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WASTE WATER

TREATMENT
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SERIAL PAGE
NO.
TOPICS NO.

1
INTRODUCTION
 WHAT IS WASTEWATER TREATMENT? 1
 TYPES OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS.
 WASTE WATER CONTAMINANTS.

2
WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESS

 PRELIMINARY TREATMENT
 PRIMARY TREATMENT
 SECONDARY TREATMENT 1-3
 ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS
 TERTIARY TREATMENT
 DISINFECTION
 SLUDGE TREATMENT

WASTEWATER TREATMENT REUSE

 TYPES AND APPLICATIONS OF WASTEWATER REUSE 4-5


 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF WASTEWATER
REUSE

4
CONCLUSION 5
WHAT IS WASTE WATER TREATMENT?
All the effluent from industries, commercial establishments and institutions, hospitals, house
hold and so on refers to wastewater. Aquaculture, horticultural, storm water, agricultural and
urban runoff effluent is also included in it. Therefore, the process by which this wastewater is
converted into an effluent which can either be reused or returned without harming the
environment, to the water cycle is called wastewater treatment also known as water reclamation
which means not disposing wastewater so that it can be used for other purposes after treatment.

TYPES OF WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS:


CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL TREATMENT PLANT: Treatment of wastewater by
use of chemical reactions as well as physical processes is included in chemical/ physical
treatment plants. It treats the toxic water from manufacturing firms, industries and factories.

BIOLOGICAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT: They breakdown waste


matter by use of bacteria and biological agents. Waste water from business premises and
households is treated in these plants.

WASTE WATER CONTAMINANTS:


The statistical data obtained by the analysis of total volume of wastewater discharged into the
environments showed that from different industrial plants this water contain defilements and
impurities, as in petroleum products organic compounds and wastewater from households. The
water from washing external heating surfaces contained vanadium, salts etc.
The manufacturing industry contributes a lot in polluting the water because of all the waste
products formed as a result of production whose contaminants include Ions of heavy metal,
benzene, acetone etc. while treating wastewater it should be kept in mind that change in
concentration of contaminants may affect the efficiency of wastewater treatment.

FLOWCHART OF WASTE WATER PROCESS:


WASTE-WATER TREATMENT PROCESS:
Waste-Water Treatment process consists of preliminary, primary, secondary and tertiary
treatments. Different treatment methods are used in various treatment plants. New York City has
14 waste-water Treatment plants and the process used in these treatment plants are as follow:

PRELIMINARY TREATMENT:
Preliminary treatment is the removal of complex solids such as fats, oils and various other
materials from wastewater .This is achieved by passing the waste water from screens, Grit
chambers and comminutors. Screens remove the solid objects, while grit chambers remove the
pieces of rocks, metal, bone, and even egg shells. comminutors are used for grinding.

PRIMARY TREATMENT:
Primary treatment is the removal process in which waste water is held in a tank, which allows the
heavy organic and inorganic solids to settle down at the bottom of tank by sedimentation, but
light objects and scum floats on the surface which are removed by skimmers. Primary treatment
removes about 65 % of suspended solids, oil and greases. Sedimentation tanks are composed of
either a round or rectangular basins, about 3 to 5 m deep, occurring within2 to 3 hours known as
hydraulic retention time.

SECONDARY TREATMENT:
The treatment required for processing waste water to attain a degree of effluent quality making it
less hazardous to environment by using sewage treating plants. It is composed of:
1. Aeration tank in which air is introduced into the liquor.
2. Settling tank for the separation of the biological sludge from the water that is being treated.
After this treatment the wastewater is called secondary treated water. Secondary treatment
removes dissolved component of wastewater measured as biochemical oxygen demand
(BOD).after sedimentation in primary treatment the secondary treatment is applied to the liquid
portion of sewage. Tiny microorganism’s bacteria and protozoa perform activities in secondary
treatment and degrade and utilize organic wastes while their cells are grown and reproduced.
This Biological oxidation processes is temperature sensitive and operate between 4 °C and
32 °C.
Several kinds of secondary processes are in use today including filter beds, rotating biological
contactors, surface aerated lagoons and ponds and constructed wetlands. However, New York
Wastewater treatment plant uses another kind of secondary treatment called activated sludge
process.
ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS:
It is a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) in which air and seed sludge is mixed into waste
water. Pumped air causes bacteria to grow. Bacillus and Pseudomonas that are required for
degrading fats, oils, greases sugars and carbs and other tiny organisms such as amoeba are
naturally present in the sewage. They consume majority of the organic materials that pollutes the
water resulting in heavier particles that settles later in the treatment process. It takes three to six
hours for water to pass through these bubbling tanks.
This aerated wastewater flows to the settling tanks where a secondary sludge is formed as the
heavy particles and other solid material settles at the bottom of the tank. Some of this sludge act
as seed and is returned to the aeration tank to induce activated sludge process. The returned
sludge contains many bacteria’s that help maintain correct quantity of air and microorganisms in
aerated tanks for the maximum removal of organic waste.
The remaining sludge is transferred from settling tank for further sludge treatment processing.
The time required for waste water to pass through the settling tank is from two to three hours
after which it flows to the disinfection tank.

TERTIARY TREATMENT:
This is the most improved procedure that aids in producing top quality of water by eliminating
infectious agents, nutrients like phosphorus & nitrogen and stubborn particles that are remaining
in the waste water.
DISINFECTION:
In order to kill the disease-causing agents in the treated water, it is allowed to sit in a chlorine
tank that has sodium hypochlorite. This is very important as it is concerned with public health.
SLUDGE TREATMENT:
It is done in following steps:

THICKENING: DIGESTION: SLUDGE


DEWATERING:
Sludge being produced The thickened sludge is
after the treatments then put in tanks Digested sludge is
comes out to have 99% deprived of oxygen. This channeled in huge
water. For its further encourages the anaerobic centrifuge at the plants.
processing and bacteria to thrive and The forceful spins of the
treatment, it is necessary break down the organic centrifuge separate the
to make it concentrated, matter. This process solid particles and move
for that purpose balances the sludge by these components away
Thickening tanks are transforming it into CO2 which are then called as
used. These tanks make and CH4. Leftover sludge biosolids. The liquid left
the sludge to go down has texture of pea soup behind or the watery part
and get isolated from and minimal scent. This is then again moved
water. This process is known as Digested towards the head of the
continues up to 24hours. Sludge. plant for a recheck and
further processing if
required.
WASTE WATER REUSE:
Wastewater reuse or the reclaimed water is the process in which waste water is converted into
water that can be reused for many purposes. The most important purpose for the establishment of
wastewater reuse program is:
1. For the Identification of new water sources to fulfill increased water demand.
2. To determine reasonable ways for encountering inflexible standards of discharge.

TYPES AND APPLICATIONS OF WASTEWATER REUSE:


7-8 percent of the wastewater usually gets reused in US. There are number of ways by which
recycled water can be used through different categories, which includes;
URBAN REUSE
One of the major types of waste water reuse is urban reuse in US. This includes two main
categories of use: one is that water which is easily available to the public and that which is
restricted. Examples of urban water reuse include Irrigation of public parks, toilet flushing, and
Fire protection systems.
AGRICULTURAL REUSE
Large portion of freshwater is used for Agricultural irrigation. Quality water availability for
agricultural become more difficult severe droughts in certain parts of the country along with
increased water demands in urban areas. Reclaimed water is used by many agricultural users to
meet their needs.
INDUSTRIAL REUSE
Many industries including Textile, pulp, and paper facilities use reclaimed water for cooling
purposes. These days reclaimed water is used in a variety of other industries, like power plants,
electronics, and oil refineries. Reclaimed water is produced specifically by municipalities for
industrial uses.
RECREATIONAL REUSE
Municipalities use reclaimed water for recreational purposes to minimize the amount of potable
water. Reclaimed water can be used to irrigate parks, recreational fields, golf courses, and
outdoor areas around public schools. Quality of reclaimed water when treated is not the same as
rainfall.
POTABLE USES
With the increase in demand for water, the use of reclaimed water is increased for the supply of
drinking water. This has potential to help meet society's water needs in the future. Currently,
only small portion is reused of as potable water.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF WASTEWATER REUSE:
Following are the main advantages and disadvantages:

DISADVANTAGES OF WASTE
ADVANTAGES OF WASTE
WATER REUSE:
WATER REUSE:
• Health problems can be seen in the person
• Waste water reuse may reduce the volume who comes in contact with the recycled
of reclaimed water which is discharged and water, including water-borne diseases and
thus has a helpful effect on the marine the skin allergies.
environment.
• Gases which are formed during the
• Providing nutrient-rich reclaimed water process may result in the fatal problems
can increase the agricultural production in related to health, for example sulphuric
the areas of poor water resources. acid.
• By using wastewater reuse rivers and • In few cases, wastewater reuse is not
groundwater pollution can be minimized. economically possible because of the
necessities for an additional system of
distribution.

CONCLUSION:
The increasing pollution of water reservoirs due to wastes produced by human activities is a
major contributor in effecting environment. Thus the processes that the water treatment plants
undergo are patterned to copy natural process.
In Pakistan, due to the negligence by both the government and the public, this sector is not
working as efficiently. However recently with the uprising water scarcity issue within the
country has increased the awareness among the people and it is hoped that in near future clean
water will be disposed off from our plants into the environment.
Thus, wastewater treatment process plays an important role in environment conservation and it
should be encouraged worldwide. Moreover, disposing untreated wastewater into the
environment should be considered illegal and if found culpable one should be prosecuted.