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ACCEPTABILITY OF PAINTED ISLANDS ALONG MCARTHUR

HIGHWAY: A TOOL TO ALLEVIATE TRAFFIC WOES

A Thesis
Presented to
the Faculty of the College of Engineering and Architecture
Saint Louis College
City of San Fernando, La Union

In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering

by:
Angeliquo M. Aberin

Ferdinand Alexander P. Alcantara

Patrick Jeffrey S. De Guzman

Bryan Carl D. Lascota

ENGR. SALVADOR B. BADIOLA JR.


Lead researcher

November 2018

i
INDORSEMENT

This research entitled, “ACCEPTABILITY OF PAINTED ISLANDS

ALONG MCARTHUR HIGHWAY: A TOOL TO ALLEVIATE TRAFFIC

WOES,” prepared and submitted by Angeliquo M. Aberin, Ferdinand

Alexander P. Alcantara, Patrick Jeffrey S. De Guzman and Bryan Carl D.

Lascota, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree Bachelor

of Science in Civil Engineering, has been examined and is recommended

for acceptance and approval for Oral Examination.

This is to further certify that Angeliquo M. Aberin, Ferdinand

Alexander P. Alcantara, Patrick Jeffrey S. De Guzman and Bryan Carl D.

Lascota are ready for Oral Examination.

SALVADOR B. BADIOLA JR., CE


Adviser

This is to certify that the research entitled, “ACCEPTABILITY OF

PAINTED ISLANDS ALONG MCARTHUR HIGHWAY: A TOOL TO

ALLEVIATE TRAFFIC WOES,” prepared and submitted by Angeliquo M.

Aberin, Ferdinand Alexander P. Alcantara, Patrick Jeffrey S. De Guzman

and Bryan Carl D. Lascota, is recommended for Oral Examination.

DANIEL B. PAGUIA, ED. D.


Chairperson

ERIC DAVID C. DELA CRUZ, CE RON JAKE V. UY, CE


Member Member
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APPROVAL

Approved by the Committee on Oral Examination with a Rating of

PASSED on NOVEMBER 29, 2018.

DANIEL B. PAGUIA, ED. D.


Chairperson

ERIC DAVID C. DELA CRUZ, CE RON JAKE V. UY, CE


Member Member

Accepted and approved in partial fulfilment of the requirements for

the degree Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering.

MELVIN R. ESGUERRA, CE
Dean, College of Engineering and Architecture
Saint Louis College
City of San Fernando (La Union)

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

A successful team is a group of many hands and one mind.

-Bill Bethel

The completion of this work depends upon the cooperation,

coordination and combined efforts of several sources of knowledge. The

group who conducted and accomplished this Research Study I, would

like to express their sincere appreciation and indebtedness for their

remarkable compassion;

They are grateful to Engr. Salvador B. Badiola, their adviser, for

his even willing to give us valuable advice and direction; whenever they

approached him with a problem. They are thankful to him for providing

the opportunity to works on our thesis and also for the suggestions and

recommendations;

Members of the panel, Dr. Daniel B. Paguia, Engr. Eric David C.

Dela Cruz, and Engr. Ron Jake V. Uy, for their honest and intellectual

comments and suggestions for the improvement of this study as well as

for their valuable time and continuous assistance;

To Engr. Leonora F. Quarte, for guiding and updating them on

their pre and post defense, for the consideration and guidance;

To the In-House Language Editor and Statistician, Dr. Amalia

Warlita M. Ibay and Ms. Jhaynee Lou P. Tudayan, for their support

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and assistance on the editing and statistical treatment of data of the

entire study;

To the respondents of the City of San Fernando, La Union, they

thank them for being hospitable and for being honest in answering the

survey questionnaires;

To their friends and classmates for being generous in sharing

their ideas for the improvement of their Research I;

To their Families who believed that no matter what happened that

they will accomplish it successfully, and for inspiring and supporting

them all throughout;

And above all, to the Heavenly Father, for bestowing the

researchers knowledge, wisdom, perseverance, and unconditional love.

They have been showered by His blessings and He has shown them the

right path into the success of this study. Without Him, their success

would not be possible.

The Researchers

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Dedication

It is our genuine gratefulness and warmest regard that we dedicate

this work to our adviser Engr. Salvador B. Badiola Jr. who encouraged

us to study and to work on this research, to our Parents and also to our

Friends.

Angeliquo M. Aberin

Ferdinand Alexander P. Alcantara

Patrick Jeffrey S. De Guzman

Bryan Carl D. Lascota

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RESEARCH ABSTRACT

Title: ACCEPTABILITY OF PAINTED ISLANDS ALONG


MCARTHUR HIGHWAY: A TOOL TO ALLEVIATE
TRAFFIC WOES

Author: ANGELIQUO M. ABERIN


FERDINAND ALEXANDER P. ALCANTARA
PATRICK JEFFREY S. DE GUZMAN
BRYAN CARL D. LASCOTA

Adviser: SALVADOR B. BADIOLA JR., CE

Keywords: Accidents, congestion, divisional painted island,

roadway, strategic plan, traffic woes, volume of

traffic, width of the roadway

Abstract: This study was intended to assess the current traffic control

system along McArthur Highway from Brain Heart Center Educational

Institution, Inc. (BHC) to Lingsat in the City of San Fernando, La Union.

Descriptive survey was utilized as method of research for this study.

Data were gathered through survey questionnaires and were treated by

means of percentage, ranking and frequency. A total of 30 respondents

from the city of San Fernando who consisted of vehicle drivers,

commuters and pedestrians, and law enforcing bodies were the sources

of data.
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The proposed painted islands were found highly acceptable. The

problems encountered by the field personnel included difficulties in

maintaining the control of traffic in the areas they are assigned to and

the time spent in maintaining the control of traffic became longer. The

road users have experienced heavy traffic during peak hours, have

affirmed that their travel time in reaching their destinations have been

longer as compared 5 years ago, and almost all of them have

experienced being late to an appointment due to traffic. The researchers

used the results to develop the strategic plan for further improvement of

the current traffic control system.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE .....................................i

INDORSEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ii

APPROVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv

DEDICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi

ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vii

TABLE OF CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ix

LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xii

LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii

CHAPTER

I.INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study ...........................1

Conceptual Framework ...........................5

Research Paradigm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Statement of the problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11

Importance of the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Definition of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
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II. METHOD AND PROCEDURES

Research Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Locale Population and Duration of the Study. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16

Instrumentation and Data Collection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17

Validity of the Questionnaire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Tools for Data Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Development of Strategic Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Ethical Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

III. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

Profile of McArthur Highway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

Problems Encountered by the Respondents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

Development of the Strategic Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

Strategic plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

IV. SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52

Findings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53

Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58

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APPENDICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62

Appendix A Letter to Agencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

Appendix B Survey Questionnaire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

Appendix C Detailed Traffic Data per Movement

per Station. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

Appendix D Demographic Profile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80

Appendix E Sample Parent’s Consent Waiver. . . . . . . . . . .81

Appendix F Letter for Validation of the Strategic Plan . . . .83

Appendix G Level of Validity and Acceptability of

the Strategic Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

Appendix H Cost Estimate of Traffic Control System

Strategic Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85

Appendix I Statistician’s Certification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86


Appendix J Language Editing Certification . . . . . . . . . . . 87
DOCUMENTATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

CURRICULUM VITAE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

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LIST OF TABLES

Table Page
Title
No. No.

1 Peak Hours of the Day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

2 Distribution of Respondents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

3 Inventory of the Study Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

4 Average Daily Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25


Problems Encountered by the Respondents in term
5 of Congestion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

Problems Encountered by the Respondents in


6 36
terms of the Occurrence of Accidents . . . . . . . . . . .

7 Rate of Acceptability of Painted Islands in


39
Alleviating Traffic Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8 Suggested Places by the Respondents Where 41


Painted Islands are needed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9 Summary of Rating of the Validators of the . . . . . . 51


Strategic Plan

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Page
Title
No. No.

1 Research Paradigm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

2 Lingsat Traffic Volume Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . 27

3 Watson Traffic Volume Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . 27

4 McDonalds Traffic Volume Distribution . . . . . . . . 28

5 711 Plaza Traffic Volume Distribution . . . . . . . . . 28

6 DMMMSU Traffic Volume Distribution . . . . . . . . . 29

7 BHC Traffic Volume Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

8 Traffic Control System Strategic Plan . . . . . . . . . . 43

Traffic Control System Strategic Plan . . . . . . . . . .


8 44
(Continuation)
Traffic Control System Strategic Plan . . . . . . . . . .
8 45
(Continuation)
Traffic Control System Strategic Plan . . . . . . . . . .
8 46
(Continuation)
Traffic Control System Strategic Plan . . . . . . . . . .
8 47
(Continuation)
Traffic Control System Strategic Plan . . . . . . . . . .
8 48
(Continuation)
Traffic Control System Strategic Plan . . . . . . . . . .
8 49
(Continuation)
Traffic Control System Strategic Plan . . . . . . . . . .
8 50
(Continuation)

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1

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Roads are an ancient connection between people and also

resources from one place to another. Transportation is essential for

safety, efficiency, and community. Road safety depends on how societies

choose to manage transport systems, land use, and urban development

about their overall health and safety objectives and how they are

balanced with economic, social and environmental considerations. The

need for better roadways in response to transportation problems is

connected to the rising population and density of cities (Racioppi, 2004).

Mobility is one of the country’s freedoms because our nation’s

highly developed. An efficient transport system provides the public with a

wide choice of where to live, work, study, and have fun. It also supports

the nation to be a robust and thriving economy with access to raw

materials and finished goods around the world (Peters, 2004).

Traffic congestion refers to traffic flow detained phenomenon

caused by the contradiction between traffic requirement and traffic

capacity. Generally, traffic congestion would occur if the traffic capacity

supplied by traffic facilities is close to or less than the current traffic

demand. In some specific time, the regular bottlenecks will be formed if


2

the traffic demand keeps being beyond the transportation capacity. Such

a case is called regular traffic congestion. Besides, if the actual size

declines because of a temporary event or accident, occasional traffic

congestion is generated (Dong, 2012).

Delivering of finished goods or receiving raw materials or inventory

is sensitive with time. Delays can affect production, delivery and work

schedules, take its toll on the bottom line of the company. It could also

change market demand, where alternative suppliers from across

countries are preferable to provide goods at reliable delivery

schedules. Our traffic situation caused the implementation of different

schemes like, color-coding, truck bans and even contributed to our

ongoing port-congestion problem, all of which has an adverse financial

impact on businesses (Chua, 2015).

