REANIMATING INTRODUCTION

REANIMATING INTRODUCTION

THE BODY AS A METAPHOR FOR THE CITY
Chester is analyzed through the body. The body is the key interaction point between our subconscious, the subjective and the physical environment, the objective. By understanding Chester through the function of the body we are able to hypothesize Chester's Future through reanimation.

REANMINATE
1. to refresh or enliven (something) again to reanimate their enervated lives 2. to bring back to life

REANIMATING INTRODUCTION

BRAIN POLITICS
functioning as the coordinating center of sensation and intellectual and nervous activity.

MUSCLES ECONOMY
the ability to contract, producing movement in or maintaining the position of parts of the body

ARTERIES / VEINS TRANSPORT
any of the muscular-walled tubes forming part of the circulation system

SENSES SOCIAL & CULTURAL
a way in which an expression or a situation can be interpreted; a meaning

TRADE & INDUSTRY AGRICULTURE ENERGY

VEHICULAR PUBLIC TRANSPORT RIVER & CANAL

HEALTH & PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEISURE, ARTS & CULTURE RELIGION

SKELETON URBAN FABRIC

EXPLORING THE OTHER POTENTIAL MICRONATIONS

Lichfield

Chester

Colchester

Santiago de Compostela

Carcasonne

Monaco

ASYSTOLE

REANIMATING THE MICROSTATE OF CHESTER

REANIMATING POLITICS

REANMINATING THE BRAIN The brain is the overall controlling aspect of the body, it has the power to decide what the other constituent parts are able to do and undertakes actions using the parts as the physical driver. The brain is key to Chester’s Future. THE EXISTING BRAIN CONFIGURATION
Lord Mayor - Chairman of the Council Sheriff - Ceremonial Duties only Lord Lieutenant - Her majesty the Queen’s representative in Cheshire - Duty to uphold the dignity of the Crown. Councilors (2008 elections) 55 Conservative 13 Labour 4 Liberal Democrats (76%) (18%) (6%)

REANIMATING POLITICS

REANMINATING GENETIC BRAIN PROGRAME CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY
HEAD OF STATE - The Queen Whilst mainly a ceremonial duty the Queen still maintains the power to reject any plans or laws proposed by the Government. Sovereign powers are exercised are delegated to the Prime Minister. Government Structure Prime Minister - Overall control Cabinet - Control over Government Departments MP’s - Local representation in Parliament Citizen Devolution Since 1998, certain areas of central government have be devolved to democratically accountable governments in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

REANIMATING POLITICS

REANMINATING GENETIC BRAIN PROGRAM DEVOLUTION
England is the only country of the United Kingdom to not have a devolved Parliament or Assembly. England continues to be governed and legislated for by the UK Government and UK parliament, which gives rise to the West Lothian Question. The Question concerns the fact that on devolved matters, Scottish MP’s continue to help make laws that apply to England alone, though no English MPs can make laws on those same matters for Scotland.

REANIMATING POLITICS

In Spain central government accounts for just 18% of public spending; regional governments 38% and local councils 13% with the remainder spent of social security.

REANMINATING DEVOLUTION OF POWER TO CHESTER
SPECULATION 1 - THE MICROSTATE OF CHESTER Learning from the Spanish Sovereign Democracy, the UK constitution should recognize the rights of ‘regions and nationalities’ to self-government. Political power in Spain is Channeled by a central government and 17 autonomous communities or microstates. These regional governments are responsible for: -Schools -Universities --Health -Social Services -Culture -Urban and Rural development -and in some places policing

REANIMATING POLITICS

REANMINATING DEVOLUTION OF POWER TO CHESTER
SPECULATION 1 - THE MICROSTATE OF CHESTER Historically Chester has had a City Government between 1762 - 1835 THE CORPORATION / ASSEMBLY -Was largely reactive rather than forward-looking in its attitude to the city, although it had clear ideas about what sort of place it wished Chester to be. -Much time was spent preventing encroachments on the streets and Rows, largely be commercial interests. -There was a concern for the seemliness of the town and thus the Corporation kept the walls in good repair, rebuilt the four ramshackle medieval gates in the classical style between 1768 and 1810 and removed public conveniences from the walls in 1772. -It laid new pavements for pedestrians along the roads from the Water Tower to the Riverside embankment (probably a fashionable promenade) and paid a city pavior to keep other footways in repair. -Chester also employed 16 watchmen to patrol the city at night to ensure there was no drunkenness or crime during the hours of darkness.

REANIMATING INDUSTRY
INDUSTRIAL MUSCLE: Chester s Brains over Brawn Chester’s

-To Re animate the unconscious patient that is Chester, the To Re-animate muscles need to create activity.

-Past primary & secondary industries include:
-Lead works -Nail makers -Surgical Instruments -Salt -Tanners - Brewers, Tobacco & Snuff

-Chester suffered a heavy decline due to the combination of the main port access of the river Dee becoming heavily silted and competition from nearby Liverpool. ilt d d titi f b Li l -Present day Chester is almost completely a service economy. -For Chester to successful operate as a microstate it needs self reliance within its economy and attractive features to attract outside investment i.e. a tax haven.

