You are on page 1of 18

CBSE-Class XI

Chemistry
Exercise Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

General Instructions:

(i) Question no. 1-15 are very short answer questions. These are required to be
answered in one sentence each.
(ii) Questions no. 16-33 are short answer questions. Answers to them should
normally not exceed 70 words each.
(iii) Questions no. 34-41 are long answer questions. Answer to them should
normally not exceed 100 words each.
(iv) Questions 42-51 are HOTS questions.
(v) Questions 52 & 53 are value based questions.
(vi) Answer should be brief and to the point.

Very short answer type (1 mark)


Question 1. What are the constituents of matter?

Question 2. Which medicines are used in cancer therapy?

Question 3. How matter changes its states?

Question 4. How can matter be classified? Give a flow chart.

Question 5. What are the units used in different systems of measurement?

Question 6. Why does the weight of matter vary from one place to another?

Question 7. What is the SI unit of density?

Question 8. What is NMI?

Question 9. What is accuracy and precision in measurement?

Question 10. What is the law of definite proportions?

Question 11. Why is the mass of an atom small?

Question 12. What is Avogadro constant?

CBSE-XI-Chemistry-Some basic concepts of Chemistry 1


copyright©2015 Educomp Solutions Ltd
Question 13. What is balancing of a chemical equation? Give an example.

Question 14. What are the reactants and the products in the chemical equation

C3 H8  g   O2  g   CO2  g   H2O  l  .

Question 15. How dimensional analysis is helpful in the measurement of units?

Short answer type (2 & 3 marks)

Question 16. Why is Chemistry called the science of atoms and molecules?

Question 17. How does chemistry play an important role in our daily life?

Question 18. What are the physical states of matter? Explain each with example and their
characteristics.

Question 19. Calculate molecular mass of glucose  C6H12O6  ?

Question 20. What is limiting reagent?

Question 21. A piece of metal is 5 inch long. What is its length in cm?

Question 22. How much copper can be obtained from 100g of Copper Sulphate  CuSO4  ?

Question 23. Differentiate between the mass and weight of a substance.

Question 24. Balance the following equations:


a. P4  s  + O2  g  P4O10  s 
b. C3H8  g + O2  g  CO2  g +H2O l

12
Question 25. What will be the mass of one C atom in g?

Question 26. Calculate the number of water (g) molecules produced by the combustion of
16g of methane.

Question 27. Differentiate between pure substance and mixture.

Question 28. Calculate the mass percent of different elements present in sodium sulphate
Na2SO4  .Given molar mass of compound is142.066 g .

Question 29. State Law of Multiple Proportions.

CBSE-XI-Chemistry-Some basic concepts of Chemistry 2


copyright©2015 Educomp Solutions Ltd
Question 30. Calculate how many moles of methane is required to produce 88 gms of CO2
after combustion.

Question 31. Differentiate between Normality and Molarity.

Question 32. What is the law of conservation of mass?

Question 33. What is Stoichiometry and Stoichiometric Calculations?

Long answer type (5 marks)

Question 34. Calculate the molarity of NaOH in the solution prepared by dissolving 4 g
of it
in enough water to form 250 ml of the solution.

Question 35. What are the properties of matter? Explain in your own words.

Question 36. Briefly describe the classification of matter.

Question 37. Define:


a. Measurement of volume.
b. Measurement of Density.
c. Measurement of Temperature.

Question 38. Find molar mass of:

a. H2O
b. CO
c. NH3
d. SO2
e. CH4

Question 39. What are the steps to find out the empirical and molecular formulas?

Question 40. 30 kg Nitrogen gas and 10 kg hydrogen gas are mixed to produce ammonia
gas. Identify the limiting reagent in this production.

Question 41. Explain the different ways to express the concentration of any solution.

CBSE-XI-Chemistry-Some basic concepts of Chemistry 3


copyright©2015 Educomp Solutions Ltd
HOTS

Question 42. Chemistry plays an important role in meeting human needs for food, health
care product. Justify this statement.

Question 43. Sugar solution is an example of homogeneous mixture. Explain.

Question 44. The ratio of atoms of a compound is characteristic of that particular


compound. Explain this with respect to a carbon dioxide molecule.

Question 45.

Question 46.

Question 47.

Question 48.

Question 49.

Question 50.

Question 51.

Value Based
Question 52. Aryan was asked to identify a substance in his lab based on its physical
properties. He went to his mentor to understand what are physical properties
so that he does not make a mistake in his experiment.
a) What are physical properties of matter?
b) Mention the values shown by Aryan.
Question 53. Aryan was asked to identify a substance in his lab based on its physical
properties. He went to his mentor to understand what are physical properties
so that he does not make a mistake in his experiment.
a) What are physical properties of matter?
b) Mention the values shown by Aryan.

Answer Key

Very short answer type (1 mark)

CBSE-XI-Chemistry-Some basic concepts of Chemistry 4


copyright©2015 Educomp Solutions Ltd
Answer 1. The molecules and atoms are the constituents of matter.

Answer 2. The medicines used in cancer therapy are:


 Cisplatin.
 Taxol.

Answer 3. Matter changes its state in different conditions of temperature and pressure:

heat heat
Solid cool
Liquid cool
Gas

Answer 4. Matter can be classified as mixtures and pure substances.

Answer 5. The systems of measurement and their units are:

System for weight Distance volume


measurement
Engli pounds and miles, yards, feet pints and
sh ounces and inches gallons
Metric Gram Metre or meter Litre or liter

Answer 6. The weight of a substance can vary from one place to another due to change
in Gravity.

S.Iunit of mass
Answer 7. S.I unit of density =
S.Iunit of volume
kg
= or kgm-3
m3
Answer 8. NMI stands for the National Metrology Institute, which deals in maintaining
the standards of measurement with time.

CBSE-XI-Chemistry-Some basic concepts of Chemistry 5


copyright©2015 Educomp Solutions Ltd
Answer 9. Precision is the closeness of various measurements for the same quantity
whereas Accuracy is the agreement of an exact value to the true value of the
result.

Answer 10. Law of definite proportions states that a chemical compound is always made
up of the same proportion of elements by mass.

Answer 11. The atomic mass of an atom is very small because atoms are extremely
small.

Answer 12. Avogadro's constant is a number in which one mole of atoms contains
6.02214179  1023 atoms and is denoted by NA .

Answer 13. A chemical equation is known as a balanced chemical equation if it has an


equal number of atoms on both side of the equation.

Example: 4Fe  S   3o2  G  2Fe2O3 S 

Answer 14. The reactants are:


 Propane.
 Oxygen.

The products are:


 Carbon dioxide
 Water.

Answer 15. Dimensional analysis helps to represent the measured quantities in different
systems of units. It is helpful in converting units from one system to another.

Short answer type (2 & 3 marks)

Answer 16. Chemistry is known as the science of atoms and molecules because it deals
with the structure, composition and properties of matter. The aspects can be
better described in terms of components of matter i.e. atoms and molecules.

Answer 17. Chemistry plays an important role in our life:

 The chemical principles are used in weather patterns, computer operations


and functioning of the brain.

 Chemical industries are very active in manufacturing the products that


fulfill our daily needs like soaps, detergents, drugs, etc.

CBSE-XI-Chemistry-Some basic concepts of Chemistry 6


copyright©2015 Educomp Solutions Ltd
 Chemistry plays an important role to meet our daily life needs e.g. it helps
in the enhancement of food technology, medicines etc.

 It also helps in agriculture. Pesticides and fertilizers are developed with


the help of chemicals.

Answer 18. The Physical states of matter are:


 Solid.
 Liquid.
 Gas.

State Definition Characteristic Example


The particles are very near to Definite volume and Stone, iron,
Solid each other, and they are not definite shape. wood, etc.
free to move.
The particles are near to each Definite volume but Water, oil, etc.
Liquid other but free to move from not definite shape.
one place to another.
The particles are far from Don’t have any Oxygen,
each other and can easily and definite shape or nitrogen, etc.
Gas
fastly move from one place to volume.
another.

Answer 19. Given,

Molecular mass of carbon=12.011 u


Molecular mass of Hydrogen=1.008 u
Molecular mass of Oxygen=16.00 u

Molecular mass of Glucose is:

 C6H12O6  = 6 12.011u + 12 1.008 u + 6(16.00 u)


= 72.066 u + 12.096 u +  96.00 u
=180.162 u

Answer 20. In a chemical reaction, the product is formed by two or more reactants. The
limiting reagent is the reactant which is in fewer amounts and gets consumed
by the other reactant after some time. No reaction takes place when a lesser
amount of reactant is consumed by another reactant. The reactant that
bounds the amount of product formed is called a limiting reagent.

Answer 21. We know that,

1 inch  2.54 cm

CBSE-XI-Chemistry-Some basic concepts of Chemistry 7


copyright©2015 Educomp Solutions Ltd
We can write,

1inch 2.54 cm
=1=
2.54 cm 1inch

The unit factor multiplied by the 5 inch given.

2.54 cm
5 inch= 5 inch ×
1inch
= 5× 2.54 cm
=12.7 cm

Hence, the length of 5 inch long metal is12.7 cm .

Answer 22. 1 mole of CuSO4 contains 1 mole of copper.

Molar mass of CuSO4   63.5   32.00  4 16.00


 63.5  32.00  64.00
 159.5 g

159.5 g of CuSO4 contains 63.5 g of copper.

63.5  100 g
100 g of CuSO4 will contain  39.82 g of copper.
159.5

Hence, the amount of copper that can be obtained from 100 g of CuSO4 is
39.82 g .

Answer 23. Difference between the mass and weight of a substance:

Mass Weight

Mass is the fundamental measure of Weight is defined as the force of


the amount of an object. gravity on object.

The mass of an object remains the The weight of the substance changes
same no matter where it is placed in depending on whether the object is on
the universe. Earth or another planet.

The unit of mass: gram The unit of weight: Newton(N) or


Pound(lbs)

CBSE-XI-Chemistry-Some basic concepts of Chemistry 8


copyright©2015 Educomp Solutions Ltd
Answer 24. a. P4  s  + O2  g  P4O10  s 
Balance the number of Oxygen atoms with 5
i.e., P4  s  + 5O2  g  P4O10  s 

b. C3H8  g + O2  g  CO2  g +H2O l


 Balance the number of Carbon atoms. There are three carbon atoms in
the reactant. So, three CO2 molecules are needed to balance the
equation.
C H  g + O2  g  3CO2  g + H2O l
i.e. 3 8

 Balance the number of Hydrogen atoms. Four molecules of water are


required to balance the equation.

i.e. 3 8  
C H g + O2  g  3CO2  g + 4H2O l

 Balance the number of atoms of Oxygen. Ten oxygen atoms are


present on the right side and 2 in the left side. We need eight oxygen
atoms to balance the equation.

i.e. 3 8  
C H g + 5O2  g  3CO2  g + 4H2O l

The balanced equation is C3H8  g + 5O2  g  3CO2  g + 4H2O l

Answer 25. We know that,

1 mole of carbon atoms= 6.023  1023 atoms of carbon

= 12 g of carbon

12 12 g
Mass of one C atom 
6.022  1023
 1.993  1023 g

Answer 26. Balanced equation for the combustion of methane:

CH4  g +2O2  g  CO2  g +2H2O  g

16g of CH4 corresponds to one mole.

We know that, 1mole of CH4  g gives 2 moles of H2O  g .


2 mole of water H2O   2  2  16 
 2  18  36g

CBSE-XI-Chemistry-Some basic concepts of Chemistry 9


copyright©2015 Educomp Solutions Ltd
18 g H2O
1 mole H2O=18 g H2O  1
1 mole H2O
18g H2O
2 moles H2O ×
1 mole H2O
=2 × 18g H2O = 36 g H2O

Answer 27. Differences between pure substance and mixture:

Pure Substance Mixture


Pure substances consists of the same They have variable ratios and
kind of particles and have fixed compositions.
composition.
Pure substances are homogeneous, Mixture substances are heterogeneous,
irrespective of its origin. irrespective of its origin.

Answer 28. Given,


Mass of that element in the compound
Mass percent of element = ×100
Molar Mass of the compound
Molar mass of compound=142.066 g

 Mass of Na= 46.0 g

Mass percent of Sodium Na :


46.0 g
= ×100
142.066 g
=32.379
=32.4g

 Mass of S=32.066 g
Mass percent of Sulphur:
32.066g
= ×100
142.066g
=22.57
=22.6%

 Mass of O=64.0 g
Mass percent of Oxygen:
64.0g
= ×100
142.066g
=45.049
=45.05%

CBSE-XI-Chemistry-Some basic concepts of Chemistry 10


copyright©2015 Educomp Solutions Ltd
Answer 29. Law of multiple proportions states that if two elements combine to form more
than one compound; the masses of one element that combines with a fixed
mass of the other element are in the ratio of small whole numbers.

Answer 30. According to combustion reaction:

CH4 +2O2  CO2 +2H2O


 g g g g

16gms of Methane = 1mole= 44gms of CO2


44gms of CO2 is produced from 1 mole of methane.
88
Hence, 88gms of CO2 is produced from × 1=2 moles
44

Answer 31. Differences between Normality and Molarity:

Normality Molarity
The number of gram equivalents of The number of moles of solute
solute present in one litre of the present in one litre of the solution
solution is called the Normality of a is called Molarity.
solution.
Normality Molarity
number of gram equivalents of solute Number of moles of solute
= =
volume of solution in litres volume of solution

Answer 32. The Law of onservation of mass stated that the matter can neither be created
nor be destroyed. It means that matter can be changed from one state into
another, mixtures can be separated, pure substances can be divided, but the
total amount of mass remains same. The total mass of the universe is
constant within measurable limits.

Answer 33. Stoichiometry is the combination of two words:

Stoichiometry = Stoicheion + Metron

where Stoicheion means element and Metron means measures.

Stoichiometric Calculations:

Stoichiometric problems are solved with the conversion factors. All


Stoichiometric problems can be solved in four steps:

 Balance the equation.

CBSE-XI-Chemistry-Some basic concepts of Chemistry 11


copyright©2015 Educomp Solutions Ltd
 Convert units of a given substance to mole.

 Use the mole ratio.

 Convert moles to desired units.

Long answer type (5 marks)

No.of moles of solute


Answer 34. Since Molarity M  =
Volume of solution in litres
Mass ofNaOh= 4g
Molar Mass ofNaOh= 40 g
Mass of NaOH/ Molar mass of NaOH
M  = 0.250 L
4 g/ 40 g 0.1mol
= =
0.250 L 0.250 L
=0.4 mol L-1
=0.4 M

Note that the Molarity of a solution depends upon temperature because


volume of a solution is temperature dependent.

Answer 35. Each substance has its own unique properties classified as:

 Physical Properties: These properties can be measured without changing


the composition of the substance and are called Physical properties of that
substance.
Examples of these properties are colour, melting point, boiling point,
density, etc.

 Chemical properties: The properties can be measured with the help of a


chemical change and are called Chemical properties.
Examples of these properties are acidity, basicity, combustibility, etc.

Answer 36. Classification of Matter:

Matter can be classified in two terms:

 Mixture: It is the combination of two or more substances that are mixed


but not chemically combined. These are:

CBSE-XI-Chemistry-Some basic concepts of Chemistry 12


copyright©2015 Educomp Solutions Ltd
o Homogeneous Mixture: In this, components completely are
mixed with each other and the composition of the mixture
remains the same till the end.

o Heterogeneous Mixture: Heterogeneous Mixture is made up


of different kinds of substances that remain physically
separate. For example, a mixture of sand and sugar.

 Pure substance: The material that contains a constant composition and


have consistent properties are called pure substances. For example tin,
sulfur, pure sugar.

3
Answer 37. a.Measurement of volume: Volume is measured in the unit of length . In SI
unit, volume is m3 . The smaller volumes are cm and dm.

SI unit Equals
cm It is one-hundredth part of a metre, i.e., 1
100
dm It is the one-tenth part of a metre, i.e., 1
10

Hence 1L = 1000 mL, 1000 cm3 = 1dm3

b. Measurement of Density: Density is the amount of mass per unit


volume of a substance. Si unit is:

SI unit of mass
SI unit of density =
SI unit of volume
kg
= or kgm-3
m3

CBSE-XI-Chemistry-Some basic concepts of Chemistry 13


copyright©2015 Educomp Solutions Ltd
c. Measurement of Temperature: There are three common scales to
measure the temperature. These are

 Degree Celsius ( C) .

Degree Fahrenheit 
°F 
 .

 Kelvin
K  .

Relationships:
Fahrenheit scale is related to Celsius scale as follows:

9
°C  +32
°F =
5
Both the Kelvin scale and Celsius scale are related as follows:

K =°C +273.15

Answer 38.
a. H2O
Atomic mass of Hydrogen=1.008 u

Atomic mass of Oxygen=16.00 u

Since, one mole of water contains two atoms of Hydrogen, one atom of
Oxygen,

Therefore, molar mass of H2O =  2×1.008+1×16.00  u


=  2.016 +16.00  u
=18.016 g/mol

b. CO
Atomic mass of Carbon=12.011u

Atomic mass of Oxygen=16.00 u

Since, one mole of Carbon Monoxide contains one atom of Carbon and one
atom of Oxygen.

Molar mass of CO  1×12.011+1×16.00 u


=28.011 g/molz

c. NH3

CBSE-XI-Chemistry-Some basic concepts of Chemistry 14


copyright©2015 Educomp Solutions Ltd
Atomic mass of Nitrogen=14.0067 u
Atomic mass of Hydrogen=1.0080 u
Since, one mole of Ammonia contains one atom of Nitrogen and three atoms
of Hydrogen.
Therefore, molar mass of NH3 = 1×14.0067+ 3×1.0080 u
= 14.0067 +3.024  u
=17.0307 g/mol

d. SO2
Atomic mass of Sulfur=32.065 u
Atomic mass of Oxygen=16.004 u
Since, one mole of Sulfur Oxide contains one atom of Sulfur and two atoms of
Oxygen.
Therefore, molar mass of SO2 = 1×32.065+ 2×16.004  u
=  32.065+32.008  u
=64.073 g/mol

e. CH4
Atomic mass of Carbon=12.0107 u
Atomic mass of Hydrogen=1.0080 u
Since, one mole of Methane contains one atom of Carbon and four atoms of
Hydrogen.
Therefore, molar mass of NH3 = 1×12.0107+ 4×1.0080  u
= 12.0107 +4.032  u
=16.0427 g/mol

Answer 39. Step 1: Conversion of mass % to grams.

Step 2: Convert into number of moles for each element.

Step 3: The mole value obtained above is divided by the smallest number.

Step 4: Write empirical formula by mentioning the numbers after writing the
symbols of respective elements.

Step 5: For Molecular formula:

 Determine the empirical formula mass: Add the atomic masses of various
atoms present in the empirical formula.

 Divide Molar mass by empirical formula mass :

CBSE-XI-Chemistry-Some basic concepts of Chemistry 15


copyright©2015 Educomp Solutions Ltd
Molar mass
Empirical formula mass

 Multiply empirical formula by the ‘ n ’ obtained above to get the molecular


formula.

Answer 40. During the production of ammonia from hydrogen and nitrogen, the balanced
reaction is

N2 +3H2 2NH3

1000 gN2 1 mol N2


Moles of N2  30  
1 kg N2 28 g N2
 10.71  102 mol

1000 g H2 1 mol H2
Moles of H2  10  
1 kg H2 2.016 g H2
 49.60  102 mol

Now, for 10.71  102 mol of nitrogen, the required moles of hydrogen is
3
 10.71  102 mol 
1
 3.21  103 mol

Since three moles of hydrogen gives two moles of ammonia, therefore, moles
of ammonia,
2
 49.60  102 
3
 3.30  103 mol

Now,
1 mol of NH3=17 g NH3
Therefore, the mass of ammonia produced is mNH3

17
mNH3 =3.30×103×
1
3
=56.1×10 g of NH3
=56.1 kg

Hence, the mass of ammonia produced is 56.1 kg .

CBSE-XI-Chemistry-Some basic concepts of Chemistry 16


copyright©2015 Educomp Solutions Ltd
Answer 41. The concentration of a solution can be determined by any of the four below
mentioned ways. They are:

 Mass percent: It is calculated by using the formula

Mass of solute
Mass percent 
Mass of solution

 Mole fraction: It is defined for any component and can be defined as the ratio
of number of moles of the substance to the number of moles of the solution.

No. of moles of X
Mole fraction of X 
Total No. of moles of solution

 Molarity: It is defined as the number of moles of the solute in a solution of


one litre. It is denoted by M .

No. of moles of solute


M
Volume of solution in litres

 Molality: It is defined as the number of solutes in a solvent of1 kg . It is


denoted by m .
No. of moles of solute
m
Mass of solvent in kilogram

HOTS
Answer 42. This statement can be justified by the production of several useful products
like large scale production of a variety of fertilizers, improved varieties of
pesticides and insecticides. Similarly many life saving drugs such as cisplatin
and taxol, are effective in cancer therapy and AZT (Azidothymidine) used for
helping AIDS victims, have been isolated from plant and animal sources or
prepared by synthetic method.

Answer 43. In a homogeneous mixture, the components completely mix with each other
and its composition is uniform throughout. Sugar completely mixes with water
to form a homogenous mixture

Answer 44. A molecule of carbon dioxide contains two oxygen atoms combined with one
carbon atom. It ration of C: O is 1:2. Thus, the atoms of different elements
are present in a compound in a fixed and definite ratio and this ratio is
characteristic of a particular compound.

Answer 45.

Answer 46.

CBSE-XI-Chemistry-Some basic concepts of Chemistry 17


copyright©2015 Educomp Solutions Ltd
Answer 47.

Answer 48.

Answer 49.

Answer 50.
.
Answer 51.

Value Based
Answer 52. a) Physical properties are those properties which can be measured or
observed without changing the identity or the composition of the substance.
Some examples of physical properties are colour, odour, melting point, boiling
point, density etc.
b) Aryan showed to be a sincere student who believes in doing the given
tasks accurately.

Answer 53. a) Salt solution is a homogenous mixture as components completely mix with
each other and its composition is uniform throughout.
b) Hari believes in practicing his demonstration before the actual day of
science fair so that he can prefect it.

CBSE-XI-Chemistry-Some basic concepts of Chemistry 18


copyright©2015 Educomp Solutions Ltd