Cases on road traffic injuries are a significant but neglected global

public health problem, requiring concerted efforts for effective and

sustainable prevention. Road transport is the most complicated and the

most dangerous of all the systems that people have to deal with daily.

The number of people killed worldwide in road traffic crashes each year

is estimated at almost 1.2 million, while the number harmed could be as

high as 50 million – that when summed up is equal to the population of

five of the world's large cities (Scurfield, 2004).


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The Philippines also sees worrying figures, with data from the

Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA) as of the year 2006, showing that

the number of fatalities due to road crashes has been increasing.

According to the 2015 latest available data, 10,012 people died due to

road crashes– a 45.76% increase from 6,869 deaths recorded in 2006.

Excluding the National Capital Region, Luzon listed the highest number

of casualties among the three major island groups from 2006 to 2015,

with nearly 50% of deaths occurring here. In 2015, 51.6% of road crash

deaths nationwide – or 5,167 people killed – were recorded in Luzon.

Meanwhile, the percentage of casualties in the National Capital Region

(NCR) has continuously been decreasing since 2011. Road crash deaths

in NCR comprised 7.2% of the total deaths nationwide in 2011, but this

dropped to 4.06% in 2015 (Sy, 2017).

A traffic-control island is an area between traffic lanes, for control

of vehicle movements or pedestrian refuge. Within an intersection area, a

median or an outer separation is considered to be an island. An island

may be fixed by painting, raised bars, mushroom buttons, curbs,

guideposts, pavement edge, or other devices. It should be understood

that islands comprise an essential part of the geometric design of streets

and highways. It should be included in overall projects for construction

because it may have to be installed at an existing intersection to improve

or correct an outdated design (Oldmutcd, 1961).


4

Some places use painted islands as part of their highway geometric

design as a solution to a specific problem in that particular area. The

Department of Transport and Main Roads in Queensland implemented a

technique to improve the safety of road users on the 56km section of the

Bruce Highway from Cooroy to the Wide Bay Highway. It involves painted

median strip along the center of the road to increase the separation

between vehicles traveling in opposite directions and reduce the risk of

head on-crashes (Tyrologos, 2012).

Median refuge islands in Bellevue, Washington are protected

spaces placed in the center of the street to facilitate bicycle and

pedestrian crossings. Crossings of two-way streets are facilitated by

allowing bicyclists and pedestrians to navigate only one direction of

traffic at a time. Medians configured to protect cycle tracks can both

facilitate crossings and also function as two-stage turn queue

boxes (Burden, 2018).

In the Philippines, the divisional painted island is not typical. The

most frequently used are median lane separator paved with concrete.

The proposed areas of study were along McArthur Highway from

BHC to Lingsat in the City of San Fernando, La Union. Many institutions

are along these areas namely; Brain and Heart of a Christian (BHC),

Ilocos Training and Regional Medical Center (ITRMC), Don Mariano

Marcos Memorial State University (DMMMSU), Christ the King College


5

(CKC), Union Christian College (UCC), Town Plaza, Sea & Sky College,

Vineyard, Manna Mall, Lorma College, Saint Louis College (SLC),

Northern Philippines College for Maritime Science and Technology, and

Central Ilocandia College of Science and Technology (CICOSAT) which

accommodates a lot of people moving in and out of these places. Most of

these are the bottleneck in the City of San Fernando, La Union during

peak hours.

The researchers chose to pursue this study because of the

congestion being experienced in the City of San Fernando particularly

along McArthur Highway from BHC to Lingsat during peak hours.

In the City of San Fernando, divisional painted islands or medians

are needed because of the increasing volume of traffic each year from the

Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT) and increase in population, but the

land area is constant. These will help to control the flow of vehicles,

especially at peak hours to mitigate congestion and the occurrence of

accidents. The researchers want to enhance the geometric road design by

incorporating painted divisional islands in the City of San Fernando as

road widening is challenging to be done.

Conceptual Framework

Road alignment, especially its cross-section factors such as lane

width, lane position, and shoulder width, has a significant impact on


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driving behavior. Researchers have shown that vehicle speed increases

with the increase in lane and road width, and at the same time, the

lateral position of the vehicle moves towards the outside of the lane.

More full lanes were considered to decrease perceived risk so that

drivers would take risky behaviors, such as acceleration and large lane

deviation. Several studies indicated that narrowing lanes are a measure

to slow down the speed because a narrow road may increase perceived

risk (Liu, 2016).

Road capacity, in general, can be understood as the maximum

possible volume of traffic that can pass through a given road section. The

problem of measuring the amount of such heterogeneous traffic has been

addressed by converting the different types of vehicles into similar

passenger cars and expressing the size in terms of passenger car unit

(PCU) per hour. PCU is the universally adopted unit of measurement of

traffic volume derived by keeping the passenger car as the ‘standard

vehicle.’ Under somewhat similar traffic conditions, the vehicles follow

the traffic lane, and the size or capacity under such circumstances is

expressed in terms of passenger cars per hour per lane. The volume of

traffic has to be represented by taking the whole width of the roadway

into consideration (Karuppanagounder, 2012).


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Divisional islands are placed longitudinally in road networks to

divide the traffic stream into two or more parts. Divisional islands are

often introduced in advance of an intersection to separate opposing

traffic, to serve as a warning of the crossing, or to provide a turn lane.

They may also be used to separate traffic in the same direction, as when

dividing left-turn traffic in a middle road from the through traffic, or

separating through traffic lanes from an adjacent pavement provided for

local service. Divisional islands may be located to prevent overtaking and

passing at hazardous points, as at sharp curves or narrow underpasses

(Official, 1961).

Traffic congestion hurts the economy (by decreasing productivity)

and the quality of people’s lives. Road users experience delay and stress

and environmental pollution increases (more noise, more emissions, and

more fuel consumption). Rietveld & Shefer (1994) suggest that congestion

might have a positive effect on safety by decreasing the number of

fatalities as speeds decrease. Although this statement seems logical when

looking at the traffic conditions in more detail the impact of congestion

on safety is less apparent. As traffic flow increases and density

approaches its critical value, traffic flow is said to be unstable. Under

these conditions, any small disturbance may lead to crashes. Once the

traffic jam is formed, rear-end collisions may occur at the tail of the

queue due to significant differences in speed (Weijermars, 2010).


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Accidents can trigger massive traffic congestions imposing huge

external costs and reducing the level of service. Therefore it is evident

that disasters have an impact on congestion. One can argue that

congestion can reduce the high speeds on expressways and as a result of

that the accident rate is reduced. But in a congested road section

vehicles are tightly packed, and as a result of that rear-end collisions,

back-up collisions, as well as side collisions, can occur. It is essential to

analyze the impact on the accidents by congestion so that the

policymakers can implement relevant measures to reduce the external

costs of both accidents and congestion (Anonymous, n.d.).

The input includes all the information needed in doing this study.

The first input to be considered is the road profile of McArthur highway

regarding the width of the roadway, the volume of traffic, and the

existence of divisional islands in the city. Second, the problems

encountered by road users and law-enforcing bodies regarding

congestion and the occurrence of accidents. The third is the acceptability

rate of the painted islands along McArthur highway from BHC to Lingsat.

The process includes the analysis and interpretation of the road

profile of McArthur highway regarding the width of the roadway, volume

of traffic, existence of divisional islands, the problems encountered by the

road users and law-enforcing bodies regarding congestion and


9

occurrence of accidents, and the acceptability rate of the painted islands

along McArthur highway from BHC to Lingsat. It also includes the crafting of

a Strategic Plan for the alleviation of traffic problems.

The output of the study is a validated strategic plan for the

alleviation of traffic problems encountered by the road users in the City

of San Fernando.
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Figure 1. The Research Paradigm

INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT

1. Profile of A. Analysis and


McArthur interpretation of
the following:
highway in terms
of: 1. Profile of
McArthur highway
a. Width of in terms of:
the
a. Width of the
roadway
roadway
b. Volume of b. Volume of
traffic traffic
c. Existence c. Existence of
Validated
of divisional Strategic Plan
divisional islands for the
islands 2. Problems Alleviation of
encountered by Traffic Woes
2. Problems
road users in
encountered by terms of:
road users in
terms of: a. Congestion
b. Occurrence
a. Congestion of Accidents
b. Occurrence 3. Rate of
of acceptability of the
painted islands
Accidents
along McArthur
3. Rate of highway from BHC
acceptability of to Lingsat.
the painted
B. Crafting and
islands along
validating of a
McArthur strategic plan for
highway from the alleviation of
BHC to Lingsat. traffic problems.
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Statement of the Problem

The study aimed to determine the need for divisional painted

islands for traffic woes alleviation in the City of San Fernando, La Union

as the basis of the crafted strategic plan.

The study looked for an answer to the following questions:

1. What is the profile of McArthur highway regarding:

a. the width of the roadway;

b. the volume of traffic; and

c. the existence of divisional islands?

2. What problems are encountered by road users and law enforcing

bodies regarding:

a. congestion; and

b. the occurrence of Accidents?

3. What is the acceptability rate of painted islands along McArthur

highway from BHC to Lingsat?

4. What strategic plan can be crafted and validated to alleviate traffic

woes in the City of San Fernando, La Union?

Assumptions

The study was led by the following assumptions:

1. The profile of McArthur highway in the city was alarming.


12

2. There are problems encountered on traffic by the respondents that

need to be addressed.

3. The painted islands along McArthur Highway were highly

acceptable to the respondents.

4. The strategic plan can be crafted to alleviate traffic woes in the city

along McArthur Highway.

Importance of the Study

The researchers find the following groups of people and sectors to

benefit from the study.

The output of the study can help lessen the problems of traffic

congestion and the occurrence of accidents along McArthur highway in

the City of San Fernando, La Union.

Local Government Officials can use the output of the study to

improve the existing action plan concerning traffic problems.

The Civil Engineering discipline can use the result of the study to

consider painted divisional islands as a tool for alleviating traffic

problems like congestion and the occurrence of accidents.

Researchers improved their skills in crafting a strategic plan. The

study develops their knowledge in solving problems to mitigate traffic

congestion and the occurrence of accidents by using engineering as a

tool from threats affecting the community.


13

Future Researchers can use the study as a basis for conducting

similar experiments and researches. They may also enhance this

research.

Definition of Terms

To show the readers a clearer understanding of this study, the

following terms are operationally defined.

Accidents. It is an unfortunate incident in the roadway that

happens unexpectedly and unintentionally, typically resulting in damage

or injury.

Congestion. It is a condition on the road that occurs as the use

increases and is characterized by slower speeds, longer trip times, and

increased vehicular queuing.

Divisional Painted Island. It is a traffic island that is placed

longitudinally in roadways to divide the traffic stream into two or more

parts.