REANIMATING INDUSTRY
RETAIL -Chester’s main industry employing 16.5% of the local workforce. -Strongly established retail zone and renowned ‘Rows’ shopping streets that also act as tourist pulls.

Distribution of Retail

Issues: -Over-reliance on the once buoyant retail sector has created a ‘Service Economy’ in Chester. - Dominance of TNC’s and the selling of non local produce.
55,383 Workers 2,900,020 Workers

REANIMATING INDUSTRY
FINANCE -Chester has a strong financial business base with many companies choosing to locate in the city. -The biggest local employer is MBNA Europe (financial services). M&S Money is also based in Chester as is HBOS.

Distribution of Finance

Issues:
-Lack of a considered ‘Central Business District’ fails to d ti Chester f il t advertise Ch t as a th i i b i thriving business location. - No marketed presence for Chester as a business location (online)
55,383 Workers 2,900,020 Workers

REANIMATING INDUSTRY
DIGITAL / CREATIVE -Chester’s creative, digital and online industries are particularly booming with the potential for the area to become a hotspot for creativity outside of Manchester. -The city is home to the creation of Veewow.com a site that allows playlists to be created from YouTube videos videos.

Distribution of Digital Industries

Issues:
- No obvious creative ‘quarter’ or exhibition locations for industries to advertise.
55,383 Workers 2,900,020 Workers

REANIMATING INDUSTRY
MANUFACTURING -Whilst the glory days of heavy manufacturing of goods is over in this region and Liverpool, there is a resurgence of high tech industries with Chester being within the new North West high tech corridor. -Nearby heavy industry includes the Shell refinery and the ICI chemicals plant at Ellesmere Port. Another major local employer is Airbus, just over the border in Broughton, Wales. Issues:
-Lack of available premises and suitable trade access stifling development within the old city walls. -Internal bleeding of skills and knowledge as well Internal as widening of the economic base of primary industries ( i.e. making goods, selling them and keeping the capital in the local economy)

Distribution of Manufacturing Industries

55,383 Workers 2,900,020 Workers

REANIMATING INDUSTRY
SOCIAL -Chester employ’s 1.2% more people in the social industries of hotels, restaurants and pubs than elsewhere in the north west. -There is great scope for potential growth in this area with two key demographics of tourists and students visiting in great numbers. With the development of a business district there is also potential for business clients to require the need of this industry. Issues:
-A lack of a social hub and the fairly separate distribution of social locales means a nightlife atmosphere is not fostered. -Their spread out nature of means they don’t Their don t benefit from custom by association and passing trade. -Long walks between bars encourages anti-social behavior.

Distribution of Social Industries

55,383 Workers 2,900,020 2 900 020 Workers

REANIMATING INDUSTRY
SPECULATION 1 – INDUSTRY ZONING AROUND THE NEW ‘RIVER’.
-Chester ‘s zoning strategy has not been comprehensively addressed since the construction of the 60’s ring road. f th 60’ i d -A city once geared towards river trade is now needs adaption to the stream of vehicular traffic. -Creation of trade zones provides the business s in business's the microstate with identity and provision to accommodate manufacturing and to get products to the marketplace effectively.

Main artery/ modern day river traffic

3.Social Zone 2.Market Zone

4.Creative Zone

2.Business 2 Business Zone

1. Manufacturing Zone – Located adjacent to the ring road & market zone prioritises access. 2. Market/Business Zone – Central location provides good access and links to local industry and retail. 3. Social Zone – Provides a focus for nightlife trade and bolster tourism and retail g 4. Creative Zone – Positioned on the main city artery for good access, and adjacent to market and retail for getting products into the public realm.

REANIMATING TRADE
MONACO VS CHESTER -Monaco's economy is primarily geared toward finance, commerce, and tourism. -The Principality has successfully sought to diversify into services and small, high-valueadded, non-polluting industries. -The state has no income tax and low business taxes and thrives as a tax haven both for individuals who have established residence and for foreign companies that have set up businesses and offices. -The state retains monopolies in a number of sectors, including tobacco, the telephone network, and the postal service. -Chester’s economy is also geared toward finance, commerce and tourism. -Chester is looking to bolster its reputation as a centre for creative, high tech and online industries. -Chester no longer retains its legacy of financial independence from London and so is party to the same tax burdens as the rest of the UK. Industry struggles to compete with cheaper production and labour costs found in LEDC’s. -Chester once had control of trade through the trade guilds whom could decide which companies, products and times this could occur.

REANIMATING TRADE
CHESTER FAIR TRADE CITY -Chester was the first UK city granted Fair Trade status in 2002, later renewed in 2003. Criteria for a Fair Trade City -Council passes resolution supporting fair trade and serves fair trade tea and coffee at all it’s meetings. meetings -A range of at least 2 fair trade products should be available in all shops in the city. Fair business s -Fair trade products are used by local business's and community organisations. -Attract media coverage for the campaign.

