# Topic 1 1.

1 Describe generation of a single phase sinusoidal alternating current A loop of wire is rotated in a magnetic field that will generate sinusoidal wave with respect to different angles. It is at the max when it¶s at 90 and 270 degrees and it is at the minimum when it¶s at 0, 180 and 360 degrees. 1.2 Define the following terms: a. Cycle b. Frequency c. Period d. Phase e. In phase or phase difference f. Phase lead or lag

a. Continued rotation of a conductor in a magnetic field that produces succession of waves of voltage b. No. of cycles occurring in one second, donated by µf¶ c. Time taken in seconds for one complete cycle f=1/T d. Same frequency in which two or more voltages/ currents can be compared e. Individual voltages/current rise/fall in the same direction f. Individual voltages/current rise/fall in different directions 1.3 Define/convert between AC values a. instantaneous value b. peak value c. peak to peak value d. average value e. RMS value

7 Draw and describe the power wave for a purely resistive AC circuit and state the formula for power P=EI 1. 1. current and power 1. as measured vertically from a point on the time axis representing that instant b. series b. Ohm¶s law. 1.6 Describe the effects of resistance on voltage and current in an AC circuit In a purely resistive AC circuit the voltage and current are IN PHASE.4 Describe the decibel system for voltage. considering a half cycle only.637 of the peak value e. effective or RMS value of an alternating current is 0.a. series/ parallel Completed in other previous calculation problems .5 Convert between decibels and voltage. difference between the peak positive and peak negative value during a cycle d. and the usual circuit rules for current and voltage apply exactly as in DC circuits. Kirchhoff¶s law.707 of its peak value. parallel c.8 Calculate values of voltage. current and power in following AC resistive circuits: a. e. max value that is reached (either positive or negative) during a cycle is the peak value c.g AC sine wave equivalent to 0. value at a particular instant of time. current and power relationship It¶s a dimensionless logarithmic unit used to express the ratio of two powers. voltages or currents. 1.

1. no. 2.3 State the formula for inductive reactance and explain how it is derived. of turns in the coil and the cross sectional area of the core. the opposition to current provided by a pure inductance in an AC circuit is given by the relationship 2. It is the property of an inductor whereby a change in current causes the inductor to produce an opposing voltage (emf) . using an oscilloscope and multimeter Completed in other previous calculation problems 1. Odd harmonics are frequencies that are odd multiples of the fundamental frequency of the waveform Even harmonics are frequencies that are even multiples of the fundamental frequency of the waveform Topic 2 Inductance in AC circuits 2. Since V=IR Similarly.9 Measure values of V. frequency of AC resistive circuits.1 Determine the phase relationship between the applied voltage and circuit current in a purely inductive AC circuit. It is the opposition to current flow due to an inductance. I.10 Describe Harmonics. core length.2 describe the property of inductive reactance and impedance It is the core material. and effect that odd and even harmonics have on fundamental wave shapes.

2. 2.4 Determine current and voltage in a RL series circuit and draw the phasor diagram of voltage and current for an RL series circuit.2. 2.6 Determine current and voltage in a RL parallel circuit and draw the phasor diagram of voltage and current for an RL series circuit.5 Determine total impedance in a RL series circuit and draw the phasor diagram of voltage and current for an RL series circuit.7 Determine total impedance in a RL parallel circuit and draw the phasor diagram of voltage and current for an RL series circuit. .

impedance and current flow in an RL parallel AC circuit. A purely resistive load is connected to a power supply. 3. current and voltage will change polarity in step. As    Any change in the size of the capacitor C will change the capacitive reactance Xc. the amount of charge that the capacitor can hold will increase and therefore the current through the capacitor will also increase. and the electrical energy flows in a single direction across the network in each cycle. . Completed in experiments 2.8 Describe effects of a change in frequency on inductive reactance. the power factor will be unity (1). Completed in experiments 2.9 Describe effects of a change in frequency on inductive reactance.10 Describe consumption of power in a purely inductive AC circuit.3 State the formula for capacitive reactance and explain how it is derived.1 Describe effects of capacitance on the phase relationship of the voltage and current in an AC circuit V=IR    3.2 State meaning of terms capacitive reactance and impedance. and current flow in an RL parallel AC circuit.2. Inductive loads such as transformers and motors (any type of wound coil) consume reactive power with current waveform lagging the voltage. When the capacitance value of a capacitor increases. Topic 3 Capacitance in AC circuits 3. impedance.

resistance.5 Determine total impedance of a RC parallel circuit and draw phasor diagram of capacitive reactance.3. 3.4 Determine current and voltage in a RC series circuit and draw phasor diagram of voltage and current of an RC series circuit. .6 Determine current and voltage in a RC parallel circuit and draw phasor diagram of voltage and current of an RC series circuit. 3. and impedance for an RC series circuit.

3. . You may say that capacitive reactance decreases with increasing frequency or. Also completed in practical experiments. Increasing the frequency will also decrease the opposition offered by a capacitor. In a purely capacitive circuit the positive and negative powers are equal and opposite so thy cancel each other out and total power is zero. This opposition is called CAPACITIVE REACTANCE. impedance and current flow in an RC series circuit. more electrons will pass a given point in a given time (greater current flow). The opposition which a capacitor offers to ac is therefore inversely proportional to frequency and to capacitance. This occurs because the number of electrons which the capacitor is capable of handling at a given voltage will change plates more often. impedance and current flow in an RC parallel circuit. for a given frequency. The symbol for capacitive reactance is XC. 3. 3.7 Determine the total impedance of a RC parallel circuit.8 Describe the effects of a change in frequency on Capacitive reactance. the capacitive reactance decreases with increasing capacitance.10 Describe consumption of power in a purely capacitive AC circuit.9 Describe the effects of a change in frequency on Capacitive reactance. 3. Due to the phase difference of 90 degree between the voltage and current both a positive and negative power are produced. As a result.

Topic 4 4. applied voltage g. voltage across inductor e. Phase angle Completed in other previous calculation problems 4.2 Perform calculations involving all possible variables in series LCR circuits including: a. give the formula for and calculate: a. voltage across capacitor f. impedance b. 4. its product is known as apparent power Pa which is measured in volt-amperes (VA) Apparent power = EA x I (in VA) . apparent power If the voltage and current are not in phase. supply current c.3 Describe.1 Draw phasor diagram of voltage and impedance for series LCR circuits. voltage across resistor d.

b. reactive power Power which is required to build up a magnetic field around an inductor and to charge a capacitor and is then returned to the energy source is known as Reactive power Reactive Power = Vx x I (VAR) d. perform calculations using the formula for series resonance Completed in other previous calculation problems 4.4 Draw impedance and current graphs for a series LCR circuit 4. At this point half the applied voltage is dropped across the resistor and the other half across the reactive component.e BW = f2-f1 .7 State. i. bandwidth BWW of a series resonant RCL circuit is the range of frequencies between the half power points. Half power points It occurs when XT (total reactance) equals the resistance. 4. the circuit impedance (Z) decreases until it reaches a minimum. give formulas for and calculate: a. b. true power The power consumed in the resistive part of the circuit is known as µTrue Power¶ (PT) and is measured in watts True Power = VR x I c.8 In relation to a series resonant RCL circuits. describe.5 Draw frequency and response curve for a series LCR circuit 4. power factor ratio of true power to apparent power pf = True power/ apparent power 4.6 Describe the conditions that exist in the series LCR circuit at resonance As frequency increases.

3 In relation to parallel RCL circuits. its product is known as apparent power Pa which is measured in volt-amperes (VA) Apparent power = EA x I (in VA) .2 Perform calculations involving all variables in parallel LCR circuits: a. impedance b.1 Draw the current phasor diagram for parallel LCR circuits. describe give the formula for and calculate following: a. Phase angle Completed in other previous calculation problems 5. voltage across capacitor f. d. 5.c. apparent power If the voltage and current are not in phase. applied voltage g. supply current c. voltage across resistor d. voltage across inductor e. voltage magnification factor The amount by which the voltage is magnified is known as magnification factor Topic 5 Parallel LCR circuits 5. quality factor (Q) representing quality or value of merit of reactive circuit is simply the ratio of the inductive reactance to the circuit resistance.

true power The power consumed in the resistive part of the circuit is known as µTrue Power¶ (PT) and is measured in watts True Power = VR x I c. power factor ratio of true power to apparent power pf = True power/ apparent power 5.b. reactive power Power which is required to build up a magnetic field around an inductor and to charge a capacitor and is then returned to the energy source is known as Reactive power Reactive Power = Vx x I (VAR) d.4 Describe conditions that exist in parallel LCR circuit at resonance The resonant frequency of a parallel resonant circuit is calculated with the same formula used for series resonant circuits: .

describe. Dynamic Impedance Because the input supplies a current at resonance. give the formulas for and calculate the following: a.5. It is still a high value (maximum) and is called the Dynamic impedance Zd of the circuit.5 Draw the impedance and current frequency response curves for a parallel LCR circuit 5. and perform calculations using formula for parallel resonance 5.7 In relation to a parallel resonant RCL circuits.6 State. the impedance Z is no longer infinite at fr. .

d. Q can be found by formula: e.b. Bandwidth The BW of a parallel LCR circuit depends upon the Q of the circuit. . c. Half-power points The difference between half-power frequencies is the bandwidth of the resonance. the narrower the BW. Quality Factor (Q) If the BW and the resonant frequency are known. current magnification factor Amount by which the current is magnified is known as magnification factor and is equal the Q of the circuit. the higher the Q.