Profile of McArthur Highway. It is the physical characteristics of

the highway and its extent of service.

The Rate of Acceptability. It is an assessment of how acceptable

is the traffic control system as it is being measured by several

determinants.

Roadway. A comprehensive way leading from one place to another,

especially one with a specially prepared surface that vehicle can use.
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Strategic plan. It is a systematic process of envisioning the

implementation of traffic islands and developing a plan to achieve it.

Traffic woes. It refers to the problems encountered by the road

users of the City.

Validated Traffic Control Strategic Plan. These are proposed

implementation schemes to be taken to alleviate the problems

encountered by the road users and field personnel for the improvement

of the traffic control system along McArthur Highway from BHC to

Lingsat.

Volume of Traffic. It is the count of vehicles crossing a section of

McArthur Highway per unit time at peak hours.

Width of the Roadway. It is the measurement or extent of the

roadway from the DPWH standards, Executive Order 621, series of

19580, established the minimum width of national roads at (20) meters.


15

CHAPTER II

METHOD AND PROCEDURES

This chapter talks about the research design, sources of data,

instrumentation and data collection and the tools for data analysis.

Research Design

The method that was utilized in this study is a descriptive survey

method to describe, analyze and interpret the need for painted islands to

alleviate traffic problems along McArthur Highway, City of San Fernando,

La Union. Descriptive survey method research is defined as "the

collection of information from a sample of individuals through their

responses to questions" (Ponto, 2015).

The study also used a quantitative approach. Quantitative

methods emphasize statistical, mathematical, or numerical analysis of

data and objective measurements through questionnaires, polls, and

surveys. Manipulating pre-existing statistical data using computational

techniques is possible. It presumes to have an objective approach to

studying research problems, where the input is controlled and measured,

to address the accumulation of facts, and to determine the causes of

behavior. As a consequence, the results of quantitative research may be


16

statistically significant but are often humanly insignificant (Babbie,

2010).

Sources of Data

Locale, Population, and Duration of the Study

The study was conducted along McArthur highway from Brain and

Heart of a Christian (BHC) to Lingsat in the City of San Fernando, La

Union. The area was considered as the bottleneck during peak hours

usually at 6:30-8:30 in the morning, 11:00 a.m.-1:00 in the afternoon,

and 4:00-6:00 p.m. in the early evening.

Table 1. Peak Hours of the Day

Part of the Day Time

Morning 6:30-8:30

Afternoon 11:00-1:00

Early evening 4:00-6:00

The study involved different vehicle drivers, commuters and

pedestrians, and law-enforcing bodies of the identified areas as the

respondents. The respondents are divided into three groups, ten (10)

coming from different vehicle drivers, ten (10) coming from commuters

and pedestrians, and ten (10) coming from law-enforcing bodies that

pass/assigned along the identified area with an immersion of 5 years or


17

more. The researchers considered different drivers, commuters and

pedestrians, and law-enforcing bodies as our respondents because they

are the one who is affected and can assess the current situation of traffic

along the identified area.

Table 2. Distribution of Respondents

Respondents No. of Respondents

Law-enforcing body 10

Vehicle Drivers 10

Commuters and Pedestrians 10

Total 30

Data saturation was the sampling technique used in the

determination of respondents. Theoretical saturation of data means that

it already reaches a point where in their analysis of data that sampling

more data will not lead to more information related to their research

questions. The respondents were chosen in random. The study was

conducted from October 2018 to November 2018.

Instrumentation and Data Collection

The profile of the McArthur Highway (Manila North Road) was

established and supported based on the gathered information from the

interview of different agencies. The agencies concerned are as follows:


18

Local Government of the City of San Fernando, La Union, Department of

Public Works and Highways Regional Office, Department of Public Works

and Highways (DPWH) La Union Engineering District 1, Philippine

National Police Provincial Office La Union. The profile of the McArthur

Highway is composed of the width of the roadway, the volume of the

traffic (Average Annual Daily Traffic), and the existence of divisional

islands. The traffic count was done by the researchers to gather the data

of traffic volume at peak hours only.

In determining if there is a need for divisional painted islands for

alleviating traffic woes; a survey questionnaire was administered to the

respondents. The survey questionnaire consists of the problems

encountered by road users and law-enforcing bodies in terms of

congestion and the occurrence of accidents, their knowledge about

painted islands, and their suggested places where this painted islands

can be located.

Validity of the Questionnaire

The questionnaire was evaluated and validated by three experts in

the fields of Transportation, Civil Engineering, and English. It means that

the questionnaire is valid and acceptable in assessing the need for

divisional painted islands as it assures that the research tool can


19

accurately tap into the various aspects of the specific constructs in

question.

Tools for Data Analysis

For the problems encountered by road users and law-enforcing

bodies, the responses of the respondents were tallied and assessed

accordingly using frequency, ranking, and percentages.

Development of the Strategic Plan

Based on the problems encountered by the respondents of the City

of San Fernando, La Union, issues with high percentages were used as

bases in crafting the strategic plan. The remaining items were also

considered as well as the suggestions were given by the respondents.

The traffic control system strategic plan consists of the areas to be

improved, status, strategy, and time frame, persons/agencies involved or

responsible for the actions, logistics, and proof of verification needed for

the implementation of the proposed activities.

The strategic plan was validated by experts in Civil Engineering,

Transportation Engineering, and English to assess its applicability and

acceptability.

Ethical Considerations

Adequate measures and procedures were practiced by the

researchers to uphold the values of a morally responsible person.


20

Before conducting any survey, formal interviews, permissions were

taken from the local government units that they will allow and support

the fulfillment of this research. The researchers have worn their school

uniforms together with their Identification Cards (ID’s) for the

respondents to identify them before floating the questionnaires.

Before any approach, the researchers first stated their names, the

school they are currently studying in, the course they are currently

enrolled with, and the purpose of the study to the respondents. They also

toned down their voice when talking to the selected respondents to show

respect and humility.

The research was exposed to some ethical issues. All participants

have given their consent to partake and have been informed of the

objectives of the study and that the investigation is voluntary and they

are free to refuse it at any point and for any reason. The researchers

guaranteed the confidentiality of the participants. They were also assured

that providing information will not be made available to anyone who is

not involved in the study. All participants were not harmed or abused,

both physically and psychologically.

In the process of interviewing and conducting a survey, the

researchers used a survey questionnaire that was validated by the

experts before administering the study.


21

In the distribution of questionnaires, the participants were not

forced to answer and that they were reassured that their answers were

used only for academic purposes and their personal information will not

be known to others. Also, the researchers and the questionnaire did not

use any offensive words in obtaining the data from the participants. In

addition to this, the researchers attempted to create and maintain a

comfortable atmosphere towards the participants.

The sources of the gathered data, information, authors, and

references that were used in this study were acknowledged and

recognized to avoid plagiarism.


22

CHAPTER III

FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

This chapter presents the treatment of the gathered data. It

includes the presentation, analysis, and interpretation of the data

collected from the study. The data presented were classified and analyzed

according to the order of the specific problems of the study.

Profile of McArthur Highway

The profile of the McArthur Highway (Manila North Road) was

established and supported based on the gathered information from the

interview of different agencies. The agencies concerned are as follows:

Local Government of the City of San Fernando, La Union, Department of

Public Works and Highways (DPWH) Regional Office, Department of

Public Works and Highways (DPWH) La Union Engineering District 1,

Philippine National Police Provincial Office La Union. The profile of the

McArthur Highway is composed of the width of the roadway, the volume

of the traffic (Average Annual Daily Traffic), and the existence of

divisional islands.

The following tables present the information and data to gain a

clear description of the profile of McArthur Highway along the width of


23

the roadway, traffic volume, and existence of the divisional painted

island.

Width of the Roadway

Table 3 presents the estimated width of the roadway from BHC to

Lingsat. It also shows the classification and the type of pavement for all

roads.

Looking further in the Table, the points along MacArthur Highway

have 12.7-16.50 meters width. However, Executive Order 621, series of

1980, states that national roads shall have the right of way of not less

than twenty (20) meters, provided, that such minimum width may be

reduced at the discretion of the Minister of Public Highways to fifteen

(15) meters in highly urbanized areas. A right of way of at least sixty (60)

meters shall be reserved for roads constructed through unpatented

public land and at least one hundred twenty (120) meters reserved

through naturally forested areas of aesthetic or scientific value (Marcos,

1980). Thus, the data imply that the Executive Order is not properly

implemented by the implementing agency, DPWH of the City of San

Fernando.
24

Table 3. Inventory of the Study Area

Points along Classification Estimated Road Type of


McArthur Highway Width (m) Pavement

Lingsat National 13.40 Concrete w/ AO

Watson National 15.80 Concrete w/ AO

McDonalds National 16.50 Concrete w/ AO

711 Plaza National 15.80 Concrete w/ AO

DMMMSU-MLUC National 12.70 Concrete w/ AO

BHC National 12.70 Concrete w/ AO

Traffic Volume

The figures 2 to 7 show the vehicular traffic count data per station.

Traffic data are distributed, covering vehicle movements going North and

South only within the intersections. These traffic data are taken during

peak hours from 6:30 am to 8:30 am, 11:00 am to 1:00 pm, and 4:00 pm

to 6:00 pm. Detailed traffic data per movement per station are found in

Appendix C page 74.


25

Table 4. Average Daily Traffic

Time of the Day Average Daily Traffic

6:30 a.m. to 8:30 a.m. 1865 veh./hr.

11:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m. 1686 veh./hr.

4:00 p.m. to 6:00 p.m. 1665 veh./hr.

As can be seen from Table 4 the average daily traffic along

McArthur Highway from BHC to Lingsat are; 1865 veh/hr in the

morning, 1686 veh/hr at noon time, and 1665 veh/hr in the early

evening. Most of the road users that are going to school and work make

up the volume of traffic in the morning so as expected more vehicle pass

along the area of study during 6:30 a.m. to 8:30 a.m. as reflected on

Table 4. During 11:00 a.m.to 1:00 p.m., traveling vehicles and fetchers of

students makes up the volume of traffic while during 4:00 p.m. to 6:00

p.m. where students and employees are on their way home which makes

up the volume of traffic in the afternoon. This shows that there are more

vehicles in the morning than in the evening. It implies that traffic

congestion in the morning is more massive than in the afternoon and in

the early evening.

