed by the ga managers to whom they ne would report. • Semiskilled: screening interview.
Clark hired the people needed within the adjusted budget. He was able to make a contribution to equal employment opportunity objectives by hiring somewhat more minorities and women than the total population. But pe in 18 additional cases. Clark alerted Ed to the probable competence problem. Clark appealed for a bigger budget. Ed There were also qu pr’oblems in the skilled dis professional categories. api Several problems cat developed. .The home office gave him half of what he needed. Clark adj felt he had found better am candidates. but more than Ed wanted.technical and skilled co employees. He had to generate the other half by paying less for the bottom 20 percent of the semiskilled and clerical employees. whereas Ed rec wanted more Chicago wa people that he knew. Loi and Clark did likewise. Clark and Ed had ne no trouble agreeing on 20 managerial candidates. And the last 20 percent hired were somewhat below minimal specifications. No reverse discrimination took place.Among coi Clark’s choices were many em more qualified minority and obj female managerial 501 candidates than Ed wanted am to accept. given these conditions. These people generally wanted more pay than the budget called for. less than he could have and less than Lois wanted. it was more prc efficient not to involve the de new managers. All were qualified. on time. In sum. they po compromised. In the end. promising that he’d begin developing a list of qualified applicants in these categories in case they were needed. Ed gave up co half his choices to Clark. and generally with the required specifications.
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