Fair trade as a precedent for trade in Chester? Fair -Fair trade aims to provide market access to otherwise marginalized producers, connecting them to customers and allowing access with fewer middlemen. -It aims to provide higher wages than typically paid to producers as well as helping producers develop knowledge, skills and resources to improve their lives. p -By utilising the presently powerless Chester trade guild’s and freemen, whom could step in as a body similar to fair trade, controlling the levels of market access for local Cheshire produced goods.

REANIMATING TRADE
CHESTER TRADE GUILDS & FREEMEN -The trade guilds arose in Chester as a body of local business people who sought to protect the interests of local trades. -They encouraged trade, set wages and working conditions, arranged apprenticeships and gave help to sick & poor members. -Business people that were members of the guild were said to have ‘The Freedom’. This gave them the right to trade without hindrance or paying tolls and to be a full citizen with voting rights. -Their aim was to keep out all strangers and only allow them free access on market and fair days. -The various guilds rarely worked together for the good of the city.

The Old Dee Bridge: The bridge was built by the different guilds in Chester with each responsible for one arch of the bridge and thus built according to the money at their disposal.

REANIMATING TRADE
SPECULATION 2 – RESURRECTING THE TRADE GUILDS -Resurrecting the trade guilds in principle would provide Chester with control over the nature and quantity of goods sold within the microstate. -Rules could be put in place to restrict the operation of transnational corporations to certain ‘market days and to promote local industry and market days’ products in the Chester marketplace. -By creating toll gates on the main trade access points into Chester, charges could be made against companies bringing in goods produced elsewhere, thereby promoting the keeping of capital in the local economy. -Toll monies could be utilised in subsidising local business's, helping them become competitive with a globalised opponents.
QUALIFICATIONS FOR ADMISSION FOR THE FREEDOM OF THE MICROSTATE OF CHESTER : 1. Certified producer of goods made in Chester 2. Utilisation of local Chester workforce 3. Manufacturing and retailing based in the Microstate of Chester 4. Relevant Qualifications gained by recognised Chester education body.

Market Zone

Guildhall Toll Gates

CHESTER’S DIAGNOSIS: CURRENT AGRICULTURE
People

5000m 2500m

City Only

1

Farmers Market per

Month

Sites of Agriculture, Fishing, Forestry

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city centre district 10A

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REANIMATING THE MICROSTATE OF CHESTER

According to the National Statistics for the city centre (Chester 10A) out of working population of 750, only 6 (0.8%) are employed within agriculture, forestry, and hunting. Chester and Cheshire West has 2.4% of it’s working population working in agriculture. Compare this to statistics for England - 1.39% Therefore Cheshire
ASYSTOLE

has 58% more people working in Agriculture.

CHESTER’S DIAGNOSIS PUBLIC SPACE ISSUES
The lack of public space is Chester, contribute to it being a microstate. The limited amount and controlled nature of the spaces. Means there is very little area for people to stop sit and take in their surroundings, and interact with people. The streets are fast paced. You don’t feel like you could stop without disrupting the order of the street. Meaning the city rather tthan a vessel for interaction and understanding, becomes an introverted place. Hermit like, not wishing to let anyone find out what it’s really like.

Unutililised Aggressive Space

Pseudo public spaces

Chester has many “pseudo-public spaces” - these wholly private spaces, display many of the characteristics of a true public space, yet they are subtly controlled and monitored. Many citizens use these spaces, therefore there is chance for the owners of the space to implant subtle acceptable standards of public life unto the users, thus strengthening the microstate.

No Stopping

Busy Streets

Open public spaces

2

1

2

1

3

3

4

5 4 6

5
ASYSTOLE

6
REANIMATING THE MICROSTATE OF CHESTER

WHAT IS PUBLIC SPACE?

EYES

LUNGS OF THE CITY Changes to the public space network, will allow the city to breathe again, new green spaces will improve the air quality for citizens The term is relatively new and confusingly has wide ranging definitions. An idealistic definition of public space is one where anyone has the right to visit or stay without being excluded due to economic or social conditions, no payment or fees should be collected for visiting there, nor should entrants face any discrimination due to cultural and socio-economic background. To define a space you often have to define the activities that can be carried out there. According to Kohn public spaces must be “places that facilitate unplanned contacts between people. These unplanned contacts include interactions between strangers as well as chance meetings between friends and acquaintances”

EARS

IS CHESTER NOW deaf?

The city has limited public spaces, exisisting sites are small and not fit for successful public engagement

IS CHESTER NOW blind?

Sites exist with the city, to turn into successful public spaces, but they are under-utilised and hidden.

ASYSTOLE

REANIMATING THE MICROSTATE OF CHESTER

WHAT IS AGRICULTURE?

H

blood

Agriculture is the production, processing, marketing, and use of foods, fibers and byproducts from plant crops and animals.[1] Agriculture was the key development that led to the rise of human civilization, with the husbandry of domesticated animals and plants (i.e. crops) creating food surpluses that enabled the development of more densely populated and stratified societies. Agriculture is the blood of the city. As blood is defined as a specialized bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances to the body’s cells – such as nutrients and oxygen – and transports waste products away from those same cells.