The data imply that the Vehicular Traffic Volume Count is

considerably large. Given that the population is increasing, but the land
26

area is constant, thus, becoming a congested city. It is then implied that

the demand for transportation and its facilities are also growing;

development and improvement of the traffic control system in the City is

a priority.
27

Figure 2: Lingsat Traffic Volume Distribution


700
Traffic volume (veh/hr)

600
500
400
300
200
100
0

LEGEND: GOING SOUTH

GOING NORTH

Figure 3: Watson Traffic Volume Distribution


Traffic volume (veh/hr)

800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0

LEGEND: GOING SOUTH

GOING NORTH
28

Figure 4: McDonalds Traffic Volume Distribution


600
Traffic volume (veh/hr)

500

400

300

200

100

LEGEND: GOING SOUTH

GOING NORTH

Figure 5: 711 Plaza Traffic Volume Distribution


700
Traffic volume (veh/hr)

600
500
400
300
200
100
0

LEGEND: GOING SOUTH

GOING NORTH
29

Figure 6: DMMMSU-MLUC Traffic Volume Distribution


800
Traffic volume (veh/hr)

700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0

LEGEND: GOING SOUTH

GOING NORTH

Figure 7: BHC Traffic Volume Distribution


1200
Traffic volume (veh/hr)

1000

800

600

400

200

LEGEND: GOING SOUTH

GOING NORTH
30

Existence of Divisional Painted Island

Divisional Painted Islands are currently not present in the City of

San Fernando, La Union. It was affirmed by Engr. Jhamali C. Pangcatan

of DPWH and noted that only elevated islands are present in the city.

There were no studies on painted islands that were conducted in the city,

according to him; the reason is that the roads are narrow in terms of its

width that is why painted islands are not suitable along the highway.

Even though divisional painted islands are not commonly used in

the country, some other countries made use of it as a solution to their

traffic problems. One of which is in Queensland where the Department of

Transport and Main Roads implemented a technique to improve safety on

the 56km section of the Bruce Highway from Cooroy to the Wide Bay

Highway. It involves painted median strip along the center of the road to

increase the separation between vehicles traveling in opposite directions

and reduce the risk of head on-crashes (Tyrologos, 2012).

There is also another one in Bellevue, Washington median refuge

islands where protected spaces placed in the center of the street to

facilitate bicycle and pedestrian crossings. Crossings of two-way streets

are facilitated by allowing bicyclists and pedestrians to navigate only one

direction of traffic at a time. Medians configured to protect cycle tracks


31

can both facilitate crossings and also function as two-stage turn queue

boxes (Burden, 2018).

Problems Encountered by the Respondents

Congestion

The following tables exhibit the issues experienced by the

respondents during peak hours along the McArthur highway. The two

major areas considered were congestion and the occurrence of accidents.

Table 5 shows the problems encountered by the respondents

regarding congestion in terms of difficulty, time, experiences,

convenience, and being late to an appointment.

Based on the collective result of Table 5, 60% of the field personnel

have difficulties in maintaining the control of traffic in the areas they are

assigned to, while the remaining 40% of them did not feel the problem

because they were assigned along the signalized intersections. The time

spent by field personnel in maintaining the control of traffic have been

longer as it was affirmed by 60% of them, the 40% remaining were

assigned in the signalized intersections. It was noted that the increase in

the number of vehicles was the main contributing factor in having

difficulties of maintaining the control of traffic and having the field

personnel cover extra time in their duties even if there are an adequate

number of field personnel.


32

The same Table shows that 100% of the drivers experienced heavy

traffic during peak hours. One hundred percent also of the drivers

affirmed that their travel time in reaching their destinations became

longer as compared five years ago being late to an appointment due to

traffic, with a percentage of 90. This implies that congestion is a problem

among vehicle drivers. The drivers noted that an increase in vehicles and

turning at congested points had been the reason for traffic.

It can be noticed from the same Table that 80% of the commuters

and pedestrians experienced heavy traffic and their travel time became

longer compared five years ago. The 20% remaining affirmed that they

observed proper time management to avoid being stock on the traffic.

90% of the commuters and pedestrians experience being late and to the

point that even their conveniences were already affected. The remaining

10% observed time management to avoid being late to an appointment

and starts the day not being stressed and haggard.

The finding implies that there are problems encountered by the

respondents regarding congestion along McArthur Highway from BHC to

Lingsat that affects their quality of life which requires a more quality

traffic control. Almost all of them were affected which is alarming as it

may lead to the risk of road users on traffic. According to the jeepney

drivers, they adjust through time, unlike before that they can have ten
33

trips in a day, now only five trips in a day because of traffic congestion in

the city. According to the commuters, some of them also adjust their

time on traveling, instead of 1 hour allotted time, they made it 1 hour

and 30 minutes, yet they are still just on time. Proper traffic control

should be observed along McArthur Highway from BHC to Lingsat with

an adequate implementation of traffic rules in the city since based on the

respondents, most of them were affected by traffic congestion.

Table 5. Problems Encountered by the Respondents in terms of

Congestion

1. FIELD PERSONNEL

Easy Difficult

Traffic Control 40% 60%

Shorter Longer

Time spent on the job 40% 60%

2. ROAD USERS

2.1 DRIVERS

Yes No

Experience Heavy Traffic 100% 0%

Being "late" in an appointment 90% 10%


Shorter Longer

Travel Time 0% 100%


34

2.2 COMMUTERS AND PEDESTRIANS


Yes No

Experience Heavy Traffic 80% 20%

Being "late" in an appointment 90% 10%

Affects personal convenience 90% 10%

Shorter Longer

Travel Time 20% 80%

Occurrence of Accidents

Table 6 presents the problems encountered by the respondents

regarding the event of accidents in terms of vehicular accidents,

experiences, and occurrence of these.

At some point, accidents also contribute to the traffic. It can be

seen from Table 6 that 60% of the field personnel affirmed that there is

more than ten times occurrence of accidents along McArthur Highway

from BHC to Lingsat; the remaining 40% confirmed that they could not

remember how many accidents had happened. There are 90% of the field

personnel experienced problems along the highway vehicle rear-end

collision and sideswipe collision accidents. This implies that most of the

accidents along the area of study are due to vehicle-vehicle accidents.

Because of heavy traffic vehicles are closely spaced therefore rear-end

collision is at high risk and also with sideswipe collision of vehicles.


35

Sometimes sideswipe collision is caused by overtaking of cars on the

highway. Vehicle to pedestrian accidents and single car accidents with a

percentage of 80 and 50 respectively, were observed by the law enforcing

bodies and policemen. According to the respondents, a vehicle to

pedestrian and single car accidents happen at night time where vehicle

drivers ability to maneuver is not restricted by traffic.

According to a study “Fatal Road Traffic Accidents among Young

Children,” hit and run, or vehicle to a pedestrian type of accidents

occurred 59.3%. This type of accident is common traffic accident along

highways (Signh, n.d.).

The same Table illustrates that almost all the road users

experienced and or witnessed an accident along the area of study as

affirmed by 90% of both drivers and commuters. It implies that the

occurrence of accidents along McArthur Highway from BHC to Lingsat is

a traffic problem. These problems are caused by the increase in vehicles

passing the area and reckless drivers who irresponsibly turn in lanes,

overtakes other vehicles and fast maneuvers.


36

Table 6. Problems Encountered by the Respondents in terms of the

Occurrence of Accidents

1. FIELD PERSONNEL

More than 10 times Less than 10 times


Occurrence of road accidents 60% 40%
Vehicular Accidents

Vehicle rear-end collision 90%

Side impact collision 40%

Vehicle rollover 30%

Sideswipe collision 90%

Head-on collision 20%

Single car accident 50%

Multiple vehicle pileups 30%

Vehicle to a pedestrian accident 80%

2. ROAD USERS
2.1 DRIVERS
Yes No
Experienced/ witnessed an 90% 10%
accident from the highway
2.2 COMMUTERS AND PEDESTRIANS
Yes No
Experienced/ witnessed an 90% 10%
accident from the highway
37

Rate of Acceptability of Painted Islands

Table 7 represents the rate of acceptability of the proposed painted

islands in the City of San Fernando, La Union along McArthur Highway

from BHC to Lingsat; and the opinion of those who agreed on what

purposes these painted islands may help.

It can be seen from Table 7 that the proposed painted islands have

been approved therefore accepted by 93.33% of the respondents,

including the field personnel, drivers and commuters believing that the

painted islands can help in alleviating congestion and occurrence of

accidents. The remaining 6.67% of the respondents dissented for the

reason that it cannot be implemented because the road width is not

enough to sustain the divisional painted islands.

The same Table shows that the proposed painted island will

significantly contribute to the protection of pedestrians and control of

vehicles as it was agreed by 70% of the pro-painted island respondents.

The proposed painted island will greatly help in separating left-turning

vehicles, prevention of overtaking and smoothing traffic at higher

operating speeds with 56.67%, 53.33%, and 53.33% of the pro-painted

island respondents respectively. 50% of pro-painted island respondents

believed that the proposed painted island could help in traffic separation

and intersection warning. Based on the answers of the respondents on


38

what can be the purpose of these divisional painted islands if it will be

implemented soon are based on what is their common knowledge about

painted islands. If they will be exposed to it and adequately informed

about it, they can be changing their answers regarding the purpose of

these painted islands.

Protection and control is the most common purpose of divisional painted

islands and got the highest percentage of 70, as it can serve as a control

of vehicle movements or pedestrian refuge and located to prevent

overtaking and passing at hazardous points, as at sharp curves or

narrow underpasses. Separating of left-turning vehicles is the next most

common for the respondents as it has a percentage of 56.63 because this

type of island is used at intersections to separate the cars that will turn

left to the vehicles that will go straight. And many other purposes of

divisional painted islands that may help our traffic problem in the City of

San Fernando, La Union.


39

Table 7. Rate of Acceptability of Painted Islands in Alleviating Traffic

Problems

ALL RESPONDENTS

Yes No

Acceptability of the divisional 93.33% 6.67%


painted islands

PURPOSES (those who agree only)

Traffic separation 50%

Intersection warning 50%

Turn lane 40%

Prevention of overtaking 53.33%

Protection and control 70%

Separating left turning vehicles 56.67%

Smooth traffic at higher operating speeds 53.33%

Others 3%

Table 8 shows the suggested areas of the pro-painted islands

respondents along the field of study.

It can be noticed from Table 8 that the respondents were asked to

suggest areas in which the painted islands could be useful in mitigating

traffic congestion and accidents. The respondents can indicate more than

one area. Thus the percentages were taken from the total number of
40

respondents. 40% of the respondents suggested BHC area while 36.67%

of the respondents have suggested 711 plaza, and SLC area to have

painted islands. According to the 40% who suggested BHC area, most of

them from the south going north, they experienced heavy traffic along

BHC area caused by the vehicles going in and out the street. They

believed that these divisional painted islands may help in alleviating

traffic problems in that area by separating left turning vehicles and

control of traffic. Also, 36.67% of the pro-painted island respondents

suggested 711 Plaza and SLC. Same with BHC traffic problem was

experienced along 711 Plaza, the vehicle entering the narrow street

before the intersection causes a traffic jam. They suggested that these

painted islands can serve as a separation of left-turning vehicles and

protecting and controlling traffic. Road users experienced congestion

along SLC especially at peak hours because many vehicles come in and

out of the school which causes traffic on the highway, the respondents

suggested this area so that there will be a separation of left-turning

vehicles as well traffic control.


