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Transudates Exudates ‘Classic’ exudates that

can be transudates
Common causes: Common causes: Malignancy
CCF - Pneumonia (bacterial, fungal, TB)
- Malignancy PE (80% exudates, 20%
- Cirrhosis - Pulmonary infarction (from PE) transudates)
mia Peritoneal Othercauses:
dialysis - GI disease - Oesophageal rupture
- Less common (Boerhaave’s syndrome)
causes: - Pancreatitis
Hypothyroidism - Intra-abdominal abscess
- Nephrotic - Diaphragmatic hernia
syndrome Mitral - Post variceal sclerotherapy
stenosis - Post liver transplant
- (PE)
- Collagen vascular diseases -
Rare causes: - Rheumatoid arthritis
Constrictive - SLE
pericarditits - Drug-induced lupus
- Wegener’s syndrome
SVC obstruction - Churg-Strauss

Ovarian - Post coronary artery bypass graft

hyperstimulation surgery Asbestos exposure
- Sarcoidosis
Meig’s syndrome - Uraemia
(benign ovarian Radiation
tumour, ascites, therapy
pleural effusion) - Complication of acute MI
(Dressler’s syndrome)

- Yellow nail syndrome

- Adverse drug reactions (MTX,

amiodarone, nitrofurantoin,
Haemothorax Chylothorax Pseudochylothorax
Post op Trauma Malignancy – TB
Malignancy  Lymphoma
Pulmonary infarct  Metastatic carcinoma Rheumatoid arthritis
Poorly treated empyema
Trauma –
 Penetrating injuries
 Post op TB Sarcoidosis Cirrhosis