IS CHESTER haemorrhagING?

The city has isolated itself from its agricultural past, haemorraging its culture, choosing to opt for the often misrepresented culture of Rome. As this make more profit than farming.

Does Chester need a plaster, or a transfusion?

We need to reinject life into the city, as well as fix the cuts. Tranfusions can be defined as larger changes and strategies. Plasters will fix the smaller macro/human scale problems, with human centred solutions and strategies.

ASYSTOLE

REANIMATING THE MICROSTATE OF CHESTER

CHESTER’S VIRUS: RENAISSANCE & PUBLIC SPACES
The first phase of Public Realm Works are a £1.3m project which will improve the way people move around the city and further strengthen Chester’s high quality visitor and leisure offer. The aim is to lovingly maintain what is already there and create a pleasant external environment for all to enjoy. Enhancing footpaths and street furniture whilst improving accessibility around the city. These improvements are taking place all over the city. Castle and Riverfront Zone Specific improvements have included the rejoining of the walls over Castle Drive, extending the promenade from the Little Roodee towards the Groves and creating a ramped access point between Castle Drive and the Little Roodee car park. Northgate Street High quality natural surface treatments have been used in keeping with the setting of the street and its proximity to the Roman Walls and listed buildings. City Road Enhancements to a street that not only provides a key route between the station and the city centre, but also houses many commercial premises including hotels, retailers and offices. Racecourse Promenade Upgrading and Enhancement Improvements have included kerbing, railings, seating, other street furniture, landscaping and a high quality surface finish along the Riverside Promenade route

ASYSTOLE

REANIMATING THE MICROSTATE OF CHESTER

CHESTER’S CURE SPECULATION 1 PUBLIC SPACES
Does Chester need some new glasses and a hearing aid?
Public Space - It is the eyes and ears of Chester, I proposed it has become partially blind and deaf, a place reluctant to to address civic life.
The area within the city walls would become car free in an amtempt to make chester address its civic life , it needs to be able to see and hear what its citizens have to say. instead of seeing cars and retail units, as these create mental as well as physical barriers Car parks to be returned to being green spaces, only 40% of the inner city citizens need cars to get to work. Subsidised travel could be provided for those who live within the walls, that need to travel out of city Car sharing schemes situated just outside the walls

32% 12%
Only

greenspace in the city

is publicly accessible

The introduction of water fountains and increased group seating areas along the main shopping axis. These encourage interaction and provide another focus to the streets other than the retail units. Flea markets would be encouraged to spread throughout the city

Make the walls a social network/space

ASYSTOLE

REANIMATING THE MICROSTATE OF CHESTER

CUREMANIFESTO

The great cities rest upon our broad and fertile prairies. Burn down your cities and leave our farms, and your cities will spring up again as if by magic; but destroy our farms, and grass will grow in the streets of every city in the country. (William Jennings Bryan, Cross of Gold, Speech, 1896)

By looking after our farming and agriculture we will ultimately be looking after the city

ASYSTOLE

REANIMATING THE MICROSTATE OF CHESTER

CUREMANIFESTO

Neighbourhood gathering places give heart to the community (Langdon,1994) Great cities are known for their public spaces, and one measure of any city’s greatness is it’s ability to provide, recreation natural beauty, and signature open spaces for its citizens. Successful cities public spaces pay dividends for cities, building civic pride, increasing tourism and economic investment and conributing to health and quality of life. (Rogers,2003)

ASYSTOLE

REANIMATING THE MICROSTATE OF CHESTER

SECOND OPNION PUBLIC SPACES

Connect People The most important principle is to ensure we encourage communication and exchange between people. The open spaces must be inviting and of high quality, building edges must make a positive contribution to the public spaces through public access to ground floor uses and active edges. Activate the edge Public accessibility to diverse ground floor building uses is crucial, physically and visually. The success of lively and interesting places will be found at the ground floor edge. The first three meters of the city. Inhabiting the ground floor with restraint, meeting rooms, gardens, lobbies and such like will start that activators process dens, lobbies and such like will start that activators process (Development Framework – Chester Central Consultation - May 2010)

ASYSTOLE

REANIMATING THE MICROSTATE OF CHESTER

CHESTER’S CURE AGRICULTURE SPECULATION 1
Does Chester need some new blood?
Larger city scale interventions and strategies to get more agriculture into the city.

A new program of agricultural events, such as weekly farmers markets, in a prominent central postion, as well as in new locations

A new program of allotments, will increase the production of local food and reduce the reliance on large supermarkets. They will also increase the sense of community within the city centre and facillitate more interaction.

A new agricultural or fisheries education establishment. This will bring the issue of agriculture back to the city. Students will bring life to this area, making the South of Chester City more vibrant again. I also propose a lower level footbridge with access to the other side of the river.

ASYSTOLE

REANIMATING THE MICROSTATE OF CHESTER

CHESTER’ AGRICULTURAL CURE OVERVIEW

getting more agriculture back into the city

IN

DU TRO

CIN

UR ULT RIC AG G

E

Sites of Agriculture, Fishing, Forestry

Why • Educate people • Reduce food miles • Provide more jobs • Improve well being

ASYSTOLE

REANIMATING THE MICROSTATE OF CHESTER

CHESTER’S CURE SPECULATION 2 PUBLIC SPACE

a more aggressive treatment

canals for slowing the pace of the city, and making new promenade spaces
g ro a Rin

Chester needs to

Puncture the Walls

d beco

ca mes a

• • •

Resuscitate the social culture within the city Be able to provide more jobs within the sector Removal of personal car traffic in favour of less isolated, more social transport forms such as walking and cycling.

Remove Grosvenor Shopping Centre in favour of a Public Square for markets and social culture Contination of Riverside public space around the Roodee New Student Union

nal

• •

Create a social hub Introduction of the canals within the city walls - transportation, tourism and residential purposes.

• •

Introduce a new student union Puncture the Chester walls - more access and exit points

Ne

w

s ge id br ot fo

wa riverside

lk

ASYSTOLE

REANIMATING THE MICROSTATE OF CHESTER

EXPLORING THE OTHER POTENTIAL MICRONATIONS

Lichfield

Chester

Colchester

Santiago de Compostela

Carcasonne

Monaco

ASYSTOLE

REANIMATING THE MICROSTATE OF CHESTER

REANIMATING THE ENERGY SYSTEM

POSITIVE ENERGY CONSUMPTION FIGURES ELECTRICITY & GAS
Chester consumes 132,364 MWH of Electricity and Gas a year, putting it on a par with the majority of Cheshire. Chester Central falls into the 3rd classification for total energy consumed per year. It is much lower than the other regional centers of Ellesmere Port and Runcorn.

REANIMATING ENERGY

NOT SUCH A HEALTHY DIET - ENERGY SOURCE
The majority of Chester’s supply comes from Natural Gas power stations at Deeside and Shotten Paper to the north of the city centre. Chester is a hotspot for CO2 emissions producing over 1000 Tonnes of CO2 a year.

REANIMATING ENERGY

EXISTING ARTERIES AND VEINS
MIX OF OLD AND NEW Many building in central Chester are heated by oil. Deliveries are at present made by tanker separately to individual premises

AERTERY
Gas pipes beneath the city

VEIN
Sewer system beneath the city

REANIMATING ENERGY

THE OLD HEART HISTORICAL POWERSTATION
-A Hydroelectric power plant was built on the weir on the River Dee in 1913 as an attractive alternative to extending the existing thermal station. This scheme was the only one in England dealing with both tidal and head waters. - It was the success of the Chester scheme that influenced the decision to construct a similar plant at York.

REANIMATING ENERGY

REANMINATING THE HEART AND THE BLOOD
The heart can provides the mechanical infrastructure to pump the blood around the body. Within the blood is all of the absorbed nutrients the body needs for maintenance, growth and everyday activities

SPECULATION 1 CONSTRUCT A NEW HEART
A new hydroelectric plant could be constructed on the banks of the River Dee to utilize the existing weir. A small scale hydroelectric power plant can produce 5 MW of electricity with an efficiency of up to 80%. The new power plant could feed the existing arteries with energy, allowing the city to sustain itself. A 5MW power supply can potentially supply up to 4000 homes, enough to cover the centre of Chester. This would significantly reduce Chester’s Carbon Footprint, improving the cities health. The new heart can then supply the old arterial systems with minor disruption to the city surface above.

REANIMATING TRANSPORT & MOBILITY a research on Chester transport network infrastructure

“If we want to understand transport in cities, we have to understand human behaviour in the urban environment. No society can exist without the movement of people, goods and information. This is generally regarded as a requirement for evolution, be it through the facilitation of trade or, most importantly, for human interaction. Modern transport collapses distances between locations and should, in principle, be equally available to everyone... It is taken as an aspirational reflection of lifestyle, a physical representation of political achievements. It is the raison d'être for the world's most powerful industrial sector. Transport is one of the most highly contested areas of development” Hermann Knoflacher; Philipp Rode and Geetan Tiwari

4 kilometres from the wall 1h walking (10 m/h) 15 min cycling (30 m/h) 5 min driving
(2.5m/h) It takes in average 10 min to drive home from inside the walls

Design agents: Chester Group: Abel, Adam, Andrew, Heather, Phil, Stuart, David, Sunny, Linh

REANIMATING TRANSPORT & MOBILITY

TRANSPORT & MOBILITY _ the existing infrastructure River Dee &Canal Railway Roads cycle

1 km

2 km

3 km

4 km

REANIMATING TRANSPORT & MOBILITY
0.6% Working from home 1.8% Train Walking 12.5%

TRANSPORT & MOBILITY _ method of travel to work

20% Bus Cycling 2.5% Motorcycle 0.9%

Passenger in a car 8.1%

0.6% Taxi

53% Car

REANIMATING TRANSPORT & MOBILITY

TRANSPORT & MOBILITY _ the River Dee &Canal
As a transport infrastructure is mainly used by leisure boats

The original Chester Canal was constructed to run from the River Dee near Sealand Road, to Nantwich in south Cheshire, and opened in 1774. In 1805, the Wirral section of the Ellesmere Canal was opened, which ran from Netherpool (now known as Ellesmere Port) to meet the Chester Canal at Chester canal basin. Later, those two canal branches became part of the Shropshire Union Canal network. This canal, which runs beneath the northern section of the city walls of Chester, is navigable and remains in use today. 1794 -1950 Boats carried cargo such as coal, slate, gypsum or lead ore as well as finished lead from the leadworks in Egerton Street (Newtown). Grain from Cheshire was stored in granaries on the banks of the canal at Newtown and Boughton and salt for preserving food arrived from Northwich. The Chester Canal had locks down to the River Dee. Canal boats could enter the river at high tide to load goods directly onto seagoing vessels. The port facilities at Crane Wharf, by Chester racecourse, made an important contribution to the commercial development of the north-west region

The River Dee is a 70-mile (110 km) long. It travels through Wales and England and a forms part of the border between the two countries. It rises in Snowdonia, Wales, flows east via Chester and discharges to the sea into an estuary between Wales and the Wirral Peninsula in England.

REANIMATING TRANSPORT & MOBILITY
A41 “Road building is like feeding the pigeons: the more you give the more will come”

TRANSPORT & MOBILITY _ roads
A540

M53

A56 The road is the main transport infrastructure used in Chester. The ring roads provides the main connectivity to the cities main roads network. Chester is a hub for major roads, including the M53 motorway towards the Wirral Peninsula and Liverpool and the M56 motorway towards Manchester. The A55 road runs along the North Wales coast to Holyhead and the A483 links the city to nearby Wrexham and Swansea to the far south. Bus transport in the city is provided by First Group and Arriva, the council owned and operated Chester Bus (formerly Chester City Transport) having been sold to First Group in mid-2007. There are plans to build a new bus exchange in the city as well as a new coach station. A548 A5480

Ring road A51

A41

A5104 A483

A55

REANIMATING TRANSPORT & MOBILITY

TRANSPORT & MOBILITY _ roads

Road infrastructure before the ring road

Martin's Fields were all doubled in width, resulting in the loss of hundreds of old buildings, and the resultant 'urban highway' was renamed Nicolas Street at its southern end and St. Martin's Way at its northern. 19th Yacht Inn, which for centuries stood on the corner of Watergate Street and Nicolas Street, all building on the left were destroyed.

X
This side of the modern street now boasts a collection of structures including a multi-storey car park, tyre depot and office buildings.

REANIMATING TRANSPORT & MOBILITY
“Cars require significantly more space than other transport modes. On average, cars take up about 170 square metres per passenger at 50 kilometres per hour, as opposed to a tram which needs 2 square metres per passenger.... 'Transport' in its original sense lost its meaning”

TRANSPORT & MOBILITY _ issues: illness
In Chester, the automobile is the primarily instrument of urban mobility. The car brought with it major unanticipated consequences for urban life and has become a serious cause of environmental, social, and aesthetic problems in city. High speed movement was introduced to the same networks previously used by pedestrians.

Consequences of the urban automobile
• It is killing street life with parked cars in public spaces suppressing other human activities. •It is damaging the social fabric of communities •It is isolating people by reducing the social interaction of residents living on opposite sides of the same street and by making roads acting as barriers in the city. •It is fostering suburban sprawl defragmenting the city causing inefficient use of land, contributing to the movement of the economic, cultural and leisure activities away from urban centres. •It is endangering other street users transforming the public space a dangerous territory, particularly for vulnerable street users such as children and the elderly and increasing crime. •It is blotting the city's beauty •It is causing noise and air pollution affecting the city's eco-system, contributing to global warming, wasting energy and natural recourses. •Its is occupying vast amount of valuable land in and out side of the walls.

REANIMATING TRANSPORT & MOBILITY

Chester formerly had two railway stations. Chester General railway station remains in use but Chester Northgate closed in 1969 as a result of the Beeching Axe, British Government's attempt in the 1960s to reduce the cost of running British Railways.

TRANSPORT & MOBILITY _ railway

Chester General, opened in 1848,designed with an Italianate frontage. It now has seven designated platforms but once had more. The station lost its original roof in the 1972 Chester General rail crash. In September 2007 extensive renovations took place to improve pedestrian access, and parking. The present station has manned ticket offices and barriers, waiting rooms, toilets, shops and a pedestrian bridge with lifts. Chester General also had a large marshalling yard and engine sheds, most of which has now been replaced with housing. Normal scheduled departures from Chester Station are: multiple services on the North Wales Coast Line; Virgin Trains to London Euston via Crewe; Arriva Trains Wales to Manchester Piccadilly via Warrington Bank Quay and Cardiff Central via Wrexham General; Northern Rail to Manchester Piccadilly via Northwich; Merseyrail to Liverpool on the Wirral Line.

Bache railway station serves the Bache area in the north of the city of Chester. It's the first stop for trains leaving Chester General on Merseyrail’s electrified Wirral Line. Passengers can change here for regular bus services to Chester Zoo.

REANIMATING TRANSPORT & MOBILITY
Chester Northgate, which was located North East of the city centre, opened in 1875 as a terminus for the Cheshire Lines Committee. Trains travelled via Northwich to Manchester Central. It was demolished in the 1970s; the site is part of the Northgate Arena leisure centre.

TRANSPORT & MOBILITY _ railway: issues
It contains large tracts of underused former industrial land and spans a critical area between the predominantly residential neighbourhoods of Hooleto the north, and, the more mixed urban areas around the fringes of the city centre to the south. There is ample opportunity for significant improvements to the public realm, particularly around the Station Square/City Road and along the length of Brook Street and HooleWay, which not only act as important links between the main railway station and the city centre, but (in the case of Brook Street) also provides a valuable service and retail centre for surrounding local communities. Accessibility needs to be improved for all modes in the vicinity of the existing HooleBridge and around the HooleWay junctions with Brook Street and St. OswaldsWay, particularly for public transport, walking and cycling.

REANIMATING TRANSPORT & MOBILITY

TRANSPORT & MOBILITY _ railway: issues

Railway track now used for cycling and the construction of roads created neglected spaces under .

REANIMATING TRANSPORT & MOBILITY

TRANSPORT & MOBILITY _ cycle

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TRANSPORT & MOBILITY _ cycle

REANIMATING TRANSPORT & MOBILITY

TRANSPORT & MOBILITY _ cycle route: issues

•Extremely dangerous to ride near the canal •Lack a protection barriers between track and the canal

REANIMATING TRANSPORT & MOBILITY

TRANSPORT & MOBILITY _ walking

Typically, not more than 10% of the city's surface was used for movement; this required people to live close to where they worked. For thousands of years, cities developed based on the 8% of muscle energy available in the human body for low-speed pedestrian mobility.

10 min 5 min

4 kilometres from the wall
(2.5m/h)

1h walking

REANIMATING TRANSPORT & MOBILITY
Public transport is a socially agreeable kind of mechanical transport; it encourages people to act socially. “What are the essential qualities of our cities, what is the benefit of their proximity, and what are the appropriate transport solutions to achieve them?”

TRANSPORT & MOBILITY _ speculative scenario 1: the cure & implication
Congestion charge, London: the scheme imposes a daily charge for driving or parking a vehicle on public roads between 7am to 6pm within a designated oval shape, 22 square kilometre central London, Monday to Friday (excluding public holidays). The scheme is reinforced by the use of cameras operated and monitored by TfL; the charge my be paid in person at local agents, via mobile phone or internet. The zones takes the historical centre of the capital and its major cultural and financial institutions and its marked on streets and signposts through the zone. Despite opposition from London business claiming negative effect on their trade the scheme has reduced car use on the zone by 21% and also reduced congestion. Profits from congestions charge ploughed back to public transport provision and public space improvements. Increased public transport use. Road surface is primarily used by public transport and cycling. This improves individuals quality of life and community viability. •Understand what forces are required to break the path of car dependencies •Policy shift in this direction to reduce car dependence •Truly regional service, which does not have to terminate according to administrative boundaries •Tackle traffic congestion has been by actively reducing car use through the introduction of the Congestion Charge within the wall •Redesign streets in city centre to benefit pedestrians •Promoting cycling by assigning additional routes and reinforcing safety policy •Working and living closer together and reducing the overall need for travel •Connecting places while at the same time creating locations

Integrated mobility, Metro, tram, Call-a-bike and car sharing, Berlin: Berlin has German's largest tram network nearly 190 kilometres of track and almost 800 tram stops, carrying 560,000 passengers each day. Fully integrate people with limited mobility, wheel chair users, elderly and parents with babies buggies. Trams navigate streets with different widths. Call Bikes is a fleet of bikes that can be hired and returned and returned through the central city via a telephone call, users pay a small fee over the phone registering their credit or debit card. Each bike is equipped with an electronic lock opened by numeric code , with a light that signals the bike availability to hire. Car sharing companies, members pay a monthly fee, and thereafter only the time they check out one of the company cars. Some search show that 1 shared car could replace 4 -10 private cars. Green wheels has 50 check out parking lots through Berlin. Convenience to access is key to car sharing schemes’ ability to compete with private ownership. Cost saving benefits to their costumers.

REANIMATING TRANSPORT & MOBILITY
Venice is Europe's largest urban car free area; uses its canal network to move freight internally and between the city and the mainland although very slow.

TRANSPORT & MOBILITY _ speculative scenario 2: THE CAR FREE CITY
Experimentation on implementing Venice model into Chester urban structure. This will implicate a complete change the structure of Chester and city arrangement. • Understand what forces are required to break the path of car dependencies • Policy shift, streets entirely redesigned to benefit pedestrians • Connecting places while at the same time creating locations • Pedestrian-friendly environments at the top of the agenda, and regards walking and cycling as serious contributions to urban mobility. • City built at a human scale • Transport revolution, based on communication and information technology

Affected entities: Residents, Businesses, Political parties, Local government, City government, Neighboring municipal governments, Regional government, National government, Municipal services, Tourism board, Local media, Transport companies, Handicapped, Property owners, Schools and school partners, Emergency services, Post office, Telecommunications companies, Parking garages, Emergencies services

REANIMATING HEALTH AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
PERCEPTION - Sport and recreation facilities are provided by three major agencies:

LOCAL AUTHORITY

VOLUNTARY SECTOR

COMMERCIAL SECTOR

REANIMATING HEALTH AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

OPEN WOUND: CURRENT LOCAL AUTHORITY PROVISIONS

Children's play areas: 0.2-0.3 hectares per 1000 persons (Play areas with play equipment)

Casual/informal play space: 0.4-0.5 hectares per 1000 persons (Space for informal play)

Outdoor sport: 1.6-1.8 hectares per 1000 persons (Pitches, greens, courts etc)

REANIMATING HEALTH AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

INTERNAL BLEEDING FITNESS CENTRES -  orthgate arena: fitness hub of n chester -  swimming pools 2 -  xtensive multi-use sports hall E -  artial arts hall M -  able tennis hall T -  ymnasium G -  itness classes F

REANIMATING HEALTH AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

INTERNAL BLEEDING FITNESS CENTRES -  RIVATE FITNESS CENTRES AND P GYMS -  small scale fitness centres within 1 6 mile radius of city centre - ndependently run I -  o plans for national fitness centres N allowing local businesse to thrive -  ommunity individualism C -  pportunities for expansion in NW O and SE

REANIMATING HEALTH AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

INTERNAL BLEEDING CITY CYCLING -  edicated cycle network in West D Cheshire - ncrease in cycling journeys in I chester - cycle Chester’ action group ‘ established -  lans for future routes into rural P areas -  ngoing community projects to O promote cycling

REANIMATING HEALTH AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
PERCEPTION Public health facilities in Chester are provided by The South Cheshire Health Authority as well as by private healthcare services

REANIMATING HEALTH AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

INTERNAL BLEEDING MEDICAL CENTRES -  entral health hub formed by C Countess of Chester Health Park (location of main hospital) -  dequate central spread of local A health centres -  ack of health centres in suburbs L -  entral health hub is in inadequate C location to serve city equally.

REANIMATING HEALTH AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

INTERNAL BLEEDING SPECIALIST MEDICAL CENTRES -  mall scale centres S -  ack of specialist clinics in suburbs L -  ack of specialist clinics in city centre L -  issing links between Countess of M Chester health park

REANIMATING HEALTH AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

INTERNAL BLEEDING DENTAL CLINICS -  entrally located spread of existing C clinics -  mall scale clinics S -  ack of dental clinics in suburbs. L

REANIMATING HEALTH AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

SPECULATION 1 LINKING CYCLE AND EXERCISE ROUTE -  edicated extension to existing cycle D route to link up to create cohesive and efficient system. -  oute doubles as running / walking / R swimming routes to encourage other methods of exercise -  oute links existing facilities to R encourage doubters who have worries about health or in terms of bikes, Mechanical problems.

REANIMATING HEALTH AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

SPECULATION 2 LINKING CYCLE AND EXERCISE ROUTE -  ddition of park and exercise points A on the outskirts of the city -  inking of medical centres to L encourage people with increased health issues to exercise

Precedent: Buschow Henley’s ‘Park & Jog scheme in Manchester

REANIMATING HEALTH AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

SPECULATION 3 ENCOURAGING LEISURE EXERCISE -  reating junctions where facilities C can be provided. -  ood and drink outlets, washing F areas, rest areas, points of interest can all be created along the routes to encourage exercise in all walks of life whether it be tourism or the working environment.

REANIMATING HEALTH AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

SPECULATION 3 ENCOURAGING LEISURE EXERCISE (THE PIT STOP)

REANIMATING HEALTH AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

SPECULATION 4 HEALING THE OPEN WOUNDS -  he arteries and veins which make T up the city’s body have now been connected to create a flowing urban fabric. -  he remaining open wounds are T highlighted in areas where the linked system create voids. -  hese areas can be used to provid T elocation for Chester’s missing facilities: the athletics ground; the skatepark; the tennis centre; the watersports centre; the missing childrens play areas; the missing sports pitches.

REANIMATING ECONOMY

SPECULATIONS: A SUMMARY

-  eduction in city traffic R -  ecrease stress levels. D -  ecrease pressure on health service D - ncrease social interaction. I -  rovide new business opportunities. P -  ecrease urban environmental issues D -  reating areas for missing facilities. C -  rovide network for people worried about exercise. P -  xploration of new ways to see city’s historical past E

-  estruction of barriers caused by giant road D systems - ncrease affordability of exercise. I -  reates efficient locations of medical centres C -  xploration of further medical facilities required to E sustain a healthy urban body -  einstate central hubs (Physical Activity and R Health).

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P P L TO O U A IN T A E EO O R D + C N MY R L IN EI O G A T + UT R R S C LU E TA SO T RNPR RV R C N L C IIY IE + A A A TVT A RC LU E G IU T R P B I SA E U L PCS C

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