41

Table 8. Suggested Places by the Respondents Where Painted Islands are

needed

Pts. along McArthur Highway f % Ranking

BHC 12 40% 1

711 Plaza 11 36.67% 2.5

DMMMSU-MLUC 9 30% 3

Lorma College 4 13.33% 5.5

SLC 11 36.67% 2.5

CKC High school 4 13.33% 5.5

Pagdaraoan 2 6.67% 7

Monumento 4 13.33% 5.5

ITRMC 5 16.67% 4

Partas Terminal 3 10% 6

Monterey 4 13.33% 5.5

Development of the Strategic Plan

Rationale

The proposed Traffic Control System Strategic Plan was formulated

based on the results of the study. The steps considered in the crafting of

traffic control system strategic plan consist of setting areas of concern,

determination of the appropriate strategies to be taken in order to


42

address the problems, agencies/persons involved for the implementation

of the identified areas of interest, and time frames for the implementation

of the actions to be taken. Proof of verification was also included to

assure and measure the success of the identified steps to be performed.

The Traffic Control System Strategic Planning is a long range that sets

out the objectives, proposals, and priorities for transportation. It seeks to

increase the accessibility and mobility options available for commuters

and drivers alike.

General Objective

The primary objective of the Development of Traffic Control System

Strategic Plan was to alleviate traffic problems along McArthur Highway

from BHC to Lingsat that road users and law enforcing bodies

experience.
Figure 8. Traffic Control System Strategic Plan
LOGISTICS
AREAS OF PERSONS/ PROOF OF
STATUS STRATEGY TIME
CONCERN AGENCIES RESOURCES ESTIMATED VERIFICATION
FRAME
INVOLVED NEEDED COST

PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY ROAD USERS

Providing
different Department of Traffic signs P40000 or Conduct a
traffic signage Public Works more site
for the smooth and Highways investigation
flow of traffic regarding
heavy traffic
Informing the experience of
1. Experienced 90% of the road users Land Tarpaulins P50000 or road users.
heavy traffic total and field Immediate Transport- containing more Project
along respondents personnel ation Office peak hour document-
McArthur answered about the information ations
Highway “yes” peak hours of and other
from BHC to the day Office of the visual aids
Lingsat through Public Safety
public posters
or bulletins,
and free
seminars.

Providing Department of Paints and P80000 or Project


efficient Public Works equipment more document-
pedestrian and Highways ations
lanes to avoid
jaywalking

43
Figure 8. (Continuation)
Traffic Control System Strategic Plan

LOGISTICS
AREAS OF PERSONS/ PROOF OF
STATUS STRATEGY
CONCERN TIME FRAME AGENCIES RESOURCES ESTIMATED VERIFICATION
INVOLVED NEEDED COST

Refurbishing Department Paints and P200000 or Project


of existing of Public equipment more document-
pavement Works and ations
markings Highways

Conduct a
Conducting a Transport- Past studies None site
further study ation and records investigation
for the Engineers regarding
development Immediate heavy traffic
and establish- experience of
ment of road users.
divisional Project
painted document-
islands ations

Setting up of Department Paints and P500000 or Project


divisional of Public equipment more document-
painted Works and ation
islands. Highways

44
Figure 8. (Continuation)
Traffic Control System Strategic Plan

LOGISTICS
AREAS OF PERSONS/ PROOF OF
STATUS STRATEGY
CONCERN TIME FRAME AGENCIES RESOURCES ESTIMATED VERIFICATION
INVOLVED NEEDED COST

Informing the Land Tarpaulins P50000 or


road users Transport- containing more
and field ation Office peak hour’s
personnel information
about the and other
peak hours of Office of the visual aids.
the day Public Safety
2. Travel time 90% of the total through
became respondents public posters Project
longer. answered it is or bulletins, Immediate document-
“longer” and free ations
seminars.

Providing Department
efficient of Public Paints and P80000 or
pedestrian Works and equipment more
lanes to avoid Highways
jaywalking

45
Figure 8. (Continuation)
Traffic Control System Strategic Plan

PERSONS/ LOGISTICS
AREAS OF STRATEGY AGENCIES PROOF OF
STATUS TIME FRAME RESOURCES ESTIMATED
CONCERN VERIFICATION
INVOLVED NEEDED COST

Providing Department Traffic signs P40000 or


different of Public more Conduct a
traffic signage Works and site
for the smooth Highways investigation
flow of traffic regarding
heavy traffic
experience of
Informing the Land road users.
3. Been late in 90% of the road users Transport- Tarpaulins P50000 or Project
an appoint- total and field Immediate ation Office containing more document-
ment respondents personnel peak hour ations
answered about the information
“yes” peak hours of Office of the and other
the day Public Safety visual aids
through
public posters
or bulletins,
and free
seminars.

Providing Department Paints and P80000 or Project


pedestrian of Public equipment more document-
lanes to avoid Works and ations
jaywalking Highways

46
Figure 8. (Continuation)
Traffic Control System Strategic Plan

PERSONS/ LOGISTICS
AREAS OF STRATEGY AGENCIES PROOF OF
STATUS TIME FRAME RESOURCES ESTIMATED
CONCERN VERIFICATION
INVOLVED NEEDED COST

Providing Department Traffic signs P40000 or


different of Public more Conduct a
traffic signage Works and site
for the smooth Highways investigation
flow of traffic regarding
heavy traffic
experience of
Informing the Land road users.
road users Transport- Tarpaulins P50000 or Project
4. Affects 90% of the and field ation Office containing more document-
personal total road personnel Immediate peak hour ations
convenience users about the information
answered peak hours of Office of the and other
“yes” the day Public Safety visual aids
through
public posters
or bulletins,
and free
seminars.

Providing Department Paints and P80000 or Project


pedestrian of Public equipment more document-
lanes to avoid Works and ations
jaywalking Highways

47
Figure 8. (Continuation)
Traffic Control System Strategic Plan

PERSONS/ LOGISTICS
AREAS OF STRATEGY AGENCIES PROOF OF
STATUS TIME FRAME RESOURCES ESTIMATED
CONCERN VERIFICATION
INVOLVED NEEDED COST

Conducting a Transport- Past studies None Conduct a


further study ation and records survey
for the Engineers regarding the
development effectiveness
90% of the total and of the study
respondents establishment
answered this of divisional
5. Occurrence kind of accident painted
of vehicle is commonly islands. Immediate
rear end occurring
collision along McArthur Department Paints and P500000 or Project
Highway from Setting up of of Public equipment more document-
BHC to Lingsat divisional Works and ations and
painted Highways reports
islands.

Providing Department Traffic signs P80000 or Project


different of Public more document-
traffic signage Works and ations and
to avoid Highways reports
accidents

48
Figure 8. (Continuation)
Traffic Control System Strategic Plan

PERSONS/ LOGISTICS
AREAS OF STRATEGY AGENCIES PROOF OF
STATUS TIME FRAME RESOURCES ESTIMATED
CONCERN VERIFICATION
INVOLVED NEEDED COST

Conducting a Transport- Past studies None Conduct a


further study ation and records survey
for the Engineers regarding the
development effectiveness
and of the study
establishment
6. Occurrence 90% of the total of divisional
of side respondents painted
swipe answered “yes” islands. Immediate
collision

Department Paints and P500000 or Project


Setting up of of Public equipment more document-
divisional Works and ations and
painted Highways reports
islands.

49
Figure 8. (Continuation)
Traffic Control System Strategic Plan

LOGISTICS
AREAS OF PERSONS/ PROOF OF
STATUS STRATEGY
CONCERN TIME FRAME AGENCIES RESOURCES ESTIMATED VERIFICATION
INVOLVED NEEDED COST

Providing Department Paints and P80000 or Project


efficient of Public equipment more document-
pedestrian Works and ations
lanes to avoid Highways
jaywalking

Providing
different Department Traffic signs, P40000 or
traffic signage of Public safety more Conduct a
for safety of Works and precautions survey
7. Occurrence 80% of the total pedestrians Highways regarding
of vehicle to respondents Immediate safety of road
pedestrian answered “yes” Conducting a users
accident further study
for the Transport- Past studies None
development ation and records Conduct a
and Engineers survey
establishment regarding the
of divisional effectiveness
painted of the study
islands.

Setting up of Department Paints and P500000 or Project


divisional of Public equipment more document-
painted Works and ations and
islands. Highways reports

50
51

Level of Validity and Acceptability of the Strategic Plan

The strategic plan was validated by experts in Civil Engineering,

Transportation Engineering, and English to assess its applicability and

acceptability. Based on the evaluation, the strategic plan has a grand

mean of 4.24 which has a descriptive equivalent of high validity. It means

that the traffic control system strategic plan is highly valid and

applicable in addressing the problems encountered by the respondents

along McArthur Highway from BHC to Lingsat as well as to alleviate

traffic problems.

POINT STATISTICAL DESCRIPTIVE EQUIVALENT


SCALE RANGE RATING (DER)

5 4.51-5.00 Very High Validity (VHV)


4 3.51-4.50 High Validity (HV)
3 2.51-3.50 Moderate Validity (MV)
2 1.51-2.50 Poor Validity (PV)
1 1.00-1.50 Very Poor Validity (VPV)

Table 9. Summary of Ratings of the Validators of the Strategic Plan

Indicators Validators
I. Face 4 4 5
II. Content
A. Functionality 3 4 5
B. Acceptability 4 4 5
C. Appropriateness 2 4 5
D. Timeliness 4 4 4
E. Implementability 5 4 5
F. Sustainability 5 4 5
Weighted Mean 3.86 4.00 4.86
Grand Mean 4.24
Result High Validity
52

CHAPTER IV

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter presents the summary of the problems of the study,

the findings from the data gathered, the conclusions formulated from the

findings, and the recommendations based on the findings and the

conclusions of the study.

Summary

This study was intended to assess the current traffic control

system along McArthur Highway from BHC to Lingsat in the City of San

Fernando, La Union as a basis for a validated strategic plan to alleviate

congestion and the occurrence of accidents for road users and law-

enforcing bodies. The study looked into the profile of the McArthur

Highway from BHC to Lingsat in terms of its width of the roadway,

volume of traffic, and existence of painted islands; the problems

encountered by road users in terms of congestion and the occurrence of

accidents; and the rate of acceptability of painted islands along McArthur

highway from BHC to Lingsat to be able to craft a traffic control system

strategic plan to alleviate traffic problems.

Descriptive survey method of research was utilized for this study.

Data saturation was the sampling technique used in the determination of


53

respondents. Theoretical saturation which the researchers reach a point

in the analysis of data that will not lead to more information related to

their research questions. A total of thirty (30) respondents which consist

of ten (10) law-enforcing bodies, ten (10) different vehicle drivers, and ten

(10) commuters and pedestrians. The data were gathered through the

use of a survey questionnaire. The road users and law-enforcing bodies

of the City were the respondents. Frequency, ranking, and percentage

were the statistical tools used to treat the data. The study was conducted

from October 2018 to November 2018.

Findings

The following are the findings of the study:

1. Profile of McArthur Highway from BHC to Lingsat

The width of the roadway is ranging from 12.70-16.50

meters. Average annual daily traffic was noted to be 1865 veh/hr

in the morning, 1686 veh/hr in the afternoon, and 1665 veh/hr in

the early evening using manual counting. There are no painted

islands that exist along the highway.

2. Problems Encountered by Road Users and Field Personnel

a. Congestion
54

The problems encountered in terms of congestion by

road users are; experience heavy traffic, longer travel time,

being late in an appointment, and personal inconvenience;

difficulty in control of traffic and longer time spent on the job

for the field personnel.

b. Occurrence of Accidents

The common vehicular accidents encountered by the

field personnel are; vehicle rear-ends collision, sideswipe

collision, a vehicle to pedestrian accidents, and single car

accidents. 90% of the road users experienced and witnessed

an accident along the highway.

3. Rate of Acceptability of Painted Islands

Overall, 93.33% of the respondents accepted the proposed

painted islands to alleviate traffic problems along McArthur

highway from BHC to Lingsat.

4. Based on the findings, the researchers crafted a Traffic Control

System Strategic Plan to alleviate traffic problems along McArthur

Highway from BHC to Lingsat.


55

Conclusion

Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions were

drawn:

1. The City of San Fernando, La Union, can make use of painted

islands since the road width is narrow and it accommodates a

large volume of traffic which road widening is difficult to do.

2. The traffic control system of the city needs improvement.

3. Divisional Painted Islands will be acceptable for the road users

and field personnel of the City.

4. The proposed Traffic Control System Strategic Plan is a priority.

Recommendations

Based on the conclusions drawn for this study, the following

recommendations were made:

1. Divisional Painted Islands should be used to help in alleviating

the problems in the current traffic control system in the City.

2. The suggested areas should implement and use the traffic

control system strategic plan crafted by the researchers.


56

3. The LGU public safety officers should establish necessary

policies and regulations in the operation of their traffic control

system.

4. There should be a firmer implementation of the traffic

ordinances like imposing a higher penalty to reduce the number of

violators.

5. The Department of Public Works and Highways should conduct

a study regarding the expansion of the width of the shoulder or

adding lanes in the road and create it if it is possible.

6. LGU-operators, field personnel, and representatives of road

drivers should conduct quarterly meetings to solve different

problems encountered in the City.

7. Public information regarding peak hours and bottleneck areas

should be posted through tarpaulins, or any visual aids were

everyone can see it.

8. Training and seminars should be conducted especially to the

persons involved in the implementation of divisional painted

islands.

9. Free seminars should be conducted for road users to raise their

awareness regarding the traffic control system and traffic safety.


57

10. Tricycles should have a certain point which is not located in a

hazardous or congested zone for turning after picking or dropping

off their passenger.

11. A speed limit of vehicles in hazardous points should be

implemented.

12. A further study should be conducted to forecast the future

travel demand of the City.

13. Monthly inspection on the visibility of divisional painted

islands should be performed, and if there are problems, immediate

solutions should be executed.

14. A further study should be conducted to evaluate the traffic

scheme, and travel behavior of road users for the Divisional

Painted Islands to provide the City a more efficient, faster and safer

traffic control system.


58

REFERENCES

List of Sources

(1961). Retrieved October 22, 2018, from Oldmutcd:

http://www.trafficsign.us/oldmutcd/1961/4-islands.pdf

Advincula, K. e. (2017). Localization of Intelligent Transportation System:

A Basis for System Architecture of the City of San Fernando, La

Union. Research Study.

Anonymous. (n.d.). Retrieved November 27, 2018, from

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/bd7d/669f0732b8fb7992190f41

dfaf6325aa3baa.pdf

Aquino, M. e. (2017). SERVICE QUALITY OF A LOCAL GOVERNMENT

UNIT-BASED. Research Study.

Babbie, E. R. (2010). Researcg Guides. Retrieved October 3, 2018, from

USC Libraries:

https://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/quantitative

Burden, D. (2018). Median Refuge Island. Urban Bikeway Design Guide.

Burden, D. (2018). Median Refuge Island. Urban Bikeway Design Guide.

Chua, G. S. (2015, March 12). BusinessMirror. Retrieved January 29,

2019, from
59

https://businessmirror.com.ph/2015/03/12/economic-effects-of-

traffic-in-metro-manila/

Dong, H. (2012, October 21). Hindawi. Retrieved January 29, 2019, from

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2012/854654/

Karuppanagounder, V. T. (2012, March 02). Journal of Advanced

Transportation. Retrieved November 28, 2018, from Wiley Online

Library: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/atr.196

Marcos, F. (1980, September 18). LawPhil. Retrieved January 29, 2019,

from

https://www.lawphil.net/executive/execord/eo1980/eo_621_1980

.html

Official, A. A. (1961). Traffic Sign US. 917 National Press r Building,

Washington 4, D.C. .

Peters, M. E. (2004). Improving operations to mitigate congestion. Public

Roads, p1.

Ponto, J. (2015). Understanding and Evaluating Survey Research. J Adv

Pract Oncol, 160.


60

Racioppi F., L. E. (2004). Chapter 2: road safety in Europe in the context

of sustainable transport. WHO Regional Publications, European

Series.

Scurfield, P. (2004). World report on. Geneva: WHO Library Cataloguing-

in-Publication Data.

Shuo Liu, J. W. (2016, October 14). International Journal of

Environmental Research and Public Health. Retrieved November 28,

2018, from MPDI: file:///C:/Users/user/Music/ijerph-13-

01010.pdf

Signh, H. (n.d.). J Indian Acad Forensic Med. Retrieved February 04,

2019, from http://medind.nic.in/jal/t10/i4/jalt10i4p268pdf

Sy, K. (2017). IN NUMBERS: Road crash incidents in the Philippines.

Rappler.

Tyrologos, K. (2012). Bruce highway road trip. Mobility Management

Australia.

Tyrologos, K. (2012). Bruce highway road trip. Mobility Management

Australia.

Weijermars, P. &. (2010). SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research -

Leidschendam, the Netherlands. Retrieved November 28, 2018,


61

from Institute for Road Safety Research:

https://www.swov.nl/sites/default/files/publicaties/rapport/r-

2010-12.pdf
62

APPENDICES
63

Appendix A
Letter to Agencies
64
65
66

Appendix B
Survey Questionnaire

Saint Louis College


City of San Fernando, La Union
College of Engineering & Architecture

Dear Respondent,

Greetings!

We are fifth year Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering students


of Saint Louis College and are researching with the given title of
PAINTED ISLANDS ALONG MCARTHUR HIGHWAY: A TOOL TO
ALLEVIATE TRAFFIC WOES as part of our curricular requirement.

The study aims to come up with a reliable data concerning the


common experiences of road users and traffic enforcers with regards to
congestion and occurrence of accidents to come up with a tool in solving
these traffic problems in the City.

For such, we will need your honest reply to the questions in our
survey questionnaires. The researchers will also give guidance in
answering these questions.

Thank you and God bless you!

Sincerely,
The Research Team Noted by:
Engr. Salvador B. Badiola Jr.
Angeliquo M. Aberin Research Adviser

Ferdinand Alexander P. Alcantara Approved by:


Engr. Melvin R. Esguerra
Patrick Jeffrey S. De Guzman Academic Dean, CEA

Bryan Carl D. Lascota


67

Saint Louis College


City of San Fernando, La Union
College of Engineering & Architecture

Dear Respondent,

Greetings!

We are 5th year Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering students of Saint


Louis College and are researching with the given title of PAINTED
ISLANDS ALONG MCARTHUR HIGHWAY: A TOOL TO ALLEVIATE
TRAFFIC WOES.

We have prepared a survey questionnaire to gather enough data for this


study.

We are hoping for your cooperation with this study by answering the
following questions with all honesty. We assure you that the information
from the participants will be kept confidentially and will be used only for
academic purpose.

Thank you!

-The Researchers

General Direction: Please accomplish this questionnaire very carefully


and honestly. Rest assured that any information you supply is treated
with the greatest confidentiality and anonymity.

SAMPLE DIVISIONAL PAINTED ISLANDS


68

SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE

BASIC INFORMATION OF RESPONDENT:


Name (optional):________________________________________________________
Type of Respondent:
Law-Enforcing Body (Enforcers and Polices)
Driver
Commuter & Pedestrian

Age: __________

PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY ROAD USERS AND LAW-ENFORCING


BODY ALONG MCARTHUR HIGHWAY (BHC TO LINGSAT) IN THE
CURRENT TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM REGARDING:

A. CONGESTION
Field Personnel
o Maintaining the control of traffic along the streets, intersections
or junctions, you are assigned
□ Easy □ Difficult
o Time spent in maintaining the control of traffic along the
streets, intersections or junctions you are assigned compared 5
years from now
□ Shorter □ Longer
o Adequacy of traffic enforcers in roadways
□ Adequate □ Inadequate
o Others(Please specify): ______________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
69

Road Users
o Drivers
 During peak hours (6:00-8:00am, 11:00-1:00pm, 4:00-6:00pm):
 Experience heavy traffic
□ Yes □ No
 Time spent on every trip compared 5 years from now
□ Shorter □ Longer
 Experience being late to an appointment due to heavy traffic
□ Yes □ No
 Others (Please specify____________________________________
____________________________________________________________
______
o Commuters & Pedestrians
 During peak hours (6:00-8:00am, 11:00-1:00pm, 4:00-6:00pm):
 Experience heavy traffic
□ Yes □ No
 Time spent on every trip compared before 5 years from now
□ Shorter □ Longer
 Experience being late to an appointment due to heavy traffic
□ Yes □ No
 Affects your personal convenience
□ Yes □ No
 Others (Please specify): __________________________________
______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
______

B. OCCURRENCE OF ACCIDENTS
Field Personnel
o How often do accidents happen for the last five years?
□ more than 10 times a year □ less than 10 times a year □
Never
□ Other (Please specify):________________
 What kind of accident/s?
□ Vehicle rear end collision
□ Side impact collision
□ Vehicle rollover
□ Sideswipe collision
70

□ Head-on collision
□ Single car accident
□ Multiple vehicle pile-ups
□ Vehicle to pedestrian
o Others (Please specify):_______________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
___________

Road Users
o Drivers
 Have you experience or witness an accident along McArthur
highway from BHC to Lingsat ?
□ Yes □ No
 If yes, what kind of accident? (Please
specify):_____________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
 If no, and have heared in the news an accident along
McArthur highway from BHC to Lingsat, what kind of
accident? (Please
specify):____________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

o Commuters & Pedestrians


 Have you experience or witness an accident along McArthur
highway from BHC to Lingsat ?
□ Yes □ No
 If yes, what kind of accident? (Please specify):________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
 If no, and have heared in the news an accident along
McArthur highway from BHC to Lingsat, what kind of
accident? (Please specify):____________________________
71

KNOWLEDGE OF ROAD USERS AND LAW-ENFORCING BODY ABOUT


DIVISIONAL PAINTED ISLANDS

Field Personnel
o Knowing the purpose of a divisional painted island, do you
think it will help to address traffic problems?
□ Yes □ No
 If yes, why did you say that it will help address traffic
problems?
Because….
□ it separates opposing traffic movements by serving
as a central divide
□ it serves as a warning of the intersection
□ it provides a turn lane
□ it located so as to prevent overtaking and passing at
hazardous points
□ it provides protection and control of cross and
turning traffic
□ left-turning vehicles are separated in a protected
lane so as not to impede the flow of the traffic, thus greatly
increase the efficiency, capacity, and safety.
□ makes it possible for traffic to move smoothly and
safely at higher operating speeds
□ others (Please specify):______________________________
______________________________________________________
 If no, please cite recommendations or
suggestions.______________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
 What specific area do you suggest can these divisional
painted islands will be located along McArthur highway from
BHC to Lingsat only?
__________________________________________________________

Road Users
o Drivers
 Knowing the purpose of a divisional painted island, do you
think it will be a help for traffic problems?
72

□ Yes □ No
 If yes, why did you say that it will help traffic
problems? Because….
□ it separates opposing traffic movements by serving
as a central divide
□ it serves as a warning of the intersection
□ it provides a turn lane
□ it located so as to prevent overtaking and passing at
hazardous points
□ it provides protection and control of cross and
turning traffic
□ left-turning vehicles are separated in a protected
lane so as not to impede the flow of the traffic, thus greatly
increase the efficiency, capacity, and safety.
□ makes it possible for traffic to move smoothly and
safely at higher operating speeds
□ others (Please specify):______________________________
______________________________________________________
 If no, please cite recommendations of
suggestions._______________________________________
____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
 What specific area do you suggest can these divisional
painted islands will be located along McArthur highway from
BHC to Lingsat only?
__________________________________________________________

o Commuters
 Knowing the purpose of a divisional painted island, do you
think it will be a help for traffic problems?
□ Yes □ No
 If yes, why did you say that it will help traffic
problems? Because….
□ it separates opposing traffic movements by serving
as a central divide
□ it serves as a warning of the intersection
□ it provides a turn lane
73

□ it located so as to prevent overtaking and passing at


hazardous points
□ it provides protection and control of cross and
turning traffic
□ left-turning vehicles are separated in a protected
lane so as not to impede the flow of the traffic, thus greatly
increase the efficiency, capacity, and safety.
□ makes it possible for traffic to move smoothly and
safely at higher operating speeds
□ Others(Please specify):______________________________
______________________________________________________

 If no, please cite recommendations of


suggestions.________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
 What specific area do you suggest can these divisional
painted islands will be located along McArthur highway from
BHC to Lingsat only?
__________________________________________________________
74

Appendix C
Detailed Traffic Data per Movement per Station
Traffic Volume Count Survey (During Peak Hours)
Lingsat
from 7:00 am to 8:00 am
GOING GOING
NORTH SOUTH
Motorcycles/Bike 104 108
Tricycle/Multicab 84 94
Rigid Trucks 4 10
Light Vehicles 6 6
Bus 16 28
Jeeps 96 124
UV Express 12 12
Cars/SUV 58 108
TOTAL 380 490

from 11:00 am to 12:00 nn


GOING GOING
NORTH SOUTH
Motorcycles/Bike 128 117
Tricycle/Multicab 264 200
Rigid Trucks 16 32
Light Vehicles 24 24
Bus 12 20
Jeeps 164 328
UV Express 24 32
Cars/SUV 292 344
TOTAL 924 1097

from 5:00 pm to 6:00 pm


GOING GOING
NORTH SOUTH
Motorcycles/Bike 200 212
Tricycle/Multicab 184 200
Rigid Trucks 4 8
Light Vehicles 16 36
Bus 12 8
Jeeps 180 164
UV Express 20 4
Cars/SUV 180 172
TOTAL 796 804
75

WATSONS Intersection
from 7:00 am to 8:00 am
GOING GOING
NORTH SOUTH
Motorcycles/Bike 180 108
Tricycle/Multicab 248 88
Rigid Trucks 0 4
Light Vehicles 80 68
Bus 36 36
Jeeps 48 8
UV Express 0 12
Cars/SUV 208 292
TOTAL 800 616

from 11:00 am to 12:00 nn


GOING GOING
NORTH SOUTH
Motorcycles/Bike 148 56
Tricycle/Multicab 316 12
Rigid Trucks 0 8
Light Vehicles 84 44
Bus 36 12
Jeeps 52 0
UV Express 4 4
Cars/SUV 240 100
TOTAL 880 236

from 5:00 pm to 6:00 pm


GOING GOING
NORTH SOUTH
Motorcycles/Bike 208 140
Tricycle/Multicab 120 40
Rigid Trucks 4 8
Light Vehicles 12 4
Bus 16 40
Jeeps 40 0
UV Express 20 4
Cars/SUV 456 300
TOTAL 876 536
76

McDonalds Intersection
from 7:00 am to 8:00 am
GOING GOING
NORTH SOUTH
Motorcycles/Bike 180 100
Tricycle/Multicab 220 120
Rigid Trucks 60 80
Light Vehicles 40 20
Bus 180 40
Jeeps 80 100
UV Express 120 100
Cars/SUV 300 260
TOTAL 1180 820

from 11:00 am to 12:00 nn


GOING GOING
NORTH SOUTH
Motorcycles/Bike 128 120
Tricycle/Multicab 208 180
Rigid Trucks 8 20
Light Vehicles 80 60
Bus 64 136
Jeeps 84 184
UV Express 18 12
Cars/SUV 336 224
TOTAL 926 936

from 5:00 pm to 6:00 pm


GOING GOING
NORTH SOUTH
Motorcycles/Bike 156 152
Tricycle/Multicab 84 44
Rigid Trucks 4 0
Light Vehicles 104 96
Bus 44 40
Jeeps 8 20
UV Express 0 0
Cars/SUV 196 128
TOTAL 596 480
77

7 11 PLAZA Intersection
from 7:00 am to 8:00 am
GOING GOING
NORTH SOUTH
Motorcycles/Bike 216 264
Tricycle/Multicab 324 300
Rigid Trucks 41 32
Light Vehicles 36 59
Bus 180 152
Jeeps 84 60
UV Express 45 48
Cars/SUV 213 240
TOTAL 1139 1155

from 11:00 am to 12:00 nn


GOING GOING
NORTH SOUTH
Motorcycles/Bike 276 48
Tricycle/Multicab 116 480
Rigid Trucks 48 0
Light Vehicles 36 0
Bus 52 24
Jeeps 132 12
UV Express 36 12
Cars/SUV 156 240
TOTAL 852 816

from 5:00 pm to 6:00 pm


GOING GOING
NORTH SOUTH
Motorcycles/Bike 68 232
Tricycle/Multicab 132 216
Rigid Trucks 8 4
Light Vehicles 44 116
Bus 32 80
Jeeps 44 64
UV Express 4 4
Cars/SUV 164 252
TOTAL 496 968
78

DMMMSU
from 7:00 am to 8:00 am
GOING NORTH GOING SOUTH
Motorcycles/Bike 184 80
Tricycle/Multicab 388 240
Rigid Trucks 0 12
Light Vehicles 16 12
Bus 24 40
Jeeps 84 40
UV Express 12 4
Cars/SUV 432 160
TOTAL 1140 588

from 11:00 am to 12:00 nn


GOING NORTH GOING SOUTH
Motorcycles/Bike 215 256
Tricycle/Multicab 384 296
Rigid Trucks 48 40
Light Vehicles 12 15
Bus 29 35
Jeeps 32 50
UV Express 24 16
Cars/SUV 240 254
TOTAL 984 962

from 5:00 pm to 6:00 pm


GOING NORTH GOING SOUTH
Motorcycles/Bike 216 252
Tricycle/Multicab 288 180
Rigid Trucks 60 108
Light Vehicles 65 72
Bus 25 32
Jeeps 120 60
UV Express 20 14
Cars/SUV 201 214
TOTAL 995 932
79

BHC
from 7:00 am to 8:00 am
GOING NORTH GOING SOUTH
Motorcycles/Bike 416 220
Tricycle/Multicab 328 232
Rigid Trucks 60 8
Light Vehicles 200 140
Bus 56 36
Jeeps 108 112
UV Express 0 0
Cars/SUV 528 436
TOTAL 1696 1184

from 11:00 am to 12:00 nn


GOING NORTH GOING SOUTH
Motorcycles/Bike 192 120
Tricycle/Multicab 196 132
Rigid Trucks 40 24
Light Vehicles 40 84
Bus 84 16
Jeeps 60 60
UV Express 0 0
Cars/SUV 228 228
TOTAL 840 664

from 5:00 pm to 6:00 pm


GOING NORTH GOING SOUTH
Motorcycles/Bike 224 244
Tricycle/Multicab 264 256
Rigid Trucks 52 20
Light Vehicles 128 16
Bus 64 48
Jeeps 80 216
UV Express 0 0
Cars/SUV 432 464
TOTAL 1244 1264
80

Appendix D
Demographic Profile

The demographic profile of the city consists of the population,

projected population and densities, and land area.

Table 3. Base Population, Projected Population and Densities

Year Population Density (person/ha)

2016 126,974 12.06

2017 129,095 12.26

2018 131,250 12.47

2019 133,442 12.68

2020 135,671 12.89

2021 137,936 13.10

2022 140,240 13.32

2023 142,582 13.55

2024 144,963 13.77

2025 147,384 14.00

Source: Office of the City Planning and Development Coordinator


81

Appendix E

Sample Parent’s Consent Waiver


82
83

Appendix F
Letter for Validation of the Strategic Plan
Saint Louis College
City of San Fernando, La Union
College of Engineering & Architecture

January __, 2019

Dear Ma’am/ Sir

Most cordial greetings!

The undersigned fifth year BS Civil Engineering students will conduct a


Research Study entitled “Acceptability of Painted Islands along McArthur
Highway: A Tool to Alleviate Traffic Woes” as part of our curricular requirements
in the subject CE Project/Research Study 1. Relative to this undertaking, the
researchers crafted a proposed strategic plan as an output of the study, a copy
of which is attached.
We earnestly request your generous assistance in this endeavor by being a
Member of the Panel of Validators to look into the validity and acceptability of
the said proposed curriculum. We are certain that with your expertise and
passion for quality and excellence in research, your assessment on the said
proposed curriculum will contribute immeasurably to the worthiness and
success of this academic undertaking.

Rest assured that your comments, suggestions and recommendations for the
improvement of the tool will be incorporated to further refine the proposed
curriculum.
Thank you very much!
Respectfully yours,
The researchers:
Aberin, Angeliquo M. De Guzman, Patrick Jeffrey S.
Alcantara, Ferdinand Alexander P. Lascota, Bryan Carl D.

Noted by: Approved by:

ENGR. SALVADOR B. BADIOLA JR. ENGR. MELVIN R. ESGUERRA


Research Adviser Academic Dean, CEA
84

Appendix G
Level of Validity and Acceptability of the Strategic Plan

Saint Louis College


City of San Fernando, La Union
College of Engineering & Architecture

For the interpretation of the results of weighed mean rating on the Level of
Validity and Acceptability of the strategic plan, the following scales will be used.

POINT STATISTICAL DESCRIPTIVE EQUIVALENT


SCALE RANGE RATING (DER)

5 4.51-5.00 Very High Validity (VHV)


4 3.51-4.50 High Validity (HV)
3 2.51-3.50 Moderate Validity (MV)
2 1.51-2.50 Poor Validity (PV)
1 1.00-1.50 Very Poor Validity (VPV)

Indicators Validators
I. Face 4 4 5
II. Content
A. Functionality 3 4 5
B. Acceptability 4 4 5
C. Appropriateness 2 4 5
D. Timeliness 4 4 4
E. Implementability 5 4 5
F. Sustainability 5 4 5
Weighted Mean 3.86 4.00 4.86
Grand Mean 4.24
Result High Validity
85

Appendix H
Cost Estimate of Traffic Control System Strategic Plan

1. PAVEMENT MARKING MATERIALS


Mid-durable Paint = Php 4.00 per linear meter
Epoxy = Php 10.50 per linear meter
Temporary Tape = Php 78.90 per linear meter
TOTAL = Php 93.40 per linear meter
Assumed length of divisional painted islands per area = 1,000 meters
say 1,000 m/1 km per area = Php 93,400.00

2. LABOR COST
Engineer = Php 600.00/day, x1 = Php 600.00
Painter = Php 380.00/day, x3 = Php 1,140.00
Laborer = Php 280.00/day, x2 = Php 560.00
TOTAL = Php 2,300.00/day

3. ADDITIONAL FUND FOR MAINTENANCE


NOTE: Maintenance involves meeting and seminars regarding the current
transportation system, traffic safety and measures. It includes also the monthly
monitoring and recording of the current roads.
It is being shouldered by the Municipal Engineering Office and Department of
Public Works and Highways.
For the seminar,
Lump Sum Cost = Php 10,000.00

Considering 1 construction day per area,

TOTAL = Php 105,700.00


86

Appendix I
Statistician’s Certification
87

Appendix J

Language Editing Certification


88

DOCUMENTATION
89

Gathering of needed data from DPWH

Traffic count at DMMMSU


90

Traffic count at BHC

Floating of questionnaire to a law-enforcing body


91

Floating of questionnaire to a law-enforcing body


92

Floating of questionnaire to a vehicle driver


93

Floating of questionnaire to a vehicle driver

Floating of questionnaire to a commuter


94

CURRICULUM VITAE
95

CURRICULUM VITAE

Angeliquo M. Aberin

Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering


San Fernando City, La Union
aiquoaberin23@gmail.com
0939-791-6030

PERSONAL INFORMATION

Age: 20 years old


Date of Birth: April 23, 1998
Place of Birth: Brgy. Gatang Malasiqui, Pangasinan
Sex: Female
Civil Status: Single
Religion: Roman Catholic
Citizenship: Filipino
Language: English, Filipino, Iloko, Pangasinense

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

College: Saint Louis College


Carlatan, City of San Fernando, La Union
Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering
2014-2019

High School: Naguilian National High School Special Science Class


Imelda, Naguilian, La Union
2010-2014

Elementary: Naguilian Elementary School


96

Ortiz, Naguilian, La Union


2004-2010

ON-THE-JOB TRAINING

J.D. Madrid Construction – Dallangayan Oeste, City of San Fernando, La


Union
July 2, 2018 – August 2, 2018

SEMINARS ATTENDED

National Civil Engineering Summit – University of the Philippines


National Civil Engineering Summit – Bataan
Research Study – Saint Louis College

MEMBERSHIP TO
ORGANIZATION

Philippine Institute of Civil Engineers–SLC–Student Chapter – Member


(S.Y. 2014-2015, 2015-2016, 2016-2017, 2017-2018)

Philippine Institute of Civil Engineers–SLC–Student Chapter – 5th Year


Representative (S.Y. 2018-2019)

Rotaract–SLC–Student Chapter – Member


(S.Y. 2018-2019)

SKILLS

Computer Literate
Knowledge on AutoCAD
Knowledge on Microsoft Programs
97

CURRICULUM VITAE

Ferdinand Alexander P. Alcantara

Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering


San Fernando City, La Union
ferdinandalcantara80@yahoo.com
0908-441-3472

PERSONAL INFORMATION

Age: 21 years old


Date of Birth: July 26, 1997
Place of Birth: District 2, Brgy. Vitali, Zamboanga City
Sex: Male
Civil Status: Single
Religion: Roman Catholic
Citizenship: Filipino
Language: English, Filipino, Iloko
EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

College: Saint Louis College


Carlatan, City of San Fernando, La Union
Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering
2013-2019

High School: Christ The King College


City of San Fernando, La Union
2009-2013

Elementary: Christ The King College


City of San Fernando, La Union
98

2005-2009

ON-THE-JOB TRAINING

J.D. Madrid Construction – Dallangayan Oeste, City of San Fernando, La


Union
August 31, 2017 – November 21, 2017
SEMINARS ATTENDED

CE Theory and Practice, February 21, 2015 at Saint Louis College, City
of San Fernando, La Union.

Concrete Field Testing (ASTM Standards) Seminar, August 1, 2015 at


Saint Louis College, City of San Fernando, La Union

Basic First Aid Treatment for Construction Accidents, February 6,


2016 at Social Center, Saint Louis College, City of San Fernando, La
union
Leadership Training (PICE), 2016, SLC, City of San Fernando, La Union

Reserve Officer Training Course, 2014, Clark Air Base, Pampanga City

MEMBERSHIP TO ORGANIZATION

Philippine Institute of Civil Engineers–SLC–Student Chapter –


Member (S.Y. 2013-2014,2014-2015, 2015-2016, 2016-2017, 2018-
2019)
SKILLS

Computer Literate
Knowledge on AutoCAD
Knowledge on Microsoft Programs
99

CURRICULUM VITAE

Patrick Jeffrey S. De Guzman

Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering


San Fernando City, La Union
pjeffdeguzman@yahoo.com
0916-516-8676

PERSONAL INFORMATION

Age: 22 years old


Date of Birth: September 11, 1996
Place of Birth: Brgy. Tanguigan, San Fernando City, La Union
Sex: Male
Civil Status: Single
Religion: Roman Catholic
Citizenship: Filipino
Language: English, Filipino, Iloko

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

College: Saint Louis College


Carlatan, City of San Fernando, La Union
Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering
2013-Present

High School: Christ the King College


Sevilla, City of San Fernando, La Union
2009-2013

Elementary: Christ the King College


100

Sevilla, City of San Fernando, La Union


2003-2009

ON-THE-JOB TRAINING

Coreline Builders Construction & Supply – Red Drying St. Calumbaya,


Bauang, La Union
July 10, 2018 – July 28, 2018

SEMINARS ATTENDED

CE Theory and Practice, February 21,2015 at Saint Louis College, City


of San Fernando, La Union.

Concrete Field Testing (ASTM Standards) Seminar, August 1, 2015 at


Saint Louis College, City of San Fernando, La Union

Basic First Aid Treatment for Construction Accidents, February 6,


2016 at Social Center, Saint Louis College, City of San Fernando, La
union

MEMBERSHIP TO
ORGANIZATION

Philippine Institute of Civil Engineers–SLC–Student Chapter –


Member (S.Y. 2013-2014,2014-2015, 2015-2016, 2016-2017, 2017-2018,
2018-2019)
SKILLS

Computer Literate
Knowledge on AutoCAD
Knowledge on GRASP & STAAD
101

CURRICULUM VITAE

Bryan Carl D. Lascota

Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering


San Fernando City, La Union
bryanlascota@rocketmail.com
0927-271-6021

PERSONAL INFORMATION

Age: 20 years old


Date of Birth: January 29, 1998
Place of Birth: Brgy. Malacańang, Tagudin, Ilocos Sur
Sex: Male
Civil Status: Single
Religion: Roman Catholic
Citizenship: Filipino
Language: English, Filipino, Iloko

EDUCATIONALBACKGROUND

College: Saint Louis College


Carlatan, City of San Fernando, La Union
Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering
2014-Present

High School: Saint Louis College


Sevilla, City of San Fernando, La Union
2010-2014
102

Elementary: Saint Augustine School


Tagudin, Ilocos Sur
2004-2010

ON-THE-JOB TRAINING

J.A. Olivar Engineering Design, Construction and Supplies – Dalumpinas


Oeste, San Fernando City, La Union
June 28, 2018 – July 28, 2018

SEMINARS ATTENDED

National Civil Engineering Summit – University of the Philippines

MEMBERSHIP TO
ORGANIZATION

Philippine Institute of Civil Engineers–SLC–Student Chapter –


Member (S.Y. 2013-2014,2014-2015, 2015-2016, 2016-2017, 2017-2018,
2018-2019)

SKILLS

Computer Literate
Knowledge on AutoCAD
Knowledge on GRASP